Sentence Correction Practice Questions

1. If the books have been cataloged last week, why haven't they been placed on the shelf? A. have been cataloged B. would have been cataloged C. was cataloged D. were cataloged E. had been cataloged 2. Jessica Mitford wrote The American Way of Death, a best-selling book, that led eventually to an official investigation of the funeral industry. A. that led eventually B. that had led eventually C. that eventually led D. which led eventually E. who eventually led 3. Sabotage came from the French saboter, which means“to clatter with wooden shoes (sabots).” A. which means “ to B. which means, “ to C. that means “to D. that means- “to E. that means, “to 4. In studying an assignment it is wise to read it over quickly at first, than see the major points, and finally outline the material. A. first, than B. first: then C. first-then D. first, then E. first-than 5. To judge the Tidy City contest, we picked an uninterested party. A. picked an uninterested party. B. picked an interested party! C. picked a disinterested party. D. are in the process of picking an uninterested party. E. picked an disinterested party. 6. Linda decides they had better scram before the killers find them.

A. had better scram B. had better leave C. should hurry and scram D. could hurry and leave E. had better get out 7. I really dug the character of Brutus. A. dug B. thought about C. thought of D. admired E. gazed at 8. Once upon a point a time, a small person named Little Red Riding Hood initated plans for the preparation, delivery and transportation of foodstuffs to her Grandmother. A. and transportation of foodstuffs to her Grandmother. B. and transportation of food stuffs to her Grandmother. C. and transportation of food supplies to her Grandmother. D. and transportation of foodstuffs to her grandmother. E. and, transportation of food supplies to her grand mother. 9. The setting of a story effects the story's plot. A. effects the story's plot B. effects the stories plot C. affect the story's plot D. affects the story's plot E. affects the story's plots 10. Arctic trees are scrubbiest than trees in milder climates. A. scrubbiest than trees B. scrubbier then trees C. scrubbiest than are trees D. scrubbier than are trees E. scrubbier than trees 11. Quebec rises in a magnificent way above the St. Lawrence River. A. rises in a magnificent way above B. rises in a magnificent way, way above C. rises magnificently above D. rises magnificently way above E. is raised in a magnificent way above

12. Someone gives the school gerbils every year. A. Someone gives the school gerbils B. Some one gives the school gerbils C. Some one gives the School gerbils D. There is a person that gives the school gerbils E. An individual gave gerbils 13. During colonial days, a school room looked rather empty. A. colonial days, a school room looked B. colonial days, a schoolroom looked C. colonial days; a schoolroom looked D. colonial days; a school room looked E. colonial days- a schoolroom looked 14. The helium- filled balloon rose in the air. A. rose in the air. B. was rising in the air. C. was in the air. D. rose into the air. E. would rise in the air. 15. If I had the address, I would have delivered the package myself. A. had the address, B. had the address; C. had the addressD. had had the address; E. had had the address, 16. Do you know that these gloves have lay on the bureau all week? A. have lay on B. have laid on C. would lie on D. had laid on E. have lain on 17. If I would have known about the team tryouts, I would have signed up for them. A. would have known B. would had known C. could of known

D. had been told E. could have been told 18. If he would have revised his first draft, he would have received a better grade. A. would have revised B. had revised C. could of revised D. had of revised E. would revise 19. Valarie claims that cats made the best pets. A. made the best pets. B. could be the best pets. C. are the best pets. D. make of the best pets E. make the best pets. 20. By next month Ms. Jones will be Mayor of Tallahassee for two years. A. will be Mayor of Tallahassee B. will have been Mayor of Tallahassee C. will be mayor of Tallahassee D. will have been mayor of Tallahassee E. could have been mayor of Tallahassee Answer Key 1. D 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. C 6. B 7. D 8. D 9. D 10. E 11. C 12. A 13. B 14. D 15. E 16. E 17. A 18. B 19. E 20. D

This part of the test has different forms for the paper and pencil TOEFL test and the IBT. The following examples are for the PBT. IBT examples will be forthcoming.

PBT TOEFL test listening example 1:
Man: I'm feeling kind of sick tonight. I don't know if I have a virus,or if it's something I ate for lunch. Maybe we should stay home tonight. Woman: I think you're right. I feel a little under the weather myself. Narrator: What does the woman mean? (A) She believes the weather is too bad to go out. (B) She is not feeling well herself. (C) She didn't eat lunch. (D) She disagrees with the man.

Woman: Oh. YOU WILL HEAR 30 SHORT CONVERSATIONS. and I think the course went very smoothly. (B) He is in a bad mood. the answer is B. I wouldn't say that.1 Man: I've heard that the new Chemistry class is really difficult. (B) He loves the woman very much. I think I'd better take a rain check this time. Narrator: What does the man mean? (A) He needs to take a break from his studying. but I've got a history final in two days. "Oh. EX. MEANING QUESTIONS. (C) He injured his side getting out of bed." The correct answer is B. I just got up on the wrong side of the bed this morning."I feel under the weather" means that "the woman is not feeling well". PBT listening example 2: Woman: What's the problem? Were you offended by what I said? Man: No. (D) He was offended by the woman's comments. The best answer is C. LISTENING PART A. Narrator: What does the man mean? (A) The woman is wrong. LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE SPEAKERS. (C) The chemistry class is easier than the man thinks.2 Woman: I've heard great things about that movie that just came out. (D) The chemistry class should be avoided if possible. (D) He will not be able to accompany the woman. and I haven't studied all quarter. "To get up on the wrong side of the bed" is an idiomatic expression that means "to be in a bad mood. BEAT THE TOEFL IBT DVD 1 LISTENING COMPREHENSION: PART A: QUESTIONS 1-30: SHORT CONVERSATIONS ON THIS PART OF THE PBT. EX. You want to go see it tonight? Man: I'd love to. I took Chemistry 402 last quarter. (B) The chemistry class is not teaching this quarter. Narrator: What does the woman mean? (A) The chemistry class is very tough. I wouldn't say that" indicates that the woman disagrees with the man. (C) He doesn't like going out in the rain. .

weak in others. (B) She should arrive soon. Narrator: What does the man mean? (A) He is going to wait for the bus. (C) There's no way to know when she'll arrive. but the last time it took days for them to send someone out.4 Man: How did you feel about the movie? Woman: I was really moved by the performances. (D) He had already seen the movie.3 Woman: The bus isn't supposed to arrive at this stop for another 30 minutes. but I'm only going to the next stop. Man: Normally I'd agree with you. EX. it's anybody's guess when she'll show up. EX."I'd better take a rain check this time" means that the person "cannot do the activity. Woman: Yea. "I feel like stretching my legs" means that the man "feels like walking. I guess we'll just have to wait until it comes.5 Woman: It's burning up in here. EX. Narrator: What do these people mean? (A) She will come at any moment." The correct answer is C. Man: You're right. [Skip To Grammar Review 1] . (B) He is going to wait for thirty minutes only. Narrator: What does the man mean? (A) He has never seen a better movie. the correct answer is B. (D) He injured his legs and will return home. (D) They thought she would already have arrived. and I feel like stretching my legs. (B) He thought the acting lacked consistency. (C) He doesn't think the actors performed well." The correct answer is D. They said she was on her way. "It's anybody's guess" means that there is "no way to know exactly when" the person will arrive. What did you think? Man: I found them uneven: strong in some scenes. When is the technician supposed to arrive? Man: I called the company over an hour ago. The correct answer is C. (C) He is going to walk to his destination. "Uneven" means "inconsistent".

Narrator: What does the woman say about Susan? (A) She is cutting classes.6: D. 8: C. (B) She works on grape vines. (D) It's not surprising the milk has ruined. Woman: It's not exactly that. (D) Susan's new job is too simple. (C) He would like to take it for a test ride. (D) Jane wouldn't say that. Man: More so than I thought. (C) The woman is just kidding. (C) She feels she isn't suited for her new job. The expiration date was three weeks ago. I wouldn't say that. but this model of Toyota is too expensive. I think she should seek psychological help. EX. Answers: Ex. (B) They need to replace the refrigerator. Answers: Ex. (C) Jane made an excellent copy of the parts.6 Woman: The milk in the refrigerator is sour. 9: B . I don't think it's drinkable. EX.9 Woman: I'd like to buy a new car.8 Man: What does Susan think about her new job? I've heard it through the grapevine that she's dissatisfied. She seems to be coping with her problems reasonably well. Man: No joke. Narrator: What does the man imply? (A) The woman has an extremely sour disposition.7 Man: It looks like Jane is coming apart at the seams. EX. REFERENCE QUESTIONS. Ex. Narrator: What does the man say about the car? (A) He thinks it is extremely nice. Woman: Oh.LISTENING PART A. She simply feels that she's not cut out for it. Narrator: What does the woman imply? (A) Jane is not losing emotional control. (B) Jane is more intelligent than she seems. Ex. IMPLICATION QUESTIONS. (B) He thought the car was less expensive. 7: A [Skip To Grammar Review 2] LISTENING PART A. (D) He would prefer more choices. EX.

