You are on page 1of 17

The American Musical is a reprieve from reality for Americans. Shows like Cats!

andThe Phantom of the Opera take people to a place of dramatic anticipation that elevates them from the world around for those few hours of the evening when everything else melts away. Many people, however, view the American Musical Theater as nothing else but a stage show with fancy lights and elaborate costumes. Musical Theater, however, is an art form that has been brewing and restructuredfrom the eras of the Greeks to contemporary times. The American Musical Theater wasprepared when the First and Second World Wars took place to be the patriotic backbone that the United States looked for to get through those rigorous times. Shows like Little Johnny Jones (1904) by George M. Cohan, and also songs that are still alive today like Youre a Grand Old Flag, also by Cohan are good examples of the patriotism that was alive in the early twentieth century. Today there is the ever prevalent pop-sicalsthat takes well-known pieces of popular music and turns them into a musical to charm the younger generation. Examples of this would be shows like LegallyBlond, or Hairspray. During the twentieth century, we have seen avast wave of shows thatthe American Musical Theater production companies have intensified to be colossal productions that travel across the world performing for any kind of audience that will watch and listen. Out of the musical genre come iconic actors and actresses, along with conductors and composers, for example, Cohan who got his break into musical theater on Broadway after traveling with his family and performing vaudeville since he was a young child.These musicals have been a monument to the success of the American people to stay unified during hard times. This paper will focus on a short history of musical theater and then delve into the importance of musical theater as a patriotic element during the twentieth century in the United States.

Lets start at the beginning a very good place to start. Musical Theater dates back to the Ancient Greeks and has a long running history since then. In Athens, the Greeks would commonly hold rituals that encompassed song and dance as a type of honor to the gods. They did not just do this to honor their gods, but they also held these rituals, or shows, for entertainment. These musicals were often centered on mythological tales and the conquests of their gods and were referred to as dithyrambs.1 The literature of Aristotle contains our only evidence from this time and holds information on Thespis of Icaria who was thought to be not only a writer, but composer and performer as well.2Scholars of the twentieth century give Thespis of Icaria the position of creating the art of acting (why we call actors thespians) and creating what isrecognized as tragedy.3 Over the span of time, comedies and satyr plays were added to the list of available styles of musicals for that era. Even in such anaffluent place as Athens, women were not allowed to play in the theater. In this society, women only held light in social circles if they were priestesses or prostitutes, and it was unthinkable for a respectable woman to take part in the theatre.4 One huge difference between the musicals of Ancient Greek and the musicals of the twentieth century is that in Ancient Athens, the theater was free of charge. All production expenditures fell to the choregos, who was the chorus leader, and a man, who was wealthy in the village or town. Even though it cost whoever it was a lot of money the men highly sought-after this position. The man who would become the choregos would have the ultimate bragging rights and would have the honor to construct a triumphal column in his own honor.5

John Kenrick, Musical Theatre: A History (n.p.: Continuum, 2010), 18. Ibid., 19. 3 Ibid., 19. 4 Ibid., 21. 5 Ibid., 21.
2

Athens held the theater in high esteem and would hold yearly competitions. These competitions were part of a week-long festival where several musicals were judged each day. The musicals werearbitrated by a panel of ten male citizens called kritai (which is where we get the term critic). The kritaicarved out their choice of the best musical on tablets, put their choice in an urn, and left the verdict up to the gods.6 Much like the Greeks, the Romans used a festival venue to encourage and judge several musicals. Dissimilar to the Greeks, however, the Romans had no governmental association in these plays. The Romans saw these musicals as having the potential to be very dangerously influential on their people.7 The Romans added metal chips to their shoes to make dance steps more audible (precursor to the tap shoe), and they color coded their characters so that the audience had no misinterpretation of who was who. A black robe designated a young man, a white robe indicated an old man, a red robe specified a slave, a yellow robe indicated a woman, and the addition of yellow tassels designated a god.8 The Romans relished their theater performances until the collapse of the Roman Empire when the suspicion of the theater being too influential came to a head and the Catholic Church condemned the theater, calling it a corrupt and sinful influence.9 After the fall of the Roman Empire, there was a new upsurge of the musical that wasredesigned from its sinful ways and became the religious musical. In the Middle Ages there is the rise of the Mystery Play, the Miracle Play, the Morality Play and Folk Plays. Mystery plays were dramatizations of Bible stories. Miracle plays involved the lives (true or

