1.

The diagram below shows an electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded from a healthy person.
The P and R waves are labelled.

R

P

1 second

(a)

Explain why there is a brief delay between the P wave and the R wave.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

From the ECG, calculate the heart rate in beats per minute. Show your working.

Answer ....................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

1

2.

The diagram below shows part of a section at low magnification through the root of a
dicotyledonous plant.

(a)

Name the parts labelled A, B, C and D.
A ...............................................................................................................................
B ...............................................................................................................................
C ...............................................................................................................................
D ...............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Describe how water passes from part A to part D.
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
(4)

(c)

A root takes up mineral ions in addition to water. An investigation was carried out into

the effects of aeration on the uptake of nitrate ions (NO 3 ) by plant roots.
Sections of root, including the root hairs, were immersed in a culture solution containing
6.3 mmol per dM3 of nitrate ions. The solution was aerated (air was bubbled through it).
After nine hours the root sections were removed and the concentration of nitrate ions in
the root cells was determined.

The procedure was repeated with a second batch of root sections from which the root
hairs had been removed. Both procedures were then repeated without aeration. The
results are shown in the table below.

C o n c e n tr a tio n o f n itr a te io n s / m m o l d m
R o o t s e c tio n

(i)

–3

W ith ro o t h a ir s

W ith o u t ro o t h a ir s

W ith a e r a tio n

3 7 .5

6 .2

W ith o u t a e r a tio n

7 .1

6 .3

Suggest an explanation for the difference between the results with and without
aeration when the root hairs were present.
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(4)

3

(ii)

Suggest reasons for the results obtained when no root hairs were present.
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

3.

(a) Cardiac muscle contracts myogenically. Explain what is meant by the term
myogenic.
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
……………………………………………….………………………………………
(2)

(b)

The diagram below shows structures in the heart which are concerned with the
coordination of contraction.

(i)

Name parts A, B and C.
A ………………………………………………………………………………
B ………………………………………………………………………………
C ………………………………………………………………………………
(3)

(ii)

Explain how the structures shown in the diagram coordinate the contraction of
the heart.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

5

4.

Graph 1 below shows the pressure changes that occur in the left side of the mammalian heart
during one complete cardiac cycle. Graph 2 shows the ECG trace for the same cycle.
15
A
1
P

o

r t a G ra p h 1

0

r e s s u

r e

/ k

P

L

a

e f t

v

5

e n

t r i c l e

L e ft a triu m

0

R

T

P
l e c t r o

c a r d

i o

g

(a)

h

r a m
S

Q

r a p

E

G

0 .0

0 .1

0 .2

0 .3

0 .4
T i m

0 .5
e /

0 .6

0 .7

0 .8

s

Name the stage of the cardiac cycle that is represented by the QRS wave on the ECG in
Graph 2.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

With reference to Graph 1, describe the pressure changes in the left ventricle during its
contraction.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

2

(c)

Identify the following features on Graph 1 above, and label them with the appropriate
letters.
X = the point at which the bicuspid (atrioventricular) valve first closes
Y = the point at which the semilunar (aortic) valve first closes
(2)

(d)

Use the information in Graph 1 to calculate the heart rate. Show your working.

Answer ........................................................
(2)

0 .2

0 .3

0 .4
T i m

0 .5
e /

0 .1

0 .0

r a m

g

i o

c a r d

l e c t r o

E

(i)
On the grid below sketch an ECG pattern that you would expect to see
for a person with tachycardia (an abnormally fast rhythm).

(e)

0 .6

0 .7

0 .8

s
(2)

(ii)

Suggest why this person is not necessarily suffering from heart disease.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

7

(iii)

Suggest two tests, other than measuring heart rate, that could be carried out to help
determine if this person is likely to be suffering from heart disease.
1 ........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 12 marks)

5.

The data below show some of the changes that occur in the cardiovascular system as a result of
different levels of exercise.
Level of exercise
At rest

Light

Medium

Intense

Heart rate
–1
/beats min

72

144

160

190

Cardiac output
3
–1
/dm min

5

13

16

21

(a)

Using the data from the table, calculate the stroke volume when exercising at an intense
level. Show your working.

