1.

Study the passage and data below and then answer the questions that follow.
Grazing in the Serengeti grassland
The Serengeti is a huge area of tropical grassland in Tanzania. Herds of grazing mammals, such
as wildebeest, gazelle and zebra, roam freely. Every year, these herds migrate across the
Serengeti, in search of fresh grassland. The grazing mammals affect the primary productivity of
the grassland. Long-term research has found that the rate of primary production is linked to
both the rainfall and the numbers of grazing mammals.

-

Figure 1
Map of Africa showing
the location of the Serengeti

Figure 2
A wildebeast,
one of the
many
types of
grazing
mammal found
in the Serengeti

Grazing can increase the growth rate of many grass species. This is called compensatory
growth. The grazing mammals remove the upper parts of the grass leaves and this increases the
amount of light reaching the rest of the plant. The smaller leaf area reduces transpiration and
this decreases the uptake of water by the roots. Researchers investigated compensatory growth
of grasses in a region of the Serengeti. They fenced off several areas to prevent mammals from
grazing the grass. During the annual migration, thousands of wildebeest moved into the study
region where they grazed intensively for 4 days and then moved on. The researchers recorded
the changes in the fresh biomass of the grasses in the grazed and ungrazed areas over the next
32 days (Figure 3). A further investigation studied the effect of grazing intensity on primary
productivity (Figure 4).

1

Figure 3
Table showing the fresh biomass over a 32 day period on grazed and ungrazed grassland.
Day I is the first day after the wildebeest moved on.

F re s h b io m a s s / g m

D ay

–2

G ra z e d

U n g ra z e d

1

50

430

8

55

420

16

100

380

24

120

350

32

200

300

Figure 4
Graph to show the effect of grazing intensity
on the primary productivity of Serengeti grassland
P ro d u c tiv ity / g m

–2

year

–1

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

0 .0

0 .1

0 .2

0 .3

0 .4

0 .5

0 .6

0 .7

G r a z in g in te n s ity / a r b itr a r y u n its

0 .8

(a)

Define the terms biomass and productivity.
Biomass
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
Productivity
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)
Using the data in Figure 3, calculate the mean rate of change of fresh
biomass per day, for both the grazed and ungrazed grassland, between days 1 and
32. Show your working.

Grazed grassland.........................................
Ungrazed grassland.....................................
(4)

(ii)

Suggest why the fresh biomass of grass in the ungrazed area decreased.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

3

(c)

Study the information provided in Figure 4
(i)

What is the optimum grazing intensity for Serengeti grassland?
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Suggest reasons for the very low levels of primary productivity at the highest
grazing intensity (0.8 arbitrary units).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

In the Serengeti, lions are the top consumers. Suggest and explain how a fall in the
number of lions could affect the Serengeti food chain and grassland productivity.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(e)

The grazing mammals have an important role to play in the recycling of nutrients on the
grassland. Their dung is rich in organic nitrogen-containing compounds. Describe how
these compounds are converted to nitrates.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 20 marks)

2.

Scientists estimate that the atmosphere holds 755 gigatonnes (Gt) of carbon, mostly as carbon
dioxide. This value is increasing each year as a result of human activities, such as the burning of
fossil fuels and of timber. The diagram below shows a simplified “balance sheet” of the carbon
cycle for one year.
93 G t

5 .5 G t
B u r n in g o f
fo s s il fu e ls
V o lc a n ic
e ru p tio n s

0 .1 G t

A tm o s p h e ric
c a rb o n (7 5 5 G t)

O c e a n ic
p ro cesses
90 G t

1 .6 G t
B u rn in g
o f tim b e r

120 G t
R e s p ira tio n

121 G t

P h o to s y n th e s is

5

(a)

Calculate the increase in atmospheric carbon during this year. Show your working.

Answer ..............................................................
(3)

(b)

Describe and explain how carbon can be removed from the terrestrial (land based) part of
the cycle for long lengths of time.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

By reference to the information in the cycle, suggest reasons for the net effect of oceanic
processes on the carbon content of the atmosphere.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(d)

Suggest how the quantities of carbon dioxide released by the combustion of fossil fuels
could be reduced.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

7

3.

The table below shows the size of the populations, and the numbers and percentages of the
population that are infected with HIV, in five southern African countries.
Country

Population
(thousands)

Population
aged 15–49
(thousands)

South Africa

39 900

20 982

4 200

Botswana

1 597

786

290

Namibia

1 695

795

Lesotho

2 108
980

Swaziland

(a)

HIV
% of total
infected
population
people
with HIV
(thousands)

% of adults
with HIV

% of female
adults
aged 15–49
with HIV

10.5

20.0

54.8

18.2

35.8

51.2

160

19.5

53.1

1 000

240

23.6

54.2

468

130

25.3

51.5

13.3

Complete the table by calculating the percentage of the total population with HIV in
Namibia and Lesotho.
(1)

(b)

Using the information in the table, explain the significance of the percentage of females
aged 15 to 49 who are infected with HIV.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Suggest how the structure of the population of South Africa will change in the future.
Explain your answer.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

4.

Coral reefs are formed and maintained by very large numbers of simple animals called polyps.
These polyps have single-celled algae (simple photosynthetic organisms) living inside their
cells.
It is thought that when the sea is too warm the relationship between the coral polyps and the
algae breaks down, and the reef begins to look white (becomes bleached). If the sea temperature
falls again within a few weeks then the coral polyps and the algae reunite. If it does not, then the
coral polyps die.
In 1998, 16% of the world’s coral reefs showed some bleaching. Half of these damaged reefs
are now recovering.
The Great Barrier Reef off the east coast of Australia has been badly bleached in the last few
years. The average sea temperature on the reef has increased by 0.3 °C in the last century. It is
feared that southern and central sections of the Great Barrier Reef are likely to be severely
affected by sea temperature rises in the next 20-40 years.

(a)

Name a method by which global sea temperatures can be monitored.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Suggest how the algae normally help the coral polyps to survive.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Some recovery in the Great Barrier Reef may be taking place at present. Suggest a
possible explanation for this, other than change in sea temperature.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

9

5.

The possible effects of global warming on the growth of Arctic shrubs were investigated using
small portable greenhouses in which dwarf birch trees were grown.
(a)

Suggest three factors, other than temperature, which would be affected by enclosing a
plot of land inside one of these greenhouses.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
3 ..................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

The diagram below shows the wood of one of the dwarf birch trees used in the
experiment, as seen in transverse section under a microscope. Inorganic ions (fertiliser)
were added to the soil while the tree was growing. The white arrows indicate the wood
that was formed just before the fertiliser was added.

(i)

Name the method by which tree rings can be used to make deductions about the
climate in the past.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Describe the change in growth following the addition of the fertiliser.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Describe a technique which could be used to provide evidence that dwarf birch became
more abundant 9000 years ago during an earlier period of global warming.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

...........................................................................................................................

(d)

Explain why a large increase in growth of trees may help to reduce the amount of global
warming in future.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

11

(e)

Explain why an increase in the temperature of the soil (such as that due to global
warming) would affect the decay of plant material in Arctic soils.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

6.

The graph below shows changes in the biomass of trees during 240 years at a site undergoing
–1
primary succession. Biomass was measured in tonnes per hectare (tonnes ha ).
3

5

0

3 0 0 –
B i o m
a s s /
t o n n e s
h a
2 5 0 –
H
2

0

0

S

1

5

0

W

1

0

0

5

0
0

p

l o

r u

s p

r u

c

c e

i l l o
l d

c k

w

e r


0

4
T

(a)

A

e m

i m

e

0
s i n

8
c e

0
s u

1 2 0
c c e s s i o

1
n

b

6
e g

0

2
a n

Using the information in the graph, explain the meaning of the term succession.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

/ y

0

0
e a

(b)

Describe the changes in the total biomass of the trees between 0 and 240 years.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

Suggest why hemlock spruce is not present until 160 years after the start of the
succession.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

7.

(a) Describe a technique for determining the abundance of a named organism in a
habitat that you have studied.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

13

(b)

Mussels are animals found on rocky seashores. They are enclosed in two hard shells that
can be clamped together very tightly. Adult mussels attach themselves firmly to the rocks
and do not move around.

Ecoscene/Kevin King

A study was carried out to investigate the distribution of mussels on a rocky shore that
has a freshwater stream running across it into the sea. The sea level rises and falls twice
every day, between low water level A and high water level B. The sketch map below
shows the shore between the low water level and the high water level, the freshwater
stream and the six sites where the adult mussels were sampled.

The numbers of mussels found at each of the sites are shown in the table below.
Site
Number of
mussels

(i)

1

2

3

4

5

6

3

5

15

22

20

2

Describe how the freshwater stream affects the distribution of the mussels.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

15

(ii)

Suggest two possible reasons for this distribution.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Mussels are preyed upon by marine snails called dog whelks. A dog whelk crawls on to a
mussel and takes one or two days to make a hole in the shell before it can eat the mussel
inside.

