Unit 5-Nervous System Brain Retina Answers | Chemical Synapse | Action Potential

1.

(a) calcium channels open / membrane more permeable to Ca ; calcium (ions), diffuse / move in ; vesicles move towards (presynaptic) membrane ; vesicles, fuse / bind / eq, with membrane ; transmitter / acetylcholine, released into, (synaptic) cleft / gap ; (b) (ii) (iii) (i) S indicated at 1.2 ms ;

3 1 1

P indicated at 2.4 ms ; 2.4 – 1.8 ; = 0.6 ms ;

2

(iv)

release of, transmitter / acetylcholine ; diffusion / movement, across cleft ; time to, depolarise / form action potential / reference to Na channels opening ;

2
[9]

2. (b)

(a)

negative feedback ; (i) chemoreceptor / pH receptor ;

1 1

(ii)

aorta / aortic arch / aortic sinus ; carotid artery / sinus / body ; medulla oblongata / medulla in brain ;

2

(c)

decrease in concentration of O2 in blood / decrease in pH / increase in blood pressure / increase in adrenaline ; pH of blood decreases / heart rate increases ;

1 1
[6]

(d)

1

3. One main function Initiating and controlling voluntary muscle movement Co-ordination of skeletal muscle movement, balance and posture Contains centres controlling heart and breathing rate Letter A Region Cerebral hemispheres / cerebrum / cortex ; ; Cerebellum ; Medulla (oblongata) / brain stem ;

C

B

1 mark only for correct letters ;
[4]

4.

(a) 2. 3. 4.

1. Schwann cells ; Wrap / fold / roll, around axon ; Fatty / lipid / phospholipid, nature ; Reference to nodes as, gaps in the sheath, / naked / exposed / uncovered, axon ;

2

(b)

1. 2. ; 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

(myelination) increases speed of, conduction / impulse ; When diameters, same / both 15 µ m, myelinated faster than non-myelinated (Both) myelinated speeds faster than non-myelinated at 700 µ m even though diameters much smaller / eq ; Correct manipulation of figures to compare the effect of the myelin sheath on speed of conduction ; Myelin sheath prevents (initiation of), action potential / depolarisation / acts as an insulator ; Action potential / depolarisation, only possible at nodes / gaps ; Reference to, impulse jumping from node to node / saltatory effect ; No Na+ channels except at nodes / reference to inward movement Na+ involved in action potential ;

5
[7]

5.

ACCEPT POINTS ONLY IN CORRECT CONTEXT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Absorption of light causes changes in / of photosensitive / photoreceptive, pigments ; Reference to phytochrome (pigments) in, plants / leaves ; P660 / PR and P730 / PFR ; P660 / PR converted to P730 / PFR when red light / eq absorbed, P730 / PFR converted to P660 / PR when far-red light absorbed ; P730 / PFR high during daytime because more red light present in daylight / white light ;

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Reference to slow conversion of, P730 / PFR, back to, P660 / PR, in darkness ; Reference to phytochromes involved in, initiation of germination / flowering / photomorphogenesis ; Reference to, visual pigments / iodopsin / rhodopsin / visual purple, in retina (of mammals) ; Rhodopsin / visual purple in rod cells ; (Rhodopsin consists of) opsin combined with, retinal / retinene / retinine ; Cis form of, retinal / retinene / retinine, changes to trans form in light ; (This causes rhodopsin) to split ; Iodopsin (thought to be) in cone cells ; Three types (of iodopsin) respond to different, wavelengths / colours, / reference to trichromatic theory ; Changes in (retinal) pigments lead to, generator potential / hyperpolarisation / action potential / changes in membrane potential ;
[10]

6.

(a) (absorption is) {very quick / within 10 minutes} / reference to absorbed through stomach wall / eq ; {Volunteers who had the drug / B, C & D} all had slower reactions within 10 minutes ; (b) 1. 2. eq ; 3. 4. 5. 6. (c) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

2

The drug increases reaction time ; The greater the {quantity / concentration} of the drug the greater the effect / Calculation of relative increase for at least two volunteers ; The greater the {quantity / concentration} of the drug the longer the recovery back to normal ; Volunteer B back to normal within 40 minutes but {C / D} still not back to normal after 60 minutes ; Reference to reaction time of A decreasing ; 3 Reference to the drug slowing down (rate of synaptic transmission) ; (drug has) {similar shape / mimics} {transmitter / acetylcholine} ; {Blocks / eq} receptors on postsynaptic membrane ; May affect {permeability / ion channels / eq} of (pre / post) synaptic membranes ; May {affect / inhibit} release of {neurotransmitter / acetylcholine} ; May bind to {transmitter / acetylcholine} ; Reference to effect on acetylcholinesterase ;