Answer .........................................
(2)

(b)

The graph below shows typical blood pressures at different levels of exercise.
2

B

l o

o

d

p

0

0

r e s s u

r e

1

5

0

1

0

0

/

m

m

H

g

S
p
5

(i)

D
i a s t o l i c
p r e s s u r e

0

0

y s t o l i c
r e s s u r e

A

t

r e s L t i g h Mt
L e v e l

e d i Iu n m t e n s e
o f e x e r c i s e

Explain what is meant by the term blood pressure.
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
(1)

(ii)

With reference to the graph, describe the effect of exercise on blood pressure.
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
(3)

9

(iii)

Using the data in the table and the graph, suggest why the systolic pressure rises
with increasing level of exercise.
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
(2)

(c)

State two sites in the body where blood pressure receptors are found.
1 .........................................................................................................................................
2 .........................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

6.

The table below shows the blood flow to cardiac muscle and to the skin at different levels of
exercise.
3

Blood flow/cm per minute
Level of exercise

Cardiac muscle

Skin

Rest

250

500

Low intensity

350

1500

Medium intensity

650

1800

High intensity

1800

1000

(a)

(i)
Calculate the percentage increase in the rate of blood flow to cardiac
muscle as the level of exercise increases from resting to a medium level of
intensity. Show your working.

Answer ..................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain why cardiac muscle requires a greater rate of blood flow as the intensity of
exercise increases.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

An increase in blood flow to the skin allows more heat to be lost through radiation and
sweating. This helps to prevent the body temperature from rising above normal during
exercise.
(i)

Compare the changes in blood flow to cardiac muscle and to the skin, as exercise
increases from low intensity to high intensity.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(2)

11

(ii)

Suggest explanations for the changes in blood flow to the skin as exercise increases
from low intensity to high intensity.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

7.

The diagram below shows the pathways for the conduction of electrical impulses during the
cardiac cycle.

X

(a)

P a t h w
a y s
c o n d u c t i o
e l e c t r i c a l

f o

r

t h

n
o f
i m
p u

e
l s e s

Name the structure labelled X.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Describe how the structures shown in the diagram control the complete cardiac cycle.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 5 marks)

8.

The diagram below illustrates some aspects of the regulation of heart rate.

(a)

Complete the flow diagram by naming the part of the heart that receives impulses from
the two nerves
(1)

13

(b)

Strenuous physical activity will increase the volume of blood flowing through the venae
cavae and into the right atrium. This will trigger a reflex action.
(i)

Name the reflex that will be initiated.
...............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Using your own knowledge and the information provided, explain how this
increase in blood volume in the venae cavae and right atrium causes a change in
heart rate.
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The coordination of the heart beat is disrupted when the conducting systems of the heart
are damaged. This type of disease is called heart block. Describe how an artificial
pacemaker can be used to treat this condition.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

9.

The graphs below show some of the pressure and volume changes that take place in the left side
of the heart during part of a cardiac cycle.

V o

l u

m3

1

3

0

1

2

0

1 1 0
e / c m
1 0 0
9

0

8

0

7

0
0

T
A

P

r e s s u

1

6

1

4

1 2
r e / k
1 0

i m

K

e y

L

e f t

v

e n

t r i c l e

K

e y

A
L

o r t a
e f t v

e n

t r i c l e

e

B

P

a

8
6
4
2
0

T
A

(a)

i m

e

B

Using information from the graphs above, describe and explain the events which produce
the change in the volume of blood in the left ventricle between the times A and B.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

During a cardiac cycle, a wave of electrical activity spreads over the atria and ventricles.
15

(i)

Name the group of cells that initiates the wave of electrical activity that controls
the cardiac cycle.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

State where in the heart this group of cells is located.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Describe and explain how the electrical activity of the heart ensures that the
ventricles begin contracting from the apex (base) of the heart.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

10.

As part of a study of the effects of exercise on the heart, the heart rates of four men were
measured. The results are shown in the table below.

Resting heart rate /
–1
beats min

Heart rate
immediately after
–1
exercise / beats min

Percentage increase
in heart rate

Gary

65

80

23.1

Neil

74

115

55.4

Adnan

76

127

James

70

102

(a)

(i)
Complete the table by calculating the percentage increase in the heart
rates for Adnan and James.
(1)

(ii)

Calculate the mean percentage increase in the heart rate for these four men.