Life size
Ecoscene/Chinch Gryniewicz

The numbers of dog whelks found at each of the sites are shown in the table below.
Site
Number of
dog whelks

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

0

0

4

Suggest how the abiotic and biotic factors referred to in this question determine the
distribution of the dog whelks on this seashore.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

17

8.

Measurements were made of the rate of energy flow in an ecosystem. The results are shown in
the table below.
–2

Energy/ kJ m yr

(a)

Energy fixed by
photosynthesis

1.9 × 10

Energy used in plant
respiration

1.1 × 10

Energy in new biomass of
primary consumers

0.1 × 10

(i)
working.

–1

4

4

4

Calculate the net primary productivity in this ecosystem. Show your

Answer ...............................
(2)

(ii)

Use the information in the table and your answer from (a)(i)
to calculate the
percentage efficiency of energy transfer from the plants to the primary consumers.
Show your working.

Answer ...............................
(2)

(b)

Give two reasons why not all of the energy fixed by the plants can be used to form
biomass in the consumers.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

9.

Wiithin Lake Washington, two distinct populations of salmon are evolving. The populations
live in different areas of the lake and breed at different times of the year.

(a)

Explain why there is likely to be little transfer of genes between the two populations.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Explain how natural selection could result in the two populations becoming separate
species. You should answer this question in continuous prose.
(Allow one lined page).
(7)

(c)

Suggest reasons why some people might not accept that species have arisen by the
process of evolution.
19

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

10.

The digestive processes of ruminant animals produce the gases methane and carbon dioxide. A
study was carried out in Virginia, USA, to determine the methane and carbon dioxide emissions
from cattle and sheep. The results of this study are shown in Figure 1 below.
Figure 1 – Table showing the emissions of methane and carbon dioxide
from cattle and sheep in 1990 and 1996.
Methane emissions
–1
/tonnes year

Carbon dioxide
–1
emissions/tonnes year

1990

1996

Beef cattle

45 897

52 626

126 217

144 723

Dairy cattle

11 537

10 108

31 727

29 144

976

672

2 628

1 848

58 410

63 406

160 572

175 715

Sheep
Total
% Increase

8.6

1990

1996

Both methane and carbon dioxide are greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases vary in their
potential warming effect. Figure 2 shows the global warming potential (GWP) of greenhouse
gases relative to carbon dioxide.

Figure 2 – Table comparing the global warming potential of four greenhouse gases.
Greenhouse gas
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Nitrous oxide
CFC-11

Global Warming Potential (GWP)
1
21
206
3400

The percentage contribution of the different greenhouse gases to global warming has changed
since 1880. These changes are shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3 – Pie charts showing the percentage contribution of different greenhouse
gases to global warming.
( a )

1

O
t h
N
i t r o u s
o x i d e s
C

M

F

e t h

C

8

8

0

1

9

7

( b
O

)
t h

1

9

8

0

1

9

8

9

e r

N
i t r o u s
o x i d e s

s

a n

9

e r

C

e
C
d

(a)

a r b o n
i o x i d e

F

C

M

C a r b o n
d i o x i d e

s

e t h

a n

e

Describe how cellulose in grass is digested in a ruminant animal.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
(3)

(b)

Using the data in Figure 1, calculate the percentage increase in the carbon dioxide
emissions between 1990 and 1996. Show your working.

Answer ..............................
(2)

21

(c)

Describe the changes in the emissions of methane and carbon dioxide between 1990 and
1996 as shown in Figure 1. Suggest reasons for these changes.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
(3)

(d)

The digestive processes of ruminant animals are not the only sources of methane and
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. State one other source of each of these gases in the
atmosphere.
Methane ........................................................................................................................
Carbon dioxide .............................................................................................................
(2)

(e)

Explain the importance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and explain how a change
in the concentration of these gases can lead to global warming.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
(3)

(f)

Using the information provided in Figure 2, explain how an increase in methane
concentration in the atmosphere can have more effect than the same increase in carbon
dioxide concentration.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
(2)

(g)

Carbon dioxide emissions increased after 1980.
(i)

Explain why the percentage contribution of carbon dioxide to global warming
decreased as shown in Figure 3.
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
(1)

(ii)

Explain how human activities could have been responsible for the changes since
1980 in methane, CFCs and nitrous oxides, as shown in Figure 3.
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
(3)
(Total 19 marks)

23

11.

(a)

Explain the meaning of the term speciation.

……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
(2)

(b)

Using suitable examples, explain how sympatric speciation differs from allopatric
speciation.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

12.

There is widespread concern about the possible effects of human activities on global warming.
(a)

State two sources of evidence that global warming has been increasing over the past 150
years.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Dinosaurs became extinct about 65 million years ago, possibly because of climate change
resulting from the impact of a meteorite with the Earth.
(i)

Suggest how this impact might have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Give one alternative explanation that has been proposed by reputable biologists to
explain the mass extinction of the dinosaurs.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Climate change could mean extinction for many of Britain’s rare species of plants and
animals.
Suggest how rare species which do not become extinct may be affected by global
warming.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

25

(d)

Recent global warming might be the result of an increase in greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere, related to the burning of fossil fuels by human activity since the Industrial
Revolution.
(i)

Name two greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide.
1 ........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Give one explanation for recent global warming other than burning fossil fuel.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 11 marks)

13.

A student investigated the decomposition of leaves from a sweet chestnut tree. In November
1988, she placed an equal number of leaves in nylon bags with three different mesh sizes. The
bags were then buried in garden soil. A fourth sample was placed in a mesh bag and suspended
in the air. She examined the bags at intervals of six months and made estimates of the
percentage of leaves that remained before reburying the bags. Her results are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 – The percentage of sweet chestnut leaves remaining in nylon bags of differing
mesh size over a period of two and a half years.
Percentage of sweet chestnut leaves remaining in the bags
November
1988

May
1989

November
1989

May
1990

November
1990

May
1991

0.05 mm mesh
bag in soil

100

62

60

51

42

38

1 mm mesh
bag in soil

100

62

38

30

30

29

5 mm mesh
bag in soil

100

33

10

10

10

10

0.05 mm mesh
bag in air

100

96

92

88

84

80

Sample

In another investigation, the nitrogen content of leaves from six species of tree was measured.
Some fresh leaves from these trees were then placed in separate nylon bags with a 5 mm mesh
and buried in garden soil in July. The bags were examined after four months and the percentage
of the leaves remaining was recorded. The results of this investigation are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 – A scattergraph showing the relationship between the percentage of leaves
remaining after four months and the nitrogen content of the leaves.
1

P e r c e n t
o f l e a v e
r e m
a i n i
f o u r m
o

0
9
8
7a
6s
5n
n
4
3
2
1
0

0
0
C
P i n e
0
g0 e
0
a f t e r
0g
t h s
0
0
0
0
0

0

e r r y

B

i r c h S

w

e e t

C

h Se sy t c n a u m t
O

. 5
N

(a)

h

1
i t r o

g

1
e n

c o

n

o

r e

a k

. 5
t e n

2
t

o

f

l e a v

(i)
Using the information in Figure 1, compare the breakdown of the
sweet chestnut leaves in the four bags between November 1988 and May 1991.
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
(4)

27

e s

/

%

(ii)

Suggest an explanation for the differences that you have described in (a)(i).
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Using the information in Figure 2, describe the relationship between the nitrogen content
of the leaves and the decomposition of the leaves. Suggest a reason for this relationship.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Coniferous forests in Northern Europe have long cold winters and short warm summers.
Tropical rain forests are found in the hot and wet regions of the world. Coniferous forests
have a thick layer of pine needles (leaves) lying on the forest floor. Tropical rain forests
have relatively few leaves lying on the forest floor. Suggest reasons for this difference.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

The organic nitrogen in fallen leaves is eventually converted into nitrates. Describe the
role of soil microorganisms in this process.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

14.

The diagram below shows a simplified carbon cycle.

(a)

Each box represents a process. Write the name of the process in each of the boxes A, B, C
and D.
(2)

29

(b)

With reference to an example, explain what is meant by the term carbon sink.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

(i)
The increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
has been linked to global warming. Explain what is meant by the term global
warming.
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Name two gases, other than carbon dioxide, which are thought to contribute to
global warming.
1. ............................................................................................................................
2. ............................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

15.

The Isthmus of Panama is a strip of land that separates the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic
Ocean in Central America. The map below shows the Isthmus of Panama.

The pictures below show two species of fish known as wrasse.

Blue-headed wrasse (Thallassoma bifasciatum)

Rainbow wrasse (Thallassoma lucasanum)

31

The blue-headed wrasse is found in the coral reefs on the Atlantic side of the isthmus and the
rainbow wrasse is found in the reefs on the Pacific side of the isthmus.
It has been shown that both of the species are descended from a common ancestral population
that was split as the isthmus formed.
(a)

Explain why the blue-headed wrasse and the rainbow wrasse are described as different
species.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Suggest how analysis of DNA or proteins might be used to supply additional evidence
that these species have descended from a common ancestor.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Explain how the splitting of the common ancestral population into an Atlantic population
and a Pacific population have led to the formation of these two separate species.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 9 marks)

16.

