# ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY

A. B. Lahanas University of Athens, Physics Department, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Athens 157 71, Greece Abstract An introduction to Electromagnetic Theory is given with emphasis on wave propagation phenomena in free space and inside wave guides. We also discuss the radiation emitted by moving electric charges, an issue which is particularly important in accelerator physics. 1. INTRODUCTION

The topics that will be covered in this lecture are the following:

¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯

Maxwell Equations Conservation of Energy - The Poynting vector Propagation of Electromagnetic (EM) Waves Power Absorption by Conducting Surfaces Propagation of EM Waves in Wave Guides Energy Flow and Power Losses in Wave Guides Potentials - Radiation by Moving Charges

All material covered in this lecture and details of the calculations involved can be found in standard textbooks (see for instance [1, 2, 3] ). In writing this lecture I have beneﬁted from lectures given in previous CERN schools ( see [4] ). 2. MAXWELL EQUATIONS system this is (1) . This is (2)

We start by reviewing Maxwell’s equations : Electric charges whose density is are the sources of the electric ﬁeld . In the ÅÃË expressed by Gauss’s law

Ö¡

¯¼ Â

½

Electric currents with density Â expressed by Ampere’s law

Ù are the sources of the magnetic induction ﬁeld

Ö¢ Ö¡

¼

Field lines of are closed. This is equivalent to the statement that there are no magnetic monopoles. Mathematically this is expressed by the equation

¼
Ø

(3)

The electromotive force around a closed circuit is proportional to the rate of change of ﬂux of the ﬁeld through the circuit (Faraday’s law ). In differential form this law is expressed by the following formula

Ö¢

(4)

Within material media having polarization È and magnetization Å the above laws still hold with the following replacements

µ

Ö¡È

Â

µ Â ·Ö¢Å · È ·¯ Ø

¼

Ø

the total force acting on it is Ù¢ (6) ´ · · µ 3. which is at rest within an electric ﬁeld. On account of eq. which is the well known Kirchoff’s current conservation law. is acting on a small wire element Ð. These two suggest that for a charge moving with velocity Ù . Maxwell equations can be brought deﬁned by into the following form · Ö¡ Ö¢ Ö¢À Â · Ø Ö¡ ¼ ¯ 2. For a continuous charge and current distribution.1 In some materials ( Linear media ) it happens that ¯ À where the quantities are called the dielectric constant and magnetic permeability of the medium respectively. ¯¼ È and À ½¼   Å respectively. In terms of the electric displacement and magnetic ﬁelds. the polarization current and the displacement current introduced by Maxwell. (6) this is given by Â¢ (7) . carrying electric current Á . Then the vanishing of this closed surface integral results to Á½ Á¾ ÁÆ . ¼ · · · ¼ 2. This conservation law is expressed by the following Continuity Equation Ö¡Â · Ø Ê ¼ (5) where is the charge density and Â Ù is the current density. For continuity equation it follows that Ö ¡ Â À the steady current case the integral Ë Â ¡ Ë over any closed surface Ë vanishes. Also the force The force acting on a charge . Actually we have never observed in the laboratory a violation of this conservation law. which is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. that is force per unit volume. In order to see its ÁÆ ﬂowing into consequence. This equation follows from Maxwell equations and it is not an independent hypothesis. If the charge density is time independent then from the . In this case we say that we have steady currents. consider the case of a surface crosing N wires carrying currents Á Á¾ ½ (or out) a node surrounded by the surface. is Á Ð ¢ . The Continuity Equation   Ø The electric charge is conserved.The Poynting vector From the previous section it becomes evident that the rate of doing work on a unit volume of the distribution is given by   ¡Ù   Ù ¢ ¡ Ù  Â ¡ (8) ´ · µ . This is the wellknown Lorentz force. The quantity Ë Â ¡ Ë represents the charge ﬂowing out of surface Ë per unit time ( this is measured in Amperes in the system MKSA ).2 The Lorentz force Ù.That is to the true charge density we have to add the polarization charge density and to the true current density we have to add the contributions of the magnetization current. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY . and Â it is convenient to deﬁne the force density .

