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GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE

GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE


GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS..............................................................................................................................2
1. DOCUMENT RELEASE PLAN...............................................................................................................5
2. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................6
3. ACRONYMS AND TERMS .....................................................................................................................7
4. REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................................16
5. GPRS FEATURES SUPPORTED..........................................................................................................23
5.1.BSS.......................................................................................................................................................23
5.2.GSN COMPLEX.......................................................................................................................................24
5.3.OMC-G.................................................................................................................................................25
6. GPRS INTERFACES...............................................................................................................................26
7. MOTOROLA GSM / GPRS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE............................................................27
8. MOTOROLA PRODUCTS AND INTERFACES SUPPORTED.......................................................28
8.1.EXISTING BTS PRODUCTS.........................................................................................................................28
8.2.NEW PRODUCTS.......................................................................................................................................28
8.3.INTERFACES SUPPORTED.............................................................................................................................29
9. THE PLANNING PROCESS..................................................................................................................30
10. GPRS NETWORK TRAFFIC ESTIMATION AND KEY CONCEPTS.........................................32
10.1.DYNAMIC TIMESLOT MODE SWITCHING........................................................................................................36
10.2.BACKGROUND AND DISCUSSION................................................................................................................36
10.3.CARRIER TIMESLOT ALLOCATION EXAMPLES.................................................................................................39
10.3.1.Example A...................................................................................................................................40
10.3.2.Example B...................................................................................................................................40
10.3.3.Example C..................................................................................................................................41
10.3.4.Example D..................................................................................................................................41
10.3.5.Example E ..................................................................................................................................42
10.4.BSS TIMESLOT ALLOCATION METHODS.....................................................................................................43
10.5.RECOMMENDATION..................................................................................................................................48
11. AIR INTERFACE PLANNING PROCESS.........................................................................................51
11.1.AIR INTERFACE PLANNING INPUTS..............................................................................................................51
11.2.AIR INTERFACE THROUGHPUT...................................................................................................................55
12. BSS PLANNING ....................................................................................................................................65
12.1.PCU-TO-SGSN INTERFACE PLANNING....................................................................................................66
12.2.BSS UPGRADE PROVISIONING RULES..................................................................................................67
12.3.PCU PROVISIONING RULES.....................................................................................................................68
12.4.LINK PROVISIONING RULES......................................................................................................................77
12.4.1.BTS-BSC E1 links (Abis)............................................................................................................79
12.4.1.1.Traffic (GPRS timeslots)..........................................................................................................79
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12.4.1.2.Signalling (RSL)......................................................................................................................79
12.4.2.BSC-PCU....................................................................................................................................83
12.4.2.1.Traffic (GDS TRAU)................................................................................................................83
12.4.2.2.Signaling (GDS LAPD GSL)...................................................................................................83
12.4.3.PCU-SGSN.................................................................................................................................85
12.4.3.1.Traffic and Signaling (Gb)......................................................................................................85
12.4.3.2.Frame Relay Parameter Values..............................................................................................87
12.5.GPRS CONTROL CHANNNEL RF PROVISIONING.........................................................................................90
12.6. LCF GPROCII PROVISIONING FOR GPRS SIGNALING.............................................................................95
12.7.FEATURE COMPATIBILITY.........................................................................................................................98
12.7.1.alarms consolidation..................................................................................................................98
12.7.2.Concentration at BTS.................................................................................................................98
12.7.3.Circuit error rate monitor..........................................................................................................98
12.7.4.Circuit Switched (Voice or Data) calls......................................................................................98
12.7.5.Concentric Cells.........................................................................................................................99
12.7.6.Congestion Relief........................................................................................................................99
12.7.7.Cell Resource manager (CRM) Dyanmic Recongfiguration......................................................99
12.7.8.Directed Retry............................................................................................................................99
12.7.9.Emergency Call Preemption.......................................................................................................99
12.7.10.Extended Range Cells.............................................................................................................100
12.7.11.Frequency hopping & Re-definition.......................................................................................100
12.7.12.Global Reset...........................................................................................................................100
12.7.13.Integrated M-Cell HDSL Interface.........................................................................................100
12.7.14.Multiband handovers..............................................................................................................100
12.7.15.Over the air flow control for circuit switched mobiles...........................................................100
12.7.16.RTF path fault Containment...................................................................................................101
12.7.17.SMS Cell Broadcast................................................................................................................101
13. GSN COMPLEX PLANNING............................................................................................................102
13.1.1.CommHub ................................................................................................................................104
13.1.2.ISS Module................................................................................................................................104
13.1.3.GSN Shelf..................................................................................................................................105
13.1.4.GGSN Module..........................................................................................................................105
13.1.5.SGSN Module...........................................................................................................................105
13.1.6.C7 Module................................................................................................................................106
13.1.7.Management Module................................................................................................................106
13.2.GSN PLANNING INPUTS........................................................................................................................107
13.3.GSN PLANNING PROCESS.....................................................................................................................111
13.4.GSN MAXIMUM CONFIGURATIONS.........................................................................................................121
13.5.LINK PROVISIONING..............................................................................................................................123
13.5.1.Ga Interface.............................................................................................................................123
13.5.2.Gb Interface..............................................................................................................................123
13.5.3.Gi Interface...............................................................................................................................124
13.5.4.Gn Interface..............................................................................................................................124
13.5.5.Gr Interface..............................................................................................................................124
14. GPRS NETWORK STATISTICS FOR NETWORK RE-PLANNING..........................................125
14.1.BSS STATISTICS..................................................................................................................................125
14.2.GSN COMPLEX STATISTICS...................................................................................................................134
14.2.1.SGSN.........................................................................................................................................134
14.2.2.GGSN........................................................................................................................................141
15. BSS SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS..................................................................................................144
15.1.MINIMUM SYSTEM................................................................................................................................144
15.2.SYSTEM INCREMENTS............................................................................................................................144
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15.3.MAXIMUM SYSTEM...............................................................................................................................144
15.4.E1 INTERFACE PROVISIONING.................................................................................................................145
15.5.REDUNDANCY PLANNING.......................................................................................................................146
16. GSN COMPLEX SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS..........................................................................150
16.1.MINIMUM REFERENCE SYSTEM...............................................................................................................150
16.2.SYSTEM INCREMENTS............................................................................................................................150
16.3.MAXIMUM REFERENCE SYSTEM..............................................................................................................150
16.4.LAN / WAN PROVISIONING...............................................................................................................150
16.4.1.GSN Complex Networking options...........................................................................................150
16.4.2.Ethernet Interface Provisioning...............................................................................................150
16.4.3.E1 Interface Provisioning.........................................................................................................151
16.4.4.Frame Relay Interworking.......................................................................................................151
16.5.SUPPORTED REDUNDANCY......................................................................................................................151
16.5.1.Communications Cabinet.........................................................................................................151
16.5.2.GSN Cabinet.............................................................................................................................152
17. PLANNING EXAMPLES....................................................................................................................153
17.1.PCU PLANNING EXAMPLE......................................................................................................................153
BSC..........................................................................................................................................................153
17.2.GSN COMPLEX PLANNING EXAMPLE......................................................................................................159
18. RECOMMENDED PLANNING GUIDELINES...............................................................................163
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
1. DOCUMENT RELEASE PLAN
The BSS GSR 4.1 and GSN Release 1 GPRS Planning Guide is being
developed in two draft phases. The first draft contains the BSS planning
portion with some introduction to the GSN Complex portion. The second draft
will contain the GSN Complelx portion as well as any needed revisions to the
BSS portion. Following the draft phases, the planning guide will be
incorporated into the product documentation.
Version Description
1
st
Draft, BSS section release to
Motorola documentation group.
2
nd
Draft Version 0.8, BSS and GSN
Complex sections release to Motorola
documentation group. Additional
engineering input to the GSN
Planning section to be added prior to
the 4Q99 release.
BSS GSR 4.1 and GSN Release 1
Customer Documentation version
available from Motorola.
CAVEATs
The GPRS data throughput and delay information
presented in this planning guide has not been compared to
actual network performance data. This information may be
revised after equipment performance testing has been
completed.
The planning information covering the provision of links
is subject to change following equipment performance testing.
The information in the document is subject to change as
it is reviewed in preparation for customer documentation
release.
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2. I NTRODUCTION
Overview
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) provides packet switched data
services over GSM. This planning guide provides estimation procedures for
determining the BSS equipment, GSN Complex equipment, and
communication links needed to support a given level of GPRS data and
signaling traffic.
The planning rules provided in this document enable a network planner to
translate the expected GPRS traffic load into a list of new equipment and/or
upgrades to existing equipment based on the provisioned number of per cell
GPRS timeslots.
The Motorola GPRS Infrastructure has two main components, the BSS
portion and the GSN Complex portion. It is possible to use the Motorola BSS
elements with another vendors' GSN elements or the Motorola GSN Complex
with another vendors' BSS equipment. Therefore, this planning guide
separates the planning of these two GPRS infrastructure equipment entities
into a BSS portion and into a GSN Complex portion.
Network planning of the GPRS Infrastructure will require the consideration
of the interaction between the GSM Circuit Switched portion of the network
with the addition of the GPRS Packet Data portion. This planning guide
identifies the areas where this GSM and GPRS interaction occurs and provides
suggestions and rules for how to plan for this interaction. Additionally, this
planning guide provides a list of BTS equipment that has GPRS compatible
radios and explains under what conditions more equipment should be added
to the GSM infrastructure in support of GPRS provisioning.
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3. ACRONYMS AND TERMS
Acronyms Definition
ACCH Associated Control CHannel
AGCH Access Grant CHannel
APN Access Point Name
Be Burst Excess Rate
Bc Committed Burst Rate
BCCH Broadcast Control CHannel
BH Busy Hour
BLER BLock Error Rate
BS Billing System
BSS Base Station System
BSSGP BSS GPRS Protocol
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BVC BSS Virtual Connection
BVCI BVC Identifier
C/I Carrier-to-Interference ratio
C7 International Signaling System No. 7
CCCH Common Control CHannel
CCU Channel Coding Unit
CF Control Function
CGF Charging Gateway Function
CIR Committed Information Rate
CM Configuration Management
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Acronyms Definition
cPCI Compact PCI
CS-1 Coding Scheme 1 (9.05 Kbps per TCH)
CS-2 Coding Scheme 2 (13.4 Kbps per TCH)
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DL Down Link
DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier
DNS Domain Name Server
DPROC Data Processor Board
DRX Discontinuous Reception
EIR Equipment Identity Register
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array
FRU Field Replaceable Unit
FTD File Transit Delay
Gb Interface between the PCU and the SGSN
GBL Gb link
G-CDR GGSN Call Detail Record
GDS GPRS Data Stream
GGSN Gateway GSN
Gi Interface between the GGSN and the PDN
Gn Interface between the SGSN to the GGSN
GOS Grade Of Service
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSL GPRS Signaling Links
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Acronyms Definition
GSN GPRS Support Node
GSR GSM System Release
HLR Home Location Register
INS IN Service
ISS Internet Support Server
Kbps Kilo bits per second
Kph Kilometers per hour
KSW Kiloport Switch
LAN Local Area Network
LAPD Link Access Protocol D-channel
LLC Logical Link Control
MAC Medium Access Control
MAP Mobile Application Part
M-CDR Mobility Management Call Detail Record
MM Mobility Management
MO Mobile Originated
Mobis Motorola Abis Inteface
MPROC Master Processor Board
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSI Multiple Serial Interface
MT Mobile Terminal
MT Mobile Terminated
Nr/sub Number of requests per subscriber
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Acronyms Definition
NSEI Network Service Entity Identifier
NSS GSN Network SubSystem
NS-VC Network Service Virtual Connection
NS-VCI NS-VC Identifier
NTP Network Time Protocol
OMC-G Operation and Maintenance Center-GPRS
OOS Out Of Service
PAGCH Paging and Access Grant Channel
PBCCH Packet Broadcast Control Channel
PCH Paging Channel
PCI Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCU Packet Control Unit
PDCH Packet Data CHannel. Carries a combination
of PBCCH and PDTCH logical channels.
PDN Public Data Network
PDTCH Packet Data TCH
PDU Packet Data Unit
PICP Packet Interface Control Processor
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PMC PCI Mezzanine Card
PRP Packet Resource Processor
PSP PCU System Processor
PVC Permanent Virtual Connection
QoS Quality of Service
RACH Random Access Channel
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Acronyms Definition
RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks
RLC Radio Link Control
RTD RLC-Block-Equivalent Transit Delay
RXCDR Remote Transcoder
S-CDR SGSN Call Detail Record
SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control CHannels
SFH Slow Frequency Hopping
SGSN Serving GSN
SMS-C Short Message Service Center
SMS-GMSC Short Message Service Gateway MSC
SMS-IWMSC Short Message Service InterWorking MSC
SNDCP Subnet Dependent Control Protocol
SS System Slot
TBF Temporary Block Flow
TCH Traffic Channel
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol
TDMA Time Domain Multiple Access
TE Terminal Equipment
TRAU Transcoder Rate Adaption Unit
TSW Timeslot Switch
UL Up Link
Um Interface between the BTS and Mobile
VLR Visitor Location Register
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Acronyms Definition
WAN Wide Area Network
Terms Definitions
Access Point Name
(APN)
The purpose of the APN information element is to
identify the packet data network to which the GPRS
user wishes to connect. The Access Point Name is a
label or a fully qualified domain name according to
DNS naming conventions as specified in GSM 03.03.
Applied Load This is the per cell GPRS application data such as
email that will be carried on GPRS carrier timeslots
from all of the mobiles in a cell.
BSSGP BSS GPRS Protocol . The functions of the BSSGP are
to provide radio-related information and to perform
node management functions between the SGSN
and the BSS.
BVC BSSGP Virtual Channel. A data and signalling
communication path across the Gb-interface
between remote BSSGP entities.
CommHub This unit provides ethernet switching and IP routing
for the GSN Complex local networking and GSN
Complex E1 interfaces to the public data network.
Communications
Cabinet
This cabinet holds the GSN Complex
communications equipment: the CommHub,
Internet Support Services, and High Availability Disk
Arrays.
Control Function
Module (CF)
The CF provides the SGSN mobility management
functions and OA&M functions. It has a unique IP
address within the GSN Complex, and is directly
connected to the CommHub via a 100BaseT port.
Domain Name
System (DNS)
The DNS is a distributed Internet directory service.
DNS is used primarily to translate between logical
domain or equipment names to IP addresses. In
GPRS, an "Access Point Name" (APN) is a form of
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DNS name.
Effective Load This is the true load carried by a cell from all of the
mobiles after the Applied Load has been wrapped
by the GPRS protocols and weighted by the
expected BLER , V.42 bis data compression, and
TCP/IP header compression.
Gb Link The Gb Link is used to carry both GPRS user data
and signaling information by using Frame Relay
over E1 between the PCU and SGSN. From one to
four E1s may be provisioned per SGSN.
Gb Module This module provides the SGSN Gb interface
communication protocol functions. It has a unique
IP address within the GSN Complex, and is directly
connected to the CommHub via a 100BaseT port. It
supports 4 E1 ports to remotely located BSS sites
and these are referred to as GBL links.
GDS LAPD (GSL) The GSLs are is provisioned over one or two E1s
between the BSC and PCU. Each GDS LAPD channel
uses 64 Kbps of bandwidth on an E1. This LAPD link
will carry out-of-band GPRS signaling information, PCU
statistics, and other PCU O&M information such as
software code loads.
GDS TRAU The GDS TRAU is provisioned by the Network Operator
over one to ten E1s between the BSC and PCU. These
E1s will carry GPRS user data.
GGSN Shelf Unit Provides interworking with external packet-switched
networks, and is
connected with SGSNs via an IP-based GPRS
backbone network. GGSN functionality is provided
with Cisco 7206 router hardware.
Gn Module This module provides the SGSN communication
protocol functions for a single Gn interface. It has a
unique IP address within the GSN Complex, and is
directly connected to the CommHub via a 100BaseT
port.
GPRS Attach GPRS-Attach is performed when the MS indicates its
presence to the PLMN for the purpose of using the
GPRS PTP service. This can be immediately after the
MS has been switched on or later as the user decides
to use the GPRS services. The MS identifies itself with
its GSM identity (IMSI, TLLI). A GPRS-Attach shall be
successfully performed only if the subscriber has a
valid GPRS subscription. It is assumed that the user
will not, under normal circumstances, initiate a GPRS
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Attach without first ensuring that the data handling
capability necessary in the terminating equipment has
been activated, e.g., laptop computer has been
turned on.
GPRS Detach GPRS-Detach is performed when the MS indicates to
the PLMN that the MS will no longer be using the
GPRS services. The MS identifies itself with its GSM
identity (IMSI, TLLI).
GPRS Network
Subsystem (NSS)
The NSS is responsible for all network management
and mobility related management. The GSN Network
Subsystem (NSS) may contain the following
components: SGSN, GGSN, ISS, and CGF.
GPRS Support
Node (GSN)
Complex
A GSN Complex consists of multiple components
connected to a
single CommHub. Some of the components that may
be connected to the CommHub are the: SGSN, GGSN,
CGF, and ISS. A GSN Complex is defined by the
physical connection of entities to the communications
hub.
GSN Cabinet This cabinet holds up to three GSN shelf units.
GSN Shelf This is the set of equipment contained within a 19"
CompactPCI shelf that is interconnected by the same
cPCI bus. In the GSN Release 1 a GSN Shelf contains
one C7 card, one to three SGSN modules (CF, Gn, and
Gb cards) and two Shelf Management Modules.
High Availability
Disk System
This disk system provides reliable long-term storage
for network configuration, software loads, charging
data information and network statistics.
Internet Support
Services
The Internet Support Services equipment performs
the Charging Gateway Function (CGF), Domain Name
System (DNS), Network Time Protocol (NTP) required
by a GSN Complex. The ISS uses the Sun Netra
hardware, which is connected to the CommHub using
100 BaseT. The ISS hardware is located in the
Communications Cabinet.
Module A Module is a self-contained, separable assembly of
electronic parts and/or software.
Network Time
Protocol (NTP)
The NTP is used to synchronize the time of GSN
Complex components. It provides accuracy within a
millisecond on LANs and up to a few tens of
milliseconds on WANs relative to a primary server
synchronized to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) via
a Global Positioning Service (GPS) receiver.
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SGSN Module This module is a 3-card set of equipment contained
within a 19" CompactPCI shelf. The 3-card set
includes:
(a) Control Function module,
(b) Gn module and,
(c) Gb module.
Shelf Management
Module
This is a 2-card set that is located in the GSN shelf.
Each Shelf Management module contains a system
slot (SS) processor module (card) and a bus bridge
module(card). The Shelf Management module
performs the bus control functions, enabling the
communication between non-system slot cards over
the cPCI bus. It also performs the shelf level O&M
functions including relaying shelf alarms to the OMC-G
and software load management (BOOTP). Each Shelf
contains two Shelf Management Units (4 cards in
total).
Spare A Module The Spare A module (card) is a field replacement
module (card) for CF, Gb or C7 modules. It consists
of a non-system slot card and two dual E1 PMCs.
Spare B Module The Spare B module (card) is a field replacement
module (card) for the Gn module. It consists of a non-
system slot card and one PMC encryption module.
C7 Module This module provides the logical interface to the HLR,
MSC/VLR (future) and SMS-C (future). An C7 module
has up to four E1 interfaces which typically connects
to a C7 signaling Transfer Point (STP) pair. The C7
Module has a unique address within the GSN
Complex, and is directly connected to the CommHub
via a 100BaseT port. In the GSN Release 1, one C7
Module is provided for every three SGSN modules.
The C7 Module that serves a particular SGSN Module
need not be located in the Same Shelf Module as the
SGSN module.