Changes in the global environment are investigated using remote sensing techniques.
(a)

Describe and explain what is meant by remote sensing.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

33

(b)

Describe two kinds of data commonly collected by remote sensing which can be used by
scientists studying climate change and its effects.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Techniques such as remote sensing have been available only in recent times.
Information from dendochronology is usually limited to the past 1000 years.
Apart from dendochronology, explain how scientists can investigate ecological changes
over the past 12 000 years.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 9 marks)

17.

The diagram below summarises the carbon cycle.
C
i n

a r b o n
d
t h e
a t m

i o x i d
o s p h

e
e r e
C

B

B

F

o

s s i l

f u

e l As

P

(a)

(i)

D
U
s e d
a s
a m
i n
a
p o w
e r
p r o d u c i n g
e

l a n

t

b

i o

m

e c a y
f ui c e r l o
s t a t i
l e c t r

e d
b
b e s
o n
i c i t y

y

a s s

Name the processes A, B and C.

A .......................................................................................................................
B .......................................................................................................................
C .......................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest a type of plant biomass that is used as a source of energy in some power
stations as an alternative to fossil fuels.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The use of biomass is considered to be sustainable whereas using fossil fuels is not
sustainable.
(i)

State the meaning of sustainable.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

35

(ii)

Suggest why using plant biomass to generate electricity is thought to be more
sustainable than using fossil fuel.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The diagram below shows an experiment to test the hypothesis that carbon dioxide is a
greenhouse gas.
E

l e c t r i c a l

c o

T e m
p e r a t u
p r o b e s

A
t m
a i r

o

s p

h

n

n

l a s s

b

o

n

s

r e

e r i c
G

e c t i o

t t l e s

A
i r e n r i c h e d
w
c a r b o n
d i o x i d e
s o d a - w
a t e r s y p

Name two pieces of equipment not shown in the diagram that you would need to
complete the experiment.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

i t
f
h o

(d)

Some scientists think that global warming will increase the rate of decay of dead biomass.
(i)

Suggest why global warming might increase the rate of decay.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain one reason why an increase in the rate of decay might increase the rate of
global warming even more.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

18.

A model ecosystem was set up in an aquarium. Organisms from three trophic levels were
introduced and left until their population sizes were fairly constant.
All of the organisms were then collected and the total biomass of each species was measured.
The energy content per gram of the biomass was then measured.
The table below summarises the data collected.
Total biomass
collected / g

Energy content per
gram / kJ

Total energy from
biomass / kJ

Species A

3000

0.5

1500

Species B

80

1.5

Species C

140

0.1

(a)

(i)
Complete the table by calculating the total energy from biomass of
species B and C.
(1)

37

(ii)

Calculate the total energy from biomass for species C as a percentage of that found
for species B. Show your working.

Answer ....................................
(2)

(b)

Explain how the data above support the hypothesis that species C is a secondary
consumer.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

19.

A study of plant species near a sandy shore was carried out.
The table below shows some of the data collected. Sites were sampled at a range of distances
inland from a reference point on the beach
Site number

1

2

3

4

5

6

Distance from reference point / m

20

80

250

500

650

1800

Dead organic matter in soil / %

0.4

0.5

0.9

2.8

6.4

23.4

Number of plant species found

1

1

8

16

7

2

Each site represents a stage in the succession from bare sand to a climax community.

(a)

(i)
Describe the changes in the percentage of dead organic matter and
number of plant species as the distance from the reference point increases.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest how changes in the percentage of dead organic matter in the soil could
account for the changes in the number of plant species.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

39

(b)

Explain what is meant by a climax community.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Another way to study plant succession is to measure changes in the percentage cover of
plant species. Describe how you could measure percentage cover of a plant species in a
site you have studied.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

20.

A group of students carried out an investigation to determine the energy flow in a rainforest
food chain. They collected invertebrate animals from trees, identified them and placed them in
the appropriate trophic level.
For each trophic level the animals were counted, weighed and the energy content determined.
Using their data and other sources of information the students produced a diagram to show the
energy flow along the food chain. The diagram is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1
S
2

0

3

0

7

0

×

0

1

0
P

7

0

S
7

0
T

0

n

1

P

r o

2 –

k1 J

2 –

k

1

l i g
k

J
d

u

h

t

m

y

1
c e r s

4

m

r i m

0

2 –

u

c o

m

e c o

n

k2 – J 1

m

3

×

1

2

0–

1

k

J

R

m

e s p

y
i r a t i o

n

y

a r y
J

0

n

s u

c o

n

m

e r s

y
d

a r y

e r t i a r y

2 4
×3
1 – 02
s u m
e r s

1

k

J

D

m

e c o

m

y

p

o

s e r s

y
c o

n

s u

m

e r s

Some farmers clear plots of rainforest to use for crops. The trees are felled and then burnt.
This practice is called slash and burn. The soil is left covered in ash, which is rich in nutrients.
However, the nutrients are soon used up by the growing crops. Within two or three years the
plot is abandoned and the farmer moves on to a new plot.

41

The abandoned plot is colonised by tree species and eventually the land is covered by secondary
rainforest. The sequence of events is shown in Figure 2. This figure also shows that the total
biomass of the rainforest trees is made up of leaves, stems and branches, roots and leaf litter.
These components of the biomass change as the rainforest is cleared, farmed and then
abandoned.
Figure 2
P r i m
a r y
r a i n f o r e s Ft

a r m

S

l a s h
a n d
b u
B i o m
c o m
p

a s s
o n e n

e a v

e s

L

e a f

l i t t e 4r 0

B

r a n

R

o

o

t s

5

0

e s 5
2

P
r na b

S e c o n d a r y
r a i n f o r e s t

g
l o
a n

1 0
t
d o

y
n

e a r s 2

5

y

e a r s

e d

t

L

c h

i n

0
0

0

0

1

0

5

5

0

1

0

5

0

5

0

5

0

5

0

7

5

2

0
0

5
0

3

0
0

0

The biomass components are shown in million tonnes per hectare.
(a)

Define the term net primary production (NPP).
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)
Explain why only a small percentage of the light energy falling onto a
leaf is converted into chemical energy.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain why only 10% of the energy locked up in the secondary consumers is
transferred to the tertiary consumers.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The energy shown entering the decomposers in Figure 1, is much greater than that
entering all of the consumers. Suggest an explanation for this difference.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

43

(d)

(i)
Using Figure 2, compare the components of the biomass of the
primary rainforest with those of the secondary rainforest after 25 years.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Using all of the information provided, suggest why slash and burn farming is
considered to be unsustainable.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(e)

Suggest how the biodiversity of the surrounding rainforest could be changed by the
practice of slash and burn. Give reasons for your answer.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 18 marks)

21.

An investigation was carried out into the effect of grazing by rabbits in an area of grassland.
In 1954 and 1957, the mean height of the vegetation was measured.
In 1956 an outbreak of a disease greatly reduced the number of rabbits.
The results are shown in the table below.

Mean height of vegetation/cm

1954

1957

2.0

11.5

45

(a)

Describe and explain the effect of the decrease in the number of rabbits on the mean
height of the vegetation.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

A grazed grassland is a plagioclimax community,
(i)

Explain what is meant by the term plagioclimax.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Describe how an area of grazed grassland could develop into a woodland
community.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

22.

Samuel Wilberforce, a bishop of Oxford in the 19th century, was a fierce critic of Darwin’s
theory of evolution by natural selection.
(a)

Explain why Wilberforce might have been so strongly opposed to the theory of evolution
by natural selection.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

47

One argument that Wilberforce used was that no new species had been seen to arise. Even
breeds of dog that had been prevented from cross breeding for many generations remained the
same species. If two breeds of dog are allowed to interbreed they produce fertile offspring
showing a variety of intermediate characteristics (mongrels).
(b)

Describe how interbreeding of dog breeds can result in mongrel dogs.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Explain why Wilberforce’s example of dog breeds does not show that Darwin’s theory of
evolution by natural selection is incorrect.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

23.

