1.

(a) reference to (impulse) conduction between atria and ventricles ; delay at AV node ; allows ventricles to fill before contraction ; (b) distance from one P wave to next (or R to R) is 56 to 58 ; heart rate = 60 × 50 / 56 to 58 ; = 51.7 (52) to 53.8 (54) beats per minute ;

2

3
[5]

2.

(a)

A B C D

Epidermis / epidermal cells / piliferous layer / root hair cells ; Cortex ; Endodermis ; Xylem ; [any two correct answers for 1 mark]

2

(b)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Osmosis ; (across cortex) down water potential gradient ; Symplastic route explained / vacuolar route explained ; Apoplastic route explained ; Reference to plasmodesmata ; Reference to function of endodermis / cell C / Casparian strip (e.g. controlling water uptake) ; Reference to transpiration stream / cohesion tension theory (qualified) ; Reference pores / pits allows water into xylem ; (i) Active transport / uptake ; Energy / ATP, used ; Ions moved, against / up, concentration gradient ; Respiration provides ATP ; Aerobic / oxygen required ; Some uptake without aeration ;

4

(c)

4

(ii)

No active transport ; Diffusion only ; Transporters / carriers / ion channels, absent / reduced ; Smaller surface area / with root hairs, larger surface area ; Lack of / fewer, mitochondria ; [accept converse points]

2
[12]

3.

(a) Spontaneous / automatic (contraction) / self-stimulating ; No {nerve impulse / eq} required / no nerve stimulation ;

2

1

(b)

(i) B C (ii) 1. 2. 3. ventricles 4. 5.

A SAN / sino-atrial node / pacemaker ; AVN / atrio-ventricular node ; Bundle of His / Purkyne fibres / Purkinje tissue ; {SAN / A / pacemaker} initiates impulse / eq ; {Impulse / eq} to {AVN / B} then delay ; So atrial {systole / contraction} before ventricular systole /

3

fill with blood before systole ; {Bundle of His / C} conducts impulse to (base of) ventricles ; Which contract from {apex / eq} upwards ; 3
[8]

4.Question 5 Maximum mark (a) (b) (Ventricular) systole / ventricular contraction; max 1

(As ventricle contracts) pressure increases; From 2.0 - 4.0 kPa / to {14.0 / 15.0} kPa; 2

(c)

X Point when pressure in ventricle first exceeds pressure in atrium; Y Point when pressure in aorta first exceeds pressure in ventricle; [allow marks if X and Y both placed on the X axis at the correct times] 2

(d)

(60 ÷ 0.8) = 75; Beats per minute / bpm; 2

(e)

(i)

Same pattern as normal ECG; max 2

More than one cycle in the grid; (ii) They may have been {exercising / stressed / eq} / genetic variation / age / fever / body temperature / stimulant / excitement;

1

(iii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Measure (ECG) under physical exercise (treadmill); Blood pressure check; Measure blood cholesterol; Ultrasound; Calculate BMI; MRI; CAT / CT / EBCT; {Ambulatory / 24 hour} monitoring; Coronary {angiography / angiogram}; 2
[12]

5.

(a) 21 ÷ 190 / 21 000 ÷ 190; 3 3 = 110.5 cm / 0.11 dm ; (b) (ii) (i) 1. 2. 3. 4. (iii) 1. 2. 3. (c) 2. 3. 4. 1. Vena cava; Right atrium; 2 Force of blood {pushing against / stretching} blood vessel wall; Systolic increases and diastolic decreases; Systolic increases more than diastolic decreases; Reference to manipulated figures; Diastolic pressure does not decrease with light exercise; Cardiac output and heart rate increase; So more blood enters the {arteries / blood vessels}; Per unit time; 2

2 1

3

Carotid {sinus / artery};

Aorta {arch / sinus};

[10]

3

6. (ii)

(a)

(i)

650 – 250 = 400; 2

400 ÷ 250 × 100 = 160%; [All points in the context of increased cardiac output] Contractions (of cardiac muscles) are {harder / faster / eq (Cardiac muscle) requires more oxygen; For more (aerobic) respiration / to generate more ATP; (i) skin; (Overall) increase to cardiac muscle and (increase then) decrease to

2

(b)

Manipulation of figures, e.g. 414% increase and 33.3% fall; (Flow) increase to both as exercise increases from low to medium; (Flow) increase to cardiac muscle but decreases to skin as exercise increase from medium to high; (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. By muscle; More blood flow to skin (from low to medium exercise) allows more heat to be lost; (From medium to high exercise) less blood available to flow to skin / eq; As greater demand by / diversion to (cardiac / skeletal) muscle; 3
[9]

