1.

(a) In humans, normal body temperature is maintained by a number of different
mechanisms. If body temperature changes, information is sent to the temperature
regulating centre, which then makes the appropriate response to bring body temperature
back to normal.
In some extreme situations, if the temperature-regulating mechanisms fail, body
temperature may fall below 35 °C.

(i)

Name the part of the brain in which the temperature-regulating centre is situated.
…………………………………………………………………………………
(1)

(ii)

What term is used to describe the condition in which body temperature falls
below 35 °C?
…………………………………………………………………………………
(1)

(b)

In an investigation into body temperature, the oral (mouth) temperature of a healthy
person was measured every five minutes for 40 minutes. From five minutes after the start
of the investigation until 20 minutes, the person was lying in a hot bath, at a temperature
of 42 °C. After 20 minutes the person got out of the bath and sat on a chair.
The results of this investigation are shown in the table below.
Time/min

Oral temperature/°C

0 (start of investigation)

37.0

5

37.0

10

37.2

15

37.8

20

37.9

25

37.7

30

37.5

35

37.2

40

37.0

1

(i)

Describe the changes in oral temperature which occurred during the investigation.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
(3)

(ii)

Suggest explanations for the changes in oral temperature which occurred between
the following time intervals.
0 to 20 minutes
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………

20 to 40 minutes
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
(5)
(Total 10 marks)

2.

During investigations into the control of body temperature, the internal (core) body temperature
of a thin human volunteer was recorded at intervals.
In the first investigation, the volunteer sat still for 30 minutes. He then got into water at 16 °C,
where he lay still for a further 30 minutes.
In the second investigation, the body temperature of the same volunteer was recorded at
intervals for thirty minutes while he was sitting still. He then went swimming in water at 16 °C
for 30 minutes and his body temperature was again recorded while he was swimming, and
immediately after he stopped.
The results are shown in the table below.

Time / minutes

First investigation
Body temperature / °C

Second investigation
Body temperature / °C

0

37.5

37.4

15

37.6

37.5

30

37.5 [got into water]

36.9 [started swimming]

40

37.3 [lying in water]

36.0 [swimming]

50

37.1 [lying in water]

35.2 [swimming]

60

36.8 [lying in water]

34.2 [stopped swimming]

(a)

State where in the body the temperature-regulating centre is situated.
...........................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Explain why the volunteer’s body temperature decreased when he was lying in water at
16 °C.
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
(2)

3

(c)

(i)
Compare the changes in body temperature when the volunteer was
lying in water with the changes when he was swimming.
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
(3)

(ii)

Suggest an explanation for the difference in the change in body temperature when
the person was swimming, compared to lying still in water.
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

3.

The table below shows the blood flow to cardiac muscle and to the skin at different levels of
exercise.
3

Blood flow/cm per minute
Level of exercise

Cardiac muscle

Skin

Rest

250

500

Low intensity

350

1500

Medium intensity

650

1800

High intensity

1800

1000

(a)

(i)
Calculate the percentage increase in the rate of blood flow to cardiac
muscle as the level of exercise increases from resting to a medium level of
intensity. Show your working.

Answer ..................................
(2)

(ii)

Explain why cardiac muscle requires a greater rate of blood flow as the intensity of
exercise increases.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

An increase in blood flow to the skin allows more heat to be lost through radiation and
sweating. This helps to prevent the body temperature from rising above normal during
exercise.
(i)

Compare the changes in blood flow to cardiac muscle and to the skin, as exercise
increases from low intensity to high intensity.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(2)

5

(ii)

Suggest explanations for the changes in blood flow to the skin as exercise increases
from low intensity to high intensity.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

4.

(a) Describe the mechanisms that prevent the core body temperature falling below
normal.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Infections such as tuberculosis can cause fever, where the body temperature is maintained
above normal. The graph below shows the temperature of one person with an infection
and one uninfected person with normal body temperature.

T e m
/ º C

p

e r a t u

r e
I n f e c t e d
p e r s o n
U
n i n f e c t e d
p e r s o n

(i)

State the location of the temperature-regulating centre in the human body.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Suggest how changes in the temperature-regulating centre result in the maintenance
of a higher body temperature during a fever.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Explain how the higher body temperature of the infected person helps in combating
an infection.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Describe what will happen to an infected person if heat is generated by the body at a
faster rate than it can be lost.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

7

5.