(a) The table below shows some data obtained from studies on seaweed on a rocky
shore.
The species are listed in the order down the shore that they are normally found.
Seaweeds on the upper shore may be out of the sea, and exposed to the air for many days
at a time.
Some scientists suggested that seaweeds on the upper shore retain water better than
seaweeds on the lower shore.
Cell wall
thickness
/
μm

Upper Shore

Lower Shore
(near sea)

(i)

Water loss on
drying out for
fixed time / %

Recovery of normal
metabolism after drying out
and then rewetting / %

Pelvetia
canaliculata

1.2

85

95

Fucus
spiralis

1.47

70

49

Fucus
vesiculosus

0.69

80

20

Fucus
serratus

0.42

83

0

Laminaria
digitata

0.28

88

0

Explain why these data do not support the hypothesis that seaweed species
growing high on the shore will retain water better than seaweed species growing
lower on the shore.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

49

(ii)

Suggest an explanation, supported by the data, that could account for this
distribution of seaweeds.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

The upper shore experiences a wider range of temperatures since it spends time exposed to the
air, and it can reach much higher temperatures than seawater.
Another study was carried out to investigate the effects of temperature on the activity of rocky
shore snails. The temperature at which 50% became inactive was measured for 5 species of
snail and the data are given below. The rate of water loss on exposure to the air was also
measured
Littorina
littorea

Littorina
saxatilis

Calliostoma

Littorina
obtusata

Littorina
neritoides

Temperature
of inactivity /
°C

46.0

45.0

34.5

44.0

46.3

Water loss /
% body mass
per day

5.35

5.6

10.1

8.35

3.7

(b)

Suggest one species that you would expect to find more frequently on the upper shore,
and one species that you would expect to be limited to the lower shore, giving a reason
for each of your answers.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

Suggest two biotic factors that might affect the distribution of organisms in the rocky
shore studied above.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

24.

The periwinkle (Littorina littorea) is a small marine snail that feeds on algae (seaweeds) as
shown in Figure 1 below. It prefers to eat fast-growing, short-lived green algae such as
Enteromorpha rather than tough, long-lived red algae such as Chondrus.
Figure 1
Periwinkle (Littorina littorea) feeding on algae.

If these two algae are growing in the same rock pool, the more rapid growth of Enteromorpha
reduces the growth of Chondrus. However, periwinkles grazing on the Enteromorpha help to
keep it under control and this allows Chondrus to grow.

51

A study was made of the feeding preferences of the periwinkle on rocky shores and how these
affected the growth of Enteromorpha and Chondrus. An ecologist studied the percentage cover
of algae in three rock pools.
The density of periwinkles in the three rock pools was:
• Rock pool A

100 per m

2

• Rock pool B

200 per m

2

• Rock pool C

0 per m

2

At the start of the study she removed all of the periwinkles from Rock pool B and placed them
in Rock pool C which had none. She monitored the changes in the percentage cover of algae
over a period of 28 months. Her results are shown in Figure 2. The effect of the density of the
periwinkles on the diversity of the algae was also studied. The results are shown in Figure 3.
Figure 2

P e rc e n ta g e
c o v e r o f a lg a e (% )

P e rc e n ta g e
c o v e r o f a lg a e (% )

P e rc e n ta g e
c o v e r o f a lg a e (% )

R
1

0
8
6
4
2

o

c k

p

o

o

l

A

0
0
0
0
0

0

1

0

0
8
6
4
2

2

4

6

T

i m

R

o

8
e

/

m

c k

p

o

1

0

1

2

o

n

t h

s

o

l

E

n

t e r o

m

C

h

o

n

r u

d

o

r p

h

a

s

1

4

1

6

1

8

2

0

2

2

2

1

4

1

6

1

8

2

0

2

2

2

1

4

1

6

1

8

2

0

2

2

2

B

0
0
0
0
0

0

1

0

0
8
6
4
2

2

4

6

T

i m

R

o

8
e

/

m

c k

p

o

1

0

1

2

o

n

t h

s

o

l

C

0
0
0
0
0

0

0

2

4
T

6
i m

8
e

/

m

1

0

1

2

o

n

t h

s

53

Figure 3

N u m b e r o f a lg a l s p e c ie s

Graph showing the change in the number of algal species with the increase in the
density of periwinkles in rock pools
1
1
1

4
2
0
8
6
4
2
0

0

5
D

(a)

0

1

0

0

1

e n s i t y
o f p e r i w
n u m
b e2 r p e r m

5

0
i n

2
k

0

0

2

l e s /

State the terms that are used to describe the roles of the algae and periwinkles in a food
chain.
Algae ...........................................................................................................................
Periwinkles ..................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)
Using Figure 2, describe the percentage cover of Enteromorpha and
Chondrus in Rock pools B and C at the start of the study (Month 0).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

5

0

(ii)

Describe the changes in the percentage cover of Enteromorpha in Rock pools
A, B and C.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

Suggest reasons for these changes described in (b)(ii).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iv)

Suggest a reason for the sudden fall in the percentage cover of Chondrus in rock
pool C after 18 months.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

55

(c)

Using Figure 3, describe and explain the effect of periwinkle density on the number of
algal species.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Rock pools can be polluted by excess nutrients.
(i)

Give two sources of excess nutrients.
1 ........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Describe the effect of excess nutrients on aquatic habitats.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 18 marks)

57

25.

The fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a common mammal living in both rural (country) and urban (town)
areas of the United Kingdom. Foxes eat a variety of foods including berries, rabbits, small birds
and rodents such as rats and mice.
(a)

The photograph below shows the skull of the fox. Describe two features of the teeth of
this fox that are an adaptation for feeding on small mammals.

Magnification ×0.5
Source: www.nhc.ed.ac.uk
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

% o f d ie t

(b)

A number of studies have investigated the differences between the diets of rural foxes and
foxes living in urban areas. The results of one study are shown below.

6

0

5

0

4

0

3

0

2

0

1

0

R
U

0

O

t h

e rS

p

u m
aB n e r r i e S s m
m
a l Hl
f o o d
e t s
r o d
F

(i)

o

o

d

t y

p

u r a l f o x
r b a n
f o x

a l Ll a r g e
e n r to s d e n t s

e

Compare the diet of the rural fox with the diet of the urban fox.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

59

(ii)

Human food was found to have a high content of carbohydrates and fats. Suggest
how this could affect the time spent looking for food and the quantity of food eaten
by the urban foxes.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

It has been suggested that the teeth of the urban fox are changing as their diet changes.
Describe how the rural and urban foxes could evolve into separate species.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

26.

During the last Ice Age, England was joined to France by an area of land (land bridge).
About 12 000 years ago the air temperature started to rise and the ice melted. By about 8000
years ago the rising sea levels flooded the land bridge and England became part of an island.

1 0 0

k m
S

1
C

O

T

L

A

N

D

E

N

G

L

A

N

D

R

A

F

N

C

E

North West Europe 12 000 years ago

0

0

k

m
S

C

E

O

N

F

T

L

A

N

D

G

L

A

N

D

R

A

N

C

E

North West Europe 8000 years ago

As the ice melted and the climate became warmer, tree species such as pine, hazel and oak
probably spread from France across the land bridge and then, over several hundred years, spread
north to Scotland.

(a)

Suggest how tree species may have spread across the land bridge and north to Scotland.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Suggest why it took many years for these tree species to spread from France to Scotland.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

61

(c)

Using pollen analysis scientists have found that, in what we now call England, pine trees
were growing before oak trees.
(i)

Explain how pollen analysis is carried out.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain the evidence that would show that in a particular place, pine came before
oak.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

Computer models can be used to predict the extent of global warming in Scotland over
the next 100 years. Explain why these predictions may be inaccurate.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

27.

The diagram below shows energy flow measured during a study of a grassland ecosystem.
–2
–1
4
The values shown are kJ m year × 10 . Values of energy lost through respiration (R) and
other means (L) are shown for some organisms. The biomass of the organisms in the ecosystem
remained unchanged during the study.
R
6

S

=

e e d

e a t i n

L
R

=
G

3

6

0

4

r a s s e s
1

9

8

4

. 4

G
L

1 1
s

. 6

=

3

. 7

=

1

2

F

=

2

i e l d

g

b

i r d

s

. 5

r a s s h

0

O
t h e r
o r g a n i s m

(a)

R

0

2

o

5

p 0 p . 0 e 7r s

. 4

m

i c e

Name one primary consumer and one secondary consumer shown in this diagram.
Primary consumer .......................................................................................................
Secondary consumer ...................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)
Calculate the gross primary productivity (GPP) for the grasses in this
system.
Show your working.

–2

–1

4

.................................... kJ m year × 10

(2)

63

(ii)

Describe how this figure could be used to calculate the net primary productivity
(NPP) of the grasses.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

(i)
Calculate the percentage of the energy taken in by the grasshoppers
that is converted into new grasshopper biomass. Show your working.

Answer ..............................................
(3)

(ii)

Give two ways in which energy is lost by the grasshoppers other than in
respiration.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Use your calculated figures from parts (b)(i) and (c)(i) to explain why food chains are of
limited length.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

28.

In an investigation, several leaves were removed from a Magnolia tree. These leaves were
weighed and then placed on the surface of some moist compost in an incubator set at 25 °C. At
two-day intervals for a period of 4 weeks, the leaves were weighed and then replaced on to the
surface of the compost.