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4. REFERENCES
[Ref
#]
Document Title / Document ID /
Version / Release Date
Author(s)
1 GSM 01.04 (ETR 350): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Abbreviations and acronyms", version
5.0.0, March 96
ETSI
2 GSM 01.33: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Lawful Interception requirements for
GSM", version 7.0.0
ETSI
3 SM 01.61: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
GPRS ciphering algorithm requirements",
version 6.0.1
ETSI
4 GSM 2.33: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Lawful Interception - Stage 1"; Version
7.0.0, 1998-03
ETSI
5 GSM 02.60: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Service description; Stage 1" Version
6.1.1
ETSI
6 GSM 03.03 (ETS 300 927): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Numbering, addressing and
identification", version 5.0.0, March 1996
ETSI
7 GSM 03.33 (ETS 300 927): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Lawful Interception - stage 2", version
1.1.3, Release 98
ETSI
8 GSM 03.07: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Restoration procedures", Version 5.0.0,
November 1996
ETSI
9 GSM 03.22 (ETS 300 930): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system; Functions
related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle
mode and group receive mode"
ETSI
10 GSM 03.40 (ETS 300 930): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system" ETSI
ETSI
11 GSM 03.60: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
ETSI
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General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Service Description; Stage 2", Version
6.2.0
12 GSM 03.61: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Point to Multipoint Multicast Service
Description; Stage 2", Version 0.7.1
ETSI
13 GSM 03.62: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Point to Multipoint Group Service Point to
Multipoint - Groupc Stage 2 Description",
version none
ETSI
14 GSM 03.64: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Overall description of the General Packet
Radio Service (GPRS) radio interface;
Stage 2", version 6.1.0
ETSI
15 GSM 04.04 Digital cellular
telecommunications system; Layer 1;
General requirements, (GSM 04.04
version 5.1.0
ETSI
16 GSM 04.07 (ETS 300 939): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Mobile radio interface signalling layer 3;
General aspects", version 6.2.0
ETSI
17 GSM 04.08: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Mobile radio interface layer 3
specification", version 6.2.0
ETSI
18 GSM 04.60: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Service: MS-BSS interface; Radio Link
Control/Medium Access Control
(RLC/MAC) protocol", version 6.2.0
ETSI
19 GSM 04.61: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service Point to
Multipoint- Multicast Stage 3 description,
version none
ETSI
20 GSM 04.62: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service Point to
Multipoint- Groupcast Stage 3
description, version none
ETSI
21 GSM 04.64: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system; (Phase 2+),
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
ETSI
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Mobile Station-Serving GPRS Support
Node (MS-SGSN) Logical Link Control
(LLC) Layer Specification", version 6.2.0
22 GSM 04.65: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Subnetwork Mobile Station (MS) - Serving
GRPS Support Node (SGSN); Subnetwork
Dependent Convergence Protocol
(SNDCP)", version 6.2.1
ETSI
23 GSM 05.02: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (GSM Radio
Access Phase 3); Multiplexing and
multiple access on the radio path",
version 6.2.0
ETSI
24 GSM 05.03: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (GSM Radio
Access Phase 3); Channel Coding",
version 6.0.0, 1998-01
ETSI
25 GSM 05.05: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Radio Transmission and Receptions",
version 5.2.0, July 1996
ETSI
26 GSM 05.08 "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (GSM Radio
Access Phase 3); Radio Sub-system link
control" version 5.1.0, July 1996
ETSI
27 GSM 05.10 "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Radio Sub-system Synchronization",
version 5.10, May 1996
ETSI
28 GSM 07.60 "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General requirements on Mobile Stations
supporting GPRS"; version 6.2.1
ETSI
29 GSM 08.08: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Mobile Switching Center - Base Station
System (MSC - BSS) interface: Layer 3
specification", version .6.3, September
1997
ETSI
30 GSM 08.14: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system BSS-SGSN
interface Gb Interface Layer 1", version
6.3.0
ETSI
31 GSM 08.16: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (PHASE 2+);
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Base Station System (BSS) - Serving GPRS
Support Node (SGSN) interface; Network
ETSI
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Services", version 6.3.0
32 GSM 08.18: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+)
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Base Station System (BSS) - Serving
GPRS Support Node (SGSN); BSS GPRS
Protocol (BSSGP)", version 6.3.0
ETSI
33 GSM 08.60 (ETS 300 737): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Inband control of remote transcoders and
rate adaptors for Enhanced Full Rate
(EFR) and full rate traffic channels"
ETSI
34 GSM 09.02 (ETS 300 974): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
Mobile Application Part (MAP)
specification", version 6.2.0
ETSI
35 GSM 09.16 (ETS 300 974): "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
SGSN-MSC, Gs Interface Layer 2", version
6.0.1
ETSI
36 GSM 09.18: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system SGSN-MSC;
Gs Interface Layer 3", version 6.2.0
ETSI
37 GSM 09.60: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the
Gn and Gp Interface", version 6.2.2
ETSI
38 GSM 09.61: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+);
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Interworking between the Public Land
Mobile Network (PLMN) supporting GPRS
and Packet Data Networks (PDN)", version
6.3.0
ETSI
39 GSM 10.18: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+)
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
O&M in GPRS", version 0.2.0, 1997-11
ETSI
40 GSM 10.60: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2+)
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
Project scheduling and open issues",
version 5.3.0, 1997-10
ETSI
41 GSM 12.00: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2)
Network Management (NM) Part 1: Object
and structure of Network Management
(GSM 12.00)"; prETS 300 612-1; Final
Draft; August 1996
ETSI
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
42 GSM 12.06: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2)
SGSM Network configuration
management (GSM 12.06)"; prETS 300
617; Final Draft; June 1996
ETSI
43 GSM 12.08: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2)
Subscriber and equipment trace";version
5.1.1, release 1996
ETSI
44 GSM 12.12: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2)
ETSI
45 GSM 12.15: "Digital cellular
telecommunications system (Phase 2)
GPRS Charging"; version 6.1.0
ETSI
46 CCITT Recommendations I.130: "General
modelling methods - Method for the
characterization of telecommunication
services supported by an ISDN and
network capabilities of an ISDN"
ETSI
47 CCITT Recommendation E.164:
"Numbering plan for the ISDN era"
ETSI
48 CCITT Recommendation Q.65:
"Methodology - Stage 2 of the method for
the characterization of services supported
by an ISDN"
ETSI
49 ITU-T Q.922: "ISDN data link layer
specification for frame mode bearer
services.", 2/92
ITU-T
50 ITU-T Q.933: "Digital Subscriber Signalling
System No. 1 (DSS 1) - Signalling
specification for frame mode basic call
control", 10/95
ITU-T
51 CCITT Recommendation V.42 bis: "Data
communication over the telephone
network - Data compression procedures
for data circuit-terminating equipment
(DCE) using error correction procedures"
ETSI
52 CCITT Recommendation X.3: "Packet
assembly disassembly facility (PAD) in a
public data network"
ETSI
53 CCITT Recommendation X.25: "Interface
between data terminal equipment (DTE)
and data circuit-terminating equipment
(DCE) for terminals operating in the
packet mode and connected to public
data networks by dedicated circuit"
ETSI
54 CCITT Recommendation X.121:
"International Numbering Plan for Public
Data Networks"
ETSI
55 CCITT Recommendation X.137: ETSI
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
"Availability Performance Values for
Public Data Networks When Providing
International Packet Switched Services";
Melbourne, 1988
56 CCITT Recommendation X.733: "System
Management Event Reporting Function"
ETSI
57 CCITT Recommendation X.734: "System
Management Alarm Reporting Function"
ETSI
58 prETS 300 019-1-2: "Equipment
Engineering (EE); Environmental
conditions and environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment Part 1-2:
Classification of environmental conditions
Transportation"; Edition 1; February 1992
ETSI
59 prETS 300 019-1-3: "Equipment
Engineering (EE); Environmental
conditions and environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment Part 1-3:
Classification of environmental conditions
Stationary use at weather protected
locations"; Edition 1; February 1992
ETSI
60 prETS 300 753 019-1-3: "Equipment
Engineering (EE); Environmental
ETSI
61 IETF RFC 768 (1980): "User Datagram
Protocol" (STD 6)
ETSI
62 IETF RFC 791 (1981): "Internet Protocol"
(STD 5)
ETSI
63 IETF RFC 792 (1981): "Internet Control
Message Protocol" (STD 5)
ETSI
64 IETF RFC 793 (1981): "Transmission
Control Protocol" (STD 7)
ETSI
65 IETF RFC 854 (1981): "TELNET" ETSI
66 IETF RFC 1034: "Domain names -
concepts and facilities"
ETSI
67 IETF RFC 1035: "Domain names -
implementation and specifications"
ETSI
68 IETF RFC 1144: "Compressing TCP/IP
Headers for Low-Speed Serial Links"
ETSI
69 IETF RFC 1305: "Network Time Protocol
Specification, Implementation and
Analysis"
ETSI
70 IETF RFC 1155: "SMI" ETSI
71 IETF RFC 1157: "SNMP" ETSI
72 IETF RFC 1631: "The IP Network Address
Translator (NAT)"
ETSI
73 IETF RFC 1825: "Security Architecture for
the Internet Protocol"
ETSI
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
74 IETF RFC 1826: "IP Authentication
Header"
ETSI
75 IETF RFC 1827: "IP Encapsulating Security
Payload (ESP)"
ETSI
76 IETF RFC 1212: "MIB Definition" IETF
77 IETF RFC 1215: "Trap Definition" IETF
78 IETF RFC 220: "Internet Official Protocol
Standards", June 1997 (STD)
IETF
79 FRF 1.1: "The Frame Relay Forum User-to-
Network Implementation Agreement
(UNI)", January 1996
Forum
80 Motorola: "Impact of the Radio Interface
on GPRS System Dimensioning - a
Simulation Study", Draft 0.1, June 1999.
Phil Jones
81 Recommendation G.703,
"Physical/Electrical Characteristics of
Hierarchical Digital Networks", Sept.
1991.
ITU-T
82 Recommendation G.704, "Synchronous
Frame Structures Used at Primary and
Secondary Hierarchical Levels", Oct.
1991.
ITU-T
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
5. GPRS FEATURES SUPPORTED
The addition of GPRS to an existing GSM network is a significant task. As a
result, many of the system capabilities that the GPRS standards cover will be
added as the standards are refined and the development of those features is
made possible. A summary of the features supported in BSS GSR 4.1 and GSN
Release 1 are listed below for the BSS, GSN Complex, and OMC-G. Not all of
these features impact the Network Planning process. The value supported is
listed after the colon in the following list of features.
5.1.BSS
Network Operation Mode: 2, (i.e., CCCH used for both GSM &
GPRS traffic)
System Information: 1-8: 13.
CS-1 (9.05kbit/s) & CS-2 (13.4kbit/s) transmission rates.
Mobile multislot classes: 1-12, 19, 20.
Full Duplex Mode: Up to 4 Downlink Time slots per
subscriber supported.
Full Duplex Mode: Up to 4 Uplink Time slots per subscriber
supported.
Half Duplex Mode: 6 DL and 2 UL Time slots per
subscriber supported.
The BSS will treat Class A mobiles as Class B mobiles.
1 GPRS Carrier per Cell.
Signaling on GSM signaling channels, i.e., BCCH/CCCH only and
not on PBCCH/PCCCH.
Medium Access Mode Allocation: Fixed & Dynamic.
Switchable Timeslots, i.e., timeslots useable by both circuit
switched and GPRS traffic.
Reserved GPRS Timeslots.
Frequency Hopping of PDCH.
DRX: Standard (GSM paging groups supported)
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Gb Interface supported with the Frame Relay protocol.
5.2.GSN COMPLEX
Class A, B, & C Mobiles supported on Attach.
The SGSN will treat all mobiles as Class C devices.
Mobile support in Mode A is restricted to Circuit Switch Mode or
GPRS Mode operation.
QoS Profile Class
Precedence(1-3): 2 (Normal).
Delay(1-4): 4 (Best Effort).
Reliability(1-5): 3(Unacknowledged LLC Frame Mode, GTP mode,
protected LLC Data, and acknowledged RLC Block
mode).
Peak Throughput(1-9): 1,2, or 3(8-32 Kbit/s at the Gi and
R interfaces).
Mean Throughput(1-19): 1 (Best Effort).
V.42bis Data Compression.
TCP/IP Header Compression.
Encryption support to MS and to PDN.
Gb Interface supported with the Frame Relay protocol.
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5.3.OMC-G
Load Management
Fault Management
Alarm Filtering.
Comment Field.
Configuration Management
Propagation.
CM Data Export.
Security Management
OMC-G Access Control.
OMC-G Users per Region.
Performance Management
Background Statistics.
Statistics collected on demand and by polling.
Open statistics interface to 3
rd
party statistics collection
software products.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
6. GPRS INTERFACES
The existing GSM network elements and the new GPRS elements are
connected together as shown in the following network diagram. Motorola has
developed new hardware (PCU) that is part of the BSS in support of GPRS
with the new GPRS Gb interface. The GPRS Charging Gateway Function (CGF),
SGSN, GGSN, and OMC-G elements which comprise the GSN Complex are also
available from Motorola as part of the new GPRS network solution.
The EIR, HLR, MSC, SMS, VLR, and Billing System are Non-Motorola
elements.
Gf
D
Gi
Gn
Gb
Gc
C E
Gp
Gs
Signalling and Data Transfer Interface
Signalling Interface
MSC/VLR
TE MT BSS TE PDN
R Um
Gr
A
HLR
Other PLMN
SGSN
GGSN
Gd
SM-SC
SMS-GMSC
SMS-IWMSC
GGSN
EIR
SGSN
Gn

Figure 1
Overview of the GPRS Logical Architecture
Ga
CGF BS
SMS-
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7. MOTOROLA GSM / GPRS NETWORK ARCHI TECTURE
The Motorola specific implementation of GPRS, as integrated with the
existing GSM infrastructure equipment, is shown in the following network
architecture diagram in Figure 2. The new GPRS equipment consists of a PCU
attached to the BSC as part of the BSS. The SGSN, GGSN, CommHub, and ISS
are included as part of the GSN Complex equipment. Each BSC has a
dedicated PCU and multiple BSSs can be attached to one GSN Complex.
Several GSN Complexes can be networked together to serve one PLMN. One
OMC-G can manage several GSN Complexes. The GSN networking
capabilities and connectivity options are discussed in the GSN Complex
Planning section of the planning guide.
Figure 2
GSM / GPRS Network Architecture
PCU BSC
RXCDR
OMC-
R
MSC
HLR PDN
Billin
g
Syste
Lawful
Intercept
Administrat
ion Node
Network
OMC-G
SGS
N
GGS
N
BTSs
BSSs
GSN
Complexes
New GPRS equipment provided by
Motorola
GSM Equipment GPRS
Equipment
CommHu
b
IS
S
Radius
Server
(non-
ISS Functions:
- Charging Gateway Function
- Domain Name System
- High Availability Disk Array
mirroring
- Network Time Protocol
Software upgrade required
Operator
Server
Complex
- Radius Server
(Operator is
ISP, i.e.,
Transparent
Mode)
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8. MOTOROLA PRODUCTS AND I NTERFACES SUPPORTED
The Motorola BSC, Remote Transcoder, and OMC-R equipment support the
GPRS Network feature with the appropriate software upgrades. The Motorola
Base Station Radio Products and new products that support GPRS are:
8.1.EXISTING BTS PRODUCTS
Macro Platforms: InCell, M-Cell2, M-Cell6, Horizonmacro.
Micro Platforms: M-Cellarena, M-Cellcity, Mcellmicro,
Horizoncompact
Pico Platforms: M-Cellaccess, Horizonoffice.
All existing BTS radios support GPRS except the InCell DRCU-1.
The DRCU-1 must be replaced by a DRCU-2 or later radio in the InCell
product.
8.2.NEW PRODUCTS
BSS: PCU.
GSN Complex: CommHub, GGSN, ISS, LIAN, SGSN.
OMC-G.
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8.3.INTERFACES SUPPORTED
Table 1
Reference Description Comments
A BSS to MSC Supported
Mobis BTS to BSC Supported
Ga GGSN to Charging Gateway
and Billing System
Proprietary interface until
standardized
Gb BSS to SGSN Supported
Gc GGSN to HLR Future Release
Gd SGSN to SMS Future Release
Gf SGSN-EIR Future Release
Gi GGSN to other PDNs Supported
Gn SGSN to GGSN Supported
Gp SGSN to other PLMN GGSN Future Release
Gr SGSN to HLR Supported
Gs SGSN to MSC/VLR Future Release
Um Mobile to BTS Supported
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9. THE PLANNING PROCESS
The planning process begins by determining the expected GPRS load
(applied load) to the system. The next step is to determine the effective load
to the system by weighting the applied load by network operating
parameters. These parameters consist of the expected Block Error Rate
(BLER) based on the cell RF plan, by the Protocol Overhead (GPRS protocol
stack i.e., TCP/IP, LLC, SNDCP, RLC/MAC), by the expected advantage from
V.42bis compression and TCP/IP Header compression, and by the multislot
operation of the mobiles and infrastructure.
The effective load at a cell is used to determine the number of GPRS
timeslots required to provision a cell. The provisioning process can be
performed for a uniform load distribution across all cells in the network or on
an individual cell basis for varying GPRS cell loads. The number of GPRS
timeslots is the key piece of information that drives the BSS provisioning
process in support of GPRS.
The planning process will also use network generated statistics, available
after initial deployment, for re-planning a network. The statistics fall into two
categories, PCU specific statistics and GSN Complex (SGSN + GGSN)
statistics. In a later section of this document all of the statistics collected
from the GPRS infrastructure are listed and the statistics that are expected to
be useful for network re-planning are identified. The Statistics used for
planning purposes are grouped, in this planning document, into four
categories; Stats_A, Stats_B, Stats_C, and Stats_D as indicated in the
following flow chart.
GPRS Network Planning Flow Chart
Figure 3
Enter User
Profile
(Applied
Load)

BSS/PCU/GS
N Stats_A
Calculate BLER &
Protocol Overhead
impact on Applied
Load
(Effective Load)
BSS/PCU/GS
N Stats_B

Configure
Infrastructu
re
BSS /
PCU
Provis
ioning
GSN
(SGSN, GGSN,
OMC-G)