laid B. . Narrator: What is the man probably going to do? (A) Pass up the food.11 Woman: What a birthday party! All of the food is great--but this strawberry cheesecake is especially good. (B) Try a bite of the cake.[Review Menu] LISTENING PART A. shall stop C. shall have stopped E. will has stopped D. Why don't you try some? Man: If I weren't on a diet I would. 11: A Practice Questions 1. lay D. (D) Find John a study group. Woman: That could be true. (B) Take John to a doctor. Hours of driving laid ahead of us. A. (C) Discuss the problem with John. EX.10: C. will stop B. (D) Get the recipe for the cake. 10 Man: John's grades in math are incredibly low. has lay E. the yearbook delivery would have been on time. By the time we get to the picnic area. Maybe he needs a tutor to get through the class. the rain will stop. ACTION QUESTIONS. will have stopped 3. EX. Answers: Ex. Strawberry cheesecake is my favorite. (C) Buy a strawberry cheesecake. Ex. A. have lain C. lie 2. but we should talk to him first. If Judy would not have missed the deadline. Narrator: What are these people probably going to do next? (A) Study math with John.

lain open E. was the more efficient. Only after I went home did I remember my dental appointment. has began classes D. had not missed E. D. was. wandering aimless B. by far the most efficient E. wandering almost aimlessly 5. B. After comparing my air conditioner with the one on sale. A. wandering aimlessly C. wouldn't have missed D. should be considered the most efficient. A. We spent Sunday afternoon wandering aimless in the park. was laid open 7. laid open C. The book lay open at page 77.A. should have not missed C. lay open B. should begin classes E. was the most efficient. will have begun classes C. I decided that mine was the most efficient. will begin classes B. lied open D. would have not missed 4. wandering in an aimless manner E. should have begun classes 8. gone home E. wandering without purpose D. should be the most efficient. should go home 6. C. would not have missed B. had gone home D. A. had went home C. A. By this time next year Johanna will begin classes at the University of Colorado. . went home B. A.

When I was halfway down the stairs. Nathanael West said that he'd never have written his satirical novel if he had not visited Hollywood.9. I wish I read the chapter before I tried to answer the questions. had read the chapter 11. could have been C. has lain C. would read the chapter C. to go swimming C. would have written his C. to had say E. to of gone swimming 10. lay E. A. should of written his 12. A. to had gone swimming D. A. should of read the chapter D. I would be more careful if I had been you. too say C. could of written his D. to have been said D. to have said B. have written his B. had been B. A. A. to go to swim E. could have read the chapter E. will lie D. A. read the chapter B. was . to say 14. I would have liked to have gone swimming yesterday. laid B. I suddenly knew what I had wanted to have said. could have written his E. to have gone swimming B. The smell from the paper mill laid over the town like a blanket. has laid 13.

and other notables fascinates the reading public. were E. shall have been read D. has been read B. This classic has been read with enjoyment for nearly two hundred years. A. That small man chose a seat near the door and carefully sat down. who is captain of the swim team and one of the best swimmers in the state. have relied on their imagination D. was read 18. wear 16. sit beside E. could have relied on their imagination. A. could rely on their imaginations: 19. has fascinate the reading 20. C. where B. will have been read C. generals. could have been 15. sat beside C. have fascinated the reading C. is being read E. A. have set beside D. A. E. Many nineteenth-century biographers rely on their imagination. not on real facts. fascinates the reading B. A. rely on their imagination. B.D. The private lives of politicians. . how C. relied on their imagination. will fascinate the reading D. were D. sit besides B. In study hall I sit besides Paul Smith. They read where the governor has appointed a special committee to improve the school calendar. fascinate the reading E. of where E. have sit beside 17.

D . most the work came into the lab for testing marked with the words top priority. 12. D. A.18. E . words: Top priority. A. D . tellers. no-ones surprise D. D . 16. 9. B. tellers-ran E. A . noones surprise C. sat B. will sit C.13. Everyone in the bank-including the manager and the tellers.20. no ones' surprise E. have sit down E. Grammar Practice Questions priority. D. could have read C. C. E . no one's surprise 3. ran to the door when the fire alarm rang.A. 6. Words “top priority. words. D . 10. B .” he might have liked William Butler Yeats's poetry. A. ran B.4.17. A. had run D. Last summer I worked in the chemical laboratory at the Brass Company. C. tellers' ran” 2. words . A.2.11. 3. words top priority. set down 21. 8. A . If he would have read “The White Birds. Joe didn't have his homework ready. 21. A. tellers:ran C. “Top Priority. could of sat D.” E.5. E . C . A. B. 7. no ones surprise B. tellers. A. C . D . To no ones surprise. would of read .” Answer Key B . would have read B.

reading: The Fall of the House of Usher- .by its' harshest 7. E. A. The Fall of the house of Usher. were laid E. A. an eyesore. “to accomplish). uprooted trees were laying all over the ground. reading. its' harshest E.“ The Fall of the House of Usher”. and. by its harshest D. reading. To accomplish. “Self-Reliance” C. was laid 5. The Fall of the House of Usher. I always have trouble remembering the meaning of these two common verbs. “ ) 8. “ A. and. reading. After the hurricane. reading “The Fall of the House of Usher. essay “Self–Reliance” B. My class just finished reading. “ E. The recently built children's amusement park has been called “ a boon to the community “ by its supporters and “an eyesore” by its harshest critics. were laying B.“ The Fall of the House of Usher “. “ to accomplish” ). could of read E. the great Transcendentalist philosopher. and-an eyesore. and-“an eyesore”. “Self-Reliance” 6. lying C. were lying D. C. “ B. B. A. ( “ to accomplish.” by its harshest C.D. “ an eyesore. wrote in his essay “SelfReliance” of the need for an individual to develop his capacities. a short story by Edgar Allen Poe. essay. essay: Self-Reliance D. and “an eyesore” by its harshest B. A. affect (to change” or “to influence”) and effect (“to cause” or “ to accomplish ) . essay. Self-Reliance E. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882). C. “ to accomplish ). essay. had read 4. “ D.

there two e's in beetle. “pig.” C. Porcus-pig. the choice is 13." asked Margo? B. audience received a well-deserved B.” and spina “spine”. and a Moray eel made the visit to the marine park worthwhile. E. Looking directly at me. a killer whale. “ These are your options: the choice is yours. “spine.” D. audience gave a well deserved C. “spine.” B.” A. “spine. the choice is D. “These are your options. audience did get a well-deserved 12. A.these are your options. there two e's in beetle. their two e's in beetle?" asked Margo. audience did receive a well deserved D. and Spina. 14. there two e's in beetle.” A. and a Moray eel made the visit B. The circus audience received a well-deserved round of applause for the perfectly timed acrobatic stunt. “pig. A. Mother said. “ These are your options: the choice is B. my Mother said. could run perfect D. Porcus. A. Mother had said. Mother said. ran perfect B. porcus. Porcus-pig and spina. the choice is E.Spina-spine. C. some sharks. there two e's in beetle?" asked Margo. a killer whale. could of run perfect E. “pig. asked Margo? 11. Mother had said. E. "Are there two e's in beetle. Porcupine is from Latin porcus. would run perfectly 10." asked Margo? D. a killer whale. and a moray eel made the visit C. After it was repaired it ran perfect again." asked Margo? A.” and spina. These are your options. “spine. audience gave a well-deserved E. the choice is C. Porcus-Pig-.” and spina. a killer whale and a moray eel makes the visit . Mother said. ran perfectly C. Seeing the dolphins. “These are your options.9.

17. C. 18. The fact that boxing is known to cause head injuries and brain damage should lead us to inform the public and push for a ban on boxing. A. D. could be convenient and time saving. a planet that does support life. The Diary of Anne Frank showed a young girl's courage during two years of hiding. C. and E. on Mathematics. and the third on English. E. and the third on English. Science. 20. A. that a planet does exists out side our solar system encourages hope that other solar systems exist. and the third on english. C. E. should be convenient and time saving. a killer whale and a Moray eel makes the visit E. could be that a planet exists outside our solar system encourages hope that other solar systems exist. Mail-order shopping can be convenient and timesaving with appropriate precautions. it is safe as well. Still. on mathematics. The first part of the test was on chemistry. B. . A. should of led us to inform D. and 16. can be convenient and timesaving. the second on mathematics. and B. perhaps. science. no matter what turns you on. Among the many fields of science. and the third on english. B. science. should have led us to inform. and the third on English. no matter what turns you on. D. on mathematics: and the third on English. that a Planet exists out side our solar system encourages hope that other solar systems exist and C. 19. no matter which of these you choseE. can be convenient and timesaving B. could lead us to inform C. and in them. A. on mathematics. a killer whale and a moray eel made the visit 15. that a planet exists outside our solar system encourages hope that other solar systems exist. A. Science. that a planet exist outside our solar systems encourage hope that other solar systems exist. the fact that a planet exists outside our solar system encourages hope that other solar systems exist. can be convenient and time-saving. should lead us to inform B. will lead us to inform E. there are several fields of study.D. no matter which you chose. no matter which you choose. on mathematics. no matter what turns you on. D. Science. and D.