An investigation was carried out into body temperature regulation in humans. A healthy
volunteer was immersed in a bath of water at 10 °C. During the investigation he kept one hand
in the air and one hand submerged in water. The temperature of the hand in air and the
temperature of the hand in water were recorded immediately after he got into the bath, and then
every minute for seven minutes. His core (internal) temperature was also recorded and found to
remain at almost exactly 37 °C. The air temperature in the room remained at 26 °C during the
investigation.
The results are shown in the graph below.
T
/

e m
º C
2 6

2

4

2

2

2

0

1

8

1

6

1

4

1

2

1

0

p

e r a t u

r e

T

e m

T

0

1

p

e r a t u

e m

p

r e

e r a t u

o

r e

f

o

h

f

a n

h

2

a n

3
T

i m

e

/

m

i n

d

i n

d

i n

(a)

Compare the temperature of the hand in air with the temperature of the hand immersed in
water during this investigation.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Suggest reasons for the differences you have described in (a).
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

9

(c)

Suggest why the volunteer’s core temperature remained almost constant during this
investigation.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

6.

(a)

The diagram below shows a section through human skin.

(i)

Name the parts labelled A, B and C.
A. .......................................................................................................................
B ........................................................................................................................
C ........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

Explain the role of part C in the regulation of body temperature.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

11

(b)

In an investigation, a number of naked men sat in a room, maintained at an air
temperature of 15 °C, for two hours. After this time their core (internal) body
temperature was measured. Their percentage body fat was also measured.
The results of this investigation are shown in the graph below.
3

C
b

o
o

7

. 5

×

3 7 . 0
r e
( i n t e r n a l )
d y
t e m
p e r a t u r e
/ ° C
×
3 6 . 5

×

×

6

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×
×

×

×

×
×

×

. 0
0

2

4

6

8

1
P

(i)

×

×
×

3

×

×
×

×

×

0

1

2 1

e r c e n

1

6

t a g

e

4

1

8 2
b

o

0
d

2
y

2

2

f a t

4
( %

Describe the trend shown by these results.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

)

(ii)

Suggest explanations for these results.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

7.

A person at rest produces enough heat to raise the body temperature by 1.0 °C per hour.
The table below shows how this excess heat can be lost.
Means of heat loss

% of total heat loss

Conduction of heat to other objects

2

Convection due to air currents

8

Radiation from skin surface

60

Evaporation of sweat

30

13

Heat loss by sweating is not possible when the humidity is 100%, for example in a tropical
rainforest.
(a)

Assuming that the other means of heat loss remain unchanged, calculate the time it would
take the body temperature to reach 42°C from a normal temperature of 37 °C in a
rainforest. Show your working.

Answer ...............................................
(3)

(b)

This increase in body temperature could be fatal. Describe the mechanisms that could
prevent it from happening.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(5)
(Total 8 marks)

8.

Human body temperature is controlled by negative feedback.
(a)

Describe and explain how negative feedback controls human body temperature.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(5)

(b)

Explain how some infections interfere with the temperature regulation mechanisms of the
human body.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

15

9.

An investigation was carried out into the effect of having a hot bath on the core body
temperature of a man. The man measured his body temperature, then lay in a bath of water at a
temperature of 42°C for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes, he got out of the bath and sat on a chair.
He took readings of his body temperature at regular time intervals during the investigation.
The results are shown in the table below.
Time / min

Body temperature / °C

0 (start of investigation)

37.0

5 (got into bath)

37.0

10 (got out of bath)

37.8

15 (sitting on chair)

37.6

20 (sitting on chair)

37.4

Describe and suggest explanations for the changes in body temperature during each of the
following time intervals.
(i)

5 to 10 minutes
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................

(ii)

10 to 20 minutes
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

10.

The temperature of the human body is kept within narrow limits by negative feedback
mechanisms.
(a)

Following a rise in core temperature, describe the sequence of events in the body that
returns the temperature to normal.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Describe how this response might be different in a person infected with tuberculosis.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Explain how a forensic scientist’s estimate of time of death could be affected if the victim
had tuberculosis.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

17

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