Provisioning
GSN
Stats_
C
BSS/PC
U
Stats_
D
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The rest of the planning guide is presented in support of the above GPRS
Network Planning Flow Chart. The Network Planning flow is as follows:
GPRS Network Traffic Estimation and Key concepts : This section
is intended to introduce the key concepts involved in planning a
network. Because GPRS introduces the concept of a switchable
timeslot that can be shared by both the GSM circuit switched
infrastructure and by the GPRS infrastructure, a good part of this
section is dedicated to the discussion of this topic.
Customer Inputs to the Planning Process : This section provides a
table of inputs that can serve as a guide in the planning process. In
subsequent planning sections, references are made to parameters in
this table. A key piece of information that is needed for the planning
process is the RF cell plan. This subsection discusses the impact of
different cell plans on the GPRS provisioning process and how to use
this information in order to determine the number of GPRS timeslots
that will be required on a per cell basis.
BSS Planning: The hardware and communication link
provisioning rules are given in this section based on the number of
timeslots required. The number of timeslots is determined from the
applied cell load requirements (cell throughput) that are provided by
the Network Planner.
GSN Complex Planning: The hardware and communication links
are determined in this section.
GPRS Network Statistics for Network Re-Planning: The statistics
collected by the BSS and GSN Complex are listed in tabular form and
the statistics that could be valuable for network re-planning are
identified.
Planning Examples: A planning example is provided for both the
BSS and GSN Complex portions of the GPRS infrastructure.
Recommended Planning Guidelines: Based on the network
planning rules, a few recommended planning guidelines are provided
in this section.
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10. GPRS NETWORK TRAFFI C ESTIMATION AND KEY CONCEPTS
The GPRS network planning is fundamentally different from the planning
of circuit switched networks. One of the fundamental reasons for the
difference is that a GPRS network allows the queuing of data traffic instead of
just blocking a call when a circuit is unavailable. Consequently, the use of
Erlang B tables for estimating the number of trunks or timeslots required is
not a valid planning approach for the GPRS packet data provisioning process.
The GPRS traffic estimation process starts by looking at the per cell GPRS
data traffic profile such as fleet management communications, email
communications, web browsing, and large file transfers. Once a typical data
traffic profile mix is determined, then the required network throughput per
cell can be calculated as measured in Kbits per second. The desired network
throughput per cell is used to calculate the number of GPRS timeslots
required to support this throughput on a per cell basis.
The estimated GPRS network delay is derived based on computer
modeling of the delay between the Um interface and the Gi interface and the
results are provided in the planning guide. The network delay can be used to
determine the mean or average time it will take to transfer a file of an
arbitrary length. In order to simulate the delay, the following factors are
considered: traffic load per cell, mean packet size, number of available GPRS
carrier timeslots, distribution of CS-1 and CS-2 rate utilization, distribution of
mobile multislot operation (1,2,3, or 4) and BLER.
The use of timeslots on a GPRS carrier is different from how they are used
in the GSM circuit switched case. In circuit switched mode, an MS is either in
the idle mode or dedicated mode. In the dedicated mode, a circuit is
assigned through the infrastructure whether or not a subscriber is
transporting voice or data. In the Idle mode, the network knows where the MS
is, but there is no circuit assigned. In the GPRS mode, a subscriber uses the
infrastructure timeslots for carrying data only when there is data to be sent.
However, the GRPS subscriber can be attached and not sending data and this
still presents a load to the GSN Complex portion of the GRPS system and
must be accounted for when provisioning the GPRS infrastructure, ie., in
State 2 as explained below.
The GPRS Mobile states and conditions for transferring between states are
provided in Table 2 below in order to specify when infrastructure resources
are being used to transfer data. The comment column specifies what the load
on the infrastructure equipment will be for that state and only in State 3 does
the infrastructure equipment actually carry user data. The infrastructure
equipment is planned such that many more mobiles can be attached to the
GPRS network, that is in State 2, than there is bandwidth available to
simultaneously transfer data. One of the more significant input decisions for
the network planning process is to determine and specify how many of the
attached mobiles will actively be transmitting data in the Ready State 3. In
the Standby State 2, no data is being transferred but the mobile is using
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network resources to notify the network of its location. The infrastructure has
equipment limits as to how many mobiles that can be in State 2. When the
mobile is in State 1, the only required infrastructure equipment support is the
storage of mobile records in the HLR.
Network provisioning requires planning for traffic channels and for
signaling channels also referred to as control channels. The BSS GSR 4.1
release combines the circuit switched and GPRS control channels together as
BCCH/CCCH. This planning guide provides a planning procedure in a later
section for determining the BCCH/CCCH control channel capacity needed.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
MM State Model of MS
Table 2
Prese
nt
State
#
Present
State
Next State Condition for State
Transfer
Comments
(Present State)
1 IDLE READY(3) GPRS Attach Subscriber is not
monitored by the
infrastructure, i.e., not
attached to GPRS MM,
and therefore does
not load the system
other than the HLR
records.
2 STANDBY READY(3) PDU Transmission Subscriber is attached
to GPRS MM and is
being actively
monitored by the
infrastructure, i.e., MS
& SGSN establish MM
context for
subscriber's IMSI, but
no data transmission
occurs in this state.
3 READY IDLE(1) GPRS Detach Data transmission
through the
infrastructure occurs
in the READY state
3 READY STANDBY(2) Ready timer expiry
Or
Force to Standby
(The Network or the
MS can send a GMM
signaling message to
invoke Force to
Standby)
The Ready Timer
(T3314) default time
is 32 Seconds. The
timer value can be
modified during the
signaling process by
mobile request.
2-60 sec. in 2 sec.
Incr.
or
61-1800 sec. in 60
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sec. Incr.
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10.1. DYNAMIC TIMESLOT MODE SWITCHING
This section proposes a network planning approach when utilizing dynamic timeslot mode switching of
timeslots on a GPRS carrier. The radio interface resources can be shared dynamically between the GSM
Circuit Switched services and GPRS Data services as a function of service load and operator preference.
The timeslots on a GPRS carrier can be reserved for GPRS use, for circuit switched use only, or allocated
as switchable. Motorola uses the term switchable to describe a timeslot that can be dynamically allocated
for GPRS Data service or for Circuit Switched service.
The timeslot allocation is performed such that the GPRS reserved timeslots are allocated for GPRS use
before switchable timeslots. GSM circuit switched timeslots are allocated to the circuit switched calls
before switchable timeslots. The switchable timeslots are allocated with priority given to circuit switched
calls.
Motorola has a BSS feature called "Concentration at BTS. This feature enables the terrestrial backhaul
resources to be dynamically assigned over the E1 links between the BSC and BTS. The terrestrial backhaul
resources are managed and allocated in increments of 16Kbps.
When the "Concentration at BTS" feature is enabled, it is important to have a sufficient level of terrestrial
backhaul resources provisioned. This feature has the concept of reserved and switchable BSC-to-BTS
resources. This "Concentration at BTS" feature allows the Network Planner to allocate dedicated or
reserved backing pools to reserved GPRS timeslots so that there is a guaranteed level of terrestrial backing
available to GPRS traffic. It is recommended that the reserved backing pool be made large enough to serve
the expected busy hour GPRS traffic demands on a per BTS site basis.
It is possible for the Circuit Switched portion of the network to be assigned all of the switchable terrestrial
backing under high-load conditions and in effect, block GPRS access to the switchable timeslots at the
BTS. In addition, the reserved GPRS pool of backing resources can be taken by the circuit switched portion
of the network when BSC-to-BTS E1 outages occur and when emergency preemption type of calls occur
and can't be served with the pool of non-reserved resources. The "Concentration at BTS" feature will not
take the last switchable backhaul timeslot until all of the GPRS traffic has be transmitted, in the case when
there are no provisioned reserved GPRS timeslots at the cell site. Provisioning rules for the "Concentration
at BTS" feature are described in the BSS Planning Guide.
10.2. BACKGROUND AND DISCUSSION
The initial Motorola BSS GPRS infrastructure product permits up to one
carrier per cell to be provisioned as a GPRS carrier. The GPRS carrier can also
be the BCCH/CCCH carrier. Alternatively, the GPRS carrier can be specified to
use all 8 timeslots for GPRS traffic and one of the GSM circuit switched
carriers in the cell can be designated as the BCCH/CCCH carrier.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
The GPRS carrier can be provisioned to carry a mix of circuit switched
traffic and GPRS traffic. There are three provisioning choices:
reserved GPRS timeslots allocated for GPRS only use,
switchable timeslots dynamically allocated for either GSM circuit switched
traffic or GPRS traffic (designated as switchable timeslots by Motorola)
and,
Remaining GPRS carrier timeslots, if any, for Circuit Switched use only.
The BSS supports a user definable number of GPRS timeslots and
reserved GPRS timeslots. The BSS calculates the number of switchable
timeslots by taking the number of operator allocated GPRS timeslots minus
the number of operator allocated reserved GPRS timeslots. The number of
circuit switched timeslots on a non-BCCH GPRS carrier is equal to eight
timeslots minus the number of GPRS timeslots, i.e., GPRS timeslots includes
reserved plus switchable timeslots.
The Network Planner may have some of the following network planning goals
in mind when trying to determine when to use reserved timeslots versus
when to use switchable:
use reserved timeslots to guarantee a minimum GPRS Quality of Service,
use switchable timeslots to provide low circuit mode blocking and high
GPRS throughput if the voice busy hour and the GPRS busy hour do not
coincide,
use switchable timeslots to provide higher GPRS throughput without
increasing the circuit switched blocking rate
1
,
use switchable timeslots to provide some GPRS service coverage in low
GPRS traffic volume areas, and
use switchable timeslots to provide extra Circuit Switched capacity in
spectrum limited areas.
In order to make the decision on how to best allocate reserved and
switchable timeslots, the Network Planner needs to have a good idea of the
traffic level for both services. The proposal in this planning guide is to drive
the allocation of switchable timeslots and reserved GPRS timeslots from a
circuit switched point of view.
That is, start by looking at the circuit switched Grade of Service objectives
and the busy hour traffic level, as measured in Erlangs. Once the circuit
1
If all of the GPRS Carrier timeslots are provisioned as switchable, then the last available
timeslot is not given to a circuit switched call until transmission of all the GPRS traffic on that
last timeslot is completed. Therefore, there will be circuit switched blocking on that last
timeslot until the timeslot is freed up.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
switched information is known, the potential impact on switchable timeslots
can then be analyzed. The GPRS Quality of Service can be planned for by
counting the number of available reserved GPRS timeslots and by evaluating
the expected utilization of the switchable timeslots by the circuit switched
portion of the network during the GPRS busy hour.
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10.3. CARRIER TIMESLOT ALLOCATION EXAMPLES
The following 2-carrier configuration examples explore different ways a 2-
carrier system may provision switchable and reserved GPRS timeslots. All
blank timeslots in the following figures are available for circuit switched
traffic use only. The BSS starts the reserved GPRS timeslot allocation at the
top of the carrier (timeslot 7) and then allocates the switchable timeslots
followed by circuit switched use only timeslots.
When GPRS and GSM signaling requirements are added together to be
served by a 2-carrier cell, it is highly likely that one timeslot will be used for
BCCHand another timeslot allocated as an SDCCH timeslot. Therefore, the
following examples A through E assume that there is an extra timeslot
allocated as an SDCCH timeslot (SD) for GSM signaling purposes.
In Example A Figure 4 , only four timeslots are used for GPRS on carrier 1;
two are reserved GPRS timeslots (R) and two are switchable timeslots (S).
One timeslot is used for BCCH(B) and another timeslot for SDCCH (SD) and
two timeslots for circuit switched only use(Blank).
In Example B Figure 5 , the GPRS signaling information is carried on the
BCCH (B) of carrier 1 and SDCCH GSM signaling on a separate timeslot(SD). A
separate carrier (Carrier 2) is used to carry the GPRS data traffic. In this
example, three timeslots are reserved GPRS timeslots and two are switchable
(S). The remaining three timeslots on the second carrier are for circuit
switched only use(Blank).
In Example C Figure 6 , all GPRS timeslots are configured as switchable
timeslots on the BCCH carrier 1 and no reserved GPRS timeslots are
configured. Again, one timeslot is assigned for SDCCH signaling use.
In Example D Figure 7 , all GPRS timeslots are configured as switchable
timeslots on the non-BCCH carrier, carrier 2.
In Example E Figure 8, all eight GPRS timeslots are configured as reserved
timeslots on the non-BCCH carrier, carrier 2.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Timeslot Allocation:
B- BCCH/CCCH timeslot for GPRS/GSM signaling
SD- SDCCH timeslot for GSM signaling
R - Reserved GPRS timeslot
S - Switchable timeslot
Blank - Circuit Switched use only timeslots
10.3.1. EXAMPLE A
Figure 4
Carrier 1
B SD S S R R
TS0
Carrier 2 (Circuit Switched only)
10.3.2. EXAMPLE B
Figure 5
Carrier 1 (Circuit Switched only)
B SD
TS0
Carrier 2
S S R R R
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Timeslot Allocation:
B - BCCH/CCCH for GPRS/GSM signaling
SD- SDCCH for GSM signaling
R - Reserved PDCH
S - Switchable PDCH
Blank - Circuit Switched use only timeslots
10.3.3. EXAMPLE C
Figure 6
Carrier 1
B SD S S S S
TS0
Carrier 2 (Circuit Switched only)
10.3.4. EXAMPLE D
Figure 7
Carrier 1 (Circuit Switched only)
B SD
TS0
Carrier 2
S S S S S
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
10.3.5. EXAMPLE E
Figure 8
Carrier 1 (Circuit Switched only)
B SD
TS0
Carrier 2
R R R R R R R R
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
10.4. BSS TIMESLOT ALLOCATION METHODS
The BSS algorithm that is used in order to determine allocation of
switchable timeslots gives priority to circuit switched calls. Consequently, if a
switchable timeslot is being used by a GPRS mobile and a circuit switched call
is requested after all other circuit switched timeslots are used, the BSS will
take the timeslot away from the GPRS mobile and give it to the circuit
switched mobile.
The switchable timeslot can then be re-allocated back to the GPRS mobile
when the circuit switched call ends. The number of reserved GPRS timeslots
can be changed by the operator in order to guarantee a minimum number of
dedicated GPRS timeslots at all times. The operator provisions the GPRS
carrier by selecting the number of timeslots that are allocated as reserved
and switchable and not by specifically assigning timeslots on the GPRS
carrier.
Motorola has implemented an idle circuit switched parameter that enables
the operator to strongly favor circuit switched calls from a network
provisioning perspective. By setting the idle parameter to 0, this capability is
essentially turned off.
The use of the idle circuit switched parameter is as follows. When a circuit
switched call ends on a switchable GPRS timeslot and the number of idle
circuit switched timeslots is greater than an operator settable threshold, the
BSS will then re-allocate the borrowed timeslot for GPRS service. If the
number of idle timeslots is less than or equal to a programmable threshold,
then the BSS will not allocate the timeslot back for GPRS service, even if its
the last available timeslot for GPRS traffic.
If the BSS needs to use the last switchable timeslot in a cell for a circuit
switched call when all of the timeslots are allocated as switchable, then re-
allocation of the timeslot to circuit switched must wait until there is no GPRS
traffic in the cell. There is no GPRS traffic in the cell when all of the GPRS
uplink and downlink BSS infrastructure queues are empty. At this point, the
BSS can then re-allocate the last switchable timeslot back as a circuit
switched timeslot. If one or more timeslots in a cell are allocated as reserved,
then the last switchable timeslot is allocated immediately on demand for a
circuit switched call.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Multislot mobile operation requires that contiguous timeslots be available.
The BSS will take the lowest numbered switchable timeslot in such a manner
as to maintain contiguous GPRS timeslots for multislot GPRS operation. The
BSS will attempt to allocate as many timeslots as requested in multislot mode
and then backoff from that number as timeslots are not available. For
example, suppose that Timeslots 3 & 4 are switchable, and Timeslots 5,6,& 7
are GPRS reserved (see Figure 9 below). If the BSS needs to re-allocate a
switchable timeslot from GPRS mode to circuit switched mode, then the BSS
will assign Timeslot 3 before it assigns Timeslot 4 for Circuit Switched mode.
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
0
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
1
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
2
Switchab
le
Tim
eslot 3
Switchab
le
Time
slot 4
GPRS
Reserve
d
Timeslot
5
GPRS
Reserve
d
Timeslot
6
GPRS
Reserved
Timeslot
7
Figure 9
GPRS Carrier with Reserved and Switchable
timeslots
If the Emergency Call Preemption feature is enabled, the BSS will select
the air timeslot that will carry the emergency call from the following list:
(most preferable listed first)
1. Idle circuit switched,
2. Idle or in-service switchable GPRS timeslot (from lowest to highest),
3. In-service circuit switched,
4. Idle or In-service Reserved GPRS timeslot (from lowest to highest).
Provisioning the network with switchable timeslots can offer flexibility in
the provisioning process for combining circuit switched and GPRS service.
This flexibility is in the form of additional available network capacity to both
the circuit switched and GPRS subscribers, but not simultaneously. Because
the BSS favors circuit switched use of the switchable timeslots, the Network
Planner should examine the demand for switchable timeslots during the
circuit switched busy hour and during the GPRS busy hour.
Normally the operator provisions the circuit switched radio resource for a
particular Grade of Service (GOS) such as 2%. This means that 2 out of 100
circuit switched calls will be blocked during the busy hour. If the operator
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
chooses to use the new switchable timeslot capability, it is now possible to
share some GPRS carrier timeslots between the circuit switched calls and the
GPRS calls.
During the circuit switched busy hour, the circuit switched use of these
switchable timeslots can dominate their use. The circuit switched side of the
network has priority use of the switchable timeslots and will attempt to
provide a better Grade Of Service (GOS) as a result of the switchable
timeslots being available.
The following Table 3 example assumes that the planning is being
performed for a cell that has two carriers. The first carrier is for circuit
switched use only as shown in Figure 10. The second carrier is a GPRS carrier
and all eight timeslots are configured as switchable as shown in Figure 11.
The table was created using the Erlang B formula in order to determine
how many circuit switched timeslots are required for a given Grade Of
Service (GOS). The table covers the range of 2 Erlangs to 9 Erlangs of circuit
switched traffic in order to show the full utilization of two carriers for circuit
switched calls. The purpose of the table is to show how the circuit switched
side of the network will allocate switchable timeslots during the circuit
switched busy hour in an attempt to provide the best possible GOS, assumed
to be 0.1% for the purposes of this example.
The comments column in the table is used to discuss what is happening to
the availability of switchable timeslots for GPRS data use as the circuit
switched traffic increases, as measured in Erlangs.
This example does show some Erlang traffic levels that cannot be
adequately served by two carriers at the stated Grade Of Service listed in the
tables. This occurs at the 7 and 8 Erlang levels for 0.1% GOS. In these cases,
all of the switchable timeslots are used up on the second carrier in an
attempt to reach a 0.1% GOS. For the 9 Erlang traffic level, 2 carriers is not
enough to serve the circuit switched traffic at a 2% GOS. This would indicate
a need for a second circuit switched carrier in addition to the first circuit
switched carrier and the GPRS carrier.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Assumptions:
2 Carrier site,
Figure 10
1 Circuit switched carrier - with 1 BCCH/CCCH timeslot, 1 SDCCH timeslot
& 6 TCH timeslots.
BCCH/
CCCH
Timeslot
0
SDCCH
Tim
eslot 1
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
2
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
2
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
4
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
5
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
6
Circuit
Switched
Timeslot
7
Figure 11
1 GPRS carrier with all timeslots (8 TCHs) designated as switchable.
Switchab
le
Timeslot
0
Switchab
le
Timeslot
1
Switchab
le
Timeslot
2
Switchab
le
Timeslot
3
Switchab
le
Timeslot
4
Switchab
le
Timeslot
5
Switchab
le
Timeslot
6
Switchab
le
Timeslot
7
Table 3
Switchable Timeslot Utilization
GOS Planne
d
Circuit
Switche
d
Erlangs
per Cell
Total No.
of Circuit
Switched
timeslots
required
including
switchable
No. of
Switchable
timeslots
necessary to
provide GOS
Comments
2% 2 6 0 During off busy hour time
periods, the GPRS carrier will
most likely carry only GPRS
traffic. Therefore, GPRS
network planning should be
performed assuming there are
8 timeslots available for GPRS
traffic.
0.1 2 8 2 During circuit switched busy
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
% hour at least 2 switchable
timeslot will be occasionally
used by the circuit switch side
of the network in an attempt to
provide the best possible GOS -
assumed to be on the order of
0.1%.
2% 3 8 2 During the circuit switched
busy hour, 2 of the switchable
timeslots will be occasionally
used by the circuit switch side
of the network in an attempt to
provide the 2% GOS.
0.1
%
3 10 4 During the circuit switched
busy hour, 4 of the switchable
timeslots will be occasionally
used by the circuit switch side
of the network in an attempt to
provide the best possible GOS -
assumed to be on the order of
0.1%.
2% 4 9 3
0.1
%
4 12 6
2% 5 10 4
0.1
%
5 14 8 All of the switchable
timeslots will be occasionally
used to satisfy the 0.1% GOS.
2% 6 12 6
0.1
%
6 15 9 There are not enough
switchable timeslots to reach
0.1% GOS.
2% 7 13 7
0.1
%
7 17 11 There are not enough
switchable timeslots to reach
0.1% GOS.
2% 8 14 8 All of the switchable
timeslots will be occasionally
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
used to satisfy the 2% GOS.
0.1
%
8 18 12 There are not enough
switchable timeslots to reach
0.1% GOS.
2% 9 15 9 There are not enough
switchable timeslots to reach
2% GOS
0.1
%
9 20 14 There are not enough
switchable timeslots to reach
0.1% GOS.
10.5. RECOMMENDATION
The following recommendation is offered when using switchable timeslots.
It is important to determine the GOS objectives for circuit switched traffic and
QoS objectives for GPRS traffic prior to selecting the number of switchable
timeslots to deploy.
During the circuit switched busy hour, potentially all switchable timeslots
will be occasionally used by the circuit switched calls. The circuit switched
timeslot allocation mechanism will continue to assign switchable timeslots as
circuit switched timeslots as the circuit switched traffic continues to increase.
Therefore, if there is a minimum capacity requirement for GPRS services,
then the Network Planner should plan the GPRS carrier with enough reserved
timeslots in order to handle the expected GPRS data traffic. This will ensure
that there is a minimum guaranteed network capacity for the GPRS data
traffic during the circuit switched busy hour.
During the circuit switched off busy hours, the switchable timeslots could
be considered as available for use by the GPRS network. Therefore, in the
circuit switched off busy hours potentially all switchable timeslots could be
available for the GPRS network traffic. The BSS call statistics should be
inspected to determine the actual use of the switchable timeslots by the
circuit switched services.
The circuit switched busy hour and the GPRS busy hour should be
monitored to see if they overlap when switchable timeslots are in use. If the
busy hours do overlap, then an adjustment may need to be made to the
number of reserved timeslots allocated to the GPRS portion of the network in
order to guarantee a minimum GPRS quality of service as measured by GPRS
throughput and delay. Furthermore, one or more circuit switched carriers
may need to be added to the cell being planned or re-planned so that the
switchable timeslots are not required in order to offer the desired circuit
switched Grade of Service.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
In conclusion, assume switchable timeslots are occasionally unavailable
for GPRS traffic during the circuit switched portion of the networks busy
hour. Provision enough reserved timeslots for GPRS traffic during the circuit
switched busy hour to meet the desired minimum GPRS Quality of Service
objectives, as measured by GPRS data throughput.
The following step-wise process is proposed when determining how best
to allocated GPRS carrier timeslots:
Assumptions:
1. A GPRS carrier can be added to a cell in addition to circuit
switched carriers.
2. A circuit switched carrier can be used to provide the control
channels (BCCH/CCCH/SDCCH) on one or more timeslots as needed.
3. The number of circuit switched timeslots are determined as part
of the BSS planning effort prior to the GPRS planning effort.
4. When the "Concentration at BTS" feature is enabled, a sufficient
pool of reserved backing resources will be provisioned in support of the
number of reserved GPRS timeslots in order to meet the GPRS Qos
objectives.
Step 1:
Determine how many reserved GPRS timeslots are needed on a per cell
basis in order to satisfy a GPRS throughput QoS. The GPRS reserved timeslots
should equal the sum of the Active and Standby timeslots that are allocated
to a carrier.
Step 2:
If there are any timeslots left on the GPRS carrier after Step 1, consider
using them as switchable timeslots. The use of switchable timeslots can
potentially offer increased capacity to both the GPRS and circuit switched
traffic if the traffic is staggered in time.
Step 3:
If there is a need to use some timeslots on the GPRS carrier to satisfy the
circuit switched GOS objectives and the timeslot requirement overlaps with
the number of reserved GPRS timeslots, then consider adding another circuit
switched carrier to the cell.
Step 4:
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
After deploying the GPRS carrier, review the network statistics listed in
Section 14 on a continuous basis in order to determine if the reserved GPRS
timeslots, switchable GPRS timeslots, and circuit switched timeslots are truly
serving the GOS and QoS objectives. As previously discussed, the use of
switchable timeslots can offer network capacity advantages to both circuit
switched traffic and GPRS traffic as long as the demand for these timeslots is
staggered in time.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
11. AIR INTERFACE PLANNING PROCESS
The air interface planning process uses the range of values listed in Table
4. If network values are not available at the time a network is planned, typical
or recommended values are provided where appropriate. The "Minimum
Values" are given for the maximum capacity of a minimum system and the
"Typical Values" are used as standard model parameters.
11.1. AIR INTERFACE PLANNING INPUTS
Table 4
Air Interface Planning Inputs
Variable Minimu
m
Value
Typical
Value
Maximum
Value
Assumptions /
Variable Use
CS rate ratio,
CS-1/CS-2
Approx. 0
%
10% 100 % CS rate ratio is determined by
the Cell Plan, mean TBF size
and use of Acknowledge mode.
Refer to Cell Plan tables Table
5, Table 6, and Table 7.
V.42 bis
compression
ratio
1 2.5 4 A ratio of 1 means there is no
compression and a ratio of 4 is
the theoretical maximum, which
is most likely never realized.
Most users will see a
compression advantage in the
range of 2-to-3 over the air
interface between the MS and
the SGSN. The compression
ration is used in Equation 3.
BLER 0 10% 100% The Block Error Rate is largely
determined by the cell RF Plan
and the typical value is an
average rate. There are
separate BLERs for CS1 and CS2
rates that are RF Plan specific.
FTD 0.7
second
3 seconds
for a 3
Kbyte file,
subject to
network
load and
multislot
File size
dependent
This is the File Transit Delay
objective measured in seconds
from the Um interface to the Gi
interface. The minimum delay is
the approximate delay for a RLC
block of 23 bytes or less which
is the minimum system limit
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
operation. with only one user on the
system. The FTD value is
determined by Equation 4.
The number of
GPRS Time
Slots per Cell
0 Network
dependent
8 This number can represent
reserved and/or switchable
timeslots as explained starting
with Figure 4 through Figure
11.
Number of
Active GPRS
Time Slots per
PCU with
redundancy
30 Network
dependent
240 This is the number of timeslots
simultaneously in use with N+1
redundancy. This number is
used to calculate the number of
PRP and PICP boards to equip at
the PCU using the rules in Table
10.
Number of
GPRS users
monitored at
the PCU with
redundancy
90 Network
dependent
720 This is the number of mobiles
that can be monitored in
addition to the mobiles actually
using timeslots. This value
reflects N+1 redundancy. This
number reflects the coverage
capability of the PCU.
Number of
Active GPRS
Time Slots per
PCU without
redundancy
30 Network
dependent
270 This is the number of timeslots
simultaneously in use without
N+1 redundancy. This number
is used to calculate the number
of PRP and PICP boards to equip
at the PCU using the rules in
Table 10.
Number of
GPRS users
monitored at
the PCU without
redundancy
90 Network
dependent
810 This is the number of mobiles
that can be monitored in
addition to the mobiles actually
using timeslots without N+1
redundancy. This number
reflects the coverage capability
of the PCU.
Mean LLC PDU
Packet Size
(Bytes)
20 435 1,580 This parameter is used in
determining the cell and
subscriber throughput
capacities.
Data Traffic /
Subscriber
0 98
Kbytes/Hou
No
maximum
limit other
This parameter is the expected
GPRS load of a subscriber. This
figure should include the SMS
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
(Peak) r than what
the
network is
provisione
d to
support.
traffic carried as GPRS data.
Total number of
GPRS Pages per
attached
subscriber
0 0.6 No
maximum
limit other
than what
the
network is
provisione
d to
support.
This effects the signaling traffic
load over the SGSN-to-PCU(Gb)
interface, the PCU-to-BSC
interface(GSL) and the BSC to
BTS interface(RSL). The GPRS
paging traffic must be added to
the circuit switched signaling
traffic at the BSC in order to
determine the total signaling
traffic between the BSC and
reporting BTSs. This parameter
will also be used to determine
the GPRS load on the CCCH.
Number of data
transfers per
hour per
subscriber
0 112
(based on 2
435 Byte
LLC PDUs
per TBF
and 98
Kbyte per
user per
busy hour)
No
maximum
limit other
than what
the
network is
provisione
d to
support
This number will be used to
determine the provisioning of
the control channels (CCCH
provisioning).
Number of
BSC's
supporting
GPRS per OMC-
R serving area
1 Network
dependent
64 This will establish how many
PCUs are required per OMC-R
serving area. The size of the
PCU will be determined from the
GPRS subscriber profile.
(provision 1 PCU per BSC)
Equipment
Redundancy
(BSS PCU &
GSN)
No Yes More equipment will be
deployed when redundancy is
desired. Refer to Figure 18.
E1 Redundancy No Yes Extra E1 lines are deployed for
GSL, GDS, GBL and Gi links
when redundancy is desired.
The extra E1 lines provides
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
logical redundancy because the
traffic is load shared over the
redundant links. Refer to Figure
18.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
11.2. AIR INTERFACE THROUGHPUT
The GPRS data throughput estimation process given in this planning guide
is based upon the Poisson process for determining the GPRS mobile packet
transfer arrivals to the network and for determining the size of GPRS data
packets generated or received by the GPRS mobiles.
A number of wired LAN/WAN traffic studies have shown that packet
interarrival rates are not exponentially distributed. Recent work argues that
LAN traffic is much better modeled using statistically self-similar processes
instead of Poisson or Markovian processes. Self-similar traffic pattern means
the interarrival rates appear the same regardless of the timescale at which it
is viewed. (In contrast to Poisson process, which tends to be smoothed
around the mean in a larger time scale). The exact nature of wireless GPRS
traffic pattern is not known due to lack of field data.
In order to minimize the negative impact of underestimating the nature of
the GPRS traffic, it is proposed in this planning guide to limit the mean GPRS
cell loading value to 50% of the system capacity. Using this cell loading factor
has the following two advantages:
Cell overloading due to the bursty nature of GPRS traffic is
minimized,
The variance in file transit delay over the Um to Gi interface is
minimized such that the delay can be considered a constant value for
the purposes of calculating the time to transfer a file of arbitrary size.
LAN/WAN wireline studies have also shown that even when statistically
valid studies are performed, the results will come out very different in follow-
up studies. It turns out that web traffic patterns are very difficult to
accurately predict and therefore, it is highly recommended that the Network
Planner make routine use of the GPRS network statistics.
The following Steps 1 and 2 are used for dimensioning the system. Step 1
needs to be performed prior to step 2 in order to calculate the number of
GPRS timeslots that should be provisioned on a per cell basis.
Steps 3 and 4 are optional. These steps are included in this section so that
an over-the-air file transfer time can be calculated for any size file. The
results from steps 3 and 4 are dependent upon the choices made in steps 1
and 2.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Throughput Estimation Process:
Step 1:
Choose a cell plan in order to determine the expected BLER and percent of
time data is transferred at the CS-1 rate and at the CS-2 rate. The cell plan
that is chosen for GPRS may be determined by the plan currently in use for
the GSM Circuit Switched portion of the network. However, it may be
necessary to change an existing cell plan used for GSM Circuit Switched in
order to get better BLER performance for the GPRS portion of the network.
After the cell plan is chosen, the network Planner can move on to step 2.
The PCU will dynamically select the best CS-1 or CS-2 rate in order to
maximize the GPRS data throughput on a per mobile basis. The CS-1 and CS-
2 rate selection is performed before the start of each Temporary Block Flow
(TBF) and then periodically updated during the TBF.
Simulations were performed, Ref. 80, for two typical frequency hopping cell
configurations; results for a 1x3 cell re-use pattern with 2/6 Hopping are
shown in Table 5, (which is hopping on 2 carriers over 6 frequencies) and
results for a 1x1 cell re-use pattern with 2/18 hopping are shown in Table 6,
(which is hopping on 2 carriers over 18 frequencies). Results for a non-
hopping cell configuration with a TU-3 model is shown in Table 7. Table 8
provides a chart of the cell coverage area versus cell C/I performance for the
non-hopping case. The following tables were created, based on the
simulations, in order to indicate the percentage of the time the CS-2 rate
would be chosen over the CS-1 rate and at what mean BLER. The simulation
results indicate that the CS-2s higher data rate will more than offset its
higher BLER rate in the majority of the cell coverage area, resulting in the CS-
2 rate being chosen most of the time.
Reviewing the following tables it can be seen that under good cell C/I
conditions, better throughput may be obtained by provisioning the GPRS
timeslots on the BCCH carrier as indicated by Table 7.

Table 5
1 X 3 2/6 Hopping
Parameter CS-1 Rate CS-2 Rate
% Rate chosen 10 90
% Mean BLER 50 20

GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Table 6
1 X 1 2/18 Hopping
Parameter CS-1 Rate CS-2 Rate
% Rate chosen 10 90
% Mean BLER 56 14
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Table 7
Non-Hopping TU-3 Model
Parameter CS-1 Rate CS-2 Rate
% Rate chosen 0
2
100
% Mean BLER 10 3
The following Table 8 provides the cell C/I performance, as measured in
dBs, as a function of cell area coverage for the TU-3 model.
Table 8
Cell Coverage versus Carrier-to-Interference (C/I)
%Cell
Covera
ge
9
0
8
0
7
0
6
0
5
0
4
0
C/I 1
2
1
6
1
8
2
0
2
2
2
4
The above cell plans assume a regular cell re-use pattern for the geographic
layout and for the allocation of frequencies. The computer simulation
generated the above cell plan using a typical Urban 3Kph model, a
propagation law with a Radius (R) exponent of -3.7 and a shadowing function
standard deviation of 5 db.
If non-regular patterns are used, then a specific simulation study may be
required to match the particular cell characteristics. The simulation process is
outside the scope of this planning guide and the Network Planner should
contact Motorola for additional simulation results.
2
The rate will always be slightly above zero because a TBF always starts using the CS-1 rate.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Step 2:
This step will determine the number of GPRS timeslots that need to be
provisioned on a per cell basis. Timeslot provisioning is based on the
expected per cell mean GPRS traffic load, as measured in Kbps. The GPRS
traffic load includes all SMS traffic routed through the GSN Complex. The SMS
traffic is handled by the GPRS infrastructure in the same manner as all other
GPRS traffic originating from the PDN. The cell BLER and CS rate
characteristics chosen in step 1 will provide the needed information for
evaluating the following Equation 1.
Equation 1
No_PDCH_TS =Roundup

'

'

1 _
_ _
D e n o m
l d t r f M e a n
Equation 2
Denom_1 =
( ) ( )
]
]
]

]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|

100
_ _
*
33
3
1 * 4 . 13 * 2 1 *
100
2 %
23
3
1 * 05 . 9 * 1 1 *
100
1 % f ld Mean
BLER CS
CS
BLER CS
CS
Where: No_PDCH_TS is The number of PDCH timeslots to provision at a
cell.
Mean_trf_ld The mean traffic load, as measured in Kbps, is
defined at the LLC layer therefore all the higher
layer protocol overheads (for example, TCP, UDP,
IP, SNDCP, LLC) are encapsulated in this load
figure.
Denom_1 Denominator 1 is used in Equation 1.
PDCH The number of timeslots per cell, maximum 8.
CS1% The percent of time data transmission occurs using
the CS-1 coding scheme.
CS1BLER The mean BLER rate for CS-1.
CS2% The percent of time data transmission occurs using
the CS-2 coding scheme.
CS2BLER The mean BLER rate for CS-2.
3/23 The CS-1 RLC/MAC overhead percentage, i.e., 20
bytes payload.
3/33 The CS-2 RLC/MAC overhead percentage, i.e., 30
bytes payload.
Mean_ld_f The mean load factor for the number of active time
slots to provision at a cell. The recommended value
is 50% of the number GPRS timeslots provisioned
at a cell.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
The number of PDCH timeslots calculated in Equation 1 includes the number
of active timeslots and the number of standby timeslots. The
Mean_load_factor of 50% determines the ratio of active timeslots to standby
timeslots. For example, if Equation 1 evaluated to 8 timeslots, then 4
timeslots would be counted as active timeslots and 4 timeslots as standby
timeslots.
It is important to differentiate between the required number of active
timeslots and the required number of standby timeslots because it directly
effects the provisioning of the communication links and the PCU hardware.
The active timeslots are timeslots that are simultaneously carrying data. The
standby timeslots are timeslots that are being monitored by the PCU for an
uplink or downlink active timeslot request. A request on a standby timeslot
for an active timeslot will be granted for an active timeslot as soon as one
becomes available at the PCU. For example, when the PCU is provisioned to
handle 30 active timeslots and all of them are in use, at least one of these 30
active timeslots must become available in order to move a standby timeslot
to active.
The use of active timeslots and standby timeslots enables several cells to
share the PCU resource. While one cell is experiencing a high load condition,
using all eight GPRS timeslots for instance, another cell operating below its
mean load will average out the GPRS traffic load at the PCU.
The E1s between the BTS and BSC must be provisioned to handle the number
of timeslots calculated in Equation 1 because all of the timeslots can become
active under high load conditions.
Step 3 (optional):
This step is optional and the results can be used in step 4, which is also
optional. This step is intended to be used as an aid in determining the size of
a file that is to be transferred as a LLC PDU from the Mobile to the SGSN, by
using Equation 3.
The file size consists of the Application file to be transferred, which includes
any Application related overhead. In addition to the Application file, there is
Transport and network layer protocol overhead, TCP and IP. Finally, there is
GPRS Link Layer Control (LLC) and SubNetwork Convergence (SNDCP)
protocol overhead. The Application file plus all of the protocol overhead
summed together makes up the one or more LLC_PDU frames that constitute
the file to be transferred.
The percentage of protocol overhead will depend on the transport layer used
such as TCP or UDP. For example, the TCP/IP protocol overhead is 40 bytes
when TCP/IP header compression isn't used. When TCP/IP header
compression is used, the TCP/IP header can be reduced to 5 bytes from 40
bytes after the first LLC frame is transferred. The use of header compression
continues for as long as the IP address remains the same.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
The following figure illustrates the typical LLC_PDU frame with the user
Application payload and all of the protocol overhead combined for the case of
no TCP/IP header compression.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Figure 12
If V.42bis Application data compression is used, the effective file size for
transmission is reduced by the data compression factor which can range from
1 to 4. Typically, V.42bis will yield a 2.5 compression advantage on a text file
and close to no compression advantage (factor=1) on image files and very
short files.
Equation 3
File_size_LLC =
overhead protocol
payload LLC factor bis V
App
roundup
factor bis V
App
_ *
_ * _ 42 .
ln
_ 42 .
ln
]
]
]