The word boycott derives from the name of Charles C. A. has shown a young girl's courage E. A. showed a young girl's courage B. 19. A. will be married for twenty five years. 8. 14. shall have been married for twenty-five years. this was the most rainy season the .20. A. Answer Key 1. C.17. E. As a result of his method for early music education. D. E. E. that was ostracized for refusing B. Shinichi Suzuki has been known as one of the world's great violin teachers. has been known as one B.12.. showed a young girl's courage 21. B . that had been ostracized for refusing E. 2. Practice Questions 1. B . A . who was ostracized for refusing C. will have married for twenty-five years. this is the most rainy season the B. 18. did show a young girls courage D.9. has been one 3.5. 7. A. who had been ostracized for refusing 2. In August my parents will be married for twenty-five years.3. B. E. B. D. 16. Last night the weather forecaster announced that this is the most rainy season the area has had in the past decade. is seen as one D. A.11. E. B . this has been the most rainy season the C. will have been married for twenty-five years. A. C . D . Boycott. A. which was ostracized for refusing D. C. is being seen as one E.A. had been known as one C. D. shows a young girl's courage C. 13. will be married for twenty-five years. C . 4. D .. an English land agent in Ireland that was ostracized for refusing to reduce rent. E .

1915. When Katherine Hepburn's play came to town. has expected to be drafted D. had sold out far B. . is the tallest of the B. Has any of the B. Although Mandy is younger than her sister. sports is unknown B. had been sold out for 6. sports have been unknown C. A. this is noted as the most rainy season the E. sports are now unknown 7. The Lusitania sunk on May 7. was expecting to be drafted 8. Neither of the Smith brothers expect to be drafted by a major league team this year. expect to be drafted B. Will any of the D. this is the rainiest season the 4. Have any of the 9. is the more taller of the 5. Has any of the witnesses been sworn in yet? A. is the most tall of the E. all the tickets had sold out far in advance. were sold out far D. sports has been unknown E. has been the taller of the D. sports are unknown D. have sold out far C. The origins of most sports is unknown. Are any of the E. is expecting to be drafted E. A. expects to be drafted C. Is any of the C. A. is the taller of the C.D. A. had been sold out far E. Mandy is the tallest of the two.

Whos in B. is a impressive sight C. with pronunciations given B. has laid southwest C. has come on . lays southwest B. Whose' in 11. was an impressive site B. that have pronunciations given E. lain southwest E. A. did sink C. is lying southwest D. Mount Rushmore National Memorial was an impressive site. Did they know that Labor Day always came on the first Monday in September? A. a biographical dictionary. There are now many kinds of dictionaries. A. such as a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms. did sank E. and a geographical dictionary with pronunciations given. comes on C. A. with pronunciations' given D. is an impressive site 13. Whose in C. sunk B. is an impressive sight D. San Francisco lays southwest of Sacramento. Towering seven hundred feet above the valley floor. lies southwest 14. Whos in the office now? A. that do have pronunciations given 12.A. Who is in D. was sunk D. sank 10. came on B. that has pronunciations given C. Who's in E. was an impressive sight E.

A. to stay up late B. Each night when night came and the temperature fell. and that the temperature fell D. A. Francis promised to bring the Papago basket that she bought in Arizona. could of asked C. B. have laid E. had of asked 20. did buy in E. has laid C. Eating. had bought in C.D. to remain up late C. has lain B. trying to stay up late 16. have lain D. could ask D. I would have lent you my notes if you would have asked me. staying up late D. has came on 15. . Many scientists are still hoping to have found life on another planet. He has lain his racquetball glove on the beach. bought in B. purchased in 18. drinking. has bought in D. and when the temperature fell 17. had asked E. had come on E. is lying 19. and to stay up late at night were among her pleasures. and the temperature fell. A. my parents lit the fire in the bedroom. A. she liked staying up late E. and that the temperature did fall C. and because the temperature fell E. would have asked me B. A.

this was the most rainy season the D. had an B. too have found 21. E 14. C 16. E 4. B 15. that was ostracized for refusing B. C Practice Questions 1. to have found B. has been known as one B. Last night the weather forecaster announced that this is the most rainy season the area has had in the past decade. B 2. is seen as one D. B 18. A. could have had C. Boycott. C 13. had been known as one C. has been one 3. this is the most rainy season the B. Sue has never forgotten an important equation. this has been the most rainy season the C. B 21. that had been ostracized for refusing E. has had Answer Key 1. Shinichi Suzuki has been known as one of the world's great violin teachers. A. E 10. this is the rainiest season the . an English land agent in Ireland that was ostracized for refusing to reduce rent.A. who was ostracized for refusing C. E 17. two find D. has D. As a result of his method for early music education. D 20. D 6. Because she had an astounding memory. did have E. C 7. A. A. to find C. to have been found E. this is noted as the most rainy season the E. The word boycott derives from the name of Charles C. D 11. which was ostracized for refusing D. is being seen as one E. who had been ostracized for refusing 2. E 9. C 3. B 5. B 8. B 19. A 12.

have sold out far C. Are any of the E. had been sold out for 6. is the tallest of the B. expect to be drafted B. expects to be drafted C. has been the taller of the D.4. is the more taller of the 5. sports are now unknown 7. The Lusitania sunk on May 7. When Katherine Hepburn's play came to town. Have any of the 9. was sunk . A. was expecting to be drafted 8. did sink C. A. is the taller of the C. Will any of the D. is expecting to be drafted E. were sold out far D. sports have been unknown C. The origins of most sports is unknown. A. had been sold out far E. A. Is any of the C. Has any of the witnesses been sworn in yet? A. sports is unknown B. 1915. Has any of the B. Mandy is the tallest of the two. is the most tall of the E. sunk B. A. sports are unknown D. had sold out far B. Neither of the Smith brothers expect to be drafted by a major league team this year. has expected to be drafted D. all the tickets had sold out far in advance. Although Mandy is younger than her sister. sports has been unknown E.

Towering seven hundred feet above the valley floor.D. San Francisco lays southwest of Sacramento. and a geographical dictionary with pronunciations given. that have pronunciations given E. has laid southwest C. lays southwest B. has come on D. A. Who is in D. such as a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms. a biographical dictionary. Whos in B. Eating. came on B. has came on 15. Did they know that Labor Day always came on the first Monday in September? A. lain southwest E. that has pronunciations given C. is lying southwest D. Mount Rushmore National Memorial was an impressive site. is a impressive sight C. lies southwest 14. is an impressive sight D. drinking. sank 10. is an impressive site 13. Whose' in 11. Who's in E. and to stay up late at night were among her pleasures. was an impressive sight E. that do have pronunciations given 12. A. . did sank E. with pronunciations' given D. Whose in C. There are now many kinds of dictionaries. had come on E. was an impressive site B. Whos in the office now? A. with pronunciations given B. comes on C. A.

has lain B. Many scientists are still hoping to have found life on another planet. she liked staying up late E. to have been found E. to find C. Each night when night came and the temperature fell. A. my parents lit the fire in the bedroom. had bought in C. trying to stay up late 16. has laid C. could ask D. B. to remain up late C. has bought in D. is lying 19. two find D. would have asked me B. had of asked 20. bought in B. and the temperature fell. to stay up late B. A. to have found B. Francis promised to bring the Papago basket that she bought in Arizona. staying up late D. and that the temperature fell D. could of asked C. and because the temperature fell E. I would have lent you my notes if you would have asked me. too have found . A. have laid E. A. and that the temperature did fall C. He has lain his racquetball glove on the beach.A. did buy in E. A. had asked E. and when the temperature fell 17. purchased in 18. have lain D.