satisfy the free wave equations.1 PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Propagation in nonconducting media ( ¯ The quantity Ê ¯ ÎÂ¡ Î Ê ´ Ë ´Î µ Æ ¡ Ë gives the ﬂux of EM energy across the boundary is the power dissipated. within a conductor of given conductivity Ê Ê Â¾ Î becomes Î Î . we get (12) Ø · Ë ´Î µ Æ¡ Ë   Î Â¡ Î In this equation ¯ The ﬁrst term is the rate of change of the Electromagnetic Energy (EM) energy Ê ½ ¡ ¡ À Î within the volume .h. this is indeed the l. given by Ö Ù ¯ ½ (14) . (12). Î ¾ Î the current density is Â and As an example. One can ¾ wellknown form Á Ê . Furthermore if the conductor is a wire of constant cross therefore Î Â ¡ Â Ë and the previous integral receives the section Ë and length Ä . (9) over an arbitrary volume Î . for the dielectric constant and the magnetic permeability respectively.Using Maxwell equations. and after some trivial mathematical manipulations. 4. · µ Î Ë´Îµ . or generated. the right hand side of this equation can be written as Â¡ ¡´ Ø   Ö¢À µ ¡ Ø   À ¡ Ö ¢ · Ö ¡ ´ ¢ Àµ ¡ Ø · À ¡ Ø · Ö ¡ ´ ¢ Àµ In Linear Media this takes the form Ï Ø In (9) the quantities ·Ö¡Æ  Â ¡ (9) Ï Æ are the Energy density and the Poynting vector respectively deﬁned by Ï Æ Î ½ ´ ¡ · ¡À µ ¾ ¢À (10) (11) Integrating eq. within the volume V. 4. The waves travel with velocity Ù electric and magnetic ﬁelds. where Ê is the resistance of the wire element given by Ê Ë easily verify that except its sign. their right hand sides are absent and the . of eq. In a medium with values ¯ we can derive from Maxwell laws the following equations ¼) Ö   ¯ Ø Ö   ¯ Ø ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Â Ø · ½Ö ¯ (13)   Ö¢Â In regions where there are no charge and current distributions. .s. whose boundary is Ë ´Î µ . the electric current is Á Ä .

both perpendicular to the direction of the propagation Ò E0 k 1 B0 = _ k X E 0 ω Fig. In the following we shall use complex notation and write the electric component of a plane wave as ¼ ÜÔ ´ ¡ Ü   Øµ The physical electric ﬁeld measured in the laboratory is meant to be the real part of this expression. Õ ¿¼¼ ¼¼¼ ÃÑ × The plane waves are particular solutions of (13) in regions where sources are absent. one can immediately arrive at Ø the following relations for the wave number and the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic components: ¼ · ¼ ¡ ¼ ¼ ¼ ½ ¢ ¼ (15) Eqs. (15) state that the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of a plane wave are perpendicular to each other and in the sense shown in ﬁgure 1 . related to the magnitude Ù is called the wave number and is related to the wave length ¾ by the relation Using Gauss’s. This monochromatic pulse is a solution when the frequency is linearly of the wave vector . The wave front is the plane formed by the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds respectively . This is the convention that we will use throughout. from Ø · ¯ ¼ . In this expression ¼ is the amplitude of the electric ﬁeld.½ In vacuo this is usually denoted by the symbol and has the value ¯¼ ¼ ³ In regions where there are nonvanishing charge and current distributions the right hand sides of eqs. 1: A plane wave propagating along . wave vector and its frequency. and Faraday’s law.2 Propagation within a conductor ( Within a conductor the electric current density and the electric ﬁeld are related by Â Then from the continuity equation one has which it follows that Ö ¡ Â Ö¡ ¯ ¼) . ¼ ¼ 4. A similar expression holds for the magnetic ﬁeld too with its ¼ replaced by ¼ respectively. Ö ¢ . Ö ¡ . (13) are non-vanishing too and are the sources of the electromagnetic waves.