John Kenrick, Musical Theatre: A History (n.p.: Continuum, 2010), 22. Ibid., 25. 8 Ibid., 25. 9 Ibid., 26.
7

fictional) of saints. Morality plays were allegories illustrating the seven deadly sins. A folk play involved popular myths, such as the legend of Robin Hood.10 During the period of the Middle Ages and the use of religious musicals, there was the discovery of the following spot light. Without the invention of electricity, the use of polished metal bowls that were arranged at angles that would use the suns rays to create more light for outdoor performances.11 Two of the plays that are still recreated today from this period of time are The Play of Herod and The Play of Daniel. During the Renaissance, the Italians rediscovered the Greek dramas, and here in Italythe development of the CamarataFlorentina marks the eventualprogress into what is seen today as our genre of opera.12 With this in mind, Musical Theater did not come from opera, but quite on the contrary, opera was given birth by Musical Theater. Opera took over the musical stage for quite a while, but in the latter half of the nineteenth century we see the rise of Musical Theater as it appears today. Musical Theater began again with the Operetta and the Revue. Revues, especially, spread like wild fire throughout America and became very popular. These plays were based on song and dance numbers and often included ostentatious costumes and sets. Out of the revue came the revival of the musical. Englishman George Edwards established this genre in its common day application by combining elements of variety shows, comic operas and plays in London in the 1890s, and these plays soon made their way to the United States and in the twentieth century became a major part of the arts tradition.13

10

11

John Kenrick, Musical Theatre: A History (n.p.: Continuum, 2010), 27. John Kenrick, Musical Theatre: A History (n.p.: Continuum, 2010), 27. 12 Ibid., 28. 13 Ibid., 765.

One cannot overlook the father of American Musical Theater: George M. Cohan. Cohan was the epitome of the American spirit. He was self-proclaimed to have been born on the 4th of July and took that patriotic spirit with him everywhere he went and in everything he did. Cohans music career began as a boy, touring with his family in vaudeville shows and he often composed the scenes for his family.14All of his composing had a patriotic message to it. One of Cohans biographers wrote: There was a mystique, a self-created mystique, in which he identified himself indelibly with everything elemental to American life. This he could not have done in quite the way he did had he known he was born on the 3rd of July. From his earliest days he was, he said, profoundly impressed with the fact that I had been born under the Stars and Stripes, and that has had a great deal to do with everything I have written. If it had not been for the glorious symbol of Independence, I might have fallen into the habit of writing problem plays, or romantic drama, or questionable farce. Yes, the American flag is in my heart, and it has done everything for me.15 This showed the American spirit that was Cohan. One of Cohans most popular musicals of the time was Little Johnny Jones whichincluded all-American songs like The Yankee Doodle Boy and Give My Regards to Broadway. Produced by Sam Harris, Little Johnny Jones was a story about a jockey (Johnny Jones) who traveled to England to race his horse Yankee Doodle in the Derby. He gets framed for throwing the race and has to clear his name with the help of a private detective. When he returned to America he found that his fianc has been kidnapped by thesame man who framed him.16Little Johnny Jones was Cohans third musical and his first success. Figure oneshows the patriotic spirit of Cohan in his playbill for Little Johnny Jones. Johnny Jones is adorned in the American colors of red, white, and blue with a smile on his face, illustrating his love of his country.

John Bush Jones, Our Musicals, Ourselves: A Social History of the American Musical Theater --2003 publication. (Hanover and London: UP of New England,2003, 2003), 18. 15 Ibid., 18. 16 Stanley Green, Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books), Deluxe ed. (n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010), 10.