C. with no precipice at the edge. One ship deserted while in this passage and returned to Spain. 11.4.8. More than a year later. but the remaining four ships searched along the southern peninsula of South America.17. mental . Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition to sail around the world. has D. Finally they found the passage they sought near a latitude of 50 degrees S. did have E. B. 1519. an age of great marine and terrestrial exploration. 5. In the sixteenth century. 6. As a young Portuguese noble. D.20. E . 2. 7. 12. Later Magellan became involved in an insular conflict in the Philippines and was killed in a tribal battle. E.14. Those who remained crossed the meridian we now call the International Date Line in the early spring of 1521 after ninety-eight days on the Pacific Ocean. D . C. This ship sank. The sixteenth century was an age of great ___exploration. A.13. he served the king of Portugal. After he was dismissed from service to the king of Portugal. Reading Comprehension Practice Questions 1. cosmic B. D.16. could have had C. B. E . B . B . Questions 1-7. On September 20. Only one ship and seventeen sailors under the command of the Basque navigator Elcano survived to complete the westward journey to Spain and thus prove once and for all that the world is round. During those long days at sea. 21. B. Sue has never forgotten an important equation.3.10. he offered to serve the future Emperor Charles V of Spain. 9.15. B.21. many of Magellan's men died of starvation and disease. 19. A. but today we know it as the Strait of Magellan. so fewer sailors were privileged to gaze at that first panorama of the Pacific Ocean. E . Because she had an astounding memory. had an B. E . C . C . B. Magellan offered to prove that the East Indies fell under Spanish authority. C . A. 18. Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships. but he became involved in the quagmire of political intrigue at court and lost the king's favor. one of these ships was exploring the topography of South America in search of a water route across the continent. has had Answer Key 1. land C. Magellan named this passage the Strait of All Saints. A papal decree of 1493 had assigned all land in the New World west of 50 degrees W longitude to Spain and all the land east of that line to Portugal.

north and south B. Greenwich B. Portugal E. coastline B. islands E. none of the above 3. crosswise C. north and west 4. The Pope divided New World lands between Spain and Portugal according to their location on one side or the other of an imaginary geographical line 50 degrees west of Greenwich that extends in a ___ direction. Magellan lost the favor of the king of Portugal when he became involved in a political ___. mountain range C. . Spain D. One of Magellan's ships explored the ___ of South America for a passage across the continent. A. answer not available 6. Four of the ships sought a passage along a southern ___. In the spring of 1521. A. discussion C. inland C. A. A. body of land with water on three sides D. problems E. none of the above 2. A. easterly D. the ships crossed the ___ now called the International Date Line. negotiation D. border E. Madrid 7. coast B. physical features D. entanglement B. south east E. none of the above 5.D. The passage was found near 50 degrees S of ___. The equator C. common man E.

The fact that she had two young daughters to raise by herself greatly increased her distress. she never became disillusioned about her work. a French university. when she learned that the university in Warsaw was closed to women. where her father was a professor of physics. land mass E. area D. Curie's feeling of desolation finally began to fade when she was asked to succeed her husband as a physics professor at the Sorbonne. Her great exuberance for learning prompted her to continue with her studies after high school. Marie and Pierre were married in 1895 and spent many productive years working together in the physics laboratory. Pierre. where she earned her master's degree and doctorate in physics. Although Marie Curie eventually suffered a fatal illness from her long exposure to radium. she discovered radium. she defiantly left Poland and in 1891 entered the Sorbonne. A. Marie was stunned by this horrible misfortune and endured heartbreaking anguish. Pierre was killed by a horsedrawn wagon in 1906. an element widely used for treating cancer. she displayed a brilliant mind and a blithe personality. chemistry 9. Poland. Questions 8-14 Marie Curie was one of the most accomplished scientists in history. Pierre and Marie's amicable collaboration later helped to unlock the secrets of the atom. humorous . Determined to receive a higher education. courteous D. She was the first woman to be given a professorship at the world-famous university.A. lighthearted C. Marie was fortunate to have studied at the Sorbonne with some of the greatest scientists of her day. one of whom was Pierre Curie. however. competitive C. Together with her husband. Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw. Imaginary line parallel to the equator C. industrious E. At the early age. answer not found in article 8. friendly B. she had dedicated herself to science and to revealing the mysteries of the physical world. and studied uranium and other radioactive substances. A short time after they discovered radium. She became disgruntled. Regardless of the consequences. Despondently she recalled their close relationship and the joy that they had shared in scientific research. In 1911 she received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for isolating radium. The Curies' ____ collaboration helped to unlock the secrets of the atom. Marie had a bright mind and a __personality. strong B. A. imaginary circle passing through the poles B.

Marie ___ by leaving Poland and traveling to France to enter the Sorbonne. Dejectedly B. ambition 14. hopeless B. A. A. challenged authority B. behaved D. envious 10. she felt___. disappointed D. disturbed 15. A. Her ____ began to fade when she returned to the Sorbonne to succeed her husband. Worried C. Sorrowfully 13. A. worried E. A. strange E. none of the above 11. Tearfully D. Even though she became fatally ill from working with radium. . disappointment E. Happily E. When she learned that she could not attend the university in Warsaw. _____she remembered their joy together. troubled B. Marie Curie was never ____. showed intelligence C. answer not available in article 12.D. depressed D. anger C. was distressed E. worried C. misfortune B. sorrowful E. annoyed C. wretchedness D. Questions 15-19.

The eruption of Mount Vesuvius and its tragic consequences have provided us with a wealth of data about the effects that volcanoes can have on the surrounding area. has received much attention because of its frequent and destructive eruptions. A. Scientists analyzed data about Vesuvius in the same way that a zoologist ___ a specimen. much as a zoologist dissects a specimen animal. Early the next morning. Today volcanologists can locate and predict eruptions. such as jewelry made of bronze. solid C. In addition to making these investigations. able to condense 17. The volcano had been inactive for centuries. Meteorologists studying these events have also concluded that Vesuvius caused a huge tidal wave that affected the world's climate. scientists have been able to examine the skeletons and draw conclusions about the diet and habits of the residents. which is an alloy of copper and tin. invisible E. the volcano poured a huge river of molten rock down upon Herculaneum. however. the excavations at both Pompeii and Herculaneum have yielded many examples of classical art. Poisonous sulphuric gases saturated the air. answer not available 16. There was little warning of the coming eruption. A. Large portions of the city were destroyed in the conflagration. . Finally. By analyzing data. cinders. archaeologists have been able to study the skeletons of victims by using distilled water to wash away the volcanic ash. liquid B. flowing D. was not the only cause of destruction. a volcano located between the ancient Italian cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. able to evaporate D. gas E. The most famous of these eruptions occurred in A. completely burying the city and filling in the harbor with coagulated lava.Mount Vesuvius. on the other side of the mountain. it turned the Sarno River from its course and raised the level of the beach along the Bay of Naples. scientist have concluded that the eruption changed large portions of the area's geography. Herculaneum and its harbor were buried under ___lava. Fire. Sparks from the burning ash ignited the combustible rooftops quickly. Meanwhile. For instance. These heavy gases were not buoyant in the atmosphere and therefore sank toward the earth and suffocated people. Over the years. 79. although one account unearthed by archaeologists says that a hard rain and a strong wind had disturbed the celestial calm during the preceding night. stone and ash rained down on Pompeii. By strengthening the brittle bones with acrylic paint. able to float B. saving lives and preventing the destruction of cities and cultures. D. The poisonous gases were not ___ in the air. excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum have revealed a great deal about the behavior of the volcano. visible C.

1588. Drake achieved dramatic success. answer not available 18. on May 9. chart E. the Armada. Religious differences also caused conflict between the two countries. Although some of his ships lacked guns and others lacked ammunition. Answer not available in article 19. bottled B. King Philip II of Spain wanted to claim the throne and make England a Catholic country again. adding gold and silver to England's treasury and diminishing Spain's omnipotence. Sir Francis Drake. but bad weather forced it back to port. purified D. describes in detail B. sea E. Scientist who study ash D. Though these raids were on a small scale. Scientist have used ___water to wash away volcanic ash from the skeletons of victims. faster. Philip intended his fleet to be indestructible. The martial Armada set sail from Lisbon. England wanted a share of the wealth that Spain had been taking from the lands it had claimed in the Americas. Whereas Spain was Roman Catholic. Elizabeth I. ____have concluded that the volcanic eruption caused a tidal wave. England. Conflict had existed between Spain and England since the 1570s. in January 1586. and more maneuverable English ships in battle off the coast of Plymouth. Scientist who study animal behavior E. he marshaled one hundred and thirty sailing vessels of all types and recruited more than nineteen thousand robust soldiers and eight thousand sailors. having lost . volcanic C. The voyage resumed on July 22 after the weather became more stable. first on July 31 and again on August 2. Queen of England. Portugal. The Spanish fleet met the smaller. photographs D. King Philip began to build his fleet of warships. most of England had become Protestant. To satisfy his ambition and also to retaliate against England's theft of his gold and silver. In addition to building new warships. Scientist who study atmospheric conditions C. studies by cutting apart C. to raid Spanish ships and towns.A. Questions 20-24. Scientist who study oceans B. The two battles left Spain vulnerable. fountain 20. A. A. Philip was convinced that his Armada could withstand any battle with England. encouraged her staunch admiral of the navy.

warlike C. and the Armada drifted out into the North Sea. Sir Francis Drake added wealth to the treasury and diminished Spain's ____. their crews in panic and disorder. open to attack D. A. During the eight hours of battle. the Spanish ships could only drift away. accomplished D. Blocked on one side. defeated. On August 7. territory D. The two battles left the Spanish fleet ____. . the fleet suffered extensive damage. defeated E. warlike B. 1588. Philip recruited many ___soldiers and sailors. At the moment when it seemed that the Spanish ships would be driven onto the English shore. A. non experienced 22. answer not available 23. answer not available in article 21. The Spaniards recognized the superiority of the English fleet and returned home. while the Armada lay at anchor on the French side of the Strait of Dover. independent D. complete B. unlimited power B. England sent eight burning ships into the midst of the Spanish fleet to set it on fire. isolated E. unrestricted growth C. Although the Spaniards made a valiant effort to fight back. the Armada drifted perilously close to the rocky coastline. triumphant C. treaties E. A. The ____ Armada set sail on May 9. Before the Armada could regroup. open to change B. the wind shifted. discouraged 24. strong C.several ships and with its ammunition depleted. A. the English attacked again on August 8. The Armada was ___ on one side. timid E.