M a s s o f le a v e s / g

Figure 1 – Graph of mass of leaves against time after removal from the Magnolia tree
2

5

0

2

0

0

1

5

0

1

0

0

5

0
0

0

2

4
T

i m

6
e

a f t e r

r e m

8
o v

1
a l

f r o

0
m

1
t r e e

Figure 2 – Photograph of a freshly-picked Magnolia leaf compared with a Magnolia leaf that
has been on the surface of the compost for 28 days Freshly-picked leaf Leaf after 28 days on
compost

65

2
/

d

a y

(a)

(i)
Describe the changes in the mass of the leaves during the first 14 days
of the investigation.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest why it is unlikely that the activity of saprobiontic microorganisms in the
compost caused these changes in mass during the first 14 days.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Suggest a possible reason for the changes in mass in the first four days.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

State one difference in appearance of the two leaves in Figure 2, and suggest how
saprobiontic microorganisms brought about this change.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

When leaves are added to compost heaps, explain why it is important that the compost is
not allowed to become waterlogged or compacted.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

67

29.

A transect can be used to study trends in the abundance and distribution of organisms.
(a)

Describe one method you could use to estimate the abundance of an organism at intervals
along a transect line.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

State one biotic factor that could be measured at each interval.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

(i)
plants.

State one abiotic factor of soil that could determine the distribution of

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Describe how you could measure this soil factor.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

30.

The photograph below shows a herd of cattle on an area of dry grassland and scrub that is
undergoing desertification in central Australia.

Wayne Lawler / Ecoscene

(a)

Suggest two possible causes of the desertification of dry grassland in central Australia.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

69

(b)

Describe and explain the processes that lead to desertification of dry grassland.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

Suggest two ways of preventing desertification in the driest parts of the world such as
Australia.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

71

31.

Compost is usually produced from waste plant material by the action of aerobic
microorganisms. It consists mainly of partly decomposed organic material that is rich in
minerals such as nitrates. A variety of plant material, such as grass cuttings, fallen leaves and
vegetable waste, can be used to produce compost.
The rate of production of compost depends on several factors such as temperature, moisture
content and aeration.
The diagram below shows a container used for producing compost.
W
m

a s t e
p l a n
a t e r i a l

S l a t t e d
c o n t a i n
t o
a l l o w
a i r
t o
e n t e r

(a)

t

e r

Explain how nitrates are produced from the waste plant material.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

The compost can be added to soil to provide more nitrates. Explain how nitrates would be
absorbed and used by plants during the growing season.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

An investigation into the relationship between the temperature in a compost heap and the
external air temperature was carried out. A container was filled with waste plant material.
After 8 weeks, measurements of the temperature in the centre of the compost and the
external air temperature were taken each week. The results of this investigation are shown
on the graph below.

T e m p e ra tu re /

C

5 0 –
4

0

3

0

2

0

1

0

0

o m
p o s t h e a p
x t e r n a l a i r


0

0

1

C
E

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 0

11

1 2

1 3

1 4

T

i m

e

/ w

e e k

s

73

(i)

Compare the temperature in the compost with the temperature of the external air in
the first six weeks.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest reasons for the differences in the two temperatures in the first six weeks.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

The temperature of the compost falls between week 9 and week 14. Suggest how
changes in factors, other than external air temperature, may have contributed to this
fall in temperature.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

32.

The distribution of organisms within a habitat or on a world-wide scale is influenced by both
biotic and abiotic factors.
(a)

Explain what is meant by the terms biotic and abiotic factors.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

75

(b)

For a particular habitat that you have studied, describe one technique which you used to
investigate how a specific abiotic factor affected the distribution of a named organism.
(The results of your investigation are not required.)
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 4 marks)

33.

(a)

Explain what is meant by the term global warming.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

In 1976, a scheme was set up to record the distribution and abundance of butterflies in the
United Kingdom. The records show that the abundance and distribution of many species
of butterfly have changed. The graph below shows the changes in the abundance of two
groups of butterflies. The generalists are butterflies found in a wide range of habitats,
while the specialists are butterflies found only in certain types of habitat.

C o lla te d in d e x o f a b u n d a n c e ± S E

(b)

(i)

2

. 4

2

. 2

G

e n

e r a l i s t s

2
1

. 8

1

. 6

1

. 4

1

. 2
1 9

S
7

5

1

9

8

0

Y

e a r

p

e c i a l i s t s
1

9

8

5

1

Compare the trends and patterns of the abundance of the two groups of butterflies
shown in the graph.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

77

9

(ii)

Suggest reasons for the changes that you have described in (b)(i).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The distribution of the Comma butterfly (shown below) has altered considerably since
1982. This butterfly has expanded its range northwards more than any other British
species of butterfly.
The dots on the maps indicate places where the Comma butterfly was recorded.

Copyright © Ecoscene/Robin Williams

N

N

1

9

8

2

2

0

0

0

79

Suggest how global warming could affect the distribution of the Comma butterfly.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

34.

(a) Name the processes described below, selecting the most appropriate answer from
the following list:
absorption

combustion

decomposition

photosynthesis

respiration

transpiration

Description
(i)

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is converted
into wood by growing trees

(ii)

Dead wood is converted to substances which can
be readily absorbed by fungi

(iii)

Carbon dioxide is released from carbohydrates
animals have eaten

(iv)

Carbon dioxide is released from wood in a
wood-fired power station

Process

(4)

(b)

(i)

Explain why coal reserves represent a carbon sink.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain why burning wood is described as ‘carbon neutral’, unlike the burning of
fossil fuel.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

The UK Forestry Commission has calculated that, in order to remove the carbon dioxide
produced by an average family car during an average driver’s lifetime, it would be
2
necessary to plant 0.5 hectares (5000 m ) of new forest.
Suggest and explain one reason why planting extra forests may not be a complete long
term solution to the problem of rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

81

35.

(a) Explain the difference between the terms ‘global warming’ and ‘the greenhouse
effect’.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

The graph below shows the changes in mean global surface temperature between the
years 1880 and 2000.

+

1

. 6

+

1

. 4

+

1

. 2

+

1

. 0

+

0

. 8

+

0

. 6

+

0

. 4

+

0

. 2

Y

(i)

2000

1990

1980

1970

1960

1950

. 4
1940

0

1930

1920

. 2

1910

0

1900

1890

0

1880

D e p a rtu re fro m lo n g te rm m e a n (ºC )

(b)

e a r

Draw the line of best fit on the above graph between 1940 and 2000.
(1)

(ii)

Using your line of best fit, estimate the increase in mean global surface temperature
between 2000 and 2020. Indicate how you made your estimate on the graph and in
the space below.

Estimated increase in temperature .............................................
(3)

(iii)

Using the graph to support your answer, suggest why the estimated increase in
temperature might not be an accurate prediction of mean global surface
temperature in 2020.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

Suggest why a relatively small increase in temperature may have a large effect on the
survival of particular species of plants and animals in particular places.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

83

36.

Sunflower seedlings were planted and kept under controlled conditions for 20 days. The gross
primary productivity (GPP) and the net primary productivity (NPP) were measured each day.
The results are shown in the graph below.
3 5
P r i m
a r y
p r o d u c t 3 i v0 i t y /
a r b i t r a r y2 5 u n i t s
2

0

1

5

1

0

G

P

P

N

P

P

5
0
0

5

1
T

(a)

i m

0
e

1
s i n

5
c e

2

0

2

5

p

l a n

t i n

g

/ d

a y

s

(i)
Compare the changes in GPP and NPP during the time period shown
on the graph.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest an explanation for the changes you have described in (a)(i).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Explain the relationship between GPP, NPP and respiration.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

37.

Answer the following essay question.
You are expected to answer in continuous prose. You should use examples from the biology
course you have studied but need not restrict yourself to the course content.
You should spend approximately 45 minutes answering this question including planning time.
Marks will be awarded for the following areas:
Breadth: selection of a range of relevant examples

(up to 6 marks)

Depth: Further description and discussion of the examples

(up to 8 marks)

Balance: Have you answered the question asked; for example have you recognised the
advantages and disadvantages or benefits and risks
(up to 6 marks)
Style: Coherence, clarity and expression

(up to 4 marks)

The effect of climate change on the world’s ecosystems is often seen as a potential catastrophe.
Yet wild species and ecosystems are able to adapt to climate change and have done so many
times in the past.
Write an essay on: ‘Biological effects that might be caused by climate change in the 21st
Century: a catastrophe or a harmless change?’
(Total 20 marks)

85

38.