Answer .................................%
(1)

(iii)

Give two factors you would expect to have been controlled in this investigation to
produce meaningful results.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Gary is the only man who exercises regularly.
Suggest why Gary’s resting heart rate and percentage increase in heart rate are the lowest.
Give a reason for your answer.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

17

11.

Exercise affects pulse rate and blood pressure.
(a)

Explain what is meant by the term pulse.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The graph below shows typical blood pressures at different levels of exercise.
2

0

B l o o d
p r e s s u
/ k P a
1 5

1

r e

S
p

0

D
i a s t o l i c
p r e s s u r e

5

0

y s t o l i c
r e s s u r e

A

t

r e sLt i g

h Mt

L

e l

e v

e d
o

f

i u I nm t e n
e x

s e

e r c i s e

(i)

Using the data in the graph, calculate the increase in systolic blood pressure from
rest to a light level of exercise. Show your working.

Answer ………………………………
(2)

(ii)

Suggest why the systolic pressure increases with exercise.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

19

(iii)

Using the information in the graph, compare the effects of exercise on the systolic
and diastolic blood pressures.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

12.

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart during the
cardiac cycle.
(a)

Explain what is meant by the term cardiac cycle.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

The recording below shows an ECG from a healthy person.

(i)

On the ECG, label an R wave.
(1)

(ii)

The time interval between the start of the P wave and the start of the R wave
indicates the time taken for the impulse to travel along the bundle of His. This time
interval varies from about 0.13 to 0.16 seconds. Explain why it is important that
there is a short delay between the P and R waves.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

21

13.

Read through the passage below on the heart, and then write on the dotted lines the most
appropriate word or words to complete the passage.
Contraction of the atria (atrial systole) is stimulated by an impulse generated by
the ................................................., situated in the wall of the right atrium.
The impulse reaches the walls of the ................................................. by means of the
bundle of His and Purkyne (Purkinje) fibres.
Oxygenated blood is supplied to the heart muscle by the .................................................
which branch directly from the aorta. Heart muscle contains a dense network
of ................................................., from which oxygen diffuses to the muscle.
(Total 4 marks)

14.

The recording below is an electrocardiogram (ECG) from a healthy person.

(i)

On the ECG, label a T wave.
(1)

(ii)

This ECG was recorded over a period of 5 seconds. Count the number of complete
cardiac cycles, and then calculate the heart rate, in beats per minute.
Show your working.
Number of complete cardiac cycles = ........................................

Heart rate = ........................................ beats per minute.
(3)
(Total 4 marks)

15.

(a) The diagram below shows the structure of a heart and associated blood vessels
from a mammal.
Name the parts labelled A, B and C.
A ...................................................................
B ...................................................................
C ...................................................................
(3)

23

(b)

Explain what is meant by the term cardiac cycle.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

Heart muscle is described as myogenic. Explain what is meant by the term myogenic.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

16.

(a)

Name the region of the human brain involved in control of heart rate.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Heart rate increases during exercise. Explain the mechanisms involved in controlling this
increase in heart rate.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 5 marks)

25

This question is about changes in the physiology of whales, penguins, seals and humans when
they hold their breath to dive below the surface of water.
(a)

Figures 1 and 2, below, show the changes in blood lactate concentration during diving in
white whales and emperor penguins.
Figure 1. Blood lactate concentration in the blood of white whales (Delphinapterus
leucas) before and after diving.

3


t =

B
d

0

2

e f o r e
i v i n g

0

.

1

5

3P <. 6 03 ., 0

2

B lo o d la c ta te c o n c e n tra tio n / m m o l d m

17.

4
D

i v

e

d

u

r a t i o

6
n

/

m

i n

u

t e s

Adapted from data of Shafferi, Costa, Williams & Ridgway (1997)

1

4

1

2

1

0

2

0

0

2
D

i v

4

6

8

B lo o d la c ta te c o n c e n tra tio n / m m o l d m

Figure 2. Blood lactate concentration in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri)
after dives of different duration.