In anger the king sent an enormous army to defeat Athens. circled E.A. refused help to B. however. all citizens helped to rule. defeated 26. for the Persians next conquered the city of Etria and captured its people. Perhaps this was the secret of the remarkable victory at Marathon. soldiers from Plataea reinforced the Athenian troops. Athens had ____the other Greek city-states against the Persians. damaged C. Ennobled by this participation. they fled from their city and did not return until the Persians had left. At the last moment. where their little band would meet the Persians. Not wanting to abet the conquest of Greece. A. weaken B. which freed them from Persian rule. The Athenians refurbished their weapons and moved to the plain of Marathon. The Athenian people went to their sanctuaries. Persia was ruled by one man. There they prayed for deliverance. Questions 25-29. They were wise. wanted to fight D. and the Persians fled in terror. Greek soldiers seized Persian ships and burned them. is one of the most famous events in history. calm D. destroy C. The victory of the small Greek democracy of Athens over the mighty Persian empire in 490 B. Darius. and Greek citizens fought bravely. reports that 6400 Persians died. In Athens. answer not available in this article 25. Herodotus. closed off B. The power of the mighty Persians was offset by the love that the Athenians had for their city. Tiny Athens stood alone against Persia. king of the Persian empire. He thought it would take drastic steps to pacify the rebellious part of the empire. intervened on behalf of C. Athenians defeated the Persians in archery and hand combat. The frightened citizens of Delos refused to believe this. a famous historian. alone D. They asked their gods to expedite their victory. compared with only 192 Athenians. answer not available . Athenians were prepared to die for their city-state. On their way to Marathon. Darius took drastic steps to ___ the rebellious Athenians. the Persians tried to fool some Greek city-states by claiming to have come in peace. The Athenian army attacked. was furious because Athens had interceded for the other Greek city-states in revolt against Persian domination. C. given orders for all to fight E. placate E. A.

answer not available 30. encourage C. King of Thessaly. tried aggressively to bribe him. . The Trojan War is one of the most famous wars in history. a sea nymph. and for the Trojan horse. She won the golden apple by offering Helen. eager to win the golden apple. The job eventually fell to Paris. gave fear E. According to Greek myth. Paris did not have an easy job. Zeus' daughter and the most beautiful mortal. gave strength D. Athena. held D. set off for Sparta in Greece. think about D. son of King Priam of Troy.” Aphrodite outdid her adversaries.” All of the goddesses began to haggle over who should possess it. and Aphrodite. Paris. who was said to be a good judge of beauty. “Vast kingdoms are nothing in comparison with my gift. “Choose me and I'll see that you win victory and fame in war. daydream about E. welcomed B. The gods and goddesses reached a stalemate when the choice was narrowed to Hera. to Paris.27. goddesses of discord. It is well known for the ten-year duration. anxious to claim Helen. answer not available 29. To take revenge on those who had slighted her. and Thetis. she threw a golden apple marked “for the most beautiful. Their participation___to the Athenians. What may not be familiar. A. for the heroism of a number of legendary characters. Questions 30-32. captured E. Eris decided to cause a skirmish. Each goddess. “ promised Hera. the strife between the Trojans and the Greeks started at the wedding of Peleus. gave comfort B.” contradicted Athena. is the story of how the war began. gave honor C. The people of Delos did not want to ___ the conquest of Greece. A. end B. strengthened C. All of the gods and goddesses had been invited to the wedding celebration in Troy except Eris. Into the middle of the banquet hall. however. She had been omitted from the guest list because her presence always embroiled mortals and immortals alike in conflict. Someone was needed to settle the controversy by picking a winner. A. “I'll grant you vast kingdoms to rule. gave hope 28. however. The Athenians were ___by some soldiers who arrived from Plataea.

Some workers and peasants. where she attempted to reclaim her health and shattered mind. The doctors and nurses thought that she resembled Anastasia and questioned heer about her background. known as Bolsheviks. he accepted the hospitality of her husband. however. Although witnesses vouched that all the members of the Czar's family had been executed. denied the statement of B. comforting 31. who was also known as Anna Anderson. In 1920. the Czar had planned to revoke many of the harsh laws established by previous czars. In 1918 a group of these people. eighteen months after the Czar's execution. Menelaus collected his loyal forces and set sail for Troy to begin the war to reclaim Helen. A. Menelaus was outraged for a number of reasons when Paris departed. Eris was known for ___both mortals and immortals. involving in conflict C. She spent two years in a hospital. this terrified young woman was rescued from drowning in a Berlin river. She disclaimed any connection with the Czar's family. Over the years. clamored for more rapid social reform. feeling hostile toward D. taking Helen and much of the king's wealth back to Troy. promising Paris victory and fame in war. A. there were rumors suggesting that Anastasia had survived. carefully E. the youngest daughter of Czar Nicholas II. scheming against B.Although Paris learned that Helen was married. A. ignoring E. On July 17 or 18. overthrew the government. answer not stated 32. Athena ___ Hera. restated the statement E. King Menelasu of Sparta. One of the most intriguing stories of the Russian Revolution concerns the identity of Anastasia. Each goddess tried ___to bribe Paris. defeated C. Therefore. secretly D. agreed with D. During his reign over Russia. questioned the statement 33. Questions 33-37. anyway. a number of women claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia. effectively C. Perhaps the best –known claimant was Anastasia Tschaikovsky. . they murdered the Czar and what was thought to be his entire family. boldly B.

she claimed that she was Anastasia. Many of these people said that her looks and mannerisms were evocative of the Anastasia that they had known. She had married one of the brothers. Witnesses ___ that all members of the Czar's family had been executed. asserting that she was indeed Anastasia and deserved her inheritance. Her grandmother and other relatives denied that she was the real Anastasia. answer not stated 36. She was unable to ___the aid of her relative. Unable to invoke the aid of her mother's family in Germany. A. though. She still wished to prove that she was Anastasia. answer not stated 35. locate B. plays. convinced some E. penniless and without a vocation. Some Russian peasants and workers___for social reform. though. Two brothers named Tschaikovsky had carried her into Romania. longed B.Eight years later. scores of the Czar's relatives. begged D. who had taken her to Berlin and left her there. A. A. During the next few years. ex-servants. the court decided that it could neither confirm nor deny Anastasia's identity. In 1957. thought much 34. stopped C. however. cried out C. hoped D. she had tried to drown herself. Although we will probably never know whether this woman was the Grand Duchess Anastasia. and movies. Tried of being accused of fraud. thought C. her search to establish her identity has been the subject of numerous books. Anastasia immigrated to the United States in 1928 and took the name Anna Anderson. A. Tschaikovsky ____any connection with the Czar's family. noted D. justified E. hoped E. speak about . and acquaintances interviewed her. There she declaimed to the court. She said that she had been rescued by two Russian soldiers after the Czar and the rest of her family had been killed. gave assurance B. and returned to Germany in 1933 to bring suit against her mother's family. denied B.

testified D. the events that rocked France would not have occurred. A. The people surrounding the queen encouraged her to spend money ____. joyfully 39. During this time of struggle and violence (1789-1799). They felt that the royal couple bought its luxurious lifestyle at the poor people's expense. who encouraged the queen to spend money even more profusely. A. King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ruled France from 1774 to 1789. as well as the king and queen themselves. When the minister of finance tried to stop these royal spendthrifts. foolishly E. the queen embellished her palace with extravagant works of art. misery. gave evidence E. The intense hatred that the people felt for Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette kept building until it led to the French Revolution. abundantly C. Questions 38-39. . In court she ___ maintaining that she was Anastasia and deserved her inheritance. however.C. writers. The royal couple did not let France's insecure financial situation limit their immoderate spending. the queen replaced him. Marie Antoinette. seemed uncaring about her subjects. the beautiful but exceedingly impractical queen. call upon D. These high taxes paid for the entertainments the queen and her court so enjoyed. Even though the minister of finance repeatedly warned the king and queen against wasting money. they continued to spend great fortunes on their personal pleasure. The French government taxed the citizens outrageously. spoke forcefully C. thousands of aristocrats. many people in France were starving. identify E. answer not stated 38. She also surrounded herself with artists. wisely B. know 37. finally appeared B. The minister of finance tried to curb these royal ___. and musicians. Perhaps if Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had reined in their extravagant spending. While the queen's favorites glutted themselves on huge feasts at the royal table. carefully D. a time when the country was fighting bankruptcy. lost their lives at the guillotine. While French citizens begged for lower taxes. This lavish spending greatly enraged the people of France.

As young boys they earned money by making and selling kites and mechanical toys. They even designed and built their own source of propulsion. they continued their experiments in aviation. and it flew one hundred twenty feet. however. when they read about the death of Otto Lilienthal. Others had flown in balloons or in hang gliders. however. When they started the engine on December 17. the inventors of the first flying machine. the airplane pulsated wildly before taking off. In 1896. After further study. The idea of flying an aircraft was repulsive to some people. In 1900 and 1901. made it possible for them to design a machine that would fly. The brothers' inability to obtain enough lift power for the gliders almost led them to abandon their efforts. Negative reactions. money wasters C. the Wright brothers are accurately called the fathers of aviation. As the contributors of one of the most outstanding engineering achievements in history. in turn. boring B. Orville and Wilbur Wright had always had a compelling interest in aeronautics and mechanics. Impelled by their desire to succeed. they designed a newspaperfolding machine. The idea of flying an aircraft was ___to some people. spenders 40. others reacted with peals of laughter. however. were excited and impressed. This idea was repellent to the Wright brothers. the Wrights tested numerous gliders and developed control techniques. individuals E.a lightweight gasoline engine. In 1903 the Wrights built their first airplane.1903. and operated a bicycle-repair shop. Although many people who heard about the first powered flight on December 17. the brother's interest in flight grew into a compulsion. Lilienthal.A. a pioneer in hang-gliding. Such people called Wilbur and Orville Wright. By 1905 the Wrights had perfected the first airplane that could turn. Later. built a printing press. the Wright brothers concluded that the published tables of air pressure on curved surfaces must be wrong. aristocrats B. and they searched for more efficient methods to control the balance of airborne vehicles. They set up a wind tunnel and began a series of experiments with model wings. did not stop the Wrights. This work. had controlled his gliders by shifting his body in the desired direction. Many great inventions are greeted with ridicule and disbelief. Because of their efforts. but the Wright brothers were the first to build a full-size machine that could fly under its own power. which cost less than one thousand dollars. enemies D. distasteful C. A. Questions 40-45. circle. The invention of the airplane was no exception. the old tables were repealed in time and replaced by the first reliable figures for air pressure on curved surfaces. and remain airborne for half an hour at a time. impulsive fools. The plane managed to stay aloft for twelve seconds. exciting .

C . B . force to going backward E. 14. A. . The Wrights designed and built their own source of ____.D. been negatively influenced C. opposed by 44. 17. C . accepted by E. A . 6. discarded E. A . acted in a negative way 42. C. foolish thought E. A . A. 11. force for turning around C. A . canceled C. disliked by D.16. acted without thinking B. none of the above Answer Key 1. 5. The Wright's interest in flight grew into a ____. B. needless E. answer not in article 43. 13. destroyed B. 4. B . 12. multiplied D. 7. A . answer not available 41. A. 9. Lilenthal's idea about controlling airborne vehicles was ___the Wrights. A. C. B . 10. proven wrong by B. turning D. need to act D. plan C. financial empire B.2. been too cautious D. B . The old tables were __ and replaced by the first reliable figures for air pressure on curved surfaces. A. had not given enough thought E. A. 8. A. 15. 3. opposite to the ideas of C. force for moving forward B. not used 45. People thought that the Wright brothers had ____.

A. the thirteenth and seventeenth Presidents. It was First Lady Helen Taft's idea to plant the famous cherry trees in Washington. so she taught him herself. One of the most famous First Ladies was Eleanor Roosevelt. The Humanitarian work of the First Ladies is critical in American government. 22. Other First Ladies have made the history books on their own. B . 19. B . Millard Fillmore and Andrew Johnson.B . Wilson had had sheep brought onto the White House lawn to eat the grass.” If you can't talk more politely than that in public.. C. Millard. 37. Dolly Madison was the most influential president's wife. Mrs. B. 34. even after the guards had left. Americans have always been interested in their Presidents' wives. Abigail eventually married her pupil. When Lady Bird Johnson thought her husband was talking too long. 33. made it their business to send signals during their husbands' speeches. A. 35. The painting is the only object from the original White House that was not burned. you come right home. 32. She was active in political and social causes throughout her husband's tenure in office. What is the main idea of this passage? A. 20. Many First Ladies have been remembered because of the ways they have influenced their husbands. B. C. 39. As the British marched toward Washington. C. he could not read or write. 38. C . “It's time to stop!” And he did. D. she remained behind to rescue the painting. 31. 23. Edith Wilson unofficially took over most of the duties of the Presidency until the end of her husband's term. C. B. B. B. during World War I. B. C . 43. The sheep not only kept the lawn mowed but provided wool for an auction sponsored by the First Lady. Almost $100. B. 28. A. Practice Questions 1. C. Dolly Madison saw to it that a magnificent painting of George Washington was not destroyed during the War of 1812. The First Ladies are important in American culture. she became famous for her humanitarian work in the United Nations. . Mrs. 29. Earlier. 40. B . 25. At least two First Ladies. Taft also influenced the male members of her family and the White House staff in a strange way: she convinced them to shave off their beards! Shortly after President Wilson suffered a stroke. so she phoned him and said. 42. A. B . C. 18. A . A. A schoolteacher. 27. C. She made life better for thousands of needy people around the world.” Abigail Fillmore and Eliza Johnson actually taught their husbands. 45. 44. D. When Eliza Johnson married Andrew. 21. E. A .26. Once Bess Truman didn't like what her husband was saying on television. B . 24. she wrote a note and sent it up to the platform. Each spring these blossoming trees attract thousands of visitors to the nation's capital. B. The First Ladies are key supporters of the Presidents.30. the wife of President Franklin D. Bess Truman and Lady Bird Johnson. After his death. D. It read. Eleanor Roosevelt transformed the First Lady image. Roosevelt. A. B . 41.000 was raised for the Red Cross. 36. B.

now that you realize the enormous size and value of the potato crop. and they found their way to North America in the early 1600s. That may seem like a lot of “taters. which can have as much as eighty percent water. Potatoes from Ireland started the Potato Revolution. Polish farmers dig up just over 800 million bags a year. though. No wonder. the annual potato harvest is over six billion bags.” “Idahoes.” or even “shoestrings. As a matter of fact. that the company pays particular attention to the way its fries are prepared. Their descendants in Ecuador and Chile continue to grow the vegetable as high as fourteen thousand feet up in the Andes Mountains. it must pass many separate tests. B. Before any fry makes it to the people who eat at these popular restaurants. you can understand why most people agree that this part of the food industry is no “small potatoes.” “spuds. These Idaho potatoes have less water content than other kinds. . However. while the Russians lead the world with nearly 1. you will put away at least a hundred pounds of them each year. only russet Burbank potatoes are used. however. every shoestring is measured. it seems. The first potatoes were grown by the Incas of South America. That's only a tiny portion of the amount grown every year. of course. farmers fill about four hundred million bags a year. D. Potatoes are a key vegetable in America. a potato by any other name is still a potato.the world's most widely grown vegetable. if you are an average potato eater. To start with. to name just three. the potato. Here in the United States. French fries are made from potatoes. The average American eats 50 lbs of potatoes a year.” or “Kennebees.” or as “chips. C. the potatoes are partly fried in a secret blend of oils. 3. then flash frozen for shipment to individual restaurants.each bag containing a hundred pounds of spuds.5 billion bags. then. in the United States most potatoes are devoured in the form of French fries. Of the many kinds of vegetables grown all over the world. Fail any one and the spud is rejected. ( That's higher than any other food will grow. a few short fries in a bag are okay. and roasted.” but it leaves us a distant third among world potato growers.” No matter. What about the twenty percent that are left in the batch? Well. The various terms for potatoes have a long history.) Early Spanish and English explorers shipped potatoes to Europe. Worldwide. mashed. some of them as large as four pounds each.2. People eat potatoes in many ways-baked. sprayed with liquid sugar to brown them. Perhaps you know them as “taters. Another forty percent has to be over three inches. One fast-food chain alone sells more than $1 billion worth of fries each year. Once cut into “shoestrings” shapes. steam dried at high heat. which remains the favorite of young and old alike? Why. stop and think a moment about some of the commonplace things that you use every day. So.” What is the main idea of this passage? A. What does the word patent mean to you? Does it strike you as being something rather remote from your interests? If it does. more than four hundred years ago. Forty percent of a batch must be between two and three inches long. Before shipping. E.