3

3

(d)

Age ; Gender ; Weight / BMI / eq ; Health / eyesight ; Whether other drugs used / e.g. tobacco / eq ; Previous exposure to this drug ; Fitness ; Time since eating / amount of food eaten ; Time of day / reference to tiredness ;

3
[11]

7.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Myelin sheath {wrapped / eq} around the axon ; Gaps in myelin / nodes of Ranvier ; Myelin {has (high) electrical resistance / insulates} / eq ; Depolarisation only at the nodes ; Reference to local circuits between nodes ; Action potential jumps from node to node / saltatory conduction ; (so) speed of transmission faster (in a myelinated axon) / eq ; If damaged, more axon exposed ; Slows down speed of transmission ; Since depolarisation has to occur all along the axon / eq ; Scar tissue {prevents conduction of impulse / blocks conduction} ;

6
[6]

8. (b)

(a)

Relay / intermediate / connector / internuncial ;

1 2

Reference to impulse passing from sensory neurone to motor neurone ; Allowing other connections ;

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

{Binds / eq} with receptors on postsynaptic membrane ; Sodium {channels / gates} open ; Sodium (ions) {go / flow / flood / diffuse} in (to post-synaptic knob / neurone) ; (ion changes result in) {depolarising / eq} of postsynaptic membrane ; Reference to depolarisation {triggering / reaching threshold for} action potential ; 4
[7]

9. (b)

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5.

Rhodopsin / visual purple; 1. Light (energy) absorbed by {rhodopsin / pigment / visual purple}; Retinal changes shape / cis to trans; Rhodopsin {splits / bleaches}; Into retinal and opsin; Sodium gates close / reduced permeability to sodium ions / less sodium diffuses in / hyperpolarisation of membrane / rod cell becomes more negative inside; Bipolar cell becomes depolarised; Action potential formed in ganglion (cell); 1. One cone linked to one {ganglion / bipolar} cell;

1

6. 7. (c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

4

One cone stimulated, one impulse to brain; Several rods linked to one {ganglion / bipolar) cell convergence; Several rods stimulated to trigger one nerve impulse; Information from several rods is {combined / pooled / eq} reference to summation; 3 1. Both have three pigments;

(d) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Both have pigments which absorb different wavelengths of light; Both sensitive to green; Moth sensitive to ultraviolet, human (eye) not sensitive to ultraviolet; Moths not sensitive to red, humans are sensitive to red Moths (possibly) more sensitive to violet than humans; Reference to humans sensitive to wider range of wavelengths; 3
[11]

5

10. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

1. (Arrival of action potential) alters the potential across the pre-synaptic membrane; Calcium {channels / gates} open (in the pre-synaptic membrane) / influx of calcium ions (into pre-synaptic knob); Vesicles migrate to (pre-synaptic) membrane; (Vesicles) fuse with (pre-synaptic) membrane; Release {transmitter substance / acetylcholine} into synaptic cleft; By exocytosis; {Transmitter substance / acetylcholine) diffuses across cleft; (Transmitter) binds to receptors on post-synaptic membrane;; Resulting in {sodium channels opening (in post-synaptic membrane) / influx of sodium ions (into post-synaptic knob)}; Reference to depolarisation of post-synaptic membrane More sodium channels open; If threshold value reached the action potential is generated;
[8]

11. B C

(a)

A

Central canal / (cerebro) spinal fluid;

Dorsal (root) ganglion; (Spinal) nerve; 2

[Any two correct = 1 mark] (b) (i) increase; 2. 3. 1. Both increase (conduction) velocity with (axon) diameter

Above 1.0 – 1.05 µ m (diameter) {myelinated faster conduction / converse} / converse; Myelinated increase {directly proportional / shows linear relationship} to fibre diameter but non-myelinated increase only {directly proportional / shows linear relationship} above 1.0 – 1.05 µ m; Velocity increase greater in myelinated neurones than in non-myelinated neurones / converse; Comparative manipulated figures; Myelin {has (high) electrical resistance / insulates / eq}; (Axon) {depolarisation / action potential) only at the nodes / reference to local circuits between nodes; Impulses jumps from node to node / saltatory effect; Idea of preventing interference between neurones; 2 3

4. 5. (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4.