(13). (19). becomes Ö   ¯ Ø   ¾ ¾ ¾ Ø ¼ Notice the appearance of a “friction” term for monochromatic solutions of the form the form where Ã ¾ ¯ . However now the magnetic ﬁeld has a phase difference of ¼ from its . Their analytic expresions are not presented here. corresponding electric component ½· . All of them have moved to its . the higher the permeability and the frequency. ÜÔ´ µ As an example for copper for a frequency ½¼¼ ÅÀÞ . In this case (17) reduces to an ordinary plane For a very good conductor. This can be immediately solved to yield. The constants « ¬ . If we seek Ü   Ø . 2. For perfect conductors. In this case the constants tivity is large so that the range of frequencies with « ¬ are given by « ³ ¬ ³ Æ ½ . (17) that inside a good conductor : The ﬁeld is attenuated in the direction of the propagation and its magnitude decreases exponentially   Æ as it penetrates into the conductor. but not perfect. have dimensions of where . so that the relaxation time is vanishing. see eq. where Æ is a constant called the Skin Depth . These regard the case of an isolator and the case of a very good conductor respectively. conductors is small of the order of  ½ or so. 3]). The depth of the penetration is set by Æ and is smaller the higher the conductivity. (16) we conclude that charges move ¯ is called the relaxation time of the almost instantly to the surface of the conductor.which is immediately solved to yield ½ ½ For good conductors ¯ so that from the eq. given by the following expression Ö Æ ¾ (18) Therefore we see from eq. For conducting medium. ¼ . the conduc¯ is quite broad. For times much larger than the relaxation time there are practically no charges inside the conductor. ¢ ½¼ Ñ Ó Ñ  ½ and the skin depth is Æ ³ ¼ ¢ ½¼  Ñ ¿ In order to close this section. and certainly this includes the case of a perfect conductor. However we can distinguish two particular cases in which their forms are simpliﬁed a great deal. These can be traced in any standard functions of book of Electromagnetic Theory (see for instance [1. we point out that the magnetic ﬁeld within the conductor is related to the electric ﬁeld by the following relation À ½Ô Ö · ¾ Ò¢ (19) À are perpendicular to each other and to the As in the case of the nonconducting materials both direction of propagation Ò . for a plane wave solution travelling along an arbitrary direction Ò. surface where they form a charge density ´Ü Øµ ½¼ ×   ´Ü ¼µ ÜÔ ´  ¯ Ø µ ½¼ × (16) ¦ Within a conductor the wave equation for the vector ﬁeld . appearing in (17). ´«   Øµ   ¬ (17) ´ · µ ´ µ ÜÔ ´ µ Ö · Ã ´Üµ ¼ ¾ ¾ ¼ Ø which was absent in the free wave equation. good. and « For an isolator wave which is propagating with wave vector ÐÒØ ¼ ¬ Ò . then the equation above takes on  ½ and are Ò ¡ Ü . due to the appearance of the prefactor in eq. The ratio ½.

For the derivation of these In (20) boundary conditions see [1. the normal electric component. 2: Fields near the surface of a perfect (left) and a good (right) conductor. denoted by Ì and respectively. σ = oo H || ET H|| ET σ < oo E || HT HT E || . POWER ABSORPTION BY CONDUCTING SURFACES and . Fig. In particular we will be interested in the case where . . conductor Ð Ö ½ then within it À and attenuated. Thus only Ì À . . but not perfect. . On its surface but they are much smaller in comparison with their ÀÌ corresponding Ì À components. If Ò is a unit vector normal to the surface ( with Consider a surface separating two media ) then from Maxwell equations one can derive the following boundary conditions direction from for the normal ( = vertical to the surface) and the parallel components of the ﬁelds involved. is a conductor while the other. ¾ ½ ½ ¾   Ì À  À Ì ½ ¾ ½ ¾ ¦ Ã ½ ¾ Ì ½ Ì ¾ (20) is the surface charge density and Ã is the surface current density.. A A || AT ^ n "1" "2" . say the medium In this case direct application of these conditions yields : ¦ ¾ ½ ¯ ¯ If is a perfect conductor ½ then within it À in which case on its ÀÌ . 2. 2. In this case only Ì . ¾ ¾ ¼ ´ µ ´ ¼ ¼ ¼ µ ¼ The conditions on the surface of a perfect and a good conductor are shown in ﬁg. is a nonconducting material. These conditions are extremely useful in order to know how the ﬁelds behave near the surface separating the two media. The components are as shown on the top ﬁgure. 5. 3]. surface If is a good. one of the media. is discontinuous across the surface.