2

More heat generated (as exercise increases);

7. (b)

(a) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

{Sinoatrial / SA} node / SAN / pacemaker; {(Wave of electrical) impulses / depolarisation} from SA node; Passes over (both) atria / eq; Resulting in atrial {systole / contraction}; Slight delay at AV node; (Impulses) pass along bundle of His; (Up / along) Purkinje fibres / eq; Correct direction of impulse described / ventricles contract from the base up / eq; Resulting in ventricular {systole / contraction};

1

4
[5]

8. (b)

(a) (ii)

SA node / SAN / sinoatrial node (i) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bainbridge (reflex) Increased blood pressure (in vena cava / right atrium); Baroreceptors stimulated; {Cardiovascular centre / medulla} initiate impulses in {sympathetic / accelerator} nerve; {Stimulation of SAN increased / eq} / decreased delay at AVN; Heart rate increased / eq; 3 Placed under the skin on the chest wall / eq;

1 1

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

Wired to {wall / muscle} of heart / eq; Can detect heart’s beat; Generates {impulses / eq}; {Stimulate / eq} (regular) contraction of cardiac muscle / mimics action of SAN (and AVN) / eq; 3
[8]

9.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (b) (ii) (iii)

1.

Ventricle contracts / systole;

Pressure in ventricles increases; Correct reference to pressure changes from graph; Pressure in ventricle exceeds pressure in aorta; Semilunar valve opens; Blood flows into aorta; Blood flows down a pressure gradient / eq; (i) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sinoatrial (SA) node / pacemaker / SAN; 1 Reference to AV node; Delay at AV node; Reference to bundle of His; Reference to Purkinje fibres; {Electrical activity / impulse} travels from base up through cardiac muscle; Electrical activity / impulse stimulates contraction of cardiac muscle / eq; 3
[9]

4 1

Right atrium;

10.

(a)

(i)

Adnan: 67.1
5

AND James: 45.7; 1 (ii) (iii) 191.3 ÷ 4 = 47.8; 1 [Allow ecf] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (b) (Same) age; (Same) {size / weight / mass}; {Duration / type / intensity / frequency} of exercise; Duration of rest period; Same techniques for measuring the heart rate / eq; Standardise lifestyle / medical factors; 2

Regular exercise increases size of heart / more muscle; Greater stroke volume / increase heart force / eq; More blood circulated per beat / increased cardiac output / increased venous return; 2
[6]

11.

(a)

(Rhythmic) expansion / eq ; 2 13 – 11 ; 2 Heart rate increases ; Stroke volume increases ; Increased force of contraction ; Cardiac output increases ; Reference to increased {oxygen / glucose} demand(by muscles) ; 2 Systolic pressure increases, diastolic pressure decreases ; Increase in systolic pressure is greater than the decrease in diastolic pressure ; No change in diastolic pressure at light level of exercise, (but systolic pressure increases) ; Credit a manipulated, quantitative comparison ; 3
[9]

Of an artery ; (b) (i) = 2 kPa ; (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(iii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

12.

(a) {Sequence / series / eq} of events each time heart beats ; Atrial systole ; Followed by ventricular systole ;

Then diastole ; (b) (ii) (i) R wave correctly indicated ;

3 1

Allows atria to contract (fully) ; Before ventricles contract ; Correct reference to {atrial emptying / ventricular filling} ;

3
[7]

13.

sinoatrial node / sinuatrial node / SAN / pacemaker; ventricles; IGNORE left / right coronary arteries; capillaries; 4
[4]

14. (ii)

(i)

T wave correctly labelled;

1

number of complete cardiac cycles = 5; calculation (5 × 12) / eq; heart rate = 60 (beats per minute); 3
[4]

15. B C (b) 2. 3. 4. (c) 2.

(a)

A

right ventricle; 3

aorta / aortic arch; (left) atrioventricular valve / mitral valve; 1. sequence of events each time the heart beats / eq;

(starts with) atrial systole; (then) ventricular systole; (then) diastole; 1. 3

ability of heart (muscle) to {contract / beat / pump }; 2
[8]

spontaneously / on its own / without nervous stimulation / eq;

16. (b)

(a)

medulla (oblongata); 1. ref. to increase in rate of (anaerobic / aerobic) respiration;

1

7

2.