(c) 2. 3.

1.

{Automatic / involuntary} response;

Rapid response to {stimulus / example of stimulus); Reference to increases survival chances / reference to protects body from {danger / damage} / reference to escape response; 2
[9]

12.

(a) 21 ÷ 190 / 21 000 ÷ 190; 3 3 = 110.5 cm / 0.11 dm ; (b) (ii) (i) 1. 2. 3. 4. (iii) 1. 2. 3. (c) 2. 3. 4. 1. Vena cava; Right atrium; 2 Force of blood {pushing against / stretching} blood vessel wall; Systolic increases and diastolic decreases; Systolic increases more than diastolic decreases; Reference to manipulated figures; Diastolic pressure does not decrease with light exercise; Cardiac output and heart rate increase; So more blood enters the {arteries / blood vessels}; Per unit time; 2

2 1

3

Carotid {sinus / artery};

Aorta {arch / sinus};

[10]

13.

(a) Reference to non-functioning of synapses / eq; Control of {motor functions / motor neurone function}; Reference to {cerebellum / motor cortex / parietal lobe}; Reference to {substantia nigra / basal ganglion / mid brain}; (b) Dopamine cannot enter the brain / L-dopa can be converted to dopamine / L-dopa is {easier / cheaper} to make / converse;

2

1

7

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

{MRI / FMRI} scan / {CT / CAT} scan / thermal imaging / X-rays / PET; Reference to 3-D image; [only applies to MRI, FMRI, CAT scan and PET] {Shape / size / colour} difference; Density of tissue; Comparison to image of a normal brain / method of identification of damaged areas; Reference to monitoring over time; 3
[6]

14.

(a) 2. 3. 4.

1.

Identical twins are genetically identical / eq;

Height mainly due to {genes / nature} / not affected much by environment; Body mass and intelligence are mainly due to {environment / nurture / eq}; Reference to figure(s) to back up argument / valid comparison e.g. less effect of nurture of those reared together / converse; [max 2 marks for description] Reference to body mass e.g. diet, exercise; Reference to intelligence e.g. schooling, parental encouragement; Reference to height being {polygenic / multifactorial}; [max 2 marks for explanation] Only a small sample / eq; Fewer (MZ) twins reared apart / converse; Characteristics not measured using {same / comparable} units; Intelligence {difficult to measure / subjective / testing unreliable}; Reference to not knowing whether the differences are statistically significant; No comparison with {unrelated people / rest of population / dizygotic twins / other siblings}; Reference to two samples being matched for {age / sex / culture / race / eq}; One-off measurements and differences in characteristics may change over time; Fears that the data may have been falsified; 2
[5]

5. 6. 7.

3

(b)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

15.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

1.

Reference to local currents;

Depolarisation of {adjacent / next} section of axon; Sodium channels open / sodium ions move in (to axon); More sodium ions move in so more sodium channels open / positive feedback idea; Correct reference to +40 mV / {becomes positive / less negative} inside the axon; Potassium channels open / potassium ions move out (of the axon); Membrane repolarises; Wave of depolarisation / depolarisation – repolarisation process repeats itself along the axon / eq; Refractory period / hyperpolarised / more negative than resting potential; Idea of impulse moves in one direction only; Myelin sheath speeds up conduction; Current jumps between {nodes of Ranvier / gaps in the myelin sheath} / saltatory effect; Less calcium (ions) enter into neurone / fewer calcium channels open; Fewer neurotransmitter vesicles {move to / fuse with} (presynaptic / neurone 1) membrane / less neurotransmitter released (into synaptic cleft); Less neurotransmitter diffuses (across the synaptic cleft); Less neurotransmitter binds to {receptor / sodium channel} on (postsynaptic / neurone 2) membrane; Fewer sodium (ion) channels open / less sodium (ions) enter; Less membrane depolarisation / {fewer / no} action potentials initiated (in neurone 2); 4
[10]

6

(b)

1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

9

16. Region of Brain One function Control of { involuntary movement / heart rate / breathing / blood pressure}; Celebrum / cerebral {hemispheres / cortex}; Cerebellum Control of {sleep / circadian rhythms / feeding / drinking / aggression / body temperature / pituitary} / endocrine gland /named hormone production / reference to osmoregulation;
[4]

17. C D

(a)

B

Depolarising;

Repolarising; Resting; 2
+

[Two correct = 1 mark, all correct = 2 marks]

(b)

(i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (ii)

1.