is small due to the largeness of the conductivity . relating the electric and magnetic ﬁelds within a conductor.Since À is continuous and (see previous section) À ÀÌ on the surface. and no power is absorbed . PROPAGATION OF EM WAVES IN WAVE GUIDES A wave guide is a metalic open ended tube of arbitrary cross sectional shape. The tube can be ﬁlled with a nondissipative medium characterized by dielectric constant ¯ and magnetic permeability . (22) both À refer to values on the surface. (25 . (19). we conclude that within a good conductor À ³ À ÜÔ ´ Æ   Øµ ÜÔ´   Æµ (21) where À is the value on the surface of the conductor and is the distance from the surface. Suppose that the axis of the guide lies along the Þ direction. Then for monochromatic waves of given travelling along Þ we can write frequency ´Ü Øµ ´Ü Øµ ¾ ´Ü Ý µ ´Ü Ý µ   ´ ´ Þ  Øµ Þ  Øµ (25) (26) In eqs. 3. Under certain conditions EM waves can propagate along its axis. we get ½Ô Ö ³   ¾ Ò¢À (22) In eq. ½ . ¾ Ý ¾ · ¾ ¾ ´Ü Ý µ ´Ü Ý µ ¼ (27) ¯ ¾ Ù¾ We shall distinguish the following special modes of propagation: . (24) that ¯ For perfect conductors. Then using (22) we get from (23) the walls. Then from eq. Therefore the time averaged power absorbed per unit area is ÈÐÓ××  Ò¡ Æ (23) Ë From this we see that only the component of Æ normal to the surface is responsible for power losses to ¢ À £ µ . This small tangential component of the electric ﬁeld on the surface of a good conductor is responsible for power ﬂow into the conductor ! In order to calculate the power absorbed by the walls of a conductor we ﬁrst need calculate the value of the Poynting vector. 6. 26) the quantity is called the wave propagation constant. When these are plugged into the free wave equations they yield Ü where ¾ ¾ ¾ · . Its time average over a cycle. This is given by ½ Ê ´ ¾ ÈÐÓ×× Ë ½ Ê ´ ¢ À£ µ ¾ where Ê ´ µ denotes the real part of the expression ´ µ while À £ stands for the complex congugate of Æ ½Ö ¾ ¾ À ¾ (24) One immediately observes from eq. is found to be given by À . ¯ À on the surface is only needed to calculate the power absorbed by the walls of the conductor. A rectangular wave guide is shown in ﬁg.

cannot support propagation of TEM waves. Suppose that we want to ﬁnd the TE propagation transverse dimensions . in which case there is no longitudinal component of the magnetic ﬁeld. it can be shown that in the TE and TM modes the transverse components of the EM ﬁelds are expressed in terms of their longitudinal compoments alone . and using Maxwell’s equations. Þ . Splitting the electric and magnetic ﬁeld in this way. as shown in ﬁgure 3. 3: A rectangular wave guide. that of the rectangular wave guide with . in which there is no longitudinal component. The latter are determined from the wave equations (27). are as given below Ì ÑÓ ×  ´   Ø ÌÅ ÑÓ × ¾ ¾ µ Þ ¢ ÖØ ÀÞ Þ ÀØ Ø ´ ´ ¾     ¾ µ ÖØ ÀÞ µ ÖØ Þ ÀØ ´ ¾   ¯ ¾ µ Þ ¢ ÖØ ¾ ¾ In the following we shall work out a particular example. . ¼ Ú ÖÝÛ Ö Any vector ﬁeld can be written as Ø ·Þ Þ that is it can be decomposed into its parallel and its transverse component with respect the axis Þ . In this case we have ÀÞ ÞË Transverse ElectroMagnetic (TEM) in which both electric and magnetic components are transverse to the wave guide axis. Thus for the TE modes we have ¼ Þ ¼ Ú ÖÝÛ Ö ¼ Ú ÖÝÛ Ö ¯ ¯ ÀÞ Ò Ë ¼ ¼ Transverse Magnetic (TM). ¯ Transverse Electric (TE). Thus Þ ÀÞ It can be proven that a hollow wave guide. The explicit formulae relating the transverse to the longitudinal components. subject to the appropriate boundary conditions as given before. the appropriate boundary conditions on the walls of the guide dictate Besides having Þ that the directional derivative of the z-components of the magnetic ﬁeld on the conducting wall vanishes. of the electric ﬁeld. whose walls are perfect conductors. in the TE and TM modes.Fig.