+
Where: File_size_LLC is The files size in bytes to be
transferred measured at the LLC layer
Appln The user application data file size measured in
bytes.
File_LLC: The data in bytes in LLC layer
LLC_payload The maximum LLC PDU payload of 1527 bytes.
protocol_overhead The protocol overhead for
"TCP/IP/SNDCP/LLC/CRC " is 53 bytes without
header compression and 18 bytes with header
compression.
V.42bis_factor: Application data compression is over the range of 1
to 4, a typical value is equal to 2.5.
For example, a 3 kbytes Application file transfer will require the following
number of bytes to be transferred at the LLC_PDU layer:
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Application= 3 kbytes
Assume V.42bis_factor = 1, that is no Application data compression
No Header compression:
File_size_LLC = 3000 + roundup(3000/1527) x 53 = 3106
bytes
With Header compression:
The first LLC_PDU the header is not compressed and all subsequent
LLC_PDUs are compressed. For this size file of 3000 bytes, only 2
LLC_PDU transmissions are required so the File_LLC size is:
File_size_LLC = 3000 + 53+18 = 3071 bytes
Step 4 (optional):
This step is optional. The Network Planner can use this step to determine how
long it will take to transfer a file of an arbitrary size over the Um to Gi
interface. The Application file is segmented into LLC PDU frames as illustrated
previously. The File Transit Delay (FTD) is calculated in Equation 4 by using
the following information: total number of RLC blocks of the file, BLER,
number of timeslots used during the transfer and mean RLC Transit Delay
(RTD) value.
Equation 4 does not include the effects of acknowledgement messages. The
reason is that the largest effect is in the uplink direction and it is expected
that the downlink direction will dominate the cell traffic. The DL sends an
acknowledgement message on an as needed basis where as the uplink
generates an acknowledgement message every 2 out of 12 RLC_Blocks. It is
expected that the downlink acknowledgement messages will not significantly
effect the file transit delay in the downlink direction.
Equation 4
FTD =
( )
mslot
CSBLER Blocks RLC
RTD
+
+
1 * 02 . 0 * _
Where: FTD is The File Transit Delay measured in seconds.
RTD This is the transit delay time from the Um interface to
the Gi interface for a file size of only 1 RLC/MAC block
of data. RTD is estimated to be 0.9 seconds when
system running at 50% capacity. This parameter will
be updated when field test data is available.
RLC_Blocks This is the total number of RLC blocks of the file. This
can be calculated by dividing file_LLC by the
corresponding RLC data size of 20 bytes for CS-1 and
30 bytes for CS-2.
mslot This is the mobile multislot operating mode, the value
can be from 1 to 4.
CSBLER This is the BLER for the specific CS rate. The value is
specified in decimal form. Typical values range form
0.1 to 0.2.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
The RTD parameter is directly correlated to the system utilization and the
mean packet size. When the cell approaches its throughput capacity limit,
the RTD value will increase dramatically and the infrastructure will start to
drop packets. Simulation data indicates that when traffic load is minimal, the
RTD value will be at a minimum limit of 0.7 seconds. At a cell throughput
capacity of 50%, the RTD will increase to 0.9 seconds. It is recommended that
cell throughput provisioning be performed at the mean cell capacity level of
50%. Provisioning for a mean cell throughput greater than 50% will greatly
increase the likelihood of dropped packets and RTD values of over 2.6
seconds can occur. The assumptions used in the simulation to determine
the RTD value at a mean cell throughput level of 50% are: 25% of the cell
traffic at the CS-1 rate and 75% of the cell traffic at the CS-2 rate, BLER 10%,
mobiles multislot distribution 1:2:3:4 = 20:50:20:10, 8 PDCH, DL, mean
LLC_PDU packet size of 435 bytes.
For example, a 3 Kbyte application file transit time at the CS-2 rate, using one
timeslot, BLER = 10%, and no header or V.42 bis compression will be:
3Kbyte file transit time over Um to Gi interface =

0.9 + Roundup(3106/30) x 0.02 x 1.1 / 1 = 3.2 seconds
Where:
LLC PDU = 3106 bytes
CS-2 payload = 30 bytes
Air time for one RLC/MAC block = 0.02 seconds
(1+CSBLER) = 1.1
Multislot operation = 1
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12. BSS PLANNING
The BSS planning process for GPRS may involve adding additional BSS
equipment and software to the BSS, in addition to the Packet Control Unit
(PCU) hardware and software. The extent of the additional BSS equipment
will depend on the amount of traffic expected to be carried over the GPRS
portion of the network. The previous section on cell throughput is intended
to provide the Network Planner with the rules to determine the number of
GPRS timeslots that will be provisioned at the BTS and subsequently
provisioned for in PCU hardware and provisioned for with communication
links. The BSS planning process in this document focuses on the provisioning
of the PCU hardware within the BSS. Where appropriate, the Network Planner
is directed to use the BSS planning guide.
There is a BSS planning example provided in a later section of this guide
and its purpose is to tie the information presented in the entire document
together from a planning perspective.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.1. PCU-TO-SGSN INTERFACE PLANNING
The PCU-to-SGSN interface is referred to as the Gb Interface. The Gb
Interface connects the BSS PCU to the GPRS SGSN. Motorola supports three
Gb Interface options (Options A, B, and C), as shown in Figure 13.
The Remote Transcoder (RXCDR) can be used as a E1 switching interface
between the PCU and SGSN, as shown in Option A. Alternatively, the BSC can
be used as an E1 switching interface as shown in Option B. Option C is the
case where there is no BSS E1 switching element between the PCU and
SGSN. When an RXCDR or BSC is used as a E1 switching element as shown in
Option A and Option B, respectively, additional equipment provisioning of
these network elements may be required in order to support the PCU E1
interfaces. The BSS Planning Guide provides the provisioning rules for adding
E1 interfaces to the RXCDR and BSC network elements.
The BSS Gb interface alternatives are illustrated in Figure 13.
Figure 13
A
Interface
Gb
BSC
OMC-R
BTS 1 BTS n
RXCDR
PCU
MSC
Gb
Gb
Gb Interface
Alternatives
Option
A
Option
B
Option
C
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.2. BSS UPGRADE PROVISIONING RULES
Table 9 below identifies the BSS network elements that may require
upgrading. The BSS planning guide should be consulted for the Cage level
planning rules covering the BSC, BTS, OMC-R, and RXCDR. The PCU
expansion rules are provided in the next section.
Table 9
BSS Upgrade in Support of GPRS
Equipment Additional element BSS Upgrade
BSC Cage (optional) Add KSWs, LCF GPROCIIs, MSIs per
BSC as needed in support of the
Gb, GDS TRAU, GDS LAPD (GSL),
RSL, BSC-BTS traffic carrying E1s.
This includes upgrade support for
Gb interface Option B as shown in
Figure 13.
BTS (In-Cell) Replace DRCU1 with
DRCU2/3
Provision with DRCU2/3 or later
version radios. Follow BTS
provisioning rules for the number
of radios required at the BTS and
other supporting cards, including
DHP processor cards, as
necessary. The same carrier
dimensioning rules can be used for
a GPRS carrier as for a Circuit
Switched carrier. (The TSW must
be replaced with the KSW when
GPRS support of the "BSC-BTS
Dynamic Allocation" feature is
enabled.)
OMC-R Software upgrade for
GPRS support
One per 64 BSS network elements,
with any mix of circuit or packet
(GPRS) channels supported;
software in support of the PCU.
RXCDR Cage (optional) Add KSWs, GPROCIIs, MSIs per
RXCDR as needed in support of
the Gb interface shown as Option
A in Figure 13.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.3. PCU PROVISIONING RULES
There is one PCU per BSS. The PCU planning process determines the type
and number of DPROC boards to populate in the PCU. The PCU provisioning
rules provided in the following Table 10 use the number of GPRS timeslots as
the planning rule input. The estimation process for determining the number
of GPRS timeslots is provided in a previous section of the document.
Table 10
PCU Planning Rules
Rule
No.
Element Planning Rule
1 Air Filter 1 per Fan/Power Supply. Maximum of
3 per PCU.
2 Alarm Board 1 per PCU
3 Bridge board An MPROC board requires one Bridge
board.
4 Circuit Breakers 1 Main circuit breaker per PCU.
5 cPCI Enclosure
(16 slot)
1 per BSS.
6 Fan/Power
Supply Unit
3 per cPCI shelf, providing N+1 hot-
swap redundancy.
Minimum of 2 units required.
7 GDS TRAU E1 Up to 124 active timeslots is
permitted on one GDS TRAU E1.
8 GDS TRAU E1 One GDS TRAU E1 can carry up to
124 Active timeslots or 124 Standby
timeslots or any combination of
Active and Standby timeslots.
9 GDS TRAU E1 A GDS TRAU E1 carrying 124 Standby
timeslots requires more than one PRP
for Standby timeslot processing. The
load balancing software will distribute
the load evenly between PRPs. For
example, if there are two PRPs in the
system then each PRP will process 62
Standby timeslots.
10 GPROCII LCF The BSC GPROCII LCF will need to
terminate 12 LAPD channels in the
case when a maximum number of
GSL LAPD links are provisioned at the
PCU.
11 GSL LAPD E1 The GSL traffic is load balanced over
all GSLs. The first E1 carries up to six
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
LAPD links and the second E1 up to
another six GSL LAPD links. For GSL
LAPD resilency, two E1s are
recommended to be used regardless
of the number of LAPD channels
required. For example, if only one
channel is required to carry the
expected signaling load, two E1s with
one LAPD channel per E1 should be
used. The MPROC load balancing
software will distribute the load
evenly between the two LAPD
channels.
12 MPROC board The PCU cPCI Shelf requires one
MPROC.
13 PCU cabinet Up to three PCU cPCI shelves per
cabinet may be provisioned. Each
PCU shelf is dedicated to one BSC.
There are no PCU-to-PCU inter-
connects within the cabinet.
14 PCU cPCI shelf The maximum number of Active
timeslots per PCU is 240 in the fully
redundant configuration as shown in
Figure 1.
15 PCU cPCI shelf The maximum number of Standby
timeslots per PCU is 720 in the fully
redundant configuration as shown in
Figure 1.
16 PCU Gb E1 There may be up to four Gb E1s per
PCU.
17 PCU GDS E1 There may be up to nine GDS TRAU
E1s per PCU.
18 PICP board The PICP boards can terminate the
following links: GDS TRAU links, GDS
LAPD links, and Gb links.
19 PICP board One PICP board is required per four
GDS TRAU E1s. This is a per E1
specification independent of the
number of timeslots being carried on
the individual E1s. Four GDS TRAU
E1s can carry a maximum of (4 x
124) 496 Active timeslots, Standby
timeslots, or any combination of the
two. However, the PCU limits the
number of PRP boards that can be
used on the cPCI shelf to 10 so this
restriction limits the number of Active
Timeslots that can be processed to
300.
20 PICP board The PCU can support up to three PICP
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
boards.
21 PICP board A PICP board has two PMC modules.
22 PICP board N+1 board redundancy is supported.
23 PMC module GDS TRAU, GDS LAPD (GSL), Gb E1s
cannot share a PMC module.
24 PMC module Only one GDS TRAU per PMC module
is allowed. The other E1 termination
on the PMC module cannot be used.
25 PMC module Up to two Gb E1s per PMC module is
allowed.
26 PRP board PRP boards with PMCs cannot
terminate GDS LAPD E1s or Gb E1s.
27 PRP board Up to 30 active and 90 standby
timeslots can be terminated on one
PRP.
28 PRP board The Active timeslots and Standby
timeslots are managed by load
balancing software which limits the
number of active timeslots to 30 for
each PRP. Therefore one E1 carrying
124 Active Timeslots can supply up to
five PRPs with Active timeslots. The
software will load balance, in this
case, such that four of the PRPs will
receive 25 Active Timeslots and the
fifth will receive 24.
Note: The actual distribution of
timeslots may be slightly different
than this example depending on cell
configurations. That is, all timeslots
for a single cell must terminate on a
single PRP which can lead to slight
imbalances when multiple timeslots
are configured per cell.
29 PRP board The PCU can support up to 10 PRP
boards. When 10 PRP boards are
populated, there are only two slots
available for PICP boards thereby
limiting PICP redundancy, Gb link
redundancy, GDS LAPD redundancy,
and GDS TRAU link redundancy.
30 PRP board A PRP board has one PMC module.
31 PRP board N+1 board redundancy is supported.
32 Transition
Module
A Transition module is required per
PRP and PICP board.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
The PCU Shelf layout is as follows:
Air filter is attached to the front of each Fan/Power Supply Unit ( 3
assemblies)
Figure 14
PCU Shelf Front View
DPROC (PICP or PRP use):
These card slots can be used for either PICP or PRP purposes. Each DPROC
has an E1 Transition Module mounted in the rear of the shelf directly behind
it.
A DPROC may be configured as a PICP with PICP software and as a PRP with
PRP software. The DPROC can be used with one or with two PMC modules.
Each PMC module offers two E1 terminations.
The PICP provisioned boards should be populated from left to right. For
system availability reasons, PICPs should be evenly distributed between the
two backplanes within the PCU shelf. The left and right backplanes are
connected together through the Bridge card located behind the MPROC
processor board. Therefore, the first PICP would occupy card slot 1, PICP two
would occupy card slot 11, PICP three would be in slot 2 and PICP four in slot
12. PRP provisioning should also be performed in a similar fashion,
alternating provisioned boards between the left and right backplanes.
E1 Transition
Modules
(T)
B
T
PS/FA
N
PS/FAN
PS/FA
N
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
Alarm
Panel
M
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
D
P
R
O
C
M
P
R
O
C
R
Bridge Card
(B)
A
U
X
A
U
X
A
U
X
A
U
X
Card Slot 1
Card Slot
11
B
T T T T T T T T T T T
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
MPROC:
This card takes the equivalent of two card slots of space. An MPROC has a
Bridge card in the rear of the shelf directly behind it. The redundant MPROC is
identified with an R. The Bridge card associated with the MPROC is also a
redundant card.
AUX:
There are four bays on the right side of the shelf that may be used for
auxiliary equipment such as Tape drives, CD-Rom Drives, and Hard Disks.
The PCU is configured without any auxiliary equipment and this area of the
shelf is covered with blank panels.
Alarm Panel:
This panel is located above the DPROCs and MPROC and has front access.
FAN/Power Supplies:
There are three separate FAN/Power Supplies modules and they are located
in the bottom of the shelf. Replacement is from the front.
Air Filter:
There is an air filter that is mounted in front of each FAN/Power Supply unit
and is replaced from the front. Each air filter should be replaced every 12
months.
PCU Cabinet:
The PCU shelf mounts in a cabinet that can hold up to three PCU shelves.
Each PCU is connected to only one BSC so one PCU cabinet can serve up to
three BSCs. Each cabinet is pre-wired with a panel in the rear of the cabinet
for the desired E1 termination type, balanced 120 ohm or unbalanced 75 ohm
terminations with 1500 volt lightening protection per E1.
N+1 Equipment Redundancy supported:
N+1 PICP and PRP board redundancy
2 PS/FAN units non-redundant, 3 PS/FAN unit redundant.
1 MPROC/Bridge card pair non-redundant, 2 MPROC/Bridge card pairs
redundant (requires future software release, redundant configuration not
available in GSR 4.1)
E1 redundancy requires the provisioning of the redundant hardware with
active E1 links. The E1 redundancy is available for GSL, GDS, and GBL
links. Load balancing is performed across the GDS, GSL, and GBL E1 links
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
so that if a link should fail, the existing load is re-distributed to the other
links.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Maximum Configuration
The following Table 11 provides the Maximum BSS network parameter
values in support of GPRS per BSS Network Element.
Table 11
Maximum BSS Network Parameter values in
support of GPRS
Network Element Network Parameter Maximum Value
BSS(BTS) GPRS carriers per Cell 1
BSS (BTS) Time Slots per Carrier 8
BSS (BTS) Users per time slot 1
BSS (BTS) Users per Carrier 8
BSS (BTS) Time Slots per Active
User DL
6
BSS (BTS) Time Slots per Active
User UL
4
BSS (BTS) Switchable GPRS time
slots per Carrier
8
BSS (BTS) Reserved GPRS time
slots per Carrier
8
BSS (PCU) Active air interface time
slots
240 redundant, per
Figure 18.
BSS (PCU) Monitored air interface
time slots
720 redundant, per
Figure 18
BSS (PCU) Active air interface time
slots
270 non-redundant, per
Figure 19
BSS (PCU) Monitored air interface
time slots
810 non-redundant, per
Figure 19
PCU (PRP DPROC) GDS link processing 30 Active Users, 90
Standby timeslots
This is equivalent to 30
Active Time Slots (TSs)
with 1 TS/ User. For
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
multislot operation,
fewer Users are
supported. For example,
if each User is allocated
2 TSs, then only 15
Active Users are
supported per PRP. The
Standby timeslots are
monitored for service
request, but not carrying
traffic.
PCU (PICP DPROC) BSC - PCU E1 Interface Up to 4 E1s per PICP
DPROC
PCU (PICP DPROC) PCU- SGSN (Gb)
Interface
One channelized E1,
utilizing 31 timeslots,
can carry GPRS traffic
for up to 150 Active CS-
1 or CS-2 timeslots
deployed over the BSC
to PCU interface. The Gb
E1 carries both data and
signaling traffic between
the PCU and SGSN using
Frame Relay.
PCU Max PICP DPROCs 3
PCU Max PRP DPROCs 10
PCU Number of Cells
supported
250
PCU Number of BTS sites
supported
100
GSL E1 spans Max physical E1s
between BSC & PCU
(one primary E1 and
one redundant)
2
GSL LAPD links Max per E1 link
(corresponds to a
quantity of six 64 Kbps
LAPD channels)
6
GDS TRAU links (E1s) Max per PCU 9
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
GBL links (E1s) Max per PCU 4
Gb Frame Relay frame
octet size
Max 1600 bytes
Gb PVC's Max on one Bearer Link
(E1)
318
BSS(PCU) CIR per PVC Greater than or equal to
50% of the aggregate
bandwidth required for
the BVCs mapped to one
NS-VC.
BSS(PCU) NS-VC per bearer link
(E1)
318
BSS(PCU) Bc per PVC Bc = CIR
BSS(PCU) Be per PVC Be less than or equal to
the access rate. This
value is determined by
request to the Frame
Relay service provider.
BSS(PCU) BVCs per NS-VC The recommended
minimum value is 2. The
maximum value is set by
the number of BVCs that
can be tolerated to be
lost when an NS-VC or
Frame Relay network
PVC is lost. Additionally,
the maximum value can
not exceed the bearer
channel's bandwidth
available bandwidth.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.4. LINK PROVISIONING RULES
This section provides the rules for provisioning the PCU and BSC links in
support of GPRS. The typical call parameters used in the link defining
equations are given in the following table.
Table 12
Typical Call Parameters
Parameter Value
PgMsgSize 400 bits
Mean_TBF_Rate 1 TBF per sec, based on
transmission time for 2
435byte LLC PDUs at the
CS-1 rate.
ImmAssignMsgSize 400 bits
No_GPRS_TS_Site 24 GPRS Timeslots (3-
sector site, 1 GPRS
carrier per sector)
Mean_LLC_PDU_size 3.48 Kbits
GPRS_Page_Rate_Max 12 pages per second per
site
LAPD_Utilization 0.25
RSL_Rate 16 Kbps for 16 Kbps
RSLs and
64 Kbps for 64 Kbps
RSLs
Code_load rate 0 Kbps
Cell_update rate 0 Kbps, approximately
Msg_sw_ts_chg rate 0 Kbps, approximately
Status_queries rate 0 Kbps, approximately
No_Active_ts 0 to 300 per PCU
Mslot_Util_factor 0.5, ratio of mean
number Active timeslots
on a GPRS carrier to
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
total number of
provisioned GPRS
timeslots on a carrier.
Mean_TBF_duration 1 second
%TBF_pg 0.1, use decimal form
Stat_Msg_size 720 Kbits maximum
message size based on
maximally configured
PCU
Stat_meas_interval 360 seconds, minimum
measurement interval
CS_rate CS-1 = 9.05 Kbps,
CS-2= 13.4 Kbps
%GBL_protocol_ovhd 0.16, decimal form
%RLC/MAC_ovhd 0.1, decimal form
GBL_E1_BW 1.984 Mbps
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.4.1. BTS-BSC E1 LINKS (ABIS)
12.4.1.1. TRAFFIC (GPRS TIMESLOTS)
E1 line capacity should be added from the BTS to the BSC in direct
proportion to the number of timeslots that are added for GPRS timeslot
provisioning. Each GPRS timeslot corresponds to 16 Kbps of E1 bandwidth, or
one quarter of one 64 timeslot on an E1. The additional GPRS traffic may be
accommodated with the existing E1 lines carrying circuit switched traffic. This
provisioning step will require the Network Planner to look at the current E1
provisioning at each BTS site in order to determine if additional E1 line
capacity should be added.
12.4.1.2. SIGNALLING (RSL)
The RSL signaling link provisioning has a contribution from the GSM Circuit
Switched portion of the network and from the GPRS portion. The equation for
determining the number of RSL links for the combined signaling load is as
follows.
Equation 5
GSM GPRS RSL + = GPRS RSL + GSM RSL
Equation 5 is evaluated for 16 Kbps RSLs or for 64 Kbps RSLs. The interface
between the BTS and BSC does not permit mixing the two RSL rates.
Where: GSM GPRS RSL + is The combined number of RSL signaling links
on a per BTS site basis operating at a 16 Kbps RSL
rate or at a 64 Kbps RSL rate.
GPRS RSL This is the number of RSL signaling links required to
serve the GPRS portion of the network at 16 Kbps
or at 64 Kbps.
GSM RSL This is the number of RSL signaling links required to
serve the GSM portion of the network at 16 Kbps or
at 64Kbps.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Equation 6
n Utilizatio LAPD Rate RSL
ASSIGN IMM P
RSL
GPRS GPRS
GPRS
_ * _
_ +

Where: GPRS RSL is This is the number of RSL signaling links required to
serve the GPRS portion of the network.
GPRS P This is the number of GPRS page bits generated per
BTS site per second.
GPRS ASSIGN IMM_ This is the number of immediate assignment
messages generated per BTS site.
RSL_Rate This is the RSL channel rate that is to be used. It
should match the rate used for the GSM RSL
messages, either 16Kbps or 64 Kbps.
LAPD_Utilization This is the utilization factor for the RSL LAPD
messaging, typically a value of 0.25 is used.
Equation 7
GPRS P = PgMsgSize * GPRS_Page_Rate_Max
Where GPRS P is This is the number of GPRS page bits
generated per BTS site per second.
PgMsgSize This is the size of the paging measage measured
in bits per page message
GPRS_Page_Rate_Max This is the GPRS paging rate on a per BTS
site basis measured in page messages per
second.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Equation 8
GPRS IMM_ASSIGN
= No_GPRS_TS_Site * Mean_TBF_Rate *
ImmAssignMsgSize
Where:
GPRS IMM_ASSIGN
is The Immediate Assignment message bit
rate in Kbps per BTS site.
No_GPRS_TS_Site This is the number of Active GPRS
timeslots for the BTS site.
Mean_TBF_Rate This is the mean rate of TBFs per second
for the BTS site.
ImmAssignMsgSize This is the size of the Immediate
Assignment messages measured in bits.
Determine the contribution from the existing or planned GSM circuit switched
RSLs. RSLs are deployed as 16 Kbps signaling links or as 64 Kbps signaling
links. The number of RSLs to deploy for a given GSM circuit switched traffic
load is defined in the BSS Planning Guide. The BSS Planning Guide provides
the following equations in order to calculate the correct level of RSL
provisioning for both the 16 and 64 Kbps RSL signaling channel rates.
For the GSM circuit switched call model evaluate the following Equation 9
if 64 Kbps RSL signaling links are used or Equation 10 is 16 Kbps RSL
signaling links are used.
Equation 9
GSM RSL =
U
P
* 1000
* 6
T * U * 1000
L) * 25 H * 35 S * 67 (95 * n
RSLGSM_64Kbps +
+ + +

Equation 10
GSM RSL = 4 *
* 1000
* 6
* * 1000
) * 25 * 35 * 67 95 ( *
RSLGSM_16Kbps
]
]
]