The carbon cycle involves many different organisms and processes. Figure 1 shows how carbon
atoms in the organic waste in the faeces of a mammal may eventually be incorporated into the
organic material forming the wood of a tree.
Figure 1

C

O

r g

a n

i c

w

P

r o

c e s s

X

a r b

o

n

d

i o

Y

P

r o

c e s s

O

r g

a n

i c

m

a s t e

x

i d

e

i n

f a e c e s

i n

a t m

a t e r i a l

i n

o

s p

t r e e

h

e r e

The formation of woody biomass in large forests acts as an important carbon sink. A study of
northern hemisphere forests made estimates of the carbon stored in woody biomass (carbon
pool) and the mean rate of carbon uptake, in the late 20th century. These estimates are shown
below in Figure 2.
Figure 2
[t = tonnes, ha = hectare, yr = year]
Average
carbon pool
–1
/t ha

Area of
forest /
6
ha × 10

Total carbon
pool in forest
6
/t × 10

Mean rate of
carbon uptake
–1
6
/t yr × 10

Canada

44.09

239.5

10560

73.12

USA

57.91

215.5

12480

141.53

China

25.77

142.6

3675

38.62

Finland

34.88

17.2

600

5.56

Japan

47.35

19.0

900

11.92

Russia

37.98

24391

283.59

Sweden

39.86

26.5

1056

13.86

Others

59.40

117.4

6974

116.17

Country

(a)

With reference to a suitable type of organism, explain how the carbon in the organic
waste in faeces may be converted to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by process X in
Figure 1.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)

Name process Y, shown in Figure 1.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

87

(ii)

Explain why only a proportion of the organic material, formed using carbon
dioxide, will become plant tissues.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Explain the meaning of the term carbon sink.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Using the data in Figure 2, calculate the estimated area of forest in Russia. Show your
working.

Answer ...................................
(2)

(e)

The data for the areas of forest and the carbon pools in Canada and the USA are fairly
similar and yet the mean rate of carbon uptake per year in Canada is approximately half
that in the USA. Suggest two reasons for this considerable difference in the mean rates of
carbon uptake in the forests of these two countries.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f)

Explain how deforestation could have an effect upon the mean temperature of the Earth’s
surface.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 15 marks)

89

39.

A river is an ecosystem which is influenced by the biotic and abiotic factors that are present
within the river itself. The water in a river drains into it from its catchment area.
Factors within the catchment area also have an effect on the river’s ecosystem.
In a river, there are two sources of plant material that contribute towards the net primary
production. The first source is the living plants which grow within the river itself. Most of these
are algae forming a surface covering on rocks near the surface or suspended in the upper layers
of water. The second source is dead plant material, such as leaves, that is brought in from the
surrounding land. This forms most of the layer of decomposing organic material (detritus) found
on the bed of the river.
The relative quantities of these two types of plant material can determine the types of consumers
in the dependent food chains. The grazing invertebrates that feed on algae tend to form the main
food source for trout and other carnivorous river fish. Invertebrates that feed in the detritus
layers are not easily seen and do not form a major part of the diet of most of these fish.
In New Zealand, the Wangapeka River and the Motupiko River meet to form the Motueka River
which flows into the sea. A study of the Motueka River was carried out to estimate the influence
of dead plant material from the catchment area on the ecosystem. Nine sampling sites between
the sources of the rivers and the sea were selected. The three rivers and the sampling sites in the
catchment area of the study are shown in Figure 1.
At each of the sampling sites, gross primary production (GPP) of algae was estimated by
measuring the production of oxygen in the water over a 24 hour period. As oxygen is released, a
proportion of it will be used during respiration of all organisms in the river community. This
uptake of oxygen, which was also estimated, is known as community respiration (CR). The
estimates were made during winter and summer. These results are shown in Figure 2 and
Figure 3.
[Data adapted from Cawthron Research News September 2002]

Figure 1 – The Wangapeka, Motupiko and Motueka river system.

N

o

M
R

r t h

D
w

i r e c t i o
a t eo r w f
W
R

A
I V

n

o

N

T

U
R

E

E

E

A
A

f

G
E

O
I V

S
K

=

A

P

E

K

S

a m

I K

O

p

l i n

A

R

M
R

O
I V

T
E

U
R

P

91

g

s i t

1

6

1

4

1

2

1

0

G ro s s p rim a ry p ro d u c tio n / g O 2 m

–2

day

–1

Figure 2 – Gross primary production in the Motueka River catchment area.

=

S

=

W

u

m

m

i n

e r

t e r

8
6
4
2
0
0

2

5

5

0

D

7

5

i s t a n

c e

1

0

0

f r o

m

1

2

t h

e

5
s o

1

5

0

u

r c e

/

k

m

C o m m u n ity re s p ira tio n / g O 2 m

–2

day

–1

Figure 3 – Community respiration in the Motueka River catchment area.
3

0

2

5

2

0

1

5

1

0

=

S

=

W

u

m

m

i n

e r

t e r

5
0

0

2

5

5
D

0

7
i s t a n

5
c e

1
f r o

0

0
m

1

2

t h

e

5
s o

1

5

0

u

r c e

/

k

m

(a)

(i)

Explain what is meant by the term gross primary production.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

State two abiotic factors that can affect gross primary production in this river
system.
1 ........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

If the input of dead plant material from the catchment area into a river increased, the
uptake of oxygen would also increase. Give an explanation for this.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

93

(c)

(i)
With reference to Figure 3, compare the trend in community
respiration in winter with that in summer for, the Motueka River catchment area.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest why community respiration shows this trend.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

(i)
The numbers of carnivorous fish, such as trout, are higher in the
Motueka River than in the other two rivers. With reference to Figure 2, suggest
reasons for this.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

With reference to Figure 3, suggest how the population of these carnivorous fish
might change in the winter.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 17 marks)

40.

An investigation was carried out to find the distribution of plant species on sand dunes.
A transect was used which extended inland from a beach. Quadrats were used at nine positions
along the transect. The percentage cover of selected species was recorded in each quadrat as
well as the number of plant species in each quadrat. A sample of soil was taken from the area
within each quadrat and used to measure the mass of organic material present.

Gary Skinner, Bioschool

95

The results are shown in the two tables below.
Quadrat number

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Distance from top
of beach / metres

0

80

170

250

500

650

980

1600

1980

Number of species
found

1

1

5

11

18

7

5

2

2

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.9

2.8

6.4

25.1

23.4

32.8

7

8

9

Mass of organic
material / grams

Percentage cover
Quadrat number

1

2

3

4

Bare sand

80

30

30

8

Sea couch

20
70

50
5

Marram grass
Red Fescue
Sea buckthorn

5

6

20

5

5

40

55

40
80

Common heather

90

Corsica pine

(a)

100

Explain why it is necessary to use a quadrat to estimate percentage cover.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Explain why a transect is more appropriate than random sampling in this study.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Use the information in both tables to compare the data collected from quadrat 1 and
quadrat 5.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

97

(d)

Differences in the variety and number of plant species found in the different quadrats can
be explained by succession. Use the information in the table to suggest how the results of
the study could be explained by succession.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 12 marks)

41.

A new species of large cat, the clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) has been identified on the
island of Borneo. Neofelis diardi on Borneo is distinct from Neofelis nebulosa on the mainland.

(a)

Explain why the clouded leopard and the mainland leopard share the name Neofelis.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

There are 46 genetic differences between the two species of leopard. Explain how these
differences may have arisen, assuming that the two species share a common ancestor.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

99

(c)

The clouded leopards are found in regions of the island of Borneo that are governed by
three different countries, Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Suggest reasons why this may make the conservation of leopard habitats difficult.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

42.

Oil is a fossil fuel. It can be used as fuel in power stations and in engines. Figure 1 below
shows oil production between 1960 and 2004.
When oil is burnt, some gases, including carbon dioxide, are released. Some processes by which
carbon dioxide is added to, or removed from, the atmosphere are shown in Figure 2.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, which has an influence upon the mean global temperature
of the Earth’s surface. Changes in this temperature between 1960 and 2004 are shown in Figure
3.

O il p ro d u c tio n / 1 0 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y

Figure 1. Oil production in thousands of barrels per day between 1960 and 2004
9

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

6

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004

0

Y

e a r

Figure 2. Diagram showing part of the carbon cycle
C

P

a r b o n
d i o x i d
a t m
o s p h e r e

r o

c e s s

r o

c e s s

t h

P

e

r o

c e s s

D

e c a y i n g
a t e r i a l

m
r o

c e s s

B

A

C

F

O

i n

C
P

P

e

u

e l i n
s t a t i o

a

p

o

w

e r

n

i l
P

l a n

t

b

i o

m

a s s

101

1

4

. 8

1

4

. 6

1

4

. 4

1

4

. 2

1

4

. 0

1

3

. 8

1

3

. 6

1

3

. 4

1

3

. 2

1

3

. 0
1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004

T e m p e ra tu re / °C

Figure 3. Changes in the mean global temperature of the Earth’s surface between 1960
and 2004

Y

(a)

e a r

Name the processes A, B and C shown in Figure 2.
A .................................................................
B .................................................................
C .................................................................
(3)

(b)

Describe the changes in the production of oil between 1960 and 2004 as shown in Figure
1.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

Study the graphs in Figures 1 and 3. Do the graphs support the theory that the rise in oil
production is linked to the rise in global temperature? Give reasons for your answer.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Explain the term greenhouse gas and give an
example of another greenhouse gas.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

103

(e)

Oil is one type of fossil fuel. Give one other example of a fossil fuel.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(f)

Energy crops are plants grown in large plantations to provide a sustainable source of
energy. These energy crops, such as fast-growing willow, are likely to become far more
common in the future. Explain the term sustainable.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(g)

There is some concern that the replacement of traditional crops, such as wheat, by energy
crops could affect the distribution of some birds normally found on farmland.
A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of changing land use on the distribution
of bird species. Bird surveys were carried out in four habitats: arable land, grassland,
willow plantation on former arable land and willow plantation on former grassland. The
numbers of lapwing, snipe and woodcock were recorded by walking through each survey
area for one hour three times during one summer. The results of this study are shown in
Figure 4.