{increase in carbon dioxide levels / increase in {lactic acid / lactate} + levels / decrease of pH / increase in {hydrogen ions / H } / increase in carbonic acid} in the blood; ref. to chemoreceptors; {aortic / carotid} bodies or ref. to carotid {artery / aorta}; {cardiac / cardiovascular} centre (in medulla); {more / increase in frequency} of impulses along sympathetic nerve; ref. to SAN / sinoatrial node; 4
[5]

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

17.

(a)

(i)

lack of oxygen / eq;
+

anaerobic respiration (produces lactate); (respiration) produces reduced NAD / NADH H / NAD H2/ reduced co-factors; pyruvate produced by glycolysis; pyruvate converted to lactate (in anaerobic conditions); lactate production oxidises NADH so glycolysis can continue/eq; in anaerobic respiration {glucose / lactate} cannot be fully oxidised / correct reference to Krebs cycle / oxidative phosphorylation / suitable ref. to mitochondria /eq; allows continued production of ATP; (ii) the difference {cannot be explained by chance/is really caused by diving / not some other factor}; the {probability/chance} that the difference could be due to chance/ accident is less than 5% / 0.05 / 1 in 20 / 95% confident that difference is not due to change alone; (iii) correct description of change of lactate in dives of different duration e.g. little change in blood lactate concentration up to six minutes, faster increase in blood lactate concentration after {five / six} minutes / eq / ref. to greater variability of blood lactate in longer dives; in dives of up to {five / six} minutes there is enough oxygen (in the lungs / blood / body) to maintain (largely) aerobic respiration /in a dive of six to twelve minutes (all / most) oxygen gets used up therefore respiration (more / or less) entirely anaerobic / eq;

4

2

2

(b)

heart rate decreases when the seal dives / rises when the seal surfaces; use of figures to emphasise that the HR falls very low from e.g from 130 - 150 beats per minute to 10 - 30; at the surface increases supply of oxygen to remove lactate / to repay oxygen debt; ref. to moving the lactate away from the muscles / to the liver; when submerged little oxygen carried to muscles in blood / eq; correct ref. to cardiovascular centre / correct ref. to nerve action on the SAN / reflex action; ref. to myoglobin; 4 QRS (complex); 2

(c) (ii)

(i)

resulting in contraction of ventricles / ventricular systole; 90 – 120 bpm; 20 – 40 bpm; (d) 2

(i) {shock / disruption of control mechanisms / eq} at the sudden change in temperature at the {lower temperature / 25 °C}; 35 °C is close to normal body temperature (therefore less of a shock than 25 °C); reduced (blood) circulation to conserve heat / a thermoregulatory mechanism / vasoconstriction (to surface); ref. to diving reflex / bradycardia; (ii) she hyperventilated / filled her body / lungs / blood with as much oxygen as possible before diving; she {had prepared herself mentally / was afraid / stressed} and this caused the increase in heart beat; ref. to adrenaline / hormone; ref. to autonomic nervous system / sympathetic nervous system; 2
[20]

2

18.

(a) A aorta / aortic arch; B (right) atrioventricular valve / tricuspid valve;

2

9

(b) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

reference to coronary circulation;

reference to coronary artery / coronary arteries; reference to capillaries (in wall of heart); oxygen {transported / eq} by {red cells / haemoglobin}; oxygen diffuses out of {blood / red cells / capillaries} (to heart muscle); max 3 1. pacemaker / SAN sends {impulse / eq} (to atria);

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

{causing/ eq} atria to contract; {impulse / eq} reaches AVN; reference to delay at the AVN; idea that the impulse travels to ventricles via {bundle of His / Purkyne tissue / eq}; 1. increased {demand for / eq} {oxygen / glucose} / increased respiration; max 3

(d) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

increased heart rate / heart beats faster / eq; increased stroke volume / cardiac output; increased production of carbon dioxide; reference to dilation of blood vessels in muscle; reference to adrenaline; max 3
[11]

19.

(a) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of four marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (b) wave of excitation sent from SAN; spreads over atria walls; delayed at atrioventricular septum; wave of excitation sent from AVN; passes along bundles of His/purkine fibres; spreading over walls of ventricles; 4

Duration of 1 beat OR 60 / duration; Correct answer, 50 –1 Beats min / bpm;

2

(c)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. Interval between QRS phases longer (in normal rhythm); Credit correctly manipulated figures; Lower voltage during QRS phase in normal rhythm; 2

(d)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of three marks. 1. 2. 3. Cardiac output could decrease if there was insufficient time to fill the ventricles (between contractions); Cardiac output could increase if ventricles fill sufficiently; The change in cardiac output will depend on whether the decrease in stroke volume is compensated by the increase in heart rate/eq; 3
[11]

11

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