In this case Þ wave equation ¼ and we only need calculate ÀÞ . 7. For each mode there is a cut-off frequency . that is larger than its free space value. The phase velocity ÙÔ is larger than Ù . ENERGY FLOW AND POWER LOSSES IN WAVE GUIDES The time averaged Electromagnetic Energy per unit length of the guide. The cut-off frequency is given by ´ µ for each mode characterized by the integers Ù Thus in each TE mode. and hence parallel to the surface Ë . we have that . On the other hand the rate of ﬂow ¼ of energy transmitted through this area is ÈØÖ Ò× Ë¼ ÆÞ Ë . and the frequency is ¯ We further observe that The relation between the wave propagation constant ´½   ¾ ¾ µ ½ ¾ ½ ¯ ¯ Thus for a given frequency the wavelength is larger than its free space value. labelled by Ñ¾ ¾ · Ò¾ ¾ ´Ñ Ù Ò µ. therefore the guide behaves like a dispersive medium. The Ü Ý axes are ¼ vertical to the axis of the guide. Ë . The group velocity is Ù ÖÓÙÔ Ù´½   ¾ ¾ µ ½ ¾ This is frequency dependent. over a period easily found to be given by Ì ¾ . The value of less than unity and frequency dependent.modes. is Í ½ Ë¼ ´¯ ¡ £ · À ¡ À£ µ Ü Ý In this equation the integration is over the cross-sectional area of the guide. From (27 ) we see that this satisﬁes the ¾ Ü¾ · ¾ Ý¾ · Ü Ø ¾ ÀÞ ¼ ´ ÀÞ Ý Ý Ø ¾ ¾ Ù¾   ¾ µ subject to the appropriate boundary conditions for the TE modes ÀÞ Ü The solutions are: ¼ ¼ ¼ Ý Òµ ÁÒØ Ò¾ ¾ ÀÞ Ø ¾ À¼ ¾ Ó× ´ ¾ ¾ Ü Ñµ ¾ Ó× ´ ´Ñ · ¾ ¾ Ò¾ µ ¾ Ñ Ò Ö× The last relation yields Ù¾ · Ö ´Ñ · ¾ ¾ µ from which it is seen that there is cut-off frequency Ñ Ò . Ù as function of the frequencies for the The situation is best displayed in ﬁgure 4 where we plot the Ù is always various TE modes allowed.

From these two one can ﬁnd that ´ Ý Ò× £ ÀÜ µ is the time-averaged z-component of the Poynting ÍÙ ÖÓÙÔ ÈØÖ (28) that is power is transmitted with the group velocity ! For perfectly conducting walls all energy is transmitted down the guide. (30) is easily solved to yield ÈØÖ Ò× ´Þµ ÈØÖ Ò× ´¼µ  ÃÞ (31) from which the physical meaning of the attenuation constant becomes manifest.conducting walls energy is dissipated in Ohmic losses and ﬂow is attenuated ! A useful quantity which can be used to describe Ohmic losses is the attenuation constant deﬁned as the ratio of the power loss per unit length of the guide to power transmitted through the guide.but not perfect . (29) the numerator expresses the power absorbed per unit lenght of the wall which using eq. 4: Ù versus frequency for the various TE modes allowed in the rectangular wave guide. However for good . one ﬁnds that the power transmitted down the guide at the point having coordinate Þ to the corresponding quantity at Þ through the relation ½ ¾ ¾ · ÈØÖ Ò× ´Þ· Þµ   ÈØÖ Ò× ´Þµ   ÍÛÞ ÐÐ× Þ (30) The situation is graphically represented in ﬁgure 5 where for a slice of width Þ . Therefore. we show the energy ﬂow and the power absorbed by the conducting walls. ½ £ ÆÞ Ê where Ü ÀÝ   ¾ vector. using energy conservaÞ is related tion. for copper guides for instance in the . To have an estimate of the magnitude of Ã . In formula this is given by ÍÛ ÐÐ× Ã ÈØÖ Ò× (29) ´ Þ µ In eq. of arbitrary crosssectional shape. (24) is found to be Ö ÍÛ ÐÐ× ¾ À Ë Þ Ë In this equation the integration is over a wall stripe Ë of unit width . From (31) we see that the energy ﬂow through the guide is attenuated exponentially and the attenuation is governed by the parameter Ã .1 u kg ω ωc ω Fig. Eq.