Reference to distribution of Na ions (at 0.5 msecs);

Membrane stimulated; Voltage gated channels open; Na gates open; Na floods in; Idea that more and more (Na ) gates open; K gates open / K leaves / Na gates close (near 2 msecs);
+ + + + + +

4 2

Duration of action potential = {4.7 / 4.8 / 4.9} (msecs); [CE] 1000 ÷ {4.7 / 4.8 / 4.9} = {213 / 208 / 204} (per second); 1. Reference to hyperpolarisation / reference to K+ overshoot;

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

K+ gates close; Reference to Na+ / K+ pump (re)starting; Resting potential restored; Reference to refractory period; 3
[11]

18. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1.

Reference to (named) pigments absorbing light;

(Named) pigments act as transducers; Iodopsin distinguishes colour and rhodopsin doesn’t; Iodopsin is less sensitive to light than rhodopsin; Rhodopsin: {Rhodopsin / visual purple] present in rod cells; Allows {night vision / vision in dim light} / eq; Idea of: one form of rhodopsin responding to all wavelengths of light; {Light absorption / eq} {splits / bleaches} (rhodopsin); Into retinal and opsin; (As a result of) shape change of {retinal / retinene} / (cis) retinal converted to trans (retinal); Iodopsin:

11. 12. 13. 14.

Iodopsin found in cone cells; Three forms which absorb {three different wavelengths of light / blue, green and red wavelengths}; Formation of generator potential / hyperpolarisation; [in context of rods or cones] Depolarisation of bipolar cells / action potential generated in {ganglion cell optic nerve};
[9]

19.

(a) Feature

Nervous coordination Electrical / {along neurones / eq} / as action potential Fast Short

Hormonal coordination Chemical / in the blood Slow Long 3

[one mark for each correct row] (b) Idea that hormones and neurotransmitters are both chemicals OR Reference to use of receptors;

1
[4]

11

20.

Write an account of the location and functions of each of the following areas of the mammalian brain: cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Receives information from sensory organs / reference to sensory input; Idea of {interpretation / coordination} of information; {Initiates / transmits} impulses (to effector); Cerebral hemispheres / cerebrum At the front of the brain / frontal lobes / fore brain; Reference to voluntary action; Reference to a named sense; Reference to {thought / learning / intelligence / memory / personality / emotion / speech / language}; Cerebellum 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 16. At the back of the brain / hind brain; Idea of (controls) {skeletal / muscular} movement; Reference to {modification of movement / named example e.g. talking}; Balance / posture / muscle tone; Medulla At top of spinal cord / hind brain / below pons; Reference to involuntary action; Involved in homeostatic control / correct named example; Reference to {simple reflex centre / named example};
[10]

21. (b)

(a) (ii)

SA node / SAN / sinoatrial node (i) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bainbridge (reflex) Increased blood pressure (in vena cava / right atrium); Baroreceptors stimulated; {Cardiovascular centre / medulla} initiate impulses in {sympathetic / accelerator} nerve; {Stimulation of SAN increased / eq} / decreased delay at AVN; Heart rate increased / eq; 3

1 1

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

Placed under the skin on the chest wall / eq;

Wired to {wall / muscle} of heart / eq; Can detect heart’s beat; Generates {impulses / eq}; {Stimulate / eq} (regular) contraction of cardiac muscle / mimics action of SAN (and AVN) / eq; 3
[8]

22. (ii) (iii) (b) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(a)

(i)

B (cerebellum); 1 1

1

C (medulla); A (cerebrum);

There is a {critical period / window} for (visual) development {after birth / correct reference to time}; Axons (from visually deprived eye) do not pass impulses; Reference to visual cortex / occipital lobe; Inactive synapses eliminated; Adult not affected as {connections to the brain are already made / critical period has ended}; 2
[5]

23. (ii)

(a) (i) As light intensity increases, initially {little / no} change then pupil size decreases and then levels off / line {s shaped / sigmoid}; Circular muscles contract; Radial muscles relax; [Allow converse in context] (b) (ii) (c) (i) Effector: Receptor: {Rod / cone cells / retina / photoreceptors}

1 2

Iris muscle / radial and / or circular muscle;