During the glorious reign of Queen Elizabeth I in England..objects that you take for granted as part of the world around you. A patent may be granted for any new and useful process. machine. C. an important principle was added to the patent structure: The Lord Chief Justice of England stated that society had everything to gain and nothing to lose by granting exclusive privileges to an inventor. adding machines. and the men who drew up the Constitution incorporated one. television. George Washington signed the first patent law on April 10. article of manufacture. an improved method of making potash for use in soapmaking. If it had not been possible to patent their ideas and thus protect them against copying by others. Mark Twain developed a self-pasting scrapbook. The fundamental principles in the U. patents. These principles are the mainstays of our modern patent system in the United States. In colonial times patent law was left up to the separate states. Abraham Lincoln patented a device to lift steam vessels over river shoals. or any distinct and new variety.a step that did much to encourage creativity. the automobile. of plant. Later. or composition of matter ( a chemical compound or combinations of chemical compounds). and unfairness that resulted clearly indicated the need for a uniform patent law. confusion. it houses more than 7 million foreign patents and thousands of volumes of technical literature. hordes of imitators who did not share the inventor's risks and expenses might well flood the market with their copies of his product and reap much of the benefit of his efforts. The technological progress that has made America great would wither rapidly under conditions such as these. The inconsistency. S. In addition to more than 3 million U. D. and less than four months later the first patent was issued to a man named Samuel Hopkins for a chemical process. patent structure came from England. Another basic principle was brought into law because certain influential people in England had managed to obtain monopoly control over such age-old products as salt. and had begun charging as much as the traffic would bear. including certain mutants and hybrids. and the thousand and one other things (even the humble safety pin) that enrich our lives today once existed only as ideas in the minds of men. when critics argued that giving monopoly rights to one person infringed on the rights of others. The telephone. If there were no patent protection there would be little incentive to invent and innovate. because a patent for an invention was granted for something new that society never had before. The Patent Office in Washington. S. In 1936 the Patent Office was established as a separate bureau. and millionaire Cornelius Vanderbilt invented a shoe-shine kit. is the world's largest library of scientific and technical data. The public outcry became so great that the government was forced to decree that monopoly rights could be awarded only to those who created or introduced something really unique. and this treasure trove of information is open for public inspection. drill press or lathe. he can produce more and earn more with the computer. the expanding technology was furthered by the granting of exclusive manufacturing and selling privileges to citizens who had invented new processes or tools. The patent system has also helped to boost the wages of the American worker to an unprecedented level. radio. these inventions might never have been fully developed to serve mankind. From the staff of eight that it maintained during its first year of operation it has grown into an organization of over 2500 people handling more than 1600 patent applications and granting over 1000 every week.1790. for once the details of an invention became known. Patented inventions .

The Constitution protects the patent system. They are wide at the bottom and narrow at the top.also help keep prices down by increasing manufacturing efficiency and by stimulating the competition that is the foundation of our free enterprise system. In thick woods a tree sometimes won't fall down. C. (A six-inch birch takes about ten minutes. The decades of history have disclosed little need for modification of the patent structure. like the Constitution from which they grew. So a lot of their hard work is wasted. a beaver sometimes gets pinned under a falling tree. but often they don't get much done. free enterprise. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Some people think that beavers can make a tree fall the way they want it to. Not true. and the creative process. Patents are important tools for inventors. Of course. and enabled American technology to outstrip that of the rest of the civilized world. 4. it usually falls into the water. in Montana. brought untold benefits to society as a whole. doesn't think to cut down the trees that are in the way. One expert says that beavers waste one out of every five trees they cut. For one thing.) But then what? Often the beaver does not make use of the tree. But they do not plan it that way. The largest one ever seen was in New Hampshire. It stretched four thousand feet. They will build a dam across the widest part of the stream. Beavers may work hard. Beavers think nothing of building a dam more than two hundred feet long. The fact is that most trees lean toward the water to start with. Most people think it's fine to be “busy as a beaver. It gets stuck in the other trees. and mud. Beavers are supposed to be great tree cutters. B. It made a lake large enough to hold forty beaver homes. E. The patent system in England has been influential in American patent development. D. Our patent laws. The patent system encourages free enterprise. (In fact. The best ones are strongly built of trees. They just don't plan. One dam. have stood the test of time well. It is true that a beaver can gnaw through a tree very quickly. Now what about dam building? Most beaver dams are wonders of engineering.” Little do they know. stones. So a good tree goes to waste. They don't try to find a place where the stream is narrow. One bunch of beavers cut down a cottonwood tree more than one hundred feet tall. Patented inventions protect the inventor. was more than two thousand feet long. Then they found that they could not move it. But they don't always build them in the right places. They encouraged the creative processes. they do not choose their trees wisely.) When beavers cut a tree near a stream. So beavers do build good dams. .

too. New Hampshire was the site of the largest beaver dam. any raisins that are a bit too dry take moisture from those that have a bit too much. It may take two weeks or longer. They treat them with much more care. Everybody wanted more. Beavers are well developed tree cutters. That year. It was so hot the grapes dried on the vines. The raisins are now ready for market. It happened in 1873 in the San Joaquin Valley of California. They are emptied onto a conveyor belt that shakes the raisins gently. You have to know what you're doing. B. Then they have turned into raisins. Then the plump brown raisins have a last inspection. Here they are poured into packages. It was one of the worst heat waves ever known. which are automatically weighed and sealed. The water bath is next. Skilled workers come to the vineyards. The grapes are dried until only fifteen percent of the moisture is left. The workers fill their flat pans with grapes. Beavers may be hard working animals. Beavers are excellent dam builders. Here the grapes stay while the sun does its work. A blast of air whisks the stems away. What is the main idea of this passage? . So the San Joaquin farmers went into the raisin business. They are tested often for sweetness. 5. E. Many farmers raised grapes in this valley. Trucks take them from the fields. The grapes are first dried on one side. they are turned to dry on the other side. there was one Oregon beaver that really was a worker. Today. Beavers are poor surveyors of aquatic environments in some cases. For example. they do not let the grapes dry on the vines. When they were picked. They are again checked for moisture and sugar. California had its first raisin crop. It decided to fix a leak in a man-made dam. The growers wait until the sugar content is twenty-one percent. of course. there was a heat wave.Beavers should learn that it's not enough to be busy. In late August the grapes start to ripen. Then they go on a belt to packing machines. The raisin business in America was born by accident. D. After a while they are all just moist enough. C. Each box holds one hundred and sixty pounds of raisins. The raisins are rolled up in the paper on which they have dried. Here. People were surprised to find how good raisins were. but they don't always choose the most efficient mechanisms. What is the main idea of this passage? A. They pick the bunches of grapes by hand. They are poured into big boxes called sweatboxes. After five days of work it gave up. When they have reached the right color. They sit in the sun. Then they know the grapes are ripe enough to be picked. They gently empty the pans onto squares of paper. just before the grape harvest. These squares lie between the long rows of vines. The leak it was trying to block was the lock that boats go through. The big boxes are trucked next to the packaging plant. This knocks them from their stems.

The other was a group called the Khmer Rouge. Siv came from a large family that lived in the capital of Cambodia. Siv was working in the White House. where he worked eighteen hours each day without rest. After several more years. Siv took a job with the United Nations. in 1980. California has been the leader in American raisin development. he was able to study at Columbia University in New York City. and he often had to work long hours. Siv managed to escape. wanted more than this. Unfortunately. After several months. Siv worked for a while with a Cambodian airline company. Raisins are cleaned thoroughly at the packing plant. It was a difficult job. Siv finally made his way to Thailand. was a terrifying one. As a result. Caught at last. Siv quickly found work in a refugee camp. Persistence and courage are global ideas. He arrived in June of 1976 and got a job-first picking apples and then cooking in a fast-food restaurant. like himself. while others were forced into hard labor. How did this strange journey come about? Like millions of Cambodians. and they were impressed with his bravery. After that. he was afraid he would be killed. He rode an old bicycle for miles. 6. The journey. Siv was a victim of a bloody civil war. He married an American woman and became a citizen.. The creation of raisins in America was an accident. he and his family were taken from their homes and forced to labor in rice fields. had suffered the hardship of leaving their own countries behind. he taught English. Many people were killed. C. Siv covered a large area during his life. Siv had hope to leave Cambodia before the Khmer Rouge took over the country. Siv. What is the main idea of this passage? A. trying to escape from Cambodia. For three weeks he slept on the ground and tried to hide from the soldiers who were looking for him. because Siv got the opportunity to help refugees in his work. Sichan Siv was crawling through the jungle. trying to reach Thailand where he would be free and safe. One of the sides in this war was the Cambodian government. as an advisor to the President of the United States. the situation in Cambodia got worse. Because he had worked for an American charity group. In 1976. an American group that was helping victims of the war. Instead. he felt that he was very much a part of his new country. this time he made it. . however. Soon he was on his way to the states. he was put into a labor camp. he escaped again. he took a job with CARE. Siv decided that the best way to prepare for this kind of work was to go to college. he was delayed. however. The process of raisin development requires multiple steps. D. In 1988. Siv was offered a job in the White House working for President Reagan's closest advisors. After a while. Raisins on the grocery store shelf undergo a brief fermentation process. B. Finally. in Washington D.A. He wrote letters to many colleges and universities. They were impressed with his school records from Cambodia. however. he wanted to work with people who. After finishing his studies at Columbia. By 1989. Sometimes entire families were wiped out. However the long hard work was worth it. E. When the Khmer Rouge won the war. After three days of staggering on foot through mile after mile of thick bamboo. After finishing high school. C. B. Later.