M e a n n u m b e r o f b ird s re c o rd e d p e r s ite
p e r v is it

Figure 4. Results of the bird surveys that were carried out on arable land and grassland
and in willow plantations growing on former arable and grassland
1

. 0

0

. 9

0

. 8

0

. 7

0

. 6

0

. 5

0

. 4

0

. 3

0

. 2

0

. 1
0

l a p w
i n g
s n i p e
w
o o d c o c k

A

r a b Wl e i l l oG w r a s s l Wa n i d l l o w
l a n d o n
a r a b l e
o n
l a n d
g r a s s l a n

d

Use the data in Figure 4 to describe the effect of planting willow on the distribution of
these three species of bird.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 16 marks)

105

43.

If a horse, Equus caballus, is mated with a donkey, Equus asinus, a hybrid known as a mule is
produced.
H

(E

o r s e
q u u s )c a
2n =
6 4

D

b

a

e y
(E q u u s ) a s i n
2n =
6 2

l l u ×s

M

u

o

n

k

u

s

l e

Mules are almost always sterile and produce no offspring. This phenomenon is an example of a
post-zygotic isolating mechanism.

(a)

State the diploid number of chromosomes in a mule and suggest why mules are unable to
produce offspring.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

State what is meant by the term isolating mechanism. Suggest why the production of a
mule by mating a horse with a donkey is described as a post-zygotic isolating mechanism.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

It has been suggested that the mule should be named as a new species, Equus mulus.
Suggest why this might not be acceptable to some biologists.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

44.

Write an essay on the following topic.
Energy flow and succession in ecosystems.
Marks will be awarded for scientific content, coverage of the topic, and the quality of written
communication. You should include in your answer any relevant information from the whole of
your course. You may include diagrams if you wish, but make sure that they are relevant to your
essay and add extra information to it.
(Total 15 marks)

107

45.

The photograph below shows brine shrimps.

A student carried out an investigation to determine the effect of temperature on the hatching
success of brine shrimp eggs. The results are shown below.

(a)

Temperature/ °C

22

24

26

28

30

32

% Eggs hatching

36

40

42

44

42

41

Describe the pattern shown by the data in this table.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Suggest why brine shrimps are affected by temperature in the way shown by the data.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Suggest how global warming, directly or indirectly, might alter brine shrimp populations.

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

46.

Pollen grains buried in peat can be used to deduce what the climate was like in the past.
(a)

(i)

State how the age of a peat layer can be estimated.

...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

The presence of a large amount of alder tree pollen in a layer of peat is taken to
mean that there was high rainfall when the layer was formed. Suggest why it is
thought that the presence of alder pollen in peat indicates high rainfall.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

109

(b)

The exoskeletons of many insect species are also found in peat. Exoskeletons are resistant
to decay. Suggest how insect exoskeletons from peat could be used to show that the
climate became warmer over a period of years.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

A

T
w

e d

F

n
i n

e n

O

c e a n

dR u r s s ai a
l a n

d

N or
w ay

S

u

r c t i c

(c)

Certain arctic plants are adapted to growing in very cold conditions in the treeless tundra
habitat of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, near the coast of the Arctic
Ocean.
(i)

Suggest why the geographical location of arctic plants makes them especially
vulnerable to extinction due to global warming.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Increase in temperature increases the rate of respiration more than it increases the
rate of photosynthesis. Suggest why this might be a problem for arctic plants
affected by global warming.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

111

47.

An investigation was carried out into the mating preferences of cichlid fish from three
populations (A, B and C) taken from Lake Malawi. The fish were all the same species, but the
males of each population showed distinct physical differences.
Male fish were separated into different areas of a tank by transparent plastic sheets. The plastic
sheets had holes which allowed any female to enter, but prevented the males from leaving.
The diagram below shows the arrangement of the tank.
M

a l e

F

f i s h

e m

a l e

f i s h

A

B

C

T
p

r a n s p
l a s t i c

H
e
f
t
t

a r e n t
s h e e t s

o

l e
b i g
n o u g h
G
o r f e m
a l e
o
p a s s
h r o u g h

Females from each population were allowed to choose one mate, and their offspring were
collected. The male parent of the offspring was determined using DNA analysis.

The table below shows the number of times mating occurred between individuals of the
different populations in a range of trials.
Female from population
Male from population

A

B

C

A

29

0

0

B

0

26

4

C

0

1

8

l a s s

t a n

k

(a)

Explain how the DNA analysis provides reliable evidence for the identity of male parents.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

(i)
Calculate the percentage of the matings that were between individuals
of the same population. Show your working.

(2)

(ii)

Describe the mating preferences shown by the female fish in this investigation.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

113

(c)

Suggest how the data support the hypothesis that population A is the most likely to
become a separate species.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 11 marks)

48.

Chimpanzees and humans share about 98.4% of their DNA and it is thought that they had a
common ancestor about four million years ago. One gene that shows differences is ‘Fox P2’
which is involved in speech. All modern humans have the same allele for this gene which is
different from that found in chimpanzees.
(a)

Explain how the frequency of the Fox P2 allele could have increased as humans evolved.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

(i)
Until 1968 it was illegal to teach evolution in schools in a number of
states in the USA. Suggest two reasons why it was thought necessary to make the
teaching of evolution illegal in these schools.
1 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest why the teaching of natural selection has less opposition than the teaching
of evolution.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

49.

Data for use with the questions that follow.
Figure 1. Microscopic phytoplankton.
Phytoplankton are microscopic single-celled plant-like organisms which live in
vast numbers in the sea floating just below the surface where they carry out
photosynthesis.
Marine phytoplankton account for over 50% of the world’s primary
productivity.

115

Figure 2. Calanus is a herbivorous small animal which makes up most of the zooplankton
of the North Sea and feeds on phytoplankton. Calanus appears in the North Sea
in March and starts to breed, but its numbers do not reach a maximum until
July. Between late August to early October they leave the North Sea and return
to the deep waters of the North Atlantic Ocean to spend the winter. Calanus are
the main food source of many small fish as well as the young of larger fish such
as herring and cod.

Figure 3. Sandeels.
Sandeels are small fish which make up almost a half of the mass of fish in the
North Sea. They feed on zooplankton, particularly Calanus. They are an
important part of the diet of many of the larger fish such as cod and herrings
caught for human food. Sandeels are also important in the diet of many sea
birds such as puffins and kittiwakes. Sandeels are caught in vast numbers to
make fish-meal food used for farm animals.

Figure 4.
period.

Productivity due to phytoplankton in North Sea over a twelve month
5

3

0

2

5

2

0

1

5

1

0

P rim a ry p ro d u c tiv ity / g C m
m o n th ly to ta l

–2

3

5
0

J

F

M

A

M

J
M

M e a n m o n th ly s e a te m p e ra tu re
d e g re e s C

Figure 5.
period.

J

S

A

o

n

O

N

D

t h

Mean sea surface temperature of the North Sea over a twelve month
2

0

1

8

1

6

1

4

1

2

1

0

8
6
4
2
0

J

F

M

A

M

J

J
M

o

A
n

S

O

N

D

t h
117

T o ta l b re e d in g
b io m a s s / to n n e s

Figure 6. Breeding stock biomass of two species of fish in the North Sea. Herring stocks
fell so low that from 1978 until 1982, fishing for this species in the North Sea
was banned. In 2000 the EU negotiated a reduction in fishing for cod but
scientists believed that the ‘fishing quotas’ agreed by the EU were too high to
allow cod to recover to a sustainable level.
2

, 5

0

0

2

, 0

0

0

1

, 5

0

0

1

, 0

0

0

5

0

0

0
1

9

C
H

61 39

6 1 99

7 1 5 9
Y

81 19
e a r

No
rw

ay

Figure 7. Location map.

N
S
U

K

o r t h
e a

8 1 7 9

91 39

9 2 90

0

5

o d
e r r i n

g

Acknowledgements
Based on data in ‘Phytoplankton, biomass and production in the southern North Sea’.
Joint, I. and Pomroy, A. (1993) Marine Ecology Progress Series. 99: 169–182.
Based on Zhihong Li, Holt M. and Osborne, J. (2000) ‘A baroclinic model of the NW European
shelf seas’. http://www.google.co.uk/search?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF8&rls=GGLG,GGLG:2006-16,GGLG:en&q=north+sea+temperature+annual+cycle
http://www.aslo.org/photopost/showphoto.php?photo=1007&papass=&sort=1&thecat=500
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=367

Read and use the data above, and your own knowledge, to answer the following questions.
(a)

(i)
Construct an appropriate food web diagram to show the feeding
relationships between the organisms referred to in the data booklet and which
shows the trophic levels each organism occupies.