Thus the power transmitted is decreased to its The following example may be instructive in order to understand the basic notions given in this section : Example For the rectangular wave guide of ﬁgure 3 and for the (m. 5: Slice of width dz of a wave guide of arbitrary cross-sectional shape.0) TE mode calculate : A) The Ü Ý components of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds.Fig. C) The attenuation constant Ã . À Ü Ý and A) From the formulae relating ÀÞ Ü Ý to the remaining components of Ü Ý using the solutions ÀÞ found in the previous section we ﬁnd in a straightforward manner that ´ µ Ý ´ µ ´ µ Ü ¼ ¼ ÆÞ À¼ Ù¾ ¾ ×Ò´ Ü Ü µ ÀÝ ÀÜ   À À¼ ¾ ´ Ü Ý À¼ ¾ ´ ¼ Ù¾ ¾ ×Ò´ µ ×Ò ´ ¾ µ Ü B) The time-averagez z-component of the Poynting vector is easily found to be Ù¾ ¾ ¾ µ ¾ which when integrated over the cross sectional area yields ÈØÖ Ò× ¼ ¼ ÆÞ À¼ ¾ ´ µ´ Ù¾ µ The averaged power per unit slice is Í indeed Ù ÖÓÙÔ as expected. we have that On the other hand at the walls which are located at Ý and thus ÍÛ ÐÐ× ¾ ÍÛ ÐÐ× ´Ü Þ ¼ µ ¼ ´ À¼ À¼ ¾ ´ Ý µ À ¾ ¾ ¾ . ¿¼± ¾¼¼ ¼¼ Ã ½¼  . we have ÀÞ ¾ · ÀÜ ¾ Þ ´Ý ¼ µ µ´½ · ¾ Æ µ . C) At the walls located at these walls is µ´ À ¾ ¾ ¾ µ and thus the ratio of ÈØÖ Ò× to Í is ÀÞ ¾ and the power dissipated at Æ Ü ¼ Ü . dU is the energy absorbed by the conducting walls of the slice. P(z). microwave region Ã turns out to be after   Ñ. B) The power transmitted down the guide. P(z+dz) represent the energy ﬂow entering and leaving the surfaces located at the points z and z+dz respectively.n)=(1.

one arrives at the following conclusion for the attenuation Ã Ö¯ ½ ´ µ Æ Ë¼ · ´ µ ¾ ´½   ´ µ ½ ¾ ¾ ¾ µ ½ ¾ In this expression : ¯ is the circumference of the guide. Only the values of the parameters on the particular characteristics of the wave guide under consideration.time coordinates Ø Ü under Lorentz transformations. ¯ Ë¼ is its cross sectional area. Using this one obtains We start from the equation Ö ¡ are called the “scalar ” and “vector” potentials from the Faraday’s law  Ö   Ø . due to the vanishing of the parameter in these modes. respectively. ¨ ¼ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¼ In these the function is an arbitrary function of space and time. ¯ Æ is the skin depth at the cut-off frequency . one can choose the potentials in such a way that they satisfy £ · Ö£ ¨¼ Ö¡ · ½ ¨ Ø ¾ ¾ ¾ ¨  £ Ø ¼ where ¾ equations” ½ ¯ . ¨ ´ ¨ µ For a charge Õ moving in free space on a given trajectory for the scalar and vector potentials are : Ü ´Øµ ¼ with velocity Ù ´Ø µ the solutions ¨ ´Ü Ø µ ¯¼  ½ Õ × ´Ü Ø µ ÕÙ × . shape and equal to Ñ Ò ¼ ¿ 8.From these and constant ÈØÖ Ò× found previously. POTENTIALS . This is called Lorentz Gauge. Exploiting this gauge freedom. We should point out that the above expression for the attenuation constant is a general result valid for any Ë¼ depend wave guide of arbitrary cross sectional shape. For a given geometry the value of the frequency Ñ Ò minimizing Ã yields the frequency for which power losses are theÔ least possible. Equivalents descriptions can be also obtained if one uses a by the following transformations known as Gauge new set of potentials ¼ ¼ that are related to transformations Knowledge of the radiation emitted by moving electric charges is of utmost importance for particle accelerator physicists ( and not only!). for the guide at hand. Especially for the TM modes we have . for the rectangular wave guide under consideration. These are not uniquely deﬁned. A relatively easy way to obtain the ﬁelds of the moving charges is through the deﬁnition of the potentials that they produce. For the TM modes the value of Ñ Ò is independent of the .RADIATION BY MOVING CHARGES which implies that Ö ¢ . We should perhaps point out that the quartet ½ that is transforms like the space . hence larger frequencies result to greater power For large frequencies Ã behaves like Ã losses. ¾´ · µ ½ ¾ . equal to · and ¾· respectively for the particular guide. ¯ are dimensionless numbers. In this gauge the potentials satisfy the following “wave Ö   ½ Ø ¾ ¾ ¨ ´ µ   ¯   Â Given the charge and current densities these can be solved to yield and from these one can derive is a “four vector” the Electromagnetic ﬁelds.