001 uses. suspend it vertically with the blue field. especially in Asia and on the islands of the South Pacific Ocean. such as flutes and recorders. In most Asian countries. They fence their land with bamboo and use the wood for cages for chickens and pigs. This grass is not just a material for making useful products. for that grass is bamboo. Place the staff of the American flag in front of the other staff. Louisiana. When flying the flag at half-mast. but it is part of the family of plants that includes wheat. When it is glued in layers. boats. called the union. and is easy to grow. and hundreds of other useful things can be made? A grass that you would even enjoy eating? Would you believe that person? You should. Placing the American flag inappropriately will draw government intervention. will bamboo die. What if someone told you about a kind of grass that grows as tall as the tallest trees? A grass that can be made as strong as steel? A grass from which houses. When flying the American flag with banners from states or cities. When you want to hang the American flag over the middle of a street. D. Bamboo is used to build large buildings as well as homes. ". is found in warm. oats. At times you can even see it grow! Botanists have recorded growths of more than three feet in just twenty-four hours! Bamboo is hollow and has a strong root system that almost never stops growing and spreading. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Most bamboo. Many Asians live in bamboo houses. Bamboo grows in many parts of the world. Siv persevered to become an American citizen D. Siv overcame numerous challenges to come to American and help others. and Texas. Bamboo is light and strong. American flag should be flown differently in certain situations. floats on water. Siv persevered to become an American citizen. Bamboo may look like wood. Nothing else on earth grows quite so fast as bamboo. . to the north and east-west street. in many Asian foods. and it bends without breaking. and barley. C. B. hoist it to the top of the pole for a moment before lowering it to mid-pole. wet climates. In the United States it grows in an area from Virginia west to Indiana and south to Florida. E. Raise the flag quickly and lower it slowly and respectfully. an event that may happen only once every thirty years. Paper made from bamboo has been highly prized by artists for thousands of years. almost never wears out. When the flag is displayed with another banner from crossed staffs. 8. only after it flowers. it becomes as strong as steel. 7. They sit on bamboo chairs and sleep on bamboo mats. the American flag is on the right.C. the “wood” of 1. however. In fact. Young bamboo is eaten. The American flag is the symbol of American freedom. often mixed with other vegetables. bamboo is even used for water pipes. Never allow the flag to touch the ground. It is a kind of grass. This extraordinary material has many other uses. It is cheap. On some islands in the South Pacific. It is used to make musical instruments. The American flag has fifty stars."The flag should be lowered quickly and respectfully. furniture. bamboo is nearly as important as rice. raise the nation's banner first and lower it last.

rocks. After fifteen miles of these conditions. they rest. The Marathon of the Sands was founded in 1986 by Patrick Bauer. the challenge of the race is the main reason for coming. it is 100 degrees F. for example. a special kind of adventure. that the lives of nearly half the people on earth would change enormously if there were no longer any bamboo. the runners pass through a level stretch and a beautiful. The fourth and fifth days are the worst. What is the main idea of this passage? A. the runners must climb giant sand dunes. they cross more than twenty-one miles of rocks and sand dunes. In the Valley of Dra. though.the first they have faced. they run fifteen miles across a desert of sand. as the desert heat is thrust against them with great force. Bamboo has at least 2. (They are allowed less than nine quarts of water during each day of the race. but then. tree-filled oasis. they grow more and more exhausted. They must be ready for the next day's run. The largest reaches more than two hundred feet in height and seven inches in diameter. Few runners finish the day without blistered and raw feet. but the runners do not hesitate. The runners complete the course in fewer than seven days. There are at least a 1. they learn much about themselves and each other. Most of the runners in this race have found that they form deep friendships with the other runners during their days and nights in the desert. B. His idea was to give the runners. No wonder. Dust and sand mix with the runners' sweat. The race continues like this for four more days. the wind picks up and. Facing terrible heat and complete exhaustion. The second day. as it is called. Soon their faces are caked with mud. that to many people bamboo is a symbol of happiness and good fortune. That night. Within a few hours. On the third day. On the fourth day. clothing. and many runners cannot make it.) Most of all. Every year since 1986. On the first day. and thorny bushes.There are more than a thousand kinds of bamboo. Bamboo is an amazing grass that can be used in multiple ways. E.000 uses. Bamboo grows at an amazing rate and is found primarily in Asia. The Marathon of the Sands. M. On the sixth day. They are there to take part in one of the most difficult races in the world. They must cover eighteen miles that day. covers over 125 miles of desert and mountain wilderness. Bamboo could be considered a flower in some cases. they are exhausted when they arrive at the campsite for the night. The temperature soars to 125 degrees F. heat and rocks punish the racers terribly. . D. For most of the runners. some of the world's most daring runners have gathered in the desert of Morocco. the runners are up at 6:00 A. Runners who make it to the end of the fifth day know that the worst is over. and sleeping bags on their backs. The smallest is only three inches tall and one-tenth of an inch across. C. 9. Helicopters rush fallen runners to medical help. and they run with their food. They also suffer from a lack of water.000 types of bamboo. too. the runners finally reach their next camp. No wonder. who come from all over the world. then. on this and on the next day.

They were skillful engineers who paved their roads and built sturdy bridges. The seventh day is the hardest day of the race. The Incas once ruled a great empire that covered a large part of the South American continent. too. tired. C. Since he owned everything. He told his subjects where to live. the emperor gave what he wished when he wished. blistered runners set out at daybreak. for everybody has caught the excitement. with only twelve miles to be covered. The race causes the strong to stumble and the weak to not finish. nor is it likely that we will ever know. The runners run at their own pace. Today. The ones who have run the whole marathon know they have accomplished what most people could not even dream of. went to that continent in the sixteenth century. E. ‘Why am I here?' Then I'd realize I was there to find my limits. they kept their accounts by using a system of knotted strings of various lengths and colors.The seventh day is the last. “I'd think. The emperor ruled them with an iron hand. the Incas created splendid objects from these precious metals.” says one contestant who has raced here twice. They plowed the land in such a way that rains would not wash away valuable soil. The sizes of the knots and the distances between them represented numbers.and in the amount he wished -to his people. Near the finish line. “During the hard moments. The empire was more than five hundred years old when the first Spanish explorers. High in the Andes Mountains in Peru stands the ancient city of Machu Picchu. While it is true that the Incas had no written language. The Incas were great artists. At its height. the Incan empire included as many as thirty million people. Since both gold and silver were in great supply. Nevertheless.some as heavy as ten tons. how long they should work-even whom they could marry. B. without cement of any kind. looking for gold. that it would be impossible to slip a knife blade between them! The walls have stood firm through great storms and earthquakes that have destroyed many modern buildings. children race along with the runners. The Marathon of the Sands race tests the limits of human endurance. D. Every runner runs the race to find their human limits. the deserted city of Machu Picchu is important for what it reveals about the ancient Inca people of South America. . The blocks were fitted so tightly.up the sides of mountains to build walls. The dusty. what to plant. 10. The Incas were an advanced people. the Incas were able to move huge stone blocks.” What is the main idea of this passage? A. They dug ditches to carry water into dry areas for farming. Even though they did not know about the wheel. Incan dishes and other kinds of pottery are prized for their wonderful designs. No one knows why this great city was built.

6. Earlier. 3.8. 7. The Incas. an awesome tribute to this once powerful empire. once the center of that great empire. The remains of this ancient city still stand high in the mountains of Peru. In Peru alone. Answer Key 1. A . C. 4. Spanish conquerors destroyed the Incan empire in the thirteenth century. You can even visit Machu Picchu. 2.In 1533 Spanish explorers led by Francisco Pizarro murdered the emperor of the Incas. D. D . Machu Picchu was the capital of the Incan empire. What is the main idea of this passage? A. . D. The Incas once inhabited the ancient city of Machu Picchu. who had always been entirely dependent on their emperor. D. A . B. Peru was the primary country of the Incas. B. D. the heir to the Incan empire had also been killed. E.5. now had no recognized leader. E.10. The Incan empire can be found in ancient cities and was plundered by the Spanish. C. C .9. Have the Incas disappeared from South America? Not at all. Evidence of the Incan empire can be found in many other places in South America as well. eighty percent of the twenty million people are descendants of the Inca people. The Spaniards easily conquered the empire and plundered its riches.

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