14

Figure 1. Playbill for Little Johnny Jones17 In 1917, Cohan wrote the song Over There which led to him receiving the Congressional Medal of Honor from Franklin Delano Roosevelt for it being the greatest of all war songs.18 This was the first time that someone in the art field received such an honor. Cohan wrote over five hundred songs and his musicals were the patriotic backbone that the United States needed right at the start of the First World War. Cohan was not the only composer during the war years that held the spotlight for being patriotic. Irving Berlin was also a front runner in the American Musical scene during the First World War. Berlin and his family fled from their homeland to come to America and it was said

Wikipedia, s.v. Little Johnny Jones, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Johnny_Jones (accessed February 2, 2011). 18 Cohan, George M. In Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th Ed., edited by Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.usd.edu/subscriber/article/epm/5268 (accessed February 21, 2011).

17

that Berlin was much happier singing then doing anything else.19Throughout the war, Berlin was very active in the theater and wrote many patriotic songs including, Im Gonna Pin a Medal on the Girl I left Behind, When I Get Back to the USA, and For Your Country and My Country.20 In 1918, Berlin was drafted into the war and was asked to generate a show for the troops. He created and performed in Yip, Yip, Yaphank.21 Following the success of this show in World War One, Berlin put together another all-soldier revue for World War Two called This Is The Army. The United States footed the bill for this show as well as for Yip, Yip, Yaphank. This Is The Army was put together to benefit the Army Emergency Relief Fund and kidded and extolled the military life in a song-and-dance mixture of horseplay, nostalgia, and patriotism.22This is The Army also showcased Lieutenant Ronald Reagan.23 Both Irving Berlin and George M. Cohan were vital participants in both World Wars and the keeping up of morale in the United States during that time. Each and every one of their shows gave Americans and soldiers the chance to not worry about what was going on in the world around them and gave them a chance to relax during a tempestuous time of history. The 1930s and the crash of the stock market made for financial hardship on Broadway and in theatercompanys everywhere. Dancers and actors where working for the bare minimum just to get by. Songs like Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? and Ethel Waters rendition of Stormy Weather, showed that the temperament in musical theater had undeniably shifted from the happy and sparkling shows of the past to the somber musicals of the 30s. These shows
Berlin, Irving. In Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th Ed., edited by Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.usd.edu/subscriber/article/epm/2064 (accessed February 21, 2011). 20 th Berlin, Irving. In Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4 Ed., edited by Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.usd.edu/subscriber/article/epm/2064 (accessed February 21, 2011). NP. 21 Ibid. NP. 22 Stanley Green, Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books), Deluxe ed. (n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010), 117. 23 The American Musical: The Broadway Project, DVD, directed by Julie Andrews (Los Angeles, CA: PBS Educational Broadcasting, 2004)
19

incorporated plots that showed their viewers that the actors could feel their pain. They recognized what every American was going through during the time of the depression, and they commiserated with everyone, because they were going through the exact same situation.24 Although patriotism was an important part of the theatre, scandal was common practice in the American Musical Theater as well. Political satire plays were often banned and completely shut down so that the public would not be persuaded. The United States government created the Federal Theater Project to help with the morale of the country in these tough times, and they footed the bill for many productions, but were very strict in what could and could not be publicized.The Cradle Will Rock was such a musical. On opening night, The Cradle Will Rock was said to have been cancelled by the press. John Houseman, the producer, along with twentyone year old Orson Wells, directing, called numerous theaters and finally found one that would let them in. After the Federal Theater Project tried to put a stop to the production yet again, the actors ended up playing their roles from the house floor instead of being on stage, in fear that they would lose their jobs for performing a barred musical. 25 The threat of job loss and financial difficulty in the past, the next major Broadway production and the next staple in the American Musical Theater was written and produced by none other than Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein II. The adoredOklahoma!came to the stage in 1943 and brought with it the reminiscence of home and an easier life for the troops overseas and at war. Oklahoma!created a new kind of musical, the glitter of an opening chorus

The American Musical: The Broadway Project, DVD, directed by Julie Andrews (Los Angeles, CA: PBS Educational Broadcasting, 2004) 25 Scott Miller, Rebels with Applause: Broadway's Groundbreaking Musicals (n.p.: Heinemann Drama, 2001), 4.