¯ The symbol means that the quantities within the brackets are evaluated at the retarded time ØÊ Ø   Ê´ØÊ µ . Therefore the energy ﬂux due to this ﬁrst term. The electric component consists of two terms: The ﬁrst term varies like Ö½¾ for large distances giving rise to a“Poynting vector” that behaves like Æ Ê Ö . ¼ . Unlike the previous case its contribution ½ to the “Poynting vector” is now Æ Ö¾ and the energy ﬂow over an inﬁnitely distant surface is nonvanishing. Õ ¯ In terms of ÊÙ . 6: Position parameters for the ﬁeld of a charge in arbitrary motion. These solutions are called Lienard In these equations the quantity × is given by × Wiechert potentials. Notice that this term is absent when Ù . × ÊÙ ½   ´ Ù´ØÊ µ µ × Ò . In this case we have “ No falls like ËÖ Æ ¡ Ë radiation” . Before proceeding we should draw the reader’s attention to the following points ( See ﬁgure 6 ): ¯ Ø Ü refer to the “observation time and point.x . ½ ½ ½ The second term behaves like Ö at large distances. over a spherical surface of large radius Ö¾ and hence vanishes as the radius Ö tends to ½. Therefore the second term results to “ Radiation”. Ê   Ù¡Ê . ¾ ¾ ¾ From these potentials one can derive the expressions of the Electromagnetic ﬁelds which are given by ¯¼ ×¿ ½ Ê¢ Ê Õ ½ ÊÙ ´ ½   Ù µ · ½ Ê ¢ ´ ÊÙ ¢ Ù µ ¾ ¾ ¾ (32) (33) In these equations the quantities × Ù Ù Ê are calculated at the retarded time ØÊ . t Observer’s position / time x Ru R(tR) ψ u(tR) x (tR) Particle position at retarded time t R Virtual position of particle at the time ‘t’ Particle trajectory Fig. Thus only accelerated charges can radiate electromagnetic energy. that is the time the signal was emitted from the moving charge.

We observe that ¯ The transverse component Ì is larger than its longitudinal component ( the one parallel to Ù ) . Another way of obtaining the Electromagnetic ﬁelds in this case. Ù . is by applying a Lorentz transformation Ä  Ù . In ﬁgure 7 we show the electric ﬁeld lines of a uniformly moving charge whose velocity is Ù. to the observation point and is the angle between Ê Ø and particle’s velocity Ù. That is its form is exactly like that of the Coulomb ﬁeld produced by a point charge. ¯ ¯ For ultrarelativistic particles Ì ½.E ψ u Fig. 33).2 The energy radiated by an accelerated charge For an accelerated charged particle the total amount of energy lost per unit particle’s time is found to be È ¬ Õ¾ ¯¼ Ù ­ ¬ ­ ¾   ´ ¬¢¬ µ ¾ ¾ (34) ½ ¾ ´ ½   ¬ µ  .1 The ﬁelds of a uniformly moving charge For a charge moving with constant velocity Ù. 8. the electric ﬁeld is Õ¯¼ Ê¿ . that is the ﬁeld is almost vertical to its direction of motion. to the ﬁelds of a static charge. the electromagnetic ﬁelds produced can be calculated using eqs. ´ µ 8. The electric component is given by ´Ü Øµ ´µ Õ Ê´Øµ ¯¼ Ê´Øµ¿ ´½   Ù ´µ ´½   Ù ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ×Ò µ µ ¿ ¾ In this Ê Ø is the the vector pointing from the particle’s true position. (32 . Ê For the nonrelativistic particle. at the observation time Ø. speciﬁed by velocity  Ù . In that case we need know how the Electromagnetic ﬁelds are transformed when passing from one coordinate system to the other. 7: The Electric ﬁeld lines of a uniformly moving charge.

