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Chapter 4 Science Notes This chapter highlights four major concepts: 1. Adaptation 2. Succession (primary and secondary) 3.

Symbiosis 4. Predator/Prey relationships 5. How people affect ecosystems ADAPTATION Adaptation is what enables an organism to compete (survive) in its ecosystem. All the organisms of one kind in an ecosystem make up a population of that organism. Populations living together in the same ecosystem make up a community. Adaptations can be physical (the biological characteristics) or behavioral (the way an animal acts in its environment). The capacity of the environment (the food, shelter, and basic needs that an organism needs) creates LIMITING FACTORS which govern the numbers of organisms that can live in an area. The more organisms there are, the more competition there is. Remember, nature always maintains a natural balance. SUCCESSION Gradual changes in an ecosystem are known as succession. Succession is the process in which a natural changes (a pond becomes a forest, or bare rock becomes soil) or natural disasters (a fire or volcano changes the environment). Starting with bare rock and working your way to soil is called primary succession. Primary succession begins with bare rock, which is broken down by pioneer plants like lichens. A thin layer of eroded rock becomes enough soil for moss to grow. Moss allows formation of a thicker layer of soil allowing grass to grow. Finally you have a layer of real soil. Fires and volcanoes produce secondary succession. Secondary succession is the kind of change that rebuilds damaged ecosystems. Animals and people can also cause succession. Too many deer in an area can change the ecosystem. Introducing a foreign (invasive) plant to the environment can change the area (like kudzu vines) resulting in new species of organisms arriving and originals leaving or going extinct. Once the changes stop you have reached CLIMAX COMMUNITY status. Organisms in the changing environment must ADAPT, LEAVE, or go EXTINCT. SYMBIOSIS Symbiosis is a word that describes a kind of relationship between organisms. There are three kinds of symbiosis. First is mutualism. Mutualism (Rhino bird and rhino) occurs when both the host and the parasite are benefited from the relationship. The second type of relationship is called commensalism. Commensalism occurs when the parasite is helped but the host is neither helped nor harmed. (Whale and barnicles) The final type of symbiotic relationship is parasitism. Parasitism (mistletoe and tress) occurs when the parasite benefits and the host is harmed. PREDATOR / PREY We know the logic behind the energy pyramid. All animals must eat to live. An animal that eats another animal is a predator. An animal that is eaten is the prey. The number of predators and the number of prey are closely balanced. Any change in the number of predators or prey will lead to a change in the other. If there are too many predators, the prey decreases, and results in the gradual reduction of predators. If the prey increases, there will be a gradual increase

in predators until the number of prey limits the number of predators again. Nature always maintains a balance. People change the environment in which they live. Human activity (building houses, developing land, and using land, disposing of waste materials) changes the natural environment People cause POLLUTION. Pollution can affect the air, the land, or the water. People destroy the habitat of organisms living in an area when they change the environment. Habitat is an area where an organism can find everything it needs to survive. People use natural resources for their needs, making changes in the environment, or impacting the habitat of organisms living in a particular area. Sometimes people introduce new species to an area which affects the native species in a bad way. In order to protect ecosystems, we must practice conservation. (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) Damaged ecosystems can sometimes be restored. The process of restoring an ecosystem is called reclamation. Wetlands are an especially important type of habitat that must be protected, conserved, and restored. HOW DOES THIS MATERIAL RELATE TO THE TEST I WILL TAKE? All bold-type words are part of the test question content. The test will consist of eight 1-pioint matching questions (vocabulary) and eight 2-point multiple choice application and recall questions. There will be 4 constructed response questions valued at 4 points each. I have included the constructed response questions directly from the test itself. Feel free to practice them if you wish. Remember to use the following guiding questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Do you know what the question is asking you to do or know? Do you know how to restate the question as the beginning of your answer? Do you have evidence or reasons to support your answer if needed? Have you answered ALL PARTS of the question? Did you read your answer to see if your response makes sense, has correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation?

As we go through the chapter in class, we will highlight each topic as follows: CHAPTER 4 Lesson I: How Do Organisms Compete and Survive in an Ecosystem? Interactions in Nature, Symbiosis, Predator-Prey Relationships, VOCABULARY CONTENT Population, Community, Competition, Adaptation, Symbiosis, Predator, Prey Lesson II: How Do Ecosystems Change Over Time? Primary Succession, Secondary Succession, Extinction VOCABULARY CONTENT Succession, Extinction Lesson III: How Do People Affect Ecosystems? Damaging Ecosystems, Protecting Ecosystems, Restoring Ecosystems VOCABULARY CONTENT Pollution, Acid Rain, Habitat, Conservation, Reclamation