4
e

d

u

r a t i o

n

/

m

6
i n

u

t e s

Adapted from data of Ponganis, Kooyman, Starke, Kooyman & Kooyman (1997)

(i)

Explain why the blood lactate concentration increases when these animals dive
under water.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

27

(ii)

The difference between the blood lactate concentration of whales before and after
diving was found to be ‘significant (p < 0.05)’. Briefly explain what the word
‘significant’ means in this context.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Describe the relationship between blood lactate concentration and dive duration in
emperor penguins. Suggest an explanation for this relationship.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

Referring to Figure 3 below, describe and explain the effect of diving depth on the heart
rate of grey seals.

H e a rt ra te /
b e a ts m in

Figure 3. The effect of diving depth on heart rate in submerged grey seals
(Halichoerus grypus).
1
1

5
0

5

0

0
0

0
0

D e p th / m

(b)

5
1

0
0

0
1

0

2
T

0
i m

3
e

/ m

i n

u

0

t e s

Adapted from Thomas and Fedak (1993)

.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

29

(c)

Referring to Figure 4 below:
Figure 4. Electrocardiogram (ecg) of a woman before and during a dive made while
holding her breath.

d

s T

i m

1
e

/ s e c o

u

r i n

n

s e c o

0

/

2

e

1
i m

D

T

e

0

i v

r e X d

e f o

B

2
n

d

3

s

Based on data of Ferrigno, Ferretti, Ellis, Warkander, Costa, Cerretelli & Lundgren (1997)

(i)

Name the wave of depolarisation labelled X in Figure 4 and explain the part it
plays in the cardiac cycle.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the woman’s heart rate before and during her dive. Show your working.

Heart rate before dive ................
Heart rate during dive ................
(2)

g

(d)

Referring to Figures 5(a) and 5(b) below:
Figure 5. The effect of dive duration on the heart rate of a woman while holding
her breath;
(a) at a water temperature of 25 °C.
(b) at a water temperature of 35 °C.
The woman was wearing a swimsuit.
2
4

° C

2

0

1

0

0

8

0

6

0

4

0

2

0
0

0
1
2
3
4
5

0
0
0
0
0

1

4

0

1

2

0

1

0

0

d

i v

e

d

u

r a

t i o

n

=

1

3

7

s

d

i v

e

d

u

r a

t i o

n

=

8

0

6

0

4

0

2

0
0
1

H e a rt ra te /
b e a ts m in –1

1

H e a rt ra te /
b e a ts m in – 1

5

0

D e p th m

1

3

2

s

Based on data of Ferrigno, Ferretti, Ellis, Warkander, Costa, Cerretelli & Lundgren (1997)

(i)

Suggest an explanation for the difference in heart rate while diving at 25°C and at
35°C.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

31

(ii)

Suggest an explanation for the woman’s high heart rate just before diving.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 20 marks)

18.

(a)

The diagram below shows a section through the heart of a mammal.

A

B

Name the parts labelled A and B.
A .................................................................................................................................
B .................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Heart muscle has a relatively high demand for oxygen. Explain how heart muscle is
supplied with oxygen.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

During the cardiac cycle, the atria contract and then the ventricles contract.
Explain how this sequence of events is coordinated.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

33

(d)

The table below shows the effect of exercise on blood flow to the muscles of an adult
man.
3

–1

Blood flow at rest / dm min
1.0

3

–1

Blood flow during exercise / dm min
16.0

Suggest an explanation for the change in blood flow as shown in the table.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

19.

Tachycardia is a heart condition in which the heart beats very rapidly, even when the patient is
at rest. The diagram below shows part of two electrocardiograms (ECGs), one from a person
with a normal heart beat and one from a patient with tachycardia.

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(a)

Describe the normal electrical activity that occurs in the heart during one complete heart
beat.
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(4)

(b)

Calculate the heart rate of the person with a normal heart beat, using the information in
the ECG. Show your working.

Answer ................................
(2)

(c)

Compare the ECG of the person with a normal heartbeat with the ECG of the patient with
tachycardia.
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(2)

(d)

Suggest what effects tachycardia could have on cardiac output. Explain your answer.
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(3)
(Total 11 marks)

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