¬. (39) ¾ ¡Í ¿ (39) is ­ Ê Ù . then ¾ Ü is Õ ´Õ µ ´ µ (38) Õ¾ ¯¼ Ñ¼ ¾ . For an electron for instance ¾ ¾ ½¼  Ñ Ñ ½½ Å Î while typical energy gains are less than ½¼ Î Ñ Ø Ö . Therefore the value of ½¼  Ö¼ ½¿ ¼ ¾ Ð ØÖÓÒ ½¿ for an electron is that is quite small. on account of eq. as shown below È È ¾ Õ¾ Õ¾ ´ Ôµ ¯¼ Ñ¾ ¿ Ø ¼ ¾ ¾ Õ Õ Ô ¾ ­¾ ´ µ ¯¼ Ñ¾ ¿ Ø ¼ a) Motion of the particle in a linear orbit as it occurs in Linear Accelerators. The constant ­ Ê ´ Ñ µ and thus ¼ ¾ . for relativistic motion. (34). (35) and (36) we see that : ¯ For given magnitude of applied force the radiated power in circular orbit is a factor of ­¾ larger ! ¯ The power emitted is inverse proportional to the mass squared of the radiating particle. in order to maintain the particle at constant velocity external forces should supply these power losses. In this case ¬ ¬ . (35) (36) From eqs. In that case ¬ The power radiated in the two cases and can be written. From this equation In (38) Ö¼ is the charge’s “classical radius” given by Ö¼ we see that the radiation loss will be unimportant unless the gain in energy is of the order of Ñ ¾ in a ¼ distance of Ö¼ . The ratio of the power radiated to the power supplied. The situation is quite different in circular accelerators.In the following we shall discuss two cases which are of of relevance to particle accelerators. b) Motion in a circular orbit as it occurs for instance in Circular Accelerators. Then the energy lost per revolution is ¡Í Ì ¡È where Ì is the period of the revolution Ì for relativistic motion we get from eq. Therefore heavier particles radiate less ! Ü where Ñ¼ ­ ¾ is the energy of the charge and For the linear motion Ô Ø Ô Ñ¼ Ù ­ its linear momentum. When the charge moves in a circular orbit the magnitude of the force acting on it is given by Ô Ø where Ñ¼ ­ Ê Ñ¼ ­Ù¾ Ê Ö¼ ¿ ¬ ­ Ê Ñ¼ ¾ Ù¾ Ê is the acceleration and the orbit radius. is found to be ´ È Øµ ½ ¾ ¿ Ö¼ Ñ¼ Õ¾ Ñ¼ ¯¼ Ñ¼ ¾ ¾ ´ Ü µ and is written as (37) If the energy is supplied by an external electric ﬁeld . Since the particle looses energy.

OXFORD. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the organizers for giving me the opportunity to participate and enjoy the pleasant atmosphere of the school. New York (Second Edition 1975). For protons the corresponding energy loss is energies ¡ ÍÔÖÓØÓÒ× Ñ ´ ÑÔ µ ¡ Í ¡Í ´ Îµ ½ ½¼  Î These energy losses should be compared to the power gained per turn. A. and for beam ½ Ì Î . yields ¡ Í ¾ ½¼ Î . [2] W. [4] C. Jackson. Phillips. Prior. that is close to LEP size at CERN. McGraw . . September 1998. [3] J. Electromagnetic Theory.Hill (1941). References [1] J. Classical Electrodynamics John Wiley.Thus energy losses in circular orbits are proportional to the fourth power of the energy and inverse proportional to the radius. Stratton.Wesley (1964). D. Panofsky and M. Addison . For electrons the energy lost per revolution is found to be much smaller since ½¼  ´ Î µ Ê ´Ñ Ø Ö×µ which for a circular accelerator of radius Ê ¼¼ Ñ. and the available radiofrequency to overcome such losses is a dominant factor which should be taken into consideration. Lectures given at the CERN Introductory Accelerator School. Classical Electricity and Magnetism.