24

was replaced by the simplicity of one character sitting alone on a stage. The songs grew out of the plot and were appropriate to it.26 Oklahoma! was based on Lynn Riggs 1931 play Green Grow the Lilacs. The story was about whether Curly McLain or Jud Fry would take Laurey Williams to the box social. In a collection of events and the introduction of the dream ballet, Laurey ultimately chose Jud but was in love with Curly. After a trial about whether Curly should go to jail for the accidental death of Curly in a fight between the two men, the story ends happily with Curly and Laureyriding off into the sunset married and happy. 27Oklahoma!is such an iconic musical that even in the twenty-first century, this musical is being recreated over and over again. It is a classic musical that will not be overlooked and it is said that this musical in particular is so popular even today that every day, somewhere in the world, there is a production of this play going on.28 The 1940s and the onset of World War Two brought another movement of patriotic musicals to the American stage. Oklahoma! was not the only musical to display a patriotic spirit. On The Town was another musical that was destined to amuse and inspire. Opening in 1944, On The Town, with music by Leonard Bernstein, staged three sailors on a reprieve from their ship touring New York City. This musical showed the country at war and also showed the powerful workings of women. The main female character is trying to get one specific sailor back to her bedroom and will not take no for an answer. The sailor wants to see all the sights there are to see in New York City and is having a tough time doing so with the unrelenting female at his side.29

Julian Mates, America's Musical Stage: Two Hundred Years of Musical Theatre (Contributions in Drama and Theatre Studies) (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985), 190. 27 Stanley Green, Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books), Deluxe ed. (n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010), 119. 28 The American Musical: The Broadway Project, DVD, directed by Julie Andrews (Los Angeles, CA: PBS Educational Broadcasting, 2004) 29 Ibid.

26

A comical musical, it gave the viewers a chance to relax, laugh, and enjoy themselves during times of war. The 1950s sustained the patriotic spirit but in a more light hearted way. With the end of the war behind them, the United States was recovering and enjoying the theater scene. My Fair Lady was a landmark in the American Musical Theater.30 Based on the play Pygmalion by Leonard Bernard Shaw, My Fair Lady played for six straight years. The recording of the soundtrack outlasted both Elvis and The Beatles.31

Figure 2.Playbill for My Fair Lady32 Figure two shows the light-hearted poster from My Fair Lady that still represented the American patriotic spirit. Notice the fun puppet-like cartoons, but also notice that the main colors represented on this poster are the American colors of red, white and blue. The 1950s also brought ghastly news to the beloved Oscar Hammerstein II. He was diagnosed with cancer. A year after the 1959 opening of The Sound of Music, Hammerstein died on August 23, 1960. For the first time in history, both Broadway and Londons east end honored
The American Musical: The Broadway Project, DVD, directed by Julie Andrews (Los Angeles, CA: PBS Educational Broadcasting, 2004) 31 Ibid. 32 Wikipedia, s.v. My Fair Lady, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Fair_Lady (accessed February 2, 2011).
30

10

the same man at the same time. Londons east end dimmed their lights in honor of Hammerstein, while Broadway completely turned off all lights and completely shut down traffic to commemorate him. The 1960s brought on another trendin American Musical Theater. The developing VietnamWar and the fight against it, the American Theater took a turn for the absurd and towardsatirical musicals. Patriotism took a back seat to these musicals that dealt with the political instability of the time. Stephen Sondheims play Anyone Can Whistle was an absurdist social satire about insanity and conformity.33 The play was not efficacious. It poked fun at the audience and the plot line was bizarre. It tells a story about a city that is bankrupt because its only industry is making something that never breaks. To revive the town, the towns people make up a story about a miracle rock that has flowing water from it to bring in tourists. Then a patient at the local psychiatric ward escapes and chaos in the town ensues.34 Bad reviews shut this play down within one week of its opening. Other musicals did not do as poorly as Anyone Can Whistle. Hair was an anti-war and pro-hippie show that was made up of exclusively rock and roll songs. The musical celebrated the untethered lifestyle of hippies and flower children that welcomed the dawning of the Age of Aquarius by opposing the draft, the work ethic, and accepted standards of behavior and dress.35Hair was tremendously controversial but spoke to a wider audience than the traditional musical. It gave a voice to everyone who was against the Vietnam War and was one of many musicals to give voice to the anxieties of the American citizens.