(3)

(ii)

Explain why the total biomass of cod in the North Sea is normally much less than
the total biomass of sand eels.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

119

(b)

(i)
Suggest two advantages to the phytoplankton of being concentrated
just below the sea surface (Figures 1 and 4).
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Like land plants, phytoplankton require mineral salts. Suggest why phosphates are
essential for the growth of phytoplankton.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

(i)
In Figure 4, the units used to express primary productivity are
abbreviated as
gCm–2. Given that ‘C’ stands for organic carbon and the other letters are common
–2
metric units, suggest what gCm stands for by writing it out in full.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

With reference to Figures 4 and 5, discuss the extent to which mean sea surface
temperature controls the primary productivity of phytoplankton.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii)

Measurements show that the mean light intensity for the months May and July is
the same, but the mean sea surface temperature is 8oC higher in July than in May.
Suggest why, in spite of this, primary productivity is similar in these two months.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

121

(d)

The numbers of Calanus in the North Sea have been decreasing since 1960 and there is
some evidence that this may be due to climate change. The distribution of Calanus
finmarchicus, one of the most abundant species, seems to be shifting northwards,
becoming more common off the coast of Norway. Suggest why Calanus may not succeed
so well in warmer water.
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(2)

(e)

(i)
There are several reasons why commercially important stocks of fish,
such as cod and herring, are under threat in the North Sea. Using information in
Figure 6 explain why over-fishing by humans is almost certainly part of the
problem.
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(2)

(ii)

Nets used by fishermen in the North Sea are required to have a mesh size which
catches larger fish but allows the smaller (younger) fish to escape. This acts as a
selection pressure on the cod population. Explain the effects this selection pressure
might have on the phenotypes of these cod in future generations.
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(2)
(Total 20 marks)

123

50.

(a)

The electron microscope image below shows part of a chloroplast.

The table below gives one function of each of the three structures labelled A, B and C on
the electron microscope image. Complete the table below by writing in the appropriate
letter and the name of each structure.
Function

Label letter

Name of structure

Photophosphorylation
Stores non-carbohydrate
organic material
Carbon fixation
(3)

(b)

The equation below summarises the process of photolysis of water.
+

2H2O → 4H + 4e + O2
(i)

Explain what happens to the electrons released by photolysis.
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(2)

(ii)

The electrons are later involved in the reduction of NADP. Explain the importance
of reduced NADP in the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
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(3)

(c)

The rate at which plants produce carbohydrate by photosynthesis is known as gross
primary productivity.
Put a cross in the box next to the equation that shows the relationship between gross
primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) and respiration (R).
GPP + R = NPP
GPP + NPP = R
GPP = NPP + R
GPP = NPP – R
(1)

(d)

The table below shows the net primary productivity in four different ecosystems. The
ecosystems in the table are listed in order of increasing distance from the equator, starting
with tropical rainforest.
Ecosystem

Net primary productivity
–2
–1
/ kJ m year

Tropical rainforest

37 800

Temperate forest

25 200

Boreal forest

14 700

Polar tundra

2 400

125

(i)

It is estimated that 85% of the energy available to primary consumers will not be
available to secondary consumers. Calculate the energy that will be available to the
secondary consumers in the tropical rainforest. Show your working.

–2

Answer ................................. kJ m year

–1

(2)

(ii)

Suggest two reasons for the differences in the net primary productivity as the
distance from the equator increases.
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(2)
(Total 13 marks)

A study of the distribution and abundance of three different seaweeds was carried out in the
intertidal region of a gently sloping rocky shore. The intertidal region is the area that will be
covered by water as the tide comes in and uncovered by water as the tide goes out.
The abundance of each seaweed was found by estimating its percentage cover at regular
intervals from the high water mark at the top of the shore to the low water mark lower down the
shore.
The results of this study are shown on the graph below.

P e rce n ta g ee c o v e r / %

51.

6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1

0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0
0
D

(a)

2
i s t a n

4
c e

f r o m

h

C

h

F
A
6

u c u s
s c o p h
8

i g h

o

n

w

d

r u

s

y l l u

a t e r

m
1

m

0

1

a r k

/ m

(i)
Put a cross in the box next to the statement that could form part of a
valid conclusion from the data shown in the graph.
A – Ascophyllum grows only in regions that are uncovered by water
for long periods of time
B – Fucus grows better in regions that are never uncovered by water
C – Chondrus may not be able to compete with Ascophyllum
(1)

127

2

1
e t r e

(ii)

With reference to the graph discuss the validity of statements A, B and C.
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(3)

(b)

Suggest two abiotic factors, other than the length of time the seaweeds are out of water,
that could affect the distribution of the seaweeds on this shore.
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(2)

(c)

Describe a technique that you have used to study the distribution of a named organism
within its habitat.
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(4)
(Total 10 marks)

52.

A study of tree pollen grains in a peat bog in Finland was carried out. The number of pollen
grains of different tree species was recorded at different depths in the peat.
The data for four of these trees are given as a percentage of the total tree pollen sample, in the
table below. An estimate of the age of the sample at each depth was also made.
Depth of
sample
/m

Age /
years

0.5

Tree pollen grain / %
Larch

Spruce

Pine

Beech

2 850

0

0

53

43

1.0

3 770

0

0

55

40

1.5

5 600

0

0

31

47

2.0

6 390

0

12

15

53

2.5

8 170

5

36

4

48

3.0

8 700

38

36

6

35

3.5

8 780

27

40

3

32

4.0

10 000

10

22

2

40

129

The diagram below shows the present-day distribution of the four tree species found in the main
climatic zones of the northern hemisphere.
C

l i m

A

r c t i c

B

o

r e a l

T e m

S

(a)

u

a t i c

p

b

z o n

L

e

D

a r c h

S
P

e r a t e

- t r o

p

i n

p
e

r u
B

i s t r i b

c e
e e c h

i c a l

Suggest how pollen grains can provide evidence about which species of tree were
growing successfully in Finland as the peat bog was forming.
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(2)

(b)

(i)
Put a cross in the box next to the species of tree that does not provide
evidence about the changes in climate in Finland during the last 10 000 years.
A

Larch

B

Spruce

C

Pine

D

Beech
(1)

u

t i o

(ii)

Explain your answer to (b)(i).
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(2)

(c)

With reference to the present-day distribution of the four tree species and the results of
the pollen grain study, suggest in what way the climate in Finland has changed during the
last 10 000 years. Give reasons for your answer.
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(5)

131

(d)

Describe how dendrochronology can be used to provide evidence for climate change.
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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

53.

In 1937, a population of sockeye salmon was released into Lake Washington in the USA.
Since then, the original stock appears to have split into two different populations which do not
interbreed. One group of salmon breeds in the shallow waters of the lake. The other group
breeds in a fast-flowing river that flows into the lake.

These two populations of salmon have developed very different physical features. In the river,
the male fish are more streamlined than those in the lake. This is thought to enable them to deal
with the river’s strong current. The females in the river are larger and more muscular than those
in the lake population. This allows them to bury their eggs deep into the gravel, which is
necessary to stop the eggs being dislodged by the fast water flow.
In addition, scientists have found evidence that the two populations appear to have developed
differences between their gene pools. It is suggested that the Lake Washington salmon
populations may eventually evolve into two separate species.

(a)

State the term used to describe
(i)

the separation of one species into two populations that do not interbreed
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

the formation of two new species from one species
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

the relative proportion of different forms of a particular gene within a gene pool.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Suggest how the two populations of salmon developed differences in their gene pools.
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(5)

133

(c)

Explain how new alleles might appear in the gene pool of a species.
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(2)
(Total 10 marks)

54.

(a) Forensic entomology can be used to estimate the time of death of a mammal. Adult
female blowflies soon arrive to lay their eggs on the body and the blowfly life cycle
follows a precise sequence. The diagram below shows the sequence and times (in hours)
for each stage when the surrounding temperature is 21 °C.

(i)

Using information in the diagram, calculate the total percentage of the life cycle
that a blowfly spends as a larva when the surrounding temperature is 21°C.

Answer .............................. %
(2)

(ii)

Temperature has an effect on the length of the blowfly lifecycle. Suggest an
explanation for the effect of temperature on the length of the blowfly lifecycle.
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(2)

(iii)

Suggest two factors, other than temperature, that may affect the timing of the
blowfly lifecycle and lead to an incorrect estimate of the time of death.
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(3)

(b)

Time of death can also be estimated by studying the degree of rigor mortis in muscles.
Describe how rigor mortis in muscles occurs.
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(3)

135

(c)

The process of succession occurs in plant communities as well as in a dead body.
Compare these two forms of succession.
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(3)
(Total 13 marks)

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