+
+ + +

U
P
T U
L H S n
Where,
The variables in Equation 9 and Equation 10 above are defined as follows:
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
n is The number of TCHs for the BTS site.
S The ratio of SMSs to calls.
H The number of handovers per call.
L The location update factor.
U The percent link utilization (for example 0.25).
T The average call duration in seconds.
P The paging rate in pages per second.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.4.2. BSC-PCU
12.4.2.1. TRAFFIC (GDS TRAU)
Typically, one E1 is provisioned per PCU PRP circuit board to carry GDS
TRAU. Each E1 can support up to 124 timeslots that can be a mix of active
and standby timeslots. The E1 can carry traffic originating from several
different cells. The allocation of timeslots on the E1 is managed by the
infrastructure. Each cell can contribute GPRS traffic for up to 8 timeslots.
12.4.2.2. SIGNALING (GDS LAPD GSL)
The PCU requires one E1 in order to carry GSL signaling and a second E1
for redundancy. The PCU can support up to six primary GSL 64 Kbps timeslots
and six redundant. Each 64 Kbps timeslot is one LAPD channel. Provisioned
GSL timeslots are load balanced over two E1s as the mechanism for providing
resiliency against link failures. It is recommended that two GSL E1s be
provisioned for resiliency purposes even when the GSL is lightly loaded.
Each GSL message consists of three parts: LAPD protocol, BSS Executive
Header protocol, and the Application Message carrying actual signaling
information. The LAPD and BSS protocol portion can be considered messaging
overhead. Therefore, the actual useable bandwidth per E1 timeslot for GSL
signaling is 60 Kbps. The calculation for the required number of GSL links is
per Equation 11:
Equation 11
n Utilizatio LAPD Kbps
Num
TS G SL No
_ * 60
1 _
_ _
Where: T S G S L N o _ _ is This is the number of 64Kbit/s LAPD GSL
timeslots to provision.
LAPD_Utilization This is the LAPD utilization factor, typically
on the order of 0.25.
Equation 12
m s g S t a t P a g e G P R S
A s s i g n m N o Q u e r i e s S t a t u s c h g t s s w M s g u p d a t e C e l l l o a d C o d e N u m
_ _
_ I m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 _
+
+ + + + +
Where: Num_1 is The Numerator for Equation 11.
Code_load The PCU code load rate from the BSC to the
PCU. Typically this value is equal to zero
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
because the code load only occurs when the
PCU is Out of Service.
Cell_update Periodic cell list update rate to the BSC from
the PCU. This traffic is negligible and can be
considered equal to zero.
Msg_sw_ts_chg PCU message rate generated due to switchable
timeslot changes. This traffic is negligible and
can be considered equal to zero.
Status_queries PCU status query rate from the BSC and OMC.
This traffic is negligible and can be considered
equal to zero.
Equation 13
No_Imm_Assign =
d u r a t i o n T B F M e a n
S i z e m A s s i g n M s g f a c t o r U t i l M s l o t t s A c t i v e N o
_ _
I m * _ _ * _ _

Where: No_Imm_Assign is This is the rate of Immediate Assignment
message bits per second on a per BSS basis.
No_Active_ts This is the number of active timeslots on a
per BSS basis.
Mslot_Util_factor This is the ratio of the mean number of active
timeslots on a GPRS carrier to the total number
of provisioned GPRS timeslots on a carrier.
ImmAssignMsgSize This is the size of the immediate assignment
message measured in bits.
Mean_TBF_durationThis is the Mean duration of a TBF measured in
seconds.
Equation 14
GPRS_Page =
d u r a t i o n T B F M e a n
P g M s g S i z e p g T B F f a c t o r U t i l M s l o t t s A c t i v e N o
_ _
* _ % * _ _ * _ _
Where: GPRS_Page is This is the number of GPRS pages generated
per second on a per BSS basis.
No_Active_ts Where this is the number of active timeslots on
a per BSS basis.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Mslot_Util_factor This is the ratio of the mean number of
active timeslots on a GPRS carrier to the total
number of provisioned GPRS timeslots on a
carrier.
%TBF_pg This is the percentage of TBFs for which paging
occurs, this is expressed as a decimal value.
PgMsgSize This is the size of a page message measured in
bits.
Mean_TBF_Duration This is the mean duration of a TBF measured
in seconds.
Equation 15
Stat_msg = Stat_msg_size /Stat_meas_interval
Where Stat_msg is This is the PCU generated statistics message
rate measured in bits per second.
Stat_msg_size The size of a PCU statistics message measured
in bits.
Stat_meas_interval This is the interval of time between PCU
statistics message transfers to the BSC. This
value is measured in seconds.
The average bandwidth use of a GSL 64Kbps LAPD in support of Stat_msg
transfers is much lower than 64Kbps. However, when a transfer occurs, it is
possible to occupy the timeslot for the duration of the Stat_msg transfer
which, for a maximally configured PCU, could be on the order of 12 seconds.
Therefore, it is recommended that an extra GSL timeslot be allocated in
support of this periodic burst transfer condition when Equation 15 evaluates
to one. This will prevent the potential blocking of paging messages during the
interval of time the Stat_msg transfers occur. When GSL N+1 redundancy is
provisioned there will not be a need for an extra timeslot.
12.4.3. PCU-SGSN
12.4.3.1. TRAFFIC AND SIGNALING (GB)
The Traffic and Signaling is carried over the same E1 on the Gb Link (GBL).
The number of required 64Kbps Gb Link timeslots can be calculated using
Equation 16. Each E1 can carry up to 31 timeslots. When fewer than 31
timeslots are needed on an E1, specifying a fractional E1 may be more cost
effective. The following table may be used to look up the number of E1s to
use for a given number of timeslots.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Number of
Timeslots
(No_GGL_TS)
Number of
E1s
1-31 1
32-62 2
63-93 3
94-124 4
Equation 16
No_GBL_TS =
0 0 0 , 6 4
_ _ R e B W G B L q d
Where: No_GBL_TS is This is the number of timeslots to provision
on the GBL E1 between the PCU and SGSN. This
value can be used to specify a fractional E1.
Reqd_GBL_BW This parameter is defined by Equation 17 and
represents the required bandwidth for GPRS data
transmissioin over a GBL interface between the
PCU and SGSN after all of the protocol and
signaling overhead is accounted for.
Equation 17
Reqd_GBL_BW = [No_Active_ts * CS_rate * (1+%GBL_protocol_ovhd)*(1-
%RLC/MAC_ ovhd)] + [PgMsgSize * GPRS_Page_Rate_Max *
No_BTS_sites]
Where: Reqd_GBL_BWis This parameter is the numerator for Equation
16 and represents the required bandwidth for
GPRS data transmissioin over the GBL
interface between the PCU and SGSN after all
of the protocol and signaling overhead is
accounted for.
No_Active_ts This is the number of active timeslots on a
per BSS basis.
CS_rate This is the CS rate measured in bits per
second. This should be a weighted value over
the CS-1 and CS-2 rates. The weighting factor
is determined by the percentage of time the
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
CS-1 rate is used and the CS-2 rate is used.
Typically, the network will choose the CS-2
rate approximately 90% of the time and CS-1
rate 10% of the time thereby giving a
weighted value of approximately 13Kbps.
%GBL_Protocol_ovhd This is the percent protocol overhead on the
GBL link expressed as a decimal number.
%RLC/MAC_ovhd The is the percent protocol overhead of the
RLC/MAC protocol layer removed at the PCU
prior to relaying the PDU over the Gb link.
PgMsgSize This is the size of the page messages sent
from the SGSN to the PCU over the Gb link.
This message size is expressed in bits.
GPRS_Page_Rate_Max This is the maximum page rate expected over
the Gb link from the SGSN to the PCU. This
value is expressed in pages per second per
BTS site.
No_BTS_sites This is the number of BTS sites served by the
SGSN Module for the attached PCU. Note, an
SGSN Module can serve more than one PCU.
12.4.3.2. FRAME RELAY PARAMETER VALUES
The Network Planner will need to specify the values for the following three
Frame Relay interface parameters:
Committed Information Rate (CIR)
Committed Burst Rate (Bc)
Burst Excess Rate (Be)
These Frame Relay parameter values are determined as follows:
Committed Information Rate (CIR)
The recommended CIR value per each NS-VC should be greater than or equal
to half the cumulative information rate of the Active timeslots mapped to a
single NS-VC by the PCU. The Motorola PCU will distribute the use of all the
NS-VCs by the subscribers evenly in a round-robin manner. The round-robin
algorithm will continuously assign subscribers to the next NS-VC in a
sequential manner when a subscriber PDP context is established. If an NS-VC
becomes unavailable, it will be skipped over in order to provide Frame Relay
link resiliency. See Figure 17 for a diagram of the logical mapping of the PCU
Gb Interface to the Frame Relay network.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
The recommended CIR value per each NS-VC should be greater than or equal
to half the cumulative information rate of the Active timeslots mapped to a
single NS-VC. This mapping is actually determined as a mean load evenly
distributed over all of the available NS-VCs as described next.
Each cell's mean busy hour load may require one to four Active timeslots
based on the recommended BSS provisioning rules. The BSS planning rules
recommend that a cell's mean traffic load should not exceed four active
timeslots per cell. The number of Standby timeslots planned at each cell
should equal the number of planned Active timeslots. The Standby timeslots,
when used as Active timeslots, enable a cell to handle the peak or burst
characteristic of packet data traffic. Over many cells, it is expected that the
PCU will handle the traffic throughput equal to the number of Active timeslots
planned for the busy hour traffic load.
The recommended Frame Relay network CIR value is calculated by dividing
the bandwidth required to serve half the number of Active timeslots for all
the cells served by the PCU by the number of NS-VCs provisioned between
the PCU and SGSN over the Gb interface. By using half the number of Active
timeslots in the CIR calculation, the load of all the Active timeslots is served
by the combination of the CIR and Bc Frame Relay network rated capacity. It
should be noted that this strategy will make use of the overload carrying
capacity of the Frame Relay network when more than half of the planned
Active timeslots are in use.
When a cell uses some of its Standby timeslots as Active timeslots, other
cells must use fewer of its Active timeslots in order for the overall PCU Gb
interface bandwidth allocation to be less than or equivalent to the sum of the
CIR and Bc rated Frame Relay network capacity. The BSS will attempt to
utilize as many Active timeslots as supported in PCU hardware and in
communication links.
Committed Burst Rate (Bc)
The Bc value should be equal to the CIR value. The Bc is the rate at which the
user data is allowed to burst above the CIR level and the network is
committed to deliver it under normal conditions. Frames which burst at or
above the CIR level are market by the Frame Relay network as 'Discard
Eligible' and will be discarded first if network congestion is experienced or
because of network traffic policy.
The Bc value should be adjusted such that if one of the provisioned E1 links
fail, the remaining E1 links can carry the load of the failed link by operating in
the Bc region. For example, if three E1 links are provisioned, if any one of the
three should fail the other two should have the capacity to carry the load of
the failed link on just two links by operating in the Bc region.
Burst Excess Rate (Be)
All frames that burst at the Be rate or above are automatically discarded
without being sent, regardless of the network congestion situation. This value
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
will typically be set equal to the E1 Access Rate which is equivalent to 31 DS0
timeslots times 64 Kbps or 1.984 Mbps. A lower value can be used if a
fractional E1 is used.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.5. GPRS CONTROL CHANNNEL RF PROVISIONING
Control Channels can be equipped to a GPRS carrier or to a Circuit
Switched GSM carrier in support of GPRS traffic channels. If the Control
Channel timeslot(s) are assigned to a GPRS carrier then this will reduce the
number of available GPRS timeslots from eight to a smaller number in direct
proportion to the number used as control channels. Alternatively, by
equipping the control channels to the Circuit Switched GSM carrier, all eight
timeslots on the GPRS carrier remain available for use as GPRS timeslots.
The Network Planner will need to combine the GSM circuit switched
signaling requirements with the GPRS signaling requirements in order to plan
the appropriate level of control channel support. This planning guide provides
the planning rules that will enable the network planner to evaluate if a
combined BCCH can be used or if a non-combined BCCH is required. The
decision to use a non-combined BCCH is a function of the combined GPRS
and GSM signaling load on the PAGCH and on the number of SDCCH channels
required to support the GSM circuit switched traffic.
The use of a combined BCCH is desirable because it may permit the use of
only one timeslot on a carrier that is used for signaling. A combined BCCH
can offer 4 more SDCCH blocks for use by the GSM circuit switched signaling
traffic. If more than an average of 3 CCCH blocks or more than 4 SDCCH
blocks are required to handle the signaling load, then more control channel
timeslots are required.
The planning approach for GPRS/GSM control channel provisioning is to
determine if a combined BCCH is possible given the combined GPRS and GSM
load on the CCCH control channel. If more than 3 CCCH blocks and less than
9 CCCH blocks are required to handle the combined load, then the use of a
combined BCCH is not possible. If more than 9 CCCH blocks are needed, then
one or more timeslots will be required just to handle the CCCH signaling. In
this case, it may be advantageous to use a combined BCCH again depending
on the CCCH and SDCCH load. The determination of how many CCCH and
SDCCH blocks that are required to support the circuit switched GSM traffic is
deferred to the network planning that is performed with the aid of the BSS
Planning Guide for GSM. The network planning that is performed using the
BSS Planning Guide will determine how many CCCH and SDCCH blocks are
required and subsequently how many timeslots in total are required to
support the CCCH and SDCCH signaling load.
The downlink common control channels are: FCCH, SCH, BCCH, PAGCH. The
Paging Access Grant Channel (PAGCH) consists of paging messages and
access grant messages. The downlink common control channel load is
determined by evaluating the combined GSM Circuit Switched signaling
traffic load and the GPRS signaling traffic load on the PAGCH.
The uplink common control channel is the Random Access Channel (RACH). It
is assumed that by adequate provisioning of the downlink portion of the
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Common Control Channel (CCCH), the uplink portion will be implicitly
provisioned with sufficient capacity.
The provisioning of the Paging Access Grant Channel (PAGCH) is estimated by
calculating the combined load from the GPRS pages, GSM pages, GPRS
access grant messages, and GSM access grant messages. The calculation is
performed by adding the estimated GPRS and GSM paging blocks for the BTS
cell to the estimated number of GPRS and GSM access grant blocks for the
BTS cell and then dividing that sum by the CCCH utilization factor.
Equation 18 should be evaluated to determine if the number of PAGCHs is
greater than three. If the answer is greater than three, then 3 CCCH blocks
will not be sufficient and a non-combined BCCH must be used independent of
the number of SDCCH channels that are calculated as part of the BSS GSM
circuit switched planning. If more than nine CCCH blocks are needed, then
more non-combined timeslots may be required. Example control channel
configurations are shown in the following table.
Table 13
Control Channel Configurations
Timeslot 0 Other timeslots Comment
1 BCCH + 3 CCCH +
4 SDCCH
N x 8 SDCCH One combined BCCH.
The other timeslot may
or may not be required
depending on the
support of Circuit
Switched traffic, where
the value of N can be
>=0.
1 BCCH + 9 CCCH N x 8 SDCCH Non-combined BCCH.
The value of N will be
>=1.
1 BCCH + 9 CCCH N x 8 SDCCH, 9 CCCH Non-combined BCCH.
This is an example of
one extra timeslot of
CCCHs added in support
of GPRS traffic. The
value of N is >= 1.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Equation 18
C C C H A G C H P C H P A G C H / U ) N ( N N +
Where: PAGCH N is: The average number of Paging/Access Grant
blocks rounded up to an integer.
PCH N The average number of Paging blocks
required at a cell.
AGCH N The average number of Access Grant blocks
required at a cell.
CCCH U The is a utilization factor based on the percentage
of the CCCH bandwidth that can be reliably used. A
typical value for CCCH U is 30%.
The number of GPRS and GSM paging blocks are summed together in
Equation 19.
Equation 19
GSM PCH GPRS PCH N N _ _ PCH N +
Each term in the above equation is determined as per Equation 20 and
Equation 21.
Where: PCH N is: The average number of Paging blocks in support of
GPRS and GSM traffic required at a cell.
GPRS PCH N _ The average number of Paging blocks in support of
GPRS traffic.
GSM PCH N _ The average number of Paging blocks in support of
GSM traffic.
Equation 20
) 25 . 4 * 5 . 1 /( _ _ _ Rate Page GPRS N GPRS PCH
Where: GPRS PCH N _ is: The average number of Paging blocks
in support of GPRS traffic required at a cell.
GPRS_Page_Rate The number of GPRS pages transmitted to a BTS
cell per second.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Equation 21
) 25 . 4 * 5 . 1 /( _ _ _ Rate Page GSM N GSM PCH
Where: GSM PCH N _ is: The average number of Paging blocks
in support of GSM traffic required at a cell.
GSM_Page_Rate The number of GSM pages transmitted to a BTS cell
per second.
Where the denominator factor of 1.5 in Equation 20 and Equation 21 above
reflects that one page can be used for an average of 1.5 mobiles. The factor
of 4.25 is the number of paging messages per second supported by one
CCCH block.
The factors of 1.5 in Equation 20 and in Equation 21 take into account the
paging message packing efficiency experienced at the cell.
The number of GPRS and GSM access grant channel blocks are summed
together in Equation 22:
Equation 22
GSM AGCH GPRS AGCH AGCH N N N _ _ +
Where: AGCH N is: The average number of Access Grant blocks
required at a cell.
GPRS AGCH N _ The average number of GPRS Access Grant blocks
required at a cell.
GSM AGCH N _ The average number of GSM Access Grant blocks required
at a cell.
Each term in Equation 22 above is determined by Equation 23 and Equation
24 respectively.
Equation 23
) 25 . 4 /( ) ( N _ AGCH_GPRS GPRS BURST
Where: GPRS AGCH N _ is: The number of GPRS Access Grant blocks
required at a cell.
GPRS BURST _ This number includes all downlink bursts per
second in support of all uplink and downlink GPRS
temporary data flow (TBF) originations. GPRS data
traffic includes all SMS traffic carried by the GPRS
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
infrastructure. Additionally, this factor includes
routing area updates and cell updates.
Before the GPRS network is operational the above values in Equation 23 must
be determined by the operator. Once the network is operational, these values
can be obtained by inspecting the BSS busy hour statistics.
Equation 24
25 . 4 * 5 . 1
_ _ _
_
GSM S GSM L GSM CALL
GSM AGCH N
+ +

Where the factors in the above Equation 24 are defined in the BSS Planning
guide as follows:
Where: GSM AGCH N _ is: The average number of GSM Access
Grant blocks required at a cell.
GSM CALL _ The call arrival rate per second.
GSM L _ The location update rate per second.
GSM S _ The number of SMS messages per second.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.6. LCF GPROCII PROVISIONING FOR GPRS SIGNALING
The BSC supports the RSL and Layer 3 signaling on the LCF GPROCII for
the GSM circuit switched traffic. The LCF GPROCII will also support RSL
signaling in support of the GPRS signaling traffic. The RSL signaling traffic is
carried on 16 Kbps or on 64 Kbps timeslot increments over E1s from the BSC
to the BTSs. The provisioning rules for the GSM circuit switched traffic
signaling are available in the BSS Planning Guide. This GPRS Planning Guide
provides the LCF GPROCII provisioning rules for the GPRS portion of RSL
signaling that is presented to the BSC from the PCU on the GDS LAPD GSL
link(s). The LCF GPROCII can simultaneously handle signaling traffic from both
the GSM and GPRS portions of the network. It is possible to calculate the
GPRS portion of the signaling load for the LCF GPROCII in fractional
increments. The GPRS LCF GPROCII requirements can be directly added to
the GSM requirements in order to determine the total number of LCF
GPROCIIs to equip at a BSC.
The MSC can send GSM alerting pages to a GPRS mobile that operates in
class A or class B modes. The significance of this is that GPRS mobiles
capable of class A and B operation will create a larger population of GSM
capable mobiles that should be considered when provisioning the LCF
GPROCII. The BSS Planning Guide should be used for this provisioning.
The number of LCF GPROCIIs to equip in support of the GPRS signaling
load is calculated by using the BSS Planning Guide L3 G formula with the
appropriate terms set equal to zero. The resulting equation is shown in the
following Equation 25.
Equation 25
5 . 2
35
) ( * ) * 02 . 0 006 . 0 (
*
_
_
_ 3
GPRS
GPRS RA GPRS
GPRS PF GPRS
GPRS
GPRS L
C
B P
T G
N
G
+ + +

Where: GPRS L G _ 3 is: Number of LCF GPROCIIs to handle GPRS related


RSL signaling traffic.
GPRS N Number of active GPRS timeslots served at the
BSC.
PF GPRS G _ GPROCII GPRS performance factor for RSL
processing.
GPRS T Mean duration of a TBF in seconds.
GPRS P Paging rate in pages per second.
GPRS RA B _ Number of BTS sites under a BSC.
GPRS C Number of cells under a BSC.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE

The value for GPRS N is determined using the following MIN function.
Equation 26
GPRS N = MIN[No_PRP_boards * 30, No_GPRS_ts * Mslot_Util_factor]
Where: GPRS N is: Number of active GPRS timeslots served at
the BSC.
No_PRP_boards Number of PRP boards in the PCU.
No_GPRS_ts Number of GPRS timeslots in all of the BTS cells
served by the BSC.
Mslot_Util_factor This is the ratio of the mean number of
active timeslots on a GPRS carrier to the total
number of provisioned GPRS timeslots on a carrier.
Using the figures in the following table it can be determined that six LCF
GPROCIIs may be required for a maximally configured PCU.
Table 14
Typical values for GPRS LCF GPROCII
provisioning
Parameter Value
GPRS L G _ 3 6, for a fully configured redundant
PCU
GPRS N 30 to 300 is the range for the number
of active timeslots provisioned at one
PCU.
PF GPRS G _ 100
GPRS T 1 second, corresponds to the duration
of time to transmit two mean length
LLC PDUs at the CS-2 rate.
GPRS P 12, for a fully configured redundant
PCU with a 10% paging load based on
a mean number of active timeslots
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
equal to 120.
GPRS RA B _ 1 to 100 for the number of BTS sites
under a BSC.
GPRS C 1 to 250 for the number of cells in a
BSC routing area.
Mslot_Util_factor 0.5
No_PRP_boards This number can range from 1 to 10.
No_GPRS_ts This number can range from 1 to 300.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
12.7. FEATURE COMPATIBILITY
12.7.1. ALARMS CONSOLIDATION
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
PCU Device Alarms will only impact PCU Functional Unit Severity and not
the cell functional unit severities. Therefore, the impact will be to the
following PCU devices: DPROC and PCU System Processor (PSP).
12.7.2. CONCENTRATION AT BTS
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
The "Concentration at BTS" feature specifies how the BSC configures and
shares the terrestrial backing between the GPRS data traffic and the circuit
switched (CS) traffic. The terrestrial backing, between the BTS and BSC, must
have enough capacity to carry the radio timeslots assigned to both GPRS and
circuit switched. If there is not enough capacity, either because there are not
enough physical channels, the BSC will allocate the backing to CS first. The
remaining capacity will be assigned to GPRS (reserved GPRS timeslots first
and then switchable GPRS timeslots).
Any terrestrial backing resources not used by circuit switched calls are
allocated for switchable use. However, circuit switched calls can take
resources away from the switchable pool when traffic demands require more
terrestrial capacity. Terrestrial resources available in the switchable pool
means that they are available for GPRS traffic use.
The BSC may re-assign GPRS switchable or reserved backing to CS if
backing is required for emergency circuit switched calls. In this case, the
backing will be re-assigned so that the remaining GPRS radio timeslots within
a carrier will be contiguous.
12.7.3. CIRCUIT ERROR RATE MONITOR
There is no circuit error rate monitor support provided by the GPRS
feature.
12.7.4. CIRCUIT SWITCHED (VOICE OR DATA) CALLS
The addition of GPRS to a GSM network will impact the traffic and
signaling handling network capability for GSM voice and circuit data traffic.
Additional loading on the BSS elements, due to the GPRS traffic, may require
additional BSS equipment and interface circuits to be added. The impact on
the BSS elements has been quantified in the previous sections of the
Planning Guide.
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There are three classes of Mobile devices, Classes A, B, & C. The Motorola
SGSN only supports Class C devices which permit non-simultaneous
attachment to the circuit switched and packet data channels. This means that
the BSS will not need to be provisioned to simultaneously handle the call
processing and signaling for both circuit switched traffic and GPRS packet
data services on a per subscriber basis. The BSS will treat Class A mobiles
like Class B mobiles. Therefore, the BSS portion of the network supports the
simultaneous attachment, activation and monitoring of circuit switched and
packet data services. Simultaneous GPRS and circuit switched traffic is not
supported. The mobile user can make and/or receive calls on either of the
two services sequentially but not simultaneously. The selection of the
appropriate service is performed automatically.
12.7.5. CONCENTRIC CELLS
GPRS timeslots are available in the outer zone carriers.
12.7.6. CONGESTION RELIEF
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
Congestion relief will consider switchable GPRS timeslots as idle TCHs.
12.7.7. CELL RESOURCE MANAGER (CRM) DYANMIC RECONGFIGURATION
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
The Cell Resource Manager (CRM) Dynamic Reconfiguration feature can
use the switchable GPRS timeslots, but it can not use the reserved GPRS
timeslots.
12.7.8. DIRECTED RETRY
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
The BSC uses directed retry to relieve cell congestion by redistributing
traffic across cells. For the GPRS traffic portion of the BSS, the BSC will treat
switchable GPRS timeslots like idle TCHs.
12.7.9. EMERGENCY CALL PREEMPTION
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
ECP is only a BSC circuit switched feature. If an emergency voice call is
requested by the MSC, the BSC will select timeslots in the following order:
idle TCH, idle switchable PDCH, idle reserved PDCH, busy switchable PDCH,
busy reserved PDCH or busy (non-emergency) TCH. Emergency TCH channels
will never be preempted.
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12.7.10. EXTENDED RANGE CELLS
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
The extended range cell feature extends the range of a GSM 900 Mhz
mobile to 35 Kilometers. This range extension is not supported for GPRS.
12.7.11. FREQUENCY HOPPING & RE-DEFINITION
The GSM radio uses slow frequency hopping to improve data reliability
and to increase the number of active users. The GPRS timeslots assigned to
the uplink and downlink channels must have the same frequency parameters.
GPRS may have a different timeslot activity factor than voice does and
thereby cause the cell C/I performance to change from a GSM only system.
The frequency redefinition feature extends the GSM 4.08 capabilities to
GPRS.
12.7.12. GLOBAL RESET
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
The Global Reset procedure initializes the BSS and MSC in the event of a
failure. A Global Reset will not affect any resources assigned to GPRS.
12.7.13. INTEGRATED M-CELL HDSL INTERFACE
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required other than to plan
for the GDS link.
The PCU will not support a high bit-rate subscriber line (HDSL) between
the PCU and the BSC. However, the BSC can use an MSI board (with HDSL
capabilities) to terminate a GDS link to the PCU if an E1 is used for the
connection.
12.7.14. MULTIBAND HANDOVERS
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
The BSC will treat switchable GPRS timeslots like idle TCHs in the case of
multiband handovers.
12.7.15. OVER THE AIR FLOW CONTROL FOR CIRCUIT SWITCHED
MOBILES
No additional BSS or GPRS network planning is required.
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The BSC will treat switchable GPRS timeslots like idle TCHs in the case of
over the air control for the circuit switched mobiles feature.
12.7.16. RTF PATH FAULT CONTAINMENT
The BSC may use a switchable GPRS timeslot for a Cell Broadcast Channel
(CBCH) or a Slow Dedicated Command CHannel (SDCCH).
The Radio Transceiver Function (RTF) path fault feature converts TCHs to
SDCCH when an RTF path fault occurs. The RTF path feature may also
convert switchable GPRS timeslots that are TCH barred, to SDCCH. The
converted GPRS timeslots are returned to GPRS after the original RTF path
fault is cleared.
12.7.17. SMS CELL BROADCAST
The CBCH can reside on a switchable GPRS timeslot. Therefore, switchable
GPRS timeslots may be reconfigured as SDCCHs. However, GPRS reserved
timeslots cannot be reconfigured as SDCCHs.
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13. GSN COMPLEX PLANNING
The GSN Complex consists of these main system elements: CommHub,
ISS Module, GGSN Modules, and GSN Shelves. The GSN Complex equipment
is an independent network element and can be provisioned independently
from the BSS equipment. The GSN Complex can consist of two to four
cabinets per Complex. The GSN Complexes can be networked together in
order to provide additional GSN capacity in a PLMN by using Local Area
Networking (LANs) or by using Wide Area Networking (WANs). The following
minimum and maximum reference systems are lab tested and verified for
performance and availability.
The GSN Complex architecture offers flexible growth from a small system
to a fully equipped GSN Complex. The Communications cabinet shown in
Figure 15 is always fully equipped from a small sized system to the largest.
The CommHub and ISS Module equipment within the Communications
cabinet can be partially equipped when serving a small sized system. The
other three cabinets in Figure 15 can be provisioned with as many GSN
shelves and GGSN Modules as necessary to serve the expected GSN Complex
traffic load. The maximum number of GSN shelves is limited to seven
including the spare and the maximum number of GGSN Modules is limited to
five including the spare.
The smallest GSN Complex may be provisioned with two cabinets. The
first cabinet is the Communications cabinet. The second cabinet contains one
active GSN shelf, one spare GSN shelf, one active GGSN Module, and one
spare GGSN Module. The recommended minimum GSN Complex reference
configuration is shown in Figure 16.
Figure 15
GSN Complex Maximum Reference Configuration
ISS
Module
CommHu
b
GSN Shelf
GSN Shelf
GSN Shelf
GSN Shelf
GSN Shelf
GSN Shelf
GSN Shelf
(Spare)
GGSN
Module#1
GGSN
Module#2
GGSN
Module#3
GGSN
Module#4
GGSN
Module#5
(Spare)
Communicati
ons
Cabinet
GSN
Cabinet
GSN
Cabin
et
GSN
Cabine
t
GSN
Complex
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Figure 16
GSN Complex - Recommended Minimum Reference Configuration
13.1.1. COMMHUB
The CommHub provides the routing and bridging functions within the GSN
Complex. A new installation will require one of these subsystems. The
CommHub can be partially configured for minimum GSN Complex
configurations as shown in Table 16.
13.1.2. ISS MODULE
The ISS Module hardware consists of two Netra t 1125 Servers and two High
Availability Netra D1000 disk arrays. The disk arrays are connected to the
two Netra Servers by separate SCSI busses. The Disk Array is used to hold
Call Data Records until they are uploaded to the billing system. The disks also
hold the software images for all of the subsystem modules on the GSN Shelf:
C7 module, Gn module, Gb module CM module, and Shelf Management
Module. The disk arrays can be incrementally grown in size as specified in
Table 16. The disk fault tolerance is obtained in two ways. First, each of the
two disk arrays is configured for N+1 disk storage capablility. Second, each of
the two disk arrays is simultaneously increased in size by the disk increment
listed in Table 16.
Fault tolerant operation of the Netra t 1125 Servers is by switchover upon
fault detection by the Primary Server.
The functions provided by the ISS Module are:
ISS
Module
CommHu
b
GGSN Module
#1
GGSN
Module#2
(Spare)
GSN Shelf
GSN Shelf
(Spare)
Communicati
ons
Cabinet
GSN
Cabinet
GSN
Complex
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Charging Gateway Function
Domain Name System for GSN Infrastructure
Network Time Protocol
High Availability Disk mirroring
High Availability Disk Storage
13.1.3. GSN SHELF
A minimum system will require at least two GSN shelves. The second GSN
shelf is a spare shelf. Each GSN shelf contains three SGSN Modules. Each GSN
self requires one C7 Module which can serve all three SGSN Modules.
13.1.4. GGSN MODULE
A minimum system will have two GGSN Modules. The second GGSN
Module is a spare module. Each GGSN Module contains one Cisco 7206
hardware platform running GGSN specific software. Each GGSN Module is
responsible for its own G-CDR record generation to the Charging Gateway
Function.
13.1.5. SGSN MODULE
Each SGSN module consists of a three-card set; Gn card, Gb card, and the
CF card. The card functions are as follows:
Gn card functions
Logical connection to mobiles (LLC & SNDCP protocols)
GTP protocol inter-working with GGSN
S-CDR record generation
Gb card functions
Electrical and protocol interface with BSS/PCU (E1, BSSGP,
Network Services, Frame Relay)
CF card functions
SGSN OA&M function
Mobility management functions
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M-CDR record generation
13.1.6. C7 MODULE
The C7 Module performs the following functions:
Electrical and protocol interface to the HLR (E1, MTP, SCCP,
TCAP, MAP/Gr)
The allowed C7 Module E1 Interface configurations are:
1 to 4 E1s per C7 Module
Up to 4 DS0s per E1
Up to 4 DS0s per PMC module (two PMC modules per C7
module)
Up to 8 DS0s per C7 module
2 links minimum per C7 linkset
1 link per DS0
Maximum 4 linksets per C7 module
Typical configuration: 1 E1 on each PMC module, 2 linksets per
C7 Module, up to 4 links per linkset.
C7 Module provisioning recommendations:
Use 2 E1s, 1 E1 per PMC module
Within a linkset, the links (DS0s) should distributed over the two E1s
13.1.7. MANAGEMENT MODULE
The GSN Shelf Management Modules perform the following functions:
GSN Shelf OA&M
Software code load to shelf cards
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13.2. GSN PLANNING INPUTS
The GSN network planning process uses the range of values listed in Table
15. If network values are not available at the time a network is planned,
typical or recommended values are provided where appropriate. The
"Minimum Values" are given for the maximum capacity of a minimum system
and the "Typical Values" are used as standard model parameters.
Table 15
GSN Network Planning Inputs
Variable Minimu
m
Value
Typical
Value
Maximum
Value
Assumptions/
Variable Use
No_GSN_Shelves 1 Network
Dependent
6 The maximum value does not
include the one spare shelf.
No_PDP_Context 0 Network
Dependent
180,000 This is the maximum number of
active PDP contexts for a GSN
Complex
No_GGSN_Modul
es
1 Network
Dependent
4 The maximum value does not
include the one spare shelf.
Total_PPS 0 Network
Dependent
36,000 This is the planned load for a
GSN Complex in Packets Per
Second based on 100 byte
packets.
No_attached_sub
s
0 Network
Dependent
180,000 Number of attached subscribers
served by one GSN Complex.
No_Cells 1 Network
Dependent
18,000 Number of BTS cells served by
the GSN Complex. The
maximum number of 18,000 is
consistent with the number of
cells served by one GSN shelf.
Most likely the GSN Complex
capacity will be exceeded based
on throughput before this
maximum value of cells is
reached.
Gb PVC's 1 Network
Dependent
32 Max on one Bearer Link (E1)
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CIR (per PVC) 16Kbps Network
Dependent
992 Kbps The Frame Relay network
parameter Committed
Information Rate.
The value chosen is greater
than or equal to 50% of the
aggregate bandwidth required
for the BVCs mapped to one NS-
VC.
Bc (per PVC) Network
Depende
nt
Network
Dependent
Bc = CIR The Frame Relay network
parameter Committed Burst
Rate
Be (per PVC) Network
Depende
nt
Network
Dependent
E1 Access
Rate of
1.984
Mbps
The Frame Relay network
parameter Burst Excess Rate.
The value chosen should be less
than or equal to the access
rate.
NS-VC per bearer
link (E1)
1 Network
Dedpende
nt
32 One NS-VC corresponds to one
Frame Relay Network PVC.
BVCs per NS-VC 1 Network
Dependent
125 The recommended minimum
value is 2. The maximum value
is set by the number of BVCs
that can be tolerated to be lost
when an NS-VC or Frame Relay
network PVC is lost.
Additionally, the maximum
value can not exceed the bearer
channel's bandwidth available
bandwidth.
No_C7_DS0s 1 Network
Dependent
8 Number of 64 Kbit/s DS0 C7
channels per GSN Shelf, with a
maximum value of 8.
GPRS_Attach_ms
g
0 Network
Dependent
19.2 This is the number of GPRS
attach request load generated
by the 3 SGSN modules on one
GSN shelf, measured in Kbps.
SMS_msg 0 Network
Dependent
0.4 This is the SMS message load
for all of the subscribers served
by the GSN Shelf for 3 SGSN
Modules, measured in Kbps.
C7_Utilization ---- 0.25 0.4 This is the C7 link utilization
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factor .
No_GPRS_mobile
s
0 Network
Dependent
30,000 This is the number of GPRS
mobiles served by one GSN
Shelf during the busy hour.
Freq_GPRS_attac
hes
0 Network
dependent
0.0001 This is the frequency at which
the subscribers perform a GPRS
attach during the busy hour,
measured in attaches per
second.
MAP_msg_size --- 1600
(Mean)
---- This is the mean C7 MAP
message size, measured in bits
per message.
No_trans_per_att
ach
-- -- 4 This is the number of C7
transactions that occur per C7
attach request, measured in
transactions per attach.
Link_Mngmt_msg -- -- 6.4 This is the C7 link management
message load consisting of the
MTP linkset and routeset Layer
2 and Layer 3 management and
maintenance messages,
measured in Kbps.
Link_msg_size --- --- 800 This is the mean size of the C7
link management and
maintenance messages,
measured in bits per message.
Link_msgs_per_s
ec
-- -- 8 This is the rate of the C7 link
management and maintenance
messages, measured in
messages per second.
RA_Update_msg 0 Network
Dependent
7.2 This is the routing area update
message load, measured in
Kbps.
RA_Update 0 Network
Dependent
0.0003 This is the update messages
rate per subscriber, measured
in messages per second.
RA_Update_msg_
size
-- -- 800 This is the routing area update
message size, measured in bits
per message.
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SMS_msg_rate 0 Network
Dependent
0.00001 This is the SMS messages rate
per subscriber, measured in
messages per second.
SMS_msg_size 8 Network
Dependent
1,280 This is the SMS message size,
measured in bits per message.
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13.3. GSN PLANNING PROCESS
The GSN Complex planning process will require that the system operation
be analyzed in four ways before determining the equipment and link
provisioning. The range of values for the parameters used in the subsequent
equations are provided in Table 15. The system inputs to be analyzed are:
The number of Active PDP contexts to be served and,
The number of packets per second served (throughput)
by the GSN Complex and,
The number of attached subscribers and,
The number of cells served (fanout).
The following steps examine each of the above inputs in order to
determined which input will dictated the GSN Complex provisioning.
Step 1
The GSN Complex is first sized by dividing the number of Active PDP
contexts by the rating of each element in the GSN Complex as given in the
following Table 16. This calculation will provide the sizing for the CommHub,
number of GSN shelves, and number of GGSN modules. Once the number of
GSN shelves has been determined, the number of GSN cabinets can be
determined.
Equation 27
No_GSN_Shelves = Roundup
0 0 0 , 3 6
_ _ C o n t e x t P D P N o
Where No_GSN_Shelves is: Minimum number of shelves with
three SGSN modules per shelf. The
maximum number of GSN shelves is
six, the spare shelf is not included.
No_PDP_Context Total number of activated PDP
contexts.
Equation 28
No_GGSN_Modules = Roundup
0 0 0 , 4 5
_ _ C o n t e x t P D P N o
Where No_GGSN_Modules is: Minimum number of GGSN Modules.
The maximum number of GGSN
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Modules is 4, the spare module is not
included.
No_PDP_Context Total number of activated PDP
contexts.
Step 2
The GSN Complex is next sized by dividing the number of packets per
second served by a GSN Complex by the rating of each element in the GSN
Complex as given in Table 16. This step will determine the number of GSN
shelves and GGSN Modules that are required. The Commhub should be sized
based on the number of GSN shelves and GGSN Modules. The data input for
this step is identified in Table 4 as the "Maximum GSN Complex throughput in
PPS, 100 bytes per packet".
Equation 29
No_GSN_Shelves =
PPS
PPS Total
000 , 6
_
Where No_GSN_Shelves is: Minimum number of GSN shelves with three
SGSN modules per shelf to serve the peak load.
The maximum number of GSN shelves is six,
the spare shelf is not included.
Total_PPS Number of 100 byte packets served by one
GSN Complex.
Equation 30
No_GGSN_Modules =
PPS
PPS Total
000 , 10
_
Where No_GGSN_Modules is: Minimum number of GGSN Modules to
serve the peak load. The maximum number
of GGSN Modules is 4, the spare module is
not included.
Total_PPS Number of 100 byte packets served by one
GSN Complex.
Step 3
The GSN shelf has an upper limit of 30,000 attached subscribers.
Therefore, the number of GSN shelves should also be evaluated based on this
limit.
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Equation 31
No_GSN_Shelves =
0 0 0 , 3 0
_ _ s u b s a t t a c h e d N o
Where No_GSN_Shelves is: Number of GSN shelves with three SGSN
modules per shelf. The maximum number of
GSN shelves is six, the spare shelf is not
included.
No_attached_subs Number of attached subscribers served by one
GSN Complex. These subscribers can be in
State 2 or State 3 as defined in Table 2.
Step 4
The GSN shelf has an upper limit of 3,000 BTS cells served by one GSN
Shelf. Therefore, the number of GSN shelves should also be evaluated based
on this limit.
Equation 32
No_GSN_Shelves =
000 , 3
_ Cells No
Where No_GSN_Shelves is: Number of GSN shelves with three SGSN
modules per shelf. The maximum number of
GSN shelves is six, the spare shelf is not
included.
No_Cells Number of BTS cells served by the GSN
Complex.
Step 5
The results of Steps 1 through 4 should be compared and the step that
generates the maximum number of GSN Shelves or GGSN Modules should be
used for provisioning the quantity of equipment. The GSN Cabinet
provisioning is based on the outcome of Steps 1 through 4. The number of
GSN Cabinets to deploy should be based on the following rules:
For a GSN cabinet with GSN shelves only:
a) 1 to 3 GSN shelves per GSN cabinet.
For a mix of GSN shelves and GGSN Modules in a GSN cabinet:
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
a) 2 GSN Shelves + 3 GGSN Modules
b) 1 GSN shelf + 1 to 5 GGSN Modules
Step 6
The CommHub requirements should be evaluated more closely to insure
that if a sub-equipped CommHub resulted from step 5 above, the CommHub
has enough E1 interfaces and 100 BaseT ports for the GSN Complex
networking requirements. The range of provisioning capabilities for the
CommHub are provided in Table 16.
Step 7
This step determines the provisioning required to interconnect the GSN
shelf to the Frame Relay network (see Figure 17) over the Gb Interface. The
BSS and SGSN equipment permit Point-to-point Gb Interface connections as
well. There are two Gb Interface termination options, 75 ohm and 120 ohm.
The choice of termination impedance is made by the Network Planner and the
choice determines which GSN cabinet to order. The Network Planner will need
to specify the values for the following three Frame Relay interface
parameters:
Committed Information Rate (CIR)
Committed Burst Rate (Bc)
Burst Excess Rate (Be)
These Frame Relay parameter values are determined as follows:
Committed Information Rate (CIR)
The recommended CIR value per each NS-VC should be greater than or equal
to half the cumulative information rate of the Active timeslots mapped to a
single NS-VC by a PCU. The Motorola PCU will distribute the use of all the NS-
VCs evenly in a round-robin manner. The calculation for the number of Active
timeslots in use at the PCU is provided in the BSS planning portion of the
planning guide.
Committed Burst Rate (Bc)
The Bc value should be equal to the CIR value. The Bc is the rate at which the
user data is allowed to burst above the CIR level and the network is
committed to deliver it under normal conditions. Frames which burst at or
above the CIR level are market by the Frame Relay network as 'Discard
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Eligible' and will be discarded first if network congestion is experienced or
because of network traffic policy.
The Bc value should be adjusted such that if one of the provisioned E1 links
fail, the remaining E1 links can carry the load of the failed link by operating in
the Bc region. For example, if three E1 links are provisioned, if any one of the
three should fail the other two should have the capacity to carry the load of
the failed link on just two links by operating in the Bc region.
Burst Excess Rate (Be)
All frames that burst at the Be rate or above are automatically discarded
without being sent, regardless of the network congestion situation. This value
will typically be set equal to the E1 Access Rate which is equivalent to 31 DS0
timeslots times 64 Kbps or 1.984 Mbps. A lower value can be used if a
fractional E1 is used.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Figure 17
Logical Mapping of GPRS cells to Frame Relay
Frame
Relay
network
bearer
chan. =
1
bearer
chan. =
2
bearer
chan. =
3
bearer
chan. =
4
DLCI=16
DLCI=51
DLCI=43
DLCI=16
DLCI=259
DLCI=98
DLCI=17
DLCI=16
DLCI=21
DLCI=302
DLCI=511
NS-VCI=a
NS-VCI=b
NS-VCI=c
NS-VCI=e
NS-VCI=f
NS-VCI=a
NS-VCI=b
NS-VCI=e
NS-VCI=c
NS-VCI=d
NS-VCI=f
BVCI=0
PTP,
cell 1
PTP,
cell 2
signalling
signalling
SGSN
bearer
chan. =
5
bearer
chan. =
6
BSS#1
BSS#2
NS-VCI=d
BVCI=2
BVCI=3
PTP,
cell 1
BVCI=2
BVCI=0
DLCI=137
BVCI=2
BVCI=3
BVCI=0
BVCI=2
BVCI=0
NSEI=1
NSEI=2
NSEI=1
NSEI=2
E
1
E
1
E
1
E
1
E
1
E
1
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Frame Relay Network Configuration Guidelines
One BVC per BTS cell
One NS-VC per PVC
Use fewer than 32 NS-VCs per Bearer channel, recommend
using 2 NS-VCs per Bearer channel.
One E1 per Bearer channel
Bearer channels supported over Point-to-Point (PTP) E1s and
over Frame Relay networks.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Step 8
This planning step determines the minimum number of C7 DS0 channels
required per GSN Shelf. Each GSN Shelf is configured with one C7 module and
the C7 planning should be performed on a per GSN shelf basis. Each GSN
Complex can have up to six active C7 modules.
The C7 module can be provisioned with one to eight 64 Kbps DS0
channels. It is recommended that two E1s be used for link resiliency
purposes. Each C7 module has two PMC modules and typically one E1 per
PMC module is used to serve up to 8 DS0 channels, even though a C7 Module
can terminate up to 4 E1s. The use of the DS0s should be divided evenly
between the two E1s for link resiliency purposes.
The minimum number of DS0s is calculated in Equation 33 by dividing the
total load on the C7 Module DS0 links by the effective load capacity of a DS0
which is determined by the C7_utilization factor. The combined load on the
C7 links consists of: the number of busy hour GPRS attach messages, the
number of link management messages, the number of routing area update
messages, and the number of SMS messages. Each term in Equation 33 is
expanded in the subsequent equations.
Equation 33
No_C7_DS0s= Roundup

]
]
]

n U t i l i z a t i o C K b p s
m s g S M S m s g U p d a t e R A m s g M n g m t L i n k m s g A t t a c h G P R S
_ 7 * 6 4
_ * _ _ * _ _ * _ _
No_C7_DS0s is: Number of 64 Kbit/s DS0 C7 channels per GSN Shelf,
with a maximum value of 8.
GPRS_Attach_msg This is the GPRS attach request load generated by
the SGSN, measured in Kbps.
Link_Mngmt_msg This is the number of C7 link management
messages consisting of the MTP linkset and routeset
Layer 2 and Layer 3 management and maintenance
messages, measured in Kbps.
RA_Update_msg This is the routing area update message load,
measured in Kbps.
SMS_msg This is the SMS message load for all of the
subscribers served by the GSN Shelf for 3 SGSN
Modules, measured in Kbps.
C7_Utilization This is the C7 link utilization factor provided in Table
16, expressed in decimal form.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Equation 34
GPRS_Attach_msg=
[No_GPRS_mobiles *
Freq_GPRS_attaches*MAP_msg_size*No_trans_per_attach]
Where: GPRS_Attach_msg is This is the GPRS
attach request load generated by the 3
SGSNs on one GSN Shelf, measured in Kbps.
No_GPRS_mobiles This is the number of GPRS mobiles
served by one GSN Shelf during the busy
hour.
Freq_GPRS_attaches This is the frequency at which the
subscribers perform a GPRS attach during
the busy hour, measured in attaches per
second. .
MAP_msg_size This is the mean C7 MAP message size,
measured in bits per message.
No_trans_per_attach This is the number of C7 transactions that
occur per C7 attach request, measured in
transactions per attach.
Equation 35
Link_Mngmt_msg = Link_msg_size * Link_msgs_per_sec
Link_Mngmt_msg is: This is the C7 link management message
load consisting of the MTP linkset and
routeset Layer 2 and Layer 3 management
and maintenance messages, measured in
Kbps.
Link_msg_size This is the mean size of the C7 link
management and maintenance messages,
measured in bits per message.
Link_msgs_per_sec This is the rate of the C7 link management
and maintenance messages, measured in
messages per second.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Equation 36
RA_Update_msg = No_GPRS_mobiles * RA_Update
*RA_Update_msg_size
RA_Update_msg is: This is the routing area update message
load, measured in Kbps.
No_GPRS_mobiles This is the number of GPRS mobiles served
by one GSN Shelf during the busy hour.
RA_Update This is the update messages rate per
subscriber, measured in messages per
second.
RA_Update_msg_size This is the routing area update
message size, measured in bits per message.
Equation 37
SMS_msg = No_GPRS_mobiles * SMS_msg_rate * SMS_msg_size
SMS_msg is: This is the SMS message load for all of the
subscribers served by the SGSN Module,
measured in Kbps.
No_GPRS_mobiles This is the number of GPRS mobiles served
by one GSN Shelf during the busy hour.
SMS_msg_rate This is the SMS messages rate per
subscriber, measured in messages per
second.
SMS_msg_size This is the SMS message size, measured in
bits per message.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
13.4. GSN MAXIMUM CONFIGURATIONS
Table 16
GSN Minium /Maximum Configurations
Network Element Network
Parameter
Minimum
Value
Maximum
Value
GSN Complex Number of Active
Subscribers
30,000 180,000
GSN Complex Number of active PDP
contexts
36,000 180,000
GSN Complex Packets per Second
(100 byte packets)
6,000 36,000
GSN Complex Number of CommHubs 1 1
GSN Complex Number of ISS Modules 1 1
GSN Complex Number of GGSN
Modules
1 plus 1
spare
4 plus 1
spare
GSN Complex Number of GSN Shelves 1 plus 1
spare
6 plus 1
spare
GSN Complex Number of C7 modules 1 plus 1
spare
6 plus 1
spare
CommHub Number of E1s
supported with V.35
Interface
16 32
CommHub E1 increments 8
CommHub Number of 100 BaseT
Ethernet ports
supported
48 144
CommHub 100 BaseT Ethernet port
increments
24
C7 Module Number of E1s
supported
1 4
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C7 Module Number of DS0
channels per E1
1 4
C7 Module Number of E1s per PMC
module
1 2
C7 Module Number of DS0s per
PMC module (maximum
2 PMC modules per C7
Module)
1 4
C7 Module Number of DS0s per C7
Module
1 8
C7 Module Number of Point Codes 1 1
ISS Module Number of 100 BaseT
ports per Shelf
4 4
ISS Module Number of Ultra SCSI-II
ports per Shelf
2 2
ISS Module (Disk Array) Disk Array increments 9.1
GigaBytes
ISS Module (Disk Array) Disk Storage 9.1
GigaBytes
45.5
GigaBytes
ISS Module (Disk Array) Number of Ultra SCSI-II
ports per Array
2 2
GSN Shelf Number of C7 modules 1 1
GSN Shelf Number of C7 module
100 BaseT ports
1 1
GSN Shelf Shelf Management
modules
2 2
GSN Shelf Number of Shelf
Management module
100 BaseT ports
1 1
GSN Shelf Number of SGSN
Modules
3 3
GSN Shelf Number of C7 Modules 1 1
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
GGSN Module Number of activated
PDP contexts supported
45,000 45,000
GGSN Module Packets per Second
(100 byte packets)
10,000 10,000
GGSN Module Number of 100 BaseT
ports
2 2
SGSN Module GPRS cells support 1,000 1,000
SGSN Module Packets per Second
(100 byte packets)
2,000 2,000
SGSN Module Number of 100 BaseT
ports
9 9
SGSN Module Number of PVCs per E1 1 32
SGSN Module Number of Gb E1's 2 4
SGSN Module 64 Kbps channels per
Gb E1
1 31
13.5. LINK PROVISIONING
13.5.1. GA INTERFACE
This is the Charging Gateway interface from the SGSN and from the GGSN.
The GSN Complex elements connect to the Charging Gateway Function over
the 100 BaseT Ethernet network supported by the CommHub. This interface
will support up to 180,000 Active PDP Contexts. The purpose of the Charging
Gateway Function is to isolate the GSN Complex equipment from the Billing
System. This architecture enables the Charging Gateway Function to perform
billing record translation for a multiplicity of Billing Systems and Billing
System protocols. The interface between the Charging Gateway Function and
the Billing System has not been standardized prior to the GSN Release 1.
13.5.2. GB INTERFACE
This interface is supported by each SGSN Module. Up to four E1
terminations are supported per SGSN Module. Each SGSN E1 electrical
interface recovers E1 timing from the network by operating in clock-recovery
mode. The SGSN supports Frame Relay over E1.
Frame Relay Interface support
Up to 32 PVCs per Gb E1.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Channelized operation with a minimum of 1 E1 timeslot used on
Gb E1. Fractional E1 usage is permitted.
Up to 300 BTS Cell CS-1 or CS-2 rate single timeslot subscribers
per SGSN Module or 900 subscribers per GSN Shelf. This assumes two
E1s per SGSN Module carry the full load and two E1s per SGSN Module
are used for redundancy through load sharing.
Up to 2,000 Packets Per Second (100 bytes per packet) per
SGSN Module or 6,000 PPS per GSN Shelf
Up to 1,000 cells per SGSN module or 3,000 cells per GSN Shelf
Up to 250 routing areas per SGSN module or 750 routing areas
per GSN Shelf.
13.5.3. GI INTERFACE
Up to 32 E1s with V.35 interfaces are supported for the Gi Interface. These
E1s are terminated on the CommHub. The connection to the V.35 interface is
by operator provided CSU/DSU equipment. The CSU/DSU equipment is
country specific. The provisioning of these links is dependent upon the site
specific networking requirements. The use of these E1s is specific to each
installation.
13.5.4. GN INTERFACE
This interface is between the SGSN and GGSN network elements. This
interface is implemented with the CommHub 100 BaseT ethernet network.
This network is capable of supporting up to 180,000 Active PDP Contexts.
13.5.5. GR INTERFACE
The Gr Interface is supported in the GSN Complex on a per GSN Shelf
basis. Each shelf has one C7 Module with up to four Linksets (E1s) supported
and up to eight 64Kbps DS0s supported in total over the four Linksets. A full
description of the C7 Module planning constraints is provided in the C7
Module section of the document.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
14. GPRS NETWORK STATISTICS FOR NETWORK RE-PLANNI NG
14.1. BSS STATISTICS
The BSC and PCU collect the statistics listed in Table 17 . The PCU
forwards the statistics that it collects, via the BSC, to the OMC-R for collection
and network performance review. The following table lists all of the statistics
collected, their definition, and the recommended uses of these statistics for
the purposes of evaluating and adjusting the BSS portion of the network.
Caveat: This version of the Planning Guide precedes commercial
deployment. After GPRS systems have been deployed and statistics
generated, the following table will be updated with recommended threshold
values to use in the system re-planning process.
The planning flow chart in the beginning of the Planning Guide, Figure 3,
has grouped the use of infrastructure statistics into the following categories
for network planning purposes:
Stats_A: User Profile Stats_C: Configure GSN
Stats_B: BLER & Protocol Overhead impact Stats_D: Configure
BSS/PCU

Table 17
BSS Statistics
PCU Statistic Definition Recommended
Use
GBL_LINK_INS The PCU shall start this
statistic each time the
GBL becomes INS and
stop the statistic each
time the GBL is no
longer INS on a per GBL
basis. The time available
will be reported in
milliseconds.
Statistic used for
GBL performance.
GBL_UNAVAILABLE The PCU shall start this
statistic each time the
GBL goes OOS and stop
the statistic when the
GBL comes INS on a per
Statistic used for
GBL performance.
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GBL basis. The time
unavailable will be
reported in milliseconds.
GPRS_ACCESS_PER_AGCH The BSS shall increment
this statistic when the
AGCH/PCH/RACH
channel type is
accessed for GPRS
usage on a per cell
basis.
Stats_D
Use to configure
CCCH carrier
timeslots. This
statistic could be
used in Equation 23
for the value of
GPRS BURST _ .
GPRS_ACCESS_PER_PCH The BSS shall increment
this statistic when the
AGCH/PCH/RACH
channel type is
accessed for GPRS
usage on a per cell
basis.
Stats_D
Use to configure
CCCH and carrier
timeslots. This
statistic be used in
Equation 21 for the
value of
No_GPRS_Pages.
GPRS_ACCESS_PER_RACH The BSS shall increment
this statistic when the
AGCH/PCH/RACH
channel type is
accessed for GPRS
usage on a per cell
basis.
Stats_D
Use to configure
carrier timeslots.
CHANNEL_REQS_REC The BSS shall increment
this statistic in order to
count the number of
channel or resource
request messages
received on a per cell
basis.
Stats_D
Use to configure
carrier timeslots.
CHANNEL_REQS_REJECT The BSS shall increment
this statistic in order to
count the number of
channel or resource
request messages
rejected on a per cell
basis.
Stats_D
GBL_UL_DATA_THRPUT The PCU shall measure
the number of megabits
Stats_A, Stats_D
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of data information
transmitted on the GBL
uplink over a given
period of time. The PCU
will calculate this
instantaneous
throughput by dividing
the number of megabits
transmitted by the time
interval. The time
interval,
gbl_ul_thrput_time_perio
d, is programmable. The
PCU filters this statistic
by computing a moving
average of the
instantaneous
throughput. The number
of instantaneous
throughput samples,
num_gbl_ul_thrput_sam
ples, used to compute
the moving average is
programmable. This
statistic is measured on
a per GBL basis.
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed
GBL_DL_DATA_THRPUT The PCU shall measure
the number of megabits
of data information
received on the GBL
downlink over a given
period of time. The PCU
will calculate this
instantaneous
throughput by dividing
the number of megabits
received by the time
interval. The time
interval,
gbl_dl_thrput_time_perio
d, is programmable. The
PCU filters this statistic
by computing a moving
average of the
instantaneous
throughput. The number
of instantaneous
throughput samples,
num_gbl_dl_thrput_sam
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
ples, used to compute
the moving average is
programmable. This
statistic is measured on
a per GBL basis.
GBL_FLUSH_REQS This statistic counts the
number of times a
request to flush the data
buffers in the PCU. This
statistic is measured on
a per BSS basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
GBL_PAGING_REQS This statistics counts the
number of paging
requests received by the
PCU. This statistic is
reported on a per BSS
basis.
Stats_D
Use to configure
CCCH.
This static may be
used in Equation 17
if the Location Area
equals the Routing
Area.
GBL_FLOW_CNTL_SENT This statistic counts the
number of flow control
messages that are sent
over the GBL within a
programmable period of
time, bssgp_fc_period_c.
This statistic is
measured on a per cell
basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed and if
there are link outage
problems.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
AIR_UL_DATA_BLKS This statistic counts the
number of data blocks
received by the PCU for
each QoS level and
coding scheme
combination. This
provides eight (8)
statistics: QoS level 1 to
Stats_A, Stats_B,
Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
4 for Coding Schemes
CS-1 and CS-2. The
count is rounded to the
nearest 100 blocks and
the statistics are
provided on a per cell
basis.
Also use to see if cell
C/I performance is as
expected. The C/I
effects BLER which
in turn effects use of
the higher CS-2 rate.
AIR_DL_DATA_BLKS This statistic counts the
number of data blocks
transmitted by the PCU
for each QoS level and
coding scheme
combination. This
provides eight (8)
statistics: QoS level 1 to
4 for Coding Schemes
CS-1 and CS-2. The
count is rounded to the
nearest 100 blocks and
the statistics are
provided on a per cell
basis.
Stats_A, Stats_B,
Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed
Also use to see if cell
C/I performance is as
expected. The C/I
effects BLER which
in turn effects use of
the higher CS-2 rate.
TOTAL_AIR_UL_AVAILABLE_BW This statistic counts the
number of RLC data
blocks available for
uplink transfer at the
PCU. This statistic is on
a per cell basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links, equipment and
carrier timeslots
deployed.
TOTAL_AIR_DL_AVAILABLE_BW This statistic counts the
number of RLC data
blocks available for
downlink transfer at the
PCU. This statistic is on
a per cell basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links equipment, and
carrier timeslots
deployed.
GBL_DL_DATA_THRPUT_HIST This provides a
histogram of the total
downlink data
throughput over the GBL
interface. The histogram
is created on a per GBL
basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links, equipment,
and carrier timeslots
deployed.
This statistic may be
used in Equation 1
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
for
Mean_traffic_load.
GBL_UL_DATA_THRPUT_HIST This provides a
histogram of the total
uplink data throughput
over the GBL interface.
The histogram is created
on a per GBL basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links, equipment,
and carrier timeslots
deployed.
This statistic may be
used in Equation 1
for
Mean_traffic_load.
MS_CLASS_1_10_REQ This statistic counts the
number of requests
received for each mobile
class at the PCU. This
statistic will have the
same number of bins as
there are mobile
classes, class 1 through
10. Each bin is in units
of 10 requests and are
measured on a per cell
basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
carrier timeslots and
equipment deployed.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
MS_CLASS_11_20_REQ This statistic counts the
number of requests
received for each mobile
class at the PCU. This
statistic will have the
same number of bins as
there are mobile
classes, class 11
through 20. Each bin is
in units of 10 requests
and are measured on a
per cell basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
carrier timeslots and
equipment deployed.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
MS_CLASS_21_29_REQ This statistic counts the
number of requests
received for each mobile
class at the PCU. This
statistic will have the
same number of bins as
there are mobile
classes, class 21
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
through 29. Each bin is
in units of 10 requests
and are measured on a
per cell basis.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
UL_CH_ASGN_DURATION This statistic counts the
amount of time,
rounded to the nearest
deci-second (0.1 sec),
that simultaneous uplink
data channels are
assigned to a mobile.
This statistic will have
eight bins for 1 channel,
2 channels, etc. up to 8
channels simultaneously
assigned. This statistic is
on a per cell basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
DL_CH_ASGN_DURATION This statistic counts the
amount of time,
rounded to the nearest
deci-second (0.1 sec),
that simultaneous
downlink data channels
are assigned to a
mobile. This statistic will
have eight bins. Each
bin represents a number
of channels in
simultaneous use. This
statistic is on a per cell
basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
GPRS_CHANNELS_SWITCHED This statistic counts the
number of times that a
data channel is switched
to a circuit switched
traffic channel. This
statistic is on a per cell
basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed
This metric will
enable the Network
Planner to see if
GPRS performance is
being effected due
to over use of the
switchable timeslots
by the GSM circuit
switched part of the
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
network.
GPRS_DYNET_FAILURES This is a count of four
different sources of a
terrestrial backing
failure. 1) Terrestrial
resource for a reserved
GPRS timeslot is not
provided when
requested, 2) Terrestrial
backing is stolen from
switchable timeslots, 3)
Terrestrial backing is
taken from reserved
timeslots, 4) When
converting a switchable
GPRS timeslot from
packet to circuit mode a
terrestrial backing is
unavailable.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed
This metric will
enable the Network
Planner to see if
GPRS performance is
being effected due
to over use of the
switchable timeslots
by the GSM circuit
switched part of the
network.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
GPRS_DYNET_SWI_REQS This statistic creates a
histogram of queue
time periods measuring
requests for switchable
timeslot terrestrial
backing. Each bin
corresponds to a range
of queue lengths of
time. The maximum,
minimum, and average
queue lengths of time
will also be included in
this histogram. The
statistic will be pegged
on a periodic basis. This
histogram is on a per
dynet group basis.
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed
This metric will
enable the Network
Planner to see if
GPRS performance is
being effected due
to over use of the
switchable timeslots.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
GPRS_DYNET_RES_REQS The statistic computes a
histogram of the time
that the number of
requests for backing of
switchable timeslots
Stats_A, Stats_D
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
that were in the queue.
Each bin of the
histogram corresponds
to a range of queue
lenghts. When this
statistic is pegged, the
bin corresponding to the
length of the queue will
be incremented by one.
The statistic will be
pegged on a periodic
basis. The maximum
and minimum queue
length and the average
queue length will also
be reported.
deployed
This metric will
enable the Network
Planner to see if
GPRS performance is
being effected due
to over use of the
switchable timeslots.
Threshold value to
be supplied after
commercial
deployment.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
14.2. GSN COMPLEX STATISTICS
The GSN Complex collects the statistics in the following two categories
(SGSN, GGSN) and forwards these statistics to the OMC-G for collection and
network performance review. The following two tables lists all of the
statistics collected, their definition, and the recommended use of the statistic
in evaluating and adjusting the GPRS portion of the network.
14.2.1. SGSN
Table 18
SGSN Statistics
SGSN Statistic Definition Recommended Use
sgsn-perf-gtp-sig 1
Total number of
Successful Session
Activation Requests
received.
*** Engineering inputs
required for the completion
of this table.
sgsn-perf-gtp-sig 2
Total number of
Unsuccessful Session
Activation Requests
received.
sgsn-perf-gtp-sig 3 Total number of Session
Activation Requests sent.
sgsn-perf-gtp-sig 4 Total number of protocol
errors - message too
short.
sgsn-perf-gtp-sig 5 Total number of protocol
errors - unknown or
erroneous header.
sgsn-perf-gtp-sig 6 Total number of protocol
errors - unexpected
message.
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 1 Current number of GGSN
Connections.
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 2 Total number of GTP data
packets sent to GGSN.
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 3
Total number of GTP data
bytes (including
protocol headers)sent to
GGSN.
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 4 Total number of GTP data
packets received from
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
GGSN.
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 5
Total number of GTP data
bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from GGSN."
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 6
Total number of data
packets sent in downlink
direction (to SNDCP
protocol layer).
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 7
Total number of data
bytes (including
protocol headers) sent
in downlink direction (to
SNDCP protocol layer).
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 8
Total number of data
packets received in
uplink direction (from
SNDCP protocol layer).
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn 9
Total number of data
bytes (including
protocol headers)
received in uplink
direction (from SNDCP
protocol layer)"
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn
10
Total number of data
packets dropped in uplink
direction.
sgsn-perf-gtp-gn
11
Total number of data
packets dropped in
downlink direction.
sgsn-perf-sndcp 1
Total number of SNDCP
data packets sent to GTP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-sndcp 2 Total number of SNDCP
data bytes (including
protocol headers) sent to
GTP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-sndcp 3
Total number of SNDCP
data packets received
from GTP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-sndcp 4
Total number of SNDCP
data bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from GTP
protocol layer."
sgsn-perf-sndcp 5
Total number of SNDCP
data packets sent to LLC
protocol layer."
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
sgsn-perf-sndcp 6
Total number of SNDCP
data bytes (including
protocol headers) sent
to LLC protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-sndcp 7
Total number of SNDCP
data packets received
from LLC protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-sndcp 8
Total number of SNDCP
data bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from LLC
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-sndcp 9 Total number of SNDCP
data packets dropped in
uplink direction.
sgsn-perf-sndcp 10 Total number of SNDCP
data packets dropped in
downlink direction.
sgsn-perf-llc 1
Total number of LLC data
packets sent to BSSGP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 2
Total number of LLC data
bytes (including
protocol headers) sent
to BSSGP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 3
Total number of LLC data
packets received from
BSSGP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 4
Total number of LLC data
bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from BSSGP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 5
Total number of LLC
signaling packets sent
to BSSGP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 6
Total number of LLC
signaling bytes
(including protocol
headers) sent to BSSGP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 7
Total number of LLC
signaling packets
received from BSSGP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 8
Total number of LLC
signaling bytes
(including protocol
headers) received from
BSSGP protocol layer.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
sgsn-perf-llc 9
Total number of LLC data
packets sent to SNDCP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 10
Total number of LLC data
bytes (including
protocol headers) sent
to SNDCP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 11
Total number of LLC data
packets received from
SNDCP protocol layer."
sgsn-perf-llc 12
Total number of LLC data
bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from SNDCP
protocol layer."
sgsn-perf-llc 13
Total number of LLC
signaling packets sent
to SNDCP protocol
layer."
sgsn-perf-llc 14
Total number of LLC
signaling bytes
(including protocol
headers) sent to SNDCP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 15
Total number of LLC
signaling packets
received from SNDCP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 16
Total number of LLC
signaling bytes
(including protocol
headers) received from
SNDCP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-llc 17 Total number of LLC data
packets dropped in uplink
direction.
sgsn-perf-llc 18 Total number of LLC data
packets dropped in
downlink direction.
sgsn-perf-llc 19
Total number of LLC
signaling packets
dropped in uplink
direction.
sgsn-perf-llc 20
Total number of LLC
signaling packets
dropped in downlink
direction.
sgsn-perf-llc 21 Total number of LLC
packets resent.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
sgsn-perf-bssgp 1
Total number of BSSGP
data packets sent to NS
protocol layer."
sgsn-perf-bssgp 2
Total number of BSSGP
data bytes (including
protocol headers) sent
to NS protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-bssgp 3
Total number of BSSGP
data packets received
from NS protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-bssgp 4
Total number of BSSGP
data bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from NS
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-bssgp 5
Total number of BSSGP
data packets sent to LLC
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-bssgp 6
Total number of BSSGP
data bytes (including
protocol headers) sent
to LLC protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-bssgp 7
Total number of BSSGP
data packets received
from LLC protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-bssgp 8
Total number of BSSGP
data bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from LLC
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-bssgp 9 Total number of BSSGP
data packets dropped in
uplink direction.
sgsn-perf-bssgp 10 Total number of BSSGP
data packets dropped in
downlink direction.
sgsn-perf-ns 1
Total number of NS data
packets received from
BSSGP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-ns 2
Total number of NS data
bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from BSSGP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-ns 3
Total number of NS data
packets sent to BSSGP
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-ns 4
Total number of NS data
bytes (including
protocol headers) sent
to BSSGP protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-ns 5
Total number of NS data
packets received from FR
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-ns 6
Total number of NS data
bytes (including
protocol headers)
received from FR
protocol layer.
sgsn-perf-ns 7
Total number of NS data
packets sent to FR
protocol layer."
sgsn-perf-ns 8
Total number of NS data
bytes (including
protocol headers) sent
to FR protocol layer."
sgsn-perf-ns 9 Total number of NS data
packets dropped in uplink
direction.
sgsn-perf-ns 10 Total number of NS data
packets dropped in
downlink direction.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 1 Total number of L3MM
Attach Requests received.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 2 Total number of L3MM
Attach Accept sent.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 3 Total number of L3MM
Attach Reject sent.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 4 Total number of L3MM
Detach Requests
received.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 5 Total number of L3MM
Detach Accept sent.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 6 Total number of L3MM
Session Activate Requests
received.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 7 Total number of L3MM
Session Activate Accept
sent.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 8 Total number of L3MM
Session Activate Reject
sent.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 9 Total number of L3MM
Session Deactivate
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Requests received.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 10 Total number of L3MM
Session Deactivate Accept
sent.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 11 Total number of L3MM RA
Update requests received.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 12 Total number of L3MM RA
Update Accept sent.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 13 Total number of L3MM RA
Update Reject sent.
sgsn-perf-l3mm 14
Total number of L3MM MS
paging requests sent
(not the number of
paging PDUs in case that
a page request needs to
be sent to multiple
PCUs).
sgsn-perf-l3mm 15
Total number of
Successful pages (where
the paged MS is
successfully located).
sgsn-perf-misc 1 Current number of GPRS
attached MS.
sgsn-perf-misc 2 Current number of Active
PDP Sessions.
sgsn-perf-misc 3 Total number of Cells.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
14.2.2. GGSN
Table 19
GGSN Statistics
GGSN Statistic Definition Recommended Use
Ggsn-gtp-gen 1
(CgprsGtpCurRxPacket
QueueSize)
The current size of
the Rx Packet Queue on
the GSN node (for data
received from the APN,
on the Gi interface).
Ggsn-gtp-gen 2
(CgprsGtpCurActivatedP
DPcontextsCount)
The current number of
PDP contexts
established on the GSN
node.
Stats_C
Use to determine if
adequate memory
installed on the GGSN
router.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 3
(CgprsGtpCurUnexpecte
dRxGpduCount)
The total number of G-
PDUs received from a
SGSN for a non-
existing or an
inactive PDP context
since system startup.
Stats_B
Use to keep track on
error messages received
from SGSN.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 4
(CgprsGtpCurRejectedP
DPContextActivationCou
nt)
The total number of
Rejected PDP Context
activation, due to an
overload or other
abnormal conditions
since system startup.
Stats_B, Stats_C
Ggsn-gtp-gen 5
(CgprsGtpTotalPktsDrop
ped)
Total number of
packets dropped due to
unknown GTP header,
since system is up.
Stats_B
Use to keep track on
error messages received
from SGSN.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 6
(CgprsGtpDroppedPktsTi
meFrame)
The time frame within
which the number GTP
packets, defined by
cgprsGtpDroppedPktsCo
unt, are dropped.
Stats_B
Use to adjust the
frequency of collecting
error messages from
SGSN.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 7
(cgprsGtpDroppedPktsC
ount)
The number of packets
dropped by GTP within
CgprsGtpDroppedPktsTim
eFrame.
Stats_B
Use to keep track on
error messages received
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
from SGSN.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 8
(cgprsGtpCurMeanThrou
ghputForPremiumQos)
The mean throughput
for premium class QOS
users on the GSN.
Stats_A, Stats_B
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 9
(CgprsGtpCurMeanThro
ughputForNormalQos)
The mean throughput
for normal class QOS
users on the GSN.
Stats_A, Stats_B
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 10
(CgprsGtpCurMeanThro
ughputForBestEffortQos
)
The mean throughput
for a 'best effort'
class QOS users on the
GSN.
Stats_A, Stats_B
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 11
(CgprsGtpCurGSNBandw
idthResourceUsed)
The current amount of
bandwidth resource
used on the GSN.
The current amount of
bandwidth resource
available on GSN
can be obtained by
deducting the value of
this object from the
value of the object
cgprsGtpGSNTotalBandwi
dthResource.
Stats_B
Use to determine if
adequate number of
links and equipment
deployed.
Ggsn-gtp-gen 12
(CgprsGtpGSNTable)
GSN peer table.
Stats_B
Use to keep track of
GSN peers of a GGSN
node.
Ggsn-gtp-ggsn 1
(CgprsGtpTotalNumAlloc
IpAddr)
The current number of
total allocated ip
addresses on the GGSN.
Stats_B, Stats_C
Use to keep track of
DHCP/Radius server
usage.
Ggsn-gtp-ggsn 2
(CgprsGtpChargingMsgC
ount)
The current number of
total charging messages
in the queue.
Stats_B, Stats_C
Use to determine if
adequate memory has
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
been allocated for the
charging message
queue.
Ggsn-gtp-ggsn 3
(CgprsGtpLastGSNidNoR
espToEcho)
The name of the last
peer GSN that does not
reply to echo message.
Stats_B
Use to determine
operational condition of
GSN peers.
Ggsn-gtp-ggsn 4
(CgprsGtpGSNidOfLastU
nexpectedPDPContext)
The name of the peer
GSN whose PDP context
is unexpected.
Stats_B
Use to determine
operational condition of
GSN peers.
Ggsn-gtp-ggsn 5
(CgprsGtpTIDOfLastUne
xpectedPDPContext)
The TID of the last
unexpected PDP Context
activation.
Stats_B
Use to keep track of
error attachment.
Ggsn-gtp-ggsn 6
(CgprsGtpRejectReason
OfLastUnexpectedPDPC
ontext)
The reason for
rejecting the PDP
Context activation.
Stats_B
Use to keep track of
error attachment.
Ggsn-gtp-ggsn 7
(CgprsGtpNumAllocIpAd
drTable)
The table for
currently allocated
number of dynamic
addresses, associated
with a given APN.
Stats_B
Use to keep track of IP
address allocation at an
IP service provider.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
15. BSS SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS
The following sections provide a guide to the provisioning of a PCU when
upgrading a BSS for GPRS packet data capability.
15.1. MINIMUM SYSTEM
One PCU cabinet is required with one PCU shelf. The PCU shelf requires
the following complement of equipment:
One MPROC board and Bridge board pair,
One PRP board (includes one PMC module) and Transition board
pair,
One PICP board (includes two PMC modules) and Transition
board pair,
Three Power Supply/Fan Units,
One Alarm board.
15.2. SYSTEM INCREMENTS
The PCU may be upgraded for additional capacity by one PRP board and
by one PICP board at a time. This upgrade must adhere to the PICP to GDS
TRAU E1 ratio rule of one PICP board per four GDS TRAU E1 links.
15.3. MAXIMUM SYSTEM
A fully populated PCU cabinet will have 3 PCU Compact PCI shelves, each
shelf serves one BSS, and each shelf will have the following maximum
complement of equipment for 240 Active Timeslots and 720 Standby
timeslots:
One MPROC board and Bridge board pair,
Nine PRP (includes one PMC module per board) and Transition
board pairs,
Three PICP (includes two PMC modules per board) and Transition
board pairs,
Three Power Supply/Fan Units,
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One Alarm board.
15.4. E1 INTERFACE PROVISIONING
The PCU is configured for E1 loop timing recovery on all of the PCU E1
interfaces. The PCU is connected directly to the BSC E1 interfaces and the
BSC is configured to provide the E1 master clock. If the PCU attaches to a
GSN Complex that does not have a master clock source, then an interface
piece of equipment, such as a Digital Cross Connect (DACs) switch, that does
have a master clock source should be used. The Motorola BSC and RXCDR
equipment can be used in place of a DACs for this purpose.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
15.5. REDUNDANCY PLANNING
For redundant PCU operation, the PCU should be planned such that there
are N+1 boards provisioned as shown in Figure 18 below. That is, only eight
PRP boards and two PICP boards are required to handle the expected
maximum GPRS traffic load. The ninth PRP board and third PICP board will
offer the N+1 hardware redundancy. The third PICP board provides
redundancy for the software processes that run on the first two PICP boards.
For a fully configured PCU with eight GDS TRAU E1s, at least two PICP boards
are required in order to provide enough processing capability.
The GDS TRAU E1 link redundancy is obtained with the N+1 PRP board.
The GSL E1 link redundancy is obtained by provisioning a second GSL E1 on
the second PICP. One PICP is required per four GDS TRAU E1 links. The PCU
load-balances across the GDS TRAU and LAPD GSL links. If a PRP or PICP
board fails, the PCU automatically re-distributes the load to the other boards
in-service.
Two Gb E1s are required to handle the traffic for a fully configured PCU.
Gb E1 link resiliency is obtained by adding an additional Gb E1s and load
balancing across all of the Gb E1s.
The PRP and PICP (DPROC) boards are hot swappable so that when a
board failure is detected, a replacement board may be inserted without
disrupting on-going GPRS traffic on the other boards. The DPROC must be
locked before removal and unlocked following board insertion. The PRP and
PICP boards have associated Transistion Module boards not shown in the
figures below. There is an associated redundant Transition Module board with
each redundant PRP and PICP board.
The PCU shelf hardware allows for N+1 MPROC board redundancy. This
N+1 redundancy capability is subject to MPROC redundancy software
availability. The MPROC board(s) are not shown in figures below. The MPROC
Bridge boards are not shown in the figure below, but the redundant MPROC
has an associated redundant Bridge board.
The PCU shelf comes with N+1 Power Supply/Fan redundancy. The power
supplies are hot swappable. The Power Supply/Fan units are not shown in
figures below.
The PCU architecture offers the Network Planner a considerable degree of
provisioning flexibility. Figure 18 and Figure 19 demonstrates this flexibility
where the provisioning goals may range from full redundancy (Figure 18) to
maximum coverage (Figure 19).
Table 20 summarizes the provisioning goals demonstrated with Figure 18 and
Figure 19.

GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Figure 18
Goal: Maximum throughput and coverage with a fully redundant
configuration.
Refer to Table 20 for a matrix of provisioning goals achieved with this
instance of PCU provisioning.
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby

BSC
SGSN
PRP
1
PMC
PRP
2
PMC
PRP
8
PMC
PRP 9
redundan
t
PMC
PICP
1
PMC
PMC
PICP
2
PMC
PMC
PICP 3
redundan
t
PMC
PMC
GBL
GBL
Redunda
nt
GBLs
GSL
Redundant
GSL
GDS
GDS
GDS
Redundant
GDS
TO
PCU Hardware
GBL
GBL
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby
6 LAPD TS
6 LAPD TS
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Figure 19
Goal: Maximum coverage, full redundancy not required.
Refer to Table 20 for a matrix of provisioning goals achieved with this
instance of PCU provisioning.
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby

BSC
SGSN
PRP
1
PMC
PRP
9
PMC
PICP
1
PMC
PMC
PICP
2
PMC
PMC
GBL
GBL
Redunda
nt
GBLs
GSL
Redundant
GSL
GDS
GDS
TO
PCU Hardware
GBL
GBL
6 LAPD TS
6 LAPD TS
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby
30 TS
Active
90 TS
Standby
PICP
3
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Table 20
PCU Provisioning Goals
Metric Figure 18 Figure 19
Goal Maximum
coverage with
redundant
configuration
Maximum
coverage,
redundancy
not required
No. Active Timesots 240 270
No. Standby Timeslots 720 810
Total number of
provisioned timeslots
at a BSS is the sum of
the number of Active
Timeslots with the
number of Standby
Timeslots.
960 1080
No. PRPs 9 9
No. PICPs 3 3
No. GDS TRAU E1s 9 9
No. GDS LAPD (GSL)
E1s
2 2
No. Gb E1s 4 4
PRP board Redundancy Yes No
PICP board
Redundancy
Yes No
GDS TRAU E1
Redundancy
Yes No
GSL E1 Redundancy Yes Yes
Gb E1 Redundancy Yes Yes
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
16. GSN COMPLEX SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS
The GSN Complex can be configured from as few as two cabinets to as
many as four. There currently is no hard limit for the number of GSN
Complexes that may be deployed in one PLMN. The following sections provide
more detail on these configuration options.
16.1. MINIMUM REFERENCE SYSTEM
The minimum system is shown previously in Figure 16. It is recommended
that redundancy be provided in the minimal system as shown in the figure.
16.2. SYSTEM INCREMENTS
The GSN Complex offers physical system increments in the
Communications Cabinet and in the GSN cabinets. The CommHub can be
used with less than a full set of internal processing boards. Additional
processing boards can be added until the full E1 and 100 BaseT ethernet port
capacity is reached. These capacities are give in Table 16. The GSN Cabinets
can hold both GSN Shelves and GGSN Shelves. The GSN Complex can grow
by one shelf of each type of equipment at a time. The additional operating
capacity provided by the shelf increments is provided in Table 16. GSN
Cabinets are added to a GSN Complex as GSN cabinets are filled with GSN
Shelves and GGSN Shelves. There is no restriction on how to populate these
GSN cabinets.
16.3. MAXIMUM REFERENCE SYSTEM
The maximum GSN Complex system of four cabinets is shown in Figure
15. The system capacities supported by a maximum GSN Complex is
provided in Table 16.
16.4. LAN / WAN PROVISIONING
16.4.1. GSN COMPLEX NETWORKING OPTIONS
The GSN Complex can be networked to other Complexes by using the Gi
Interface provided by the CommHub. It is possible to network the Complexes
together in a Local Area Network manner or in a Wide Area Network manner.
16.4.2. ETHERNET INTERFACE PROVISIONING
There are enough ports provided by a fully configured CommHub to
support a GSN Complex with 180,000 Active PDP Contexts. The GSN Complex
equipment is connected to the CommHub using standard 100 BaseT ethernet
connections.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
16.4.3. E1 INTERFACE PROVISIONING
75 ohm and 120 ohm E1 interfaces are provide for the SGSN Modules.
These interfaces are provide by the use of external modules mounted in the
GSN cabinets. The interface type should be specified as part of the
Networking Planning Process.
The CommHub provides an E1 interface via an eight lead octal cable that
connects to the V.35 male DTE connections. DSU/CSU equipment is
recommended to inteface between the V.35 interface and the switched
network provided E1s. Additionally, the CommHub has a built in CSU/DSU
that can provide a standard channelized E1 port adapter DB-15 compatible
interface to the telco.
16.4.4. FRAME RELAY INTERWORKING
The GSN Complex supports Frame Relay inter-working with the SGSN
Modules. The SGSN supports channelized Gb Link mode of operation over E1.
The system capacities for Frame Relay inter-working are specified in Table
16.
16.5. SUPPORTED REDUNDANCY
Redundancy support in the GSN Complex is provided by different methods
depending upon the particular part of the GSN Complex. The redundancy is
explained in the following two sections based on cabinet type.
16.5.1. COMMUNICATIONS CABINET
The Disk Array provides redundancy by disk mirroring the billing
information, as well as all other information stored on the disk arrays,
between the two Disk Array Shelves.
The ISS redundancy is provided by software load balancing between the
two ISS shelves. The ISS shelves work in conjunction with the disk arrays for
the implementation of disk mirroring. There are redundant busses between
the ISS shelves, disk arrays, and inteconnection over 100 BaseT ethernet to
the CommHub.
The CommHub provides redundancy of all active components. There is no
backplane redundancy and there is no 100 BaseT ethernet redundancy to
each GSN Cabinet network element.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
16.5.2. GSN CABINET
The GSN Cabinet holds two types of shelves, the GSN Shelf and the GGSN
shelf. One GSN shelf is provided as a "cold standby" spare shelf. This shelf
must be manually re-cabled in place of a failed GSN Shelf. Each SGSN module
is capable of supporting up to four E1s. Two of the four E1s is sufficient to
handle the call load specified in Table 16, i.e., 2K packets per second at 100
bytes per packet. The additional two E1s should be provisioned if Gb link
redundancy is required. The Frame Relay network and supporting GPRS
protocols will provide the actual redundancy by load balancing across the
four E1s.
One GGSN shelf is provided as a spare shelf. A maximumally configured
GSN Complex is supported by four GSN shelves and the fifth shelf as a spare.
The spare shelf can be brought into service after loading the GGSN with the
configuration of the failed shelf.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
17. PLANNI NG EXAMPLES
This section will provide examples for planning both the PCU and the GSN
Complex. They can be planned separately, therefore that is why they are
presented separately in this section.
17.1. PCU PLANNING EXAMPLE
This section will provide an example of the PCU hardware provisioning
process and the link provisioning process associated with adding a PCU to the
BSC as shown in Figure 20 below. For the provisioning of the BSC hardware,
the Network Planner should follow the BSC Planning Guide for adding
additional E1 interface hardware in support of the GDS and GSL links. The
provisioning of the SGSN hardware is described by the example in the next
section.
Figure 20
BSC
BTS
PCU
SGSN
PCU Equipment & Link
Planning
GBL
1 to 4 E1s
GDS
1 to 9 E1s
GSL
1 or 2 E1s
Ckt + GPRS
E1s
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The Network Planner would use the following process in order to
provision a BSS with 10 sites consisting of 20 cells with one GPRS
carrier per Cell.
1. Choose a cell RF Plan:
Use the tables Table 5, Table 6, and Table 7 to determine what the values to
use for CS rate and BLER for the chosen cell RF Plan. For this example, use
Table 5 for the 1x3 2/6 hopping RF Plan.
2. Determine number of GPRS carrier timeslots:
Use Equation 1 to determine the number of GPRS timeslots that will be
required on a per cell basis. In order to use Equation 1, the Network Planner
should have the expected cell load in Kbps. For this example, assume each
cell is being planned to handle 30 Kbps. Equation 1 evaluates to 5.8 timeslots
so provision 6 timeslots. Therefore, the mean load is handled by 3 active
timeslots and 3 timeslots are considered standby timeslots.
3. Calculate the number of GDS E1 links:
For this calculation, a conservative provisioning approach would be to
provision one GDS TRAU E1 per PRP board. Each PRP board can process 30
Active Timeslots and 90 Monitored timeslots. Using the number of mean
PDCHs =3 from step 2, the number of PRPs required to serve 20 cells is:
(3 active timeslots per Cell) * (20 cells per BSC) / (30 Active Timeslots per
PRP) = 2 PRPs. These 2 PRPs have more than enough capacity to handle the
additional 3 standby timeslots per cell. Using the conservative provisioning
rule of one GDS TRAU E1 per PRP, we would provision 2 GDS TRAU E1s.
Refer to Table 10 for the PCU provisioning rules. A more aggressive GDS
TRAU E1 provisioning approach can be taken where 60 Active and 64
Standby timeslots are provisioned on only one GDS TRAU E1. The PCU load
balancing software would distribute the load over the two PRP boards. The
advantage of the more aggressive provisioning approach is that one less E1
would need to be provisioned at the BSC. The disadvantage is that if the one
GDS TRAU E1 were to fail, 100% of the PCU service would be lost.
4. Calculate the PCU hardware to support the PCU traffic of 60 active
timeslots and 2 GDS E1s:
Qty 2 PRP boards , 1 PRP board per GDS E1 link.
Qty 1 PICP board , 1 PICP board per 4 GDS TRAU links (2 links
provisioned).
Qty 1 MPROC board , 1 MPROC board per PCU shelf.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
Qty 1 PCU shelf with alarm board and 3 power supplie/Fan
assemblies, 1 PCU shelf per 9 PRP boards.
Qty 1 PCU cabinet , 1 PCU cabinet per 3 PCU shelves.
5. Calculate the number of GBL links:
The number of GBL E1 links is directly related to the number of Active
Timeslots being provisioned between the BSC and the PCU. In this example
60 Active Timeslots are required. One GBL E1 can carry the equivalent of 150
Active Timeslots. This figure includes the GBL signaling traffic and the GPRS
packet data traffic including protocol overhead. Therefore, the number of GBL
E1 links required is:
(60 Active BSC-PCU timeslots)/ (150 Active Timeslots per GBL E1) = 0.4 E1's.
This answer would be rounded up to 1 E1 without redundancy unless a
fractional E1 is available for use. If a fractional E1 is available, then it is not
necessary to round up to the nearest integer value for the number of E1s to
specify.
6. Calculate the number of GSL links:
Use Equation 11 to calculate how many 64 Kbps GSL links are required. For
this example, the number of active timeslots is 60. Evaluating Equation 11
and the supporting expressions results in 2 64Kbps GSL links are required
after rounding up to the nearest integer value.
The significant intermediate values that are used to evaluate Equation 11
are:
Equation 11: T S G S L N o _ _ = 15,200/15,000
Equation 13: No_Imm_Assign = 12,000
Equation 14: GPRS_Page = 1,200
Equation 15: Stat_msg = 2,000
7. Re-Calculate the number of PICP boards required:
Now that the number of GDS, GBL, and GSL E1 links have been calculated
make sure that there are a sufficient number of PICP boards to cover the GBL
and GSL E1 links and to satisfy the 1-to-4 ratio of GDS TRAU E1s to PICP
boards. The PCU hardware calculation in Step 4 calculated the number of
PICP boards based only on the ratio of PICP boards to PRP boards. This Step
takes into account the number of E1 links terminated on the PICP boards for
the GBL and GSL E1 links. A PICP board can terminate both GBL and GSL links
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
on the board, but just not on the same PMC module. Each PICP has two PMC
modules.
In step 5 it was determined that 1 E1 link is required for the GBL. Each PICP
can terminate up to 4 GBL links. Therefore, 1/4 of a PICP is required for the
GBL E1 links.
In step 6 it was determined that 1 E1 link is required for the GSL. Each PICP
can terminate up to 2 E1 GSL links and up to 12 GSL 64 timeslots distributed
over one or two E1s. Note that there is a limit of 2 GSL E1s per PCU.
Therefore, 1/4 of a PICP is required for the GSL E1 link.
Reviewing the GBL and GSL E1 link requirements we can see that one PICP is
sufficient to handle the link provisioning requirements as well.
8. Calculate the increased data traffic load on the E1s between the BSC and
BTSs:
It is assumed that the GPRS traffic will be in addition to the exiting circuit
switched traffic. In step 2 it was determined that 6 timeslots would be
required for the combined active plus standby GPRS timeslot traffic on a per
cell basis. The active plus standby timeslots should be allocated as reserved.
Therefore, 12 more 16 Kbps timeslots will be required on a per BTS site basis,
2 cells per site, in order to carry the GPRS traffic. A decision can be made at
this stage of the provisioning process as to how to allocate the GPRS carrier
timeslots. That is, are they reserved or switchable.. If GSM circuit switched
statistics are available, they could be reviewed to aid in this decision. Refer to
the section in the planning guide that discusses the tradeoffs of using
reserved and switchable timeslots.
Since a whole carrier of 8 timeslots was added to each BTS cell in support of
GPRS, it might be advantageous to configure the E1 to carry the traffic for the
additional 2 timeslots. If these two timeslots are provisioned as switchable
then both GPRS and GSM circuit switched traffic could benefit from this
additional capacity.
9. Calculate the increased signaling traffic load (RSL load) on the E1s
between the BSC and BTSs:
The BTS will combine the additional signaling load for the GPRS data traffic
with the existing circuit switched traffic load. This will result in an additional
load on the existing RSL links between each BTS and the BSC.
The additional load on the RSL for GPRS is based on the evaluation of and
supporting equations. For 60 active timeslots, two 64Kbps RSL channels
would be required after rounding up to the nearest integer value to support
the GPRS portion of the network.
The Network Planner should calculate the RSL load for the GSM circuit
switched portion of the network and then add the the GSM number of RSLs
to the GPRS requirements in order to determine the total number of RSL links
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
to provision per Equation 5. The GSM RSL calcalation should be performed
with 64Kbps RSL in order to be consistant with the GPRS calculation.
10.Calculate the increased load due to GPRS traffic on the Common Control
Channel (CCCH) at each BTS cell:
Use Equation 18 for this calculation. The BTS will combine the additional
control channel load for the GPRS data traffic with the existing circuit
switched traffic load onto the CCCH. The Network Planner will need the
expected paging rate and the Access Grant rate in order to calculate the
number CCCH blocks needed to support the additional GPRS traffic load. This
calculation should be performed using the guidelines given in the "GPRS
Control Channel Provisioning" section of the Planning Guide. Use Equation 20
to determine the paging load and use Equation 23 to determine the access
grant load. Substituting the value 1.5 (No_GPRS_Pages) in for the number of
pages per second per cell and the value 3 ( GPRS burst _ ) in for the number of
bursts per second per cell, Equation 18 evaluates to 2.9 CCCH blocks
required in support of GPRS. This will most likely mean that the Network
Planner will not use a combined BCCH. The GSM circuit switched signaling
load will be in addition to the 2.9 CCCH blocks required for GPRS.
11.BSC provisioning impact:
The BSC may require additional hardware in order to support the addition of
the GPRS network traffic. For BSC provisioning rules, the BSS planning guide
should be consulted.
The BSC may require more E1 terminations in support of the additional E1
links to the PCU and in support of the additional GPRS traffic over the BTS-to-
BSC interface. In this example, 2 E1s were added for the GDS links and 1 E1
added for the GSL link.
The BSC LCF GPROCII processor load is increased by the volume of GPRS
signaling traffic. The BSS planning rule for LCF provisioning in Equation 25
should be used. Scaling the paging load of a maximally configured PCU by 25
% would give 3 pages/second to use as the GPRS P value. Substituting the
other values into Equation 25 the answer is 0.7 LCF GPROCII. The Network
Planner may choose to just add an additional LCF GPROCII or to examine the
GSM circuit switched provisioning to see if an existing LCF GPROC II could
handle this additional load.
12.BTS provisioning impact:
The BTS will require one carrier per cell to be provisioned as a GPRS carrier.
Adding a GPRS carrier to a cell may require that another DHP processor board
be added to the BTS.
The BSS planning guide should be consulted in order to provision the BTS
hardware, including the addition of DHP processor board to the BTS.
13.OMC-R provisioning impact:
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
The OMC-R is impacted primarily through the additional statistics generated
by the PCU. The BSC merges the PCU statistics with the rest of the BSS
statistics for uploading to the OMC-R over the 64 Kbps X.25 link. No change in
this link provisioning is required.
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
17.2. GSN COMPLEX PLANNING EXAMPLE
The following Table 21 is presented as an example of planning the GSN
Complex for a System referred to as Market A. The legend above the
table indicates which values are inputs from the Network Planner and
which values are either calculated or result from a planning rule.
The table is created with a sequential flow so that if the steps are
followed in order, a properly dimensioned GSN Complex will result.
Network Planner inputs used for sizing:
Calculated value
Motorola GPRS Planning Rule
Table 21
GSN Dimensioning Example for Market A
Planni
ng
Step
Parameter Varia
ble
Market A Comments
1 Number of BSCs V1 23 Input from
Network Planner
2 Number of BTS V2 575 Input from
Network Planner,
Sum of Micro and
Macro BTSs
3 Number of
sectors
V3 1,500 Input from
Network Planner
4 Number of
sectors/BSC
V4 65.2 Calculated
average v3/v1
5 Number of GPRS
carriers/BSC
V5 65 Calculated
average based on
Number of
sectors/BSC
v5=v4
6 Number of Subs
simultaneously
attached
V6 120,000 Input from
Network Planner
7 Number of Subs
simultaneously
attached per BSC
V7 5,217 Calculated
average v6/v1
8 Number of
simulataneously
active Time Slots
V8 2,400 Network Planner
Input
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
(TS) during busy
hour
9 Number of Active
TS/Carrier
V9 1.6 Calculated
Average v8/v3
10 Number of PCUs
per BSC
V10 1 Motorola
provisioning rule
1 PCU per BSC
11 Number of Active
TS per PCU
V11 104 Calculated
Average v5*v9
12 Avg Session
Length (min)
V12 6 Network Planner
Input
13 Ave data traffic
per session
(megabits)
V13 1.5 Network Planner
Input
14 Ave Throughput
per subscriber
per session
(kbps)
V14 4.2 Calculated value
v13/(v12*60)
15 Ave Throughput
per PCU
(simultaneous
kbps)
V15 436.8 Calculated value
V14*v9*v5
16 No Gb E1s per
PCU
V16 2 One primary plus
one redundant
(v15 << 1 Gb E1
bandwidth)
Could consider
using two
fractional E1s.
17 SGSN Gb
Throughput max
(megabits per sec
V17 1.6 Motorola
Provisioning rule
18 No PCUs per
SGSN
V18 3 (Use value
derived for
v36=2)
Calculated value
v17/v15 note;
must check no of
active subs to be
handled per SGSN
19 SGSN Attached
subs per shelf
V19 30,000 Motorola
provisioning rule
20 No GSN shelves V20 4 Calculated value
v6/v19
21 No GSN Shelves
with Spare Shelf
V21 5 Calculated value
v20+1
22 GGSN Attached
subs per Module
V22 45,000 Motorola
provisioning rule
23 No GGSN
Modules
V23 3 Calculated value
v6/v22
24 No GGSN
Modules with
V24 4 Calculated value
v23+1
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Spare Module
25 No PCUs per
SGSN
V25 2 Calculated value
(v1*v10)/(v20*3)
26 Max No attached
Subs per SGSN
V26 10,000 Motorola
provisioning rule
27 No of proposed
attached subs per
SGSN
V27 10,434 (round
down to 10,000)
Calculated value
v7*v25
28 GSN
Communications
cabinet
V28 1 Motorola
provisioning
rule use one
fully configured
communications
cabinet per GSN
Complex
29 Number of GSN
cabinets
V29 4 Motorola
provisioning
rule use GSN
Complex Planning
rules for number
of GSN and GGSN
shelves permitted
per cabinet.
30 No C7 Cards V30 5 Motorola
provisioning rule
of 1 C7 card per
GSN shelf
v30=v21
31 No C7 DS0s V31 Min 2, Max 8 There was not
enough
information
provided to
determine if more
that 2 DS0s would
be required. It is
recommended
that at least 2
DS0s be used,
one per E1 link.
Because there
was no C7
information
provided such as
the expected SMS
load, the Network
Planner might
consider
provisioning all 8
DS0s unless there
is not system link
GPRS PLANNI NG GUI DE
capacity to
provision 8.
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18. RECOMMENDED PLANNING GUIDELI NES
Based on the Network planning information presented in this document
the following are recommeded guidelines.
Provision PCU for redundant E1 links.
Provision the PCU for N+1 PRP and PICP boards.
Assume switchable timeslots are not available for GPRS traffic
during the circuit switched portion of the network's busy hour.
Therefore, provision enough fixed timeslots for GPRS traffic during the
circuit switched busy hour to satisfy the minimum GPRS throughput
objectives.
Provision up to four Active timeslots per GPRS carrier to handle
the mean traffic load.
Provision one Standby timeslot for every Active timeslot.
Provision the Gb interface to the Frame Relay network on both
the PCU and on the SGSN so that if an E1 link fails there is sufficient
capacity on the remaining link(s) to handle the full traffic load.
Provision the C7 Module on the GSN Shelf with two E1s to insure
link resiliency.