33

Scott Miller, Rebels with Applause: Broadway's Groundbreaking Musicals (n.p.: Heinemann Drama, Scott Miller, Rebels with Applause: Broadway's Groundbreaking Musicals (n.p.: Heinemann Drama, Ibid., 224.

2001), 48.
34

2001). 49.
35

11

Figure 3. Playbill for Hair36 Figure Three shows the clash of traditionalism with counter culture in the musical Hair. The unnatural coloring of the poster and the picture of the man with the big hair and the look of a hippie represented the departure from previous patriotic playbills. This was just another way for the show to expose its defiance against the American mainstream of the time. During the 1960s, political-based musicals were not the only style of theatre being produced. Around the late 1960s Andrew Lloyd Webber was making his mark in London with shows like Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat and in 1971 he came to the United States with his show Jesus Christ Superstar.37Jesus Christ Superstarrendered the last seven days of Christ in such a flamboyant, campy, and mind-blowing fashion that despite a mixed press, and opposition from various religious groups the show became a media hype and a box-office

36 37

Wikipedia, s.v. Hair, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hair_(musical) (accessed February 2, 2011. Michael Walsh, Andrew Lloyd Webber: His Life and Works, ExpUpd ed. (New York: Harry N. Abrams,

1989), 47.

12

hit.38 Later in the decade, Jesus Christ Superstar was turned into a movie where it did not fare so well. The New York Times posted: Broadway and Israel meet head on and disastrously in the movie version of the rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar, produced in the biblical locale. The mod-pop glitter, the musical frenzy and the neon tubing of this super-hot stage bonanza encasing the Greatest Story are not painfully magnified, laid bare and ultimately parched beneath the blue, majestic Israeli sky, as if by a natural judgment.39 Needless to say, the show was no longer as big of a success after such a critique was thrown at it, although it is still produced today.Bad reviews did not stop Andrew Lloyd Webber from continuing his dream of composing. Webbers next stop was Evita.Evita was such a success in London in 1978 that it moved to Broadway in 1979. Based on the story of Eva Peron, Webbers musical received international acclaim as well as receiving popularity points for the song Dont Cry for Me, Argentina.40 Also, under Webbers belt was the popular musical Cats! This show has remained on Broadway as one of the longest running shows in history. It was not beat out until the opening of The Lion King.41 Based on poems by T.S. Eliot, Cats!is a show utterly about cats. Noted songs from this production are The Jellicle Ball and even more popular is Memory.42 Webbers legacy is still apparent today in the American Musical Theater as well as in Londons East End. Controversy is never far when you are on Broadway. Whether it dealt with political issues or moral issues, the American Theater kept people on their toes. 1983 brought the first

Stanley Green, Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books), Deluxe ed. (n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010), 233. 39 Michael Walsh, Andrew Lloyd Webber: His Life and Works, ExpUpd ed. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989), 81. 40 Stanley Green, Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books), Deluxe ed. (n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010), 254. 41 The American Musical: The Broadway Project, DVD, directed by Julie Andrews (Los Angeles, CA: PBS Educational Broadcasting, 2004) 42 Stanley Green, Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books), Deluxe ed. (n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010), 263.

38

13

successful musical to portray a homosexual couple. 43La Cage Aux Folles opened on August 21, 1983 to a dumbfounded audience. The story line was about Albin and Georges who have been lovers for years. Georges has a son from earlier in his life, and since the son is getting married, he asks Albin to be put back into the closet.44 The show uses mainly men dressed in drag and is in the tradition of the big, splashy Broadway book musical.45

Figure 4. Photograph from a scene in La Cage Aux Folles46 Figure four shows the contentious arrangement from La Cage Aux Folles. All men, dressed in drag, parading about the stage in not only drag costumes. The 1990s brought back the family-oriented musical, and although patriotism is no longer prevalent in these productions, it is still forming around the idea of unity within the country. In 1994, Disney made its mark in the transformation of the musical. Beauty and the Beast opened at the Palace Theatre on April 18, 1994.47 This now allowed the family to go to the theater together.
43

The American Musical: The Broadway Project, DVD, directed by Julie Andrews (Los Angeles, CA: PBS Educational Broadcasting, 2004) 44 Stanley Green, Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books), Deluxe ed. (n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010), 266. 45 Ibid., 266. 46 Wikipedia, s.v. La Cage Aux Folles, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Cage_aux_Folles_(musical) (accessed February 2, 2011). 47 Stanley Green, Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books), Deluxe ed. (n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010), 297.

14

Beauty and the Beast was based onDisneys animated film with the moral lesson of beauty being portrayed by a persons character and not by their looks and was a huge triumph for the company and paved the way for more Disney movies to be put to the stage. The next Disney movie turned staged musical, and the one that holds the title for the longest runningmusical in American Musical Theater history, is The Lion King which is still running on Broadway today.48The Lion King has an epic story line of love conquering all, and much like other Disney stories, has a moral lesson that every person is capable of completing their dream and conquering evil. The end of the century brought with it changes to the theater along with changes in the way people view the theater. The twenty-first century has brought about the pop-sicle with shows like Legally Blond and Hairspray,49which incorporate popular styles of music to appeal to younger audiences. The twentieth century was significant to the stylistic changes in the musical with the events of World Wars One and Two and the Vietnam War. Patriotism was held in high regards during the beginning of the twentieth century and productions gave a voice to the people of American when they normally would not have a say in what went on. In conclusion, the American Musical Theater in the twentiethcentury has a long history that dates back to before the invention of opera, which is a common misconception, and the growth and changes in the theatre have all come about because of cultural and economic reasons. When the country was at the verge of war, George M. Cohan and Irving Berlin brought the patriotic necessity to keep the United States sturdy and unified. When the country was at odds with the Vietnam War, shows like Hair were at hand to help people put their voice in the ears of those who needed to receive it. Throughout time, the American Musical Theatre has brought the

The American Musical: The Broadway Project, DVD, directed by Julie Andrews (Los Angeles, CA: PBS Educational Broadcasting, 2004) 49 Ibid.

48

15

patriotic essence with it, even in the subliminal images of show playbills adorned with red, white, and blue. The 1980s and 1990s brought forward the traditional big and flashy theatre that we still know today. Andrew Lloyd Webber brought his talents over from Londons East End and Disney was also able to get into the action with its productions of the family musical. Overall, the musical has made its way through history and although at times it has been neglected, it has always come back to be in the lives of Americans as a patriotic genre, a political message, and a moral lesson. This genre has an important part in history and will always be in the lives of everyone.

16

Bibliography: Berlin, Irving. In Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th Ed., edited by Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.usd.edu/subscriber/article/epm/2064 (accessed February 21, 2011). Cohan, George M. In Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th Ed., edited by Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.usd.edu/subscriber/article/epm/5268 (accessed February 21, 2011). Green, Stanley. Show-by-Show Deluxe Set: Broadway Musicals: Show-by-Show and Hollywood Musicals: Show-by-Show (Applause Books). Deluxe ed. n.p.: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2010. Jones, John Bush. Our Musicals, Ourselves: A Social History of the American Musical Theater 2003 publication. Hanover and London: UP of New England, 2003, 2003. The American Musical: The Broadway Project. DVD. Directed by Julie Andrews. Los Angeles, CA: PBS Educational Broadcasting, 2004.Kenrick, John. Musical Theatre: A History. N.p.: Continuum, 2010. Mates, Julian. America's Musical Stage: Two Hundred Years of Musical Theatre (Contributions in Drama and Theatre Studies). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985. Miller, Scott. Rebels with Applause: Broadway's Groundbreaking Musicals. n.p.: Heinemann Drama, 2001. Walsh, Michael. Andrew Lloyd Webber: His Life and Works. ExpUpded. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989.

17