# Lecture 3 – Flexural Members

Flexural members are those that experience primarily bending stresses, such as beams. A typical rectangular reinforced concrete beam is shown below:

Width “b”

Depth to steel “d” Section A-A
Lecture 3 - Page 1 of 9

Hanger bars (#4 or #5 bars) Stirrup bars (used to prevent diag. tension cracks) spaced at d/2 apart

Concrete cover = ¾” → 2” as per ACI reqmts.

Tension bars “As”

Height “h”

2 (or more) rows of main tension bars are necessary. so then the minimum bar spacing = 1. Typical concrete batches use a maximum aggregate size of ¾” diameter.5(¾”) = 1⅛”. bar spacing Lecture 3 . ACI 318 dictates that the minimum spacing between bars is 1. bar spacing Min. Below is a sketch of a typical concrete beam with 2 rows of tension bars: Depth to centroid of steel “d” Min.5 times the maximum concrete aggregate size. It is important to provide minimum adequate cover around all reinforcing bars so that these bars can properly bond with the concrete.Sometimes.Page 2 of 9 Tension bars “As” Height “h” .

in2 d = depth to center of tension bars.) – ½(tension bar dia.As = Total cross-sectional area of all tension bars.) fy = yield stress of reinforcing bars = 60 KSI for ASTM A615 Grade 60 bars = 40 KSI for ASTM A615 Grade 40 bars ρactual = Rho actual = actual ratio of tension steel to effective concrete area A = s bd ρmin = Rho minimum = minimum allowable ratio of tension steel per ACI 318 200 where fy = PSI = fy Lecture 3 .Page 3 of 9 . inches = h – (concrete cover) – (stirrup bar dia.

#7 Tension bars REQUIRED: 1) Determine total area of tension bars. Use the following: • Height h = 20” • Width b = 12” • Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI • Concrete cover = ¾” • All bars are A615 – Grade 60 (fy = 60 KSI) • Stirrup bar = #3 • 4 . A 200 3) Determine ρactual = s where ρmin = and state if it is acceptable.Page 4 of 9 .0033 Since ρactual > ρmin → beam is acceptable Lecture 3 .60 in2 per #7 bar) As = 2. d: d = depth to center of tension bars.) = 20” – ¾” – ⅜” – ½(⅞”) d = 18.40in 2 (12" )(18. 2) Determine depth to center of tension bars.Example 1 GIVEN: A rectangular concrete beam is similar to the one shown above.) – ½(tension bar dia. As.0108 ρmin = 0. bd fy Step 1 – Determine area of tension bars. inches = h – (concrete cover) – (stirrup bar dia. d.40 in2 Step 2 – Determine depth to tension bars. 1 notes ρmin = 200 fy = 2.44” Step 3 – Determine ρactual and ρmin : ρactual = As bd See Lect. As: As = 4 bars(0.44" ) = 200 60000 PSI ρactual = 0.

to a maximum tensile or compressive stress at the extreme edges. Homogeneous Beam Tension Lecture 3 .Page 5 of 9 .A basic understanding of beam mechanics is necessary to study concrete beam behavior. Consider a simply-supported homogeneous rectangular beam loaded by a uniformly-distributed load as shown below: Applied loads Span L Taking a section through the beam at any place along the length reveals the following stress distribution about the cross-section of the beam: Compression Neutral Axis The stress distribution varies linearly from zero stresses at the neutral axis.

85f’cb C Neutral Axis a = β 1C ½ (a) d Moment arm = Z T = Asfy Actual Stress Distribution T = Asfy Idealized Stress Distribution Lecture 3 .In a reinforced concrete beam. similar to the homogeneous beam. the concrete is incapable of resisting tension and must rely on the reinforcing bars to carry all the tension loads.Page 6 of 9 . Below the neutral axis however. the stress distribution is different. Above the neutral axis. the concrete carries all the compression. to a maximum compressive stress at the extreme edge. b Compression Neutral Axis The actual stress distribution in the compression side varies non-linearly from zero stresses at the neutral axis. Reinforced Concrete Beam Tension = T Reinforcing bars Looking at a side view of the stress distribution of the reinforced concrete beam: “Whitney” stress block 0.

85 f ' c b = β 1C Beta β1 = 0.85f’cab Solve for a: a= As f y 0. tension equals compression: Tension = Compression Asfy = Area of Whitney stress block Asfy = 0.9Mn a Mu = 0.) 2 Mu = Usable moment capacity of concrete beam = φMn = 0.59⎜ ⎜ f' ⎢ c ⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ) ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ ρbal = balanced ratio of tension steel reinforcement ⎛ 0.85β1 f ' c =⎜ ⎜ fy ⎝ ⎞⎛ 87.75 for f’c > 6000 PSI C = depth to neutral axis from extreme compression edge Mn = Nominal moment capacity of concrete beam = Asfy(Moment arm) = AsfyZ a = Asfy(d .9Asfyd(1 .9(Asfy(d .80 for f’c = 5000 PSI = 0.Page 7 of 9 .75ρbal Lecture 3 .⎢0.Assuming an idealized beam.) ) 2 ⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y Mu = 0.85 for f’c < 4000 PSI = 0.000 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 87.000 + f y ⎠⎝ ⎞ ⎟ where fy = PSI ⎟ ⎠ ρmax = maximum allowable ratio of tension steel reinforcement per ACI 318 = 0.

4 KIP-IN Mu = 180.59⎜ ⎟⎥ ) 4 KSI ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ = 2161. beam wt.9Asfyd(1 . 1) ⎡ ⎛ (0. 2.1 KIP-FT > Mmax = 150 KIP-FT → beam is acceptable Lecture 3 . Determine the usable moment capacity of the beam.⎢0. REQUIRED: 1.1 KIP-FT Since Mu = 180. Factored uniform load wu = 3000 PLF (incl.44”)(1 .Page 8 of 9 . Mu. and determine if it is acceptable based on Mmax.0108)(60 KSI ) ⎞⎤ = 0.40 in2)(60 KSI)(18.Determine the usable moment capacity of the beam. Mu: ⎡ ⎛ ρ act f y Mu = 0.⎢0.9(2. Mmax.Example 2 GIVEN: The concrete beam from Example 1 is used to support the loading as shown below.59⎜ ⎜ f' ⎢ c ⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ) ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ where ρact = 0. Determine if the beam is acceptable based on ρmax. 3.) 20’-0” Step 1 – Determine maximum factored applied moment. Mmax: Mmax = wu L2 8 (3KLF )(20'−0" ) 2 8 = Mmax = 150 KIP-FT Step 2 .0108 (see Ex. Determine the maximum factored applied moment.

0285) ρmax = 0.Page 9 of 9 .0285 ρmax = 0.85β1 f ' c =⎜ ⎜ fy ⎝ ⎞⎛ 87.0214 > ρact = 0.0108 → beam is acceptable Lecture 3 .75ρbal ρbal = balanced ratio of tension steel reinforcement ⎛ 0.000 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ 87.85(0.85 since f’c = 4000 PSI 87.Step 3 – Determine if the beam is acceptable based on ρmax: ρmax = maximum allowable ratio of tension steel reinforcement per ACI 318 = 0.85)(4 KSI ) ⎞⎛ =⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ 60 KSI ⎝ ⎠⎝ 87.000 ⎞ ⎛ 0.000 + 60000 PSI ⎠ = 0.75(0.000 + f y ⎠⎝ ⎞ ⎟ where fy = PSI ⎟ ⎠ where β1 = 0.

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