1 1

Involuntary / does not require thought / autonomic;

Similar shape to acetylcholine; Attaches / binds to receptors; Blocks / prevents acetylcholine from binding; Prevents depolarisation of post synaptic membrane / eq; 2

13

(d)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Rhodopsin breaks down into retinal and opsin; Closing of {cation / Na } channels; Na influx to outer segment stops; Inner segment continues to pump Na out; (Inside of) cell / membrane {more negative / hyperpolarized}; Release of neurotransmitter / glutamate stops / inhibition of bipolar cell lifted; Bipolar Na channels open / cell membrane depolarised;
+ + + +

5
[12]

24. (ii)

(a) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (iii) (b) 1. 2.

(i)

Arrow correctly positioned ; {Axon / nerve fibre} has a (myelin) sheath around it ;

1

Made of {many layers of membrane / phospholipids/lipid} ; Reference to Schwann cells ; Reference to electrical insulation ; Reference to nodes of Ranvier /eq ; 2 1

Increases (speed of conduction) /eq; Clear resting potential drawn at –60 mV peaking at +35 mV ; Correct shape including hyperpolarisation and return to resting potential ;

2
[6]

25. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1.

Arrival of action potential /eq ;

Calcium channels open in (pre-synaptic membrane) ; Calcium ions enter (the pre-synaptic bulb) ; Vesicles migrate/eq to membrane ; Vesicles fuse with (pre-synaptic) membrane ; Releasing {transmitter substance / e.g. acetylcholine/ eq} ; By exocytosis ; Transmitter substance diffuses across synaptic cleft ; Binds to receptors on post-synaptic membrane ; Reference to a generation of a post-synaptic potential /eq ; 6
[6]

26.

(a) (i) Type: Effector / motor / multipolar ; Role: {Transmit / eq} impulses to {effectors / muscles / glands / named eg.} ; 2 (ii) (b) Arrow drawn points down from cell body to synaptic knob; 1

Where: Grey matter ; Importance: {link/eq} with {sensory / relay} neurone / reference to summation ; 2 1. 2. 3. 4. Gap in the myelin sheath /eq ; Enables {depolarisation/action potential/eq} (of axon) ; Causes impulse to jump from node to node / saltatory conduction ; Speeds up (transmission of) impulse ;

(c)

3
[8]

27.

(a) Impaired synthesis / serotonin reabsorbed before it reaches postsynaptic membrane / reference to vesicles;

1

15

(b)

An explanation to include six from: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. {Nerve impulses / action potentials} arrive at {synapse / presynaptic membrane}; Calcium ion channels open / calcium ions enter; Vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane; Correct reference to exocytosis; Neurotransmitter diffuses across (synaptic cleft); Binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane; Leads to opening of sodium ion channels / sodium ions enter; Depolarisation of postsynaptic membrane; {Threshold / action potentials / impulses} in postsynaptic neurone; Neurotransmitter broken down by enzymes / reabsorbed; 6

(c)

A suggestion and an explanation to include two from: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Increases serotonin synthesis; Blocks serotonin re-uptake into (presynaptic) neurones / correct ref. to SSRI; Therefore high levels of serotonin remain in cleft / eq; Binds with postsynaptic receptor; {Threshold / more impulses / more action potentials) in postsynaptic neurone; 2

(d)

A suggestion to include three from: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Similar shape to serotonin / eq; Binds to molecules on {presynaptic membrane / re-uptake mechanism}; Therefore high levels of serotonin remain in cleft / eq; Impulses / action potentials continually generated; Correct reference to postsynaptic neurone; 3
[12]

28. (b)

(a)

position of hypothalamus correctly identified; 1

1

forebrain;

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1.

homeostasis;

reference to osmoregulation /eq; reference to maintaining body temperature; acts as an endocrine gland / produces {hormones / ADH / oxytocin}; controls pituitary gland; controls autonomic nervous system/eq; controls behaviour (patterns) /named behaviour e.g. feeding/sleeping/aggression; 2
[4]

29. (ii) (b) 2. 3. 4. 5.

(a) one; 1.

(i)

B;

1 1

rhodopsin consists of retinal and opsin;

light (energy) absorbed by {rhodopsin / pigment / visual purple}; retinal changes shape / cis to trans; rhodopsin {splits/ eq / bleaches}; (rod cell) sodium gates close / reduced permeability to sodium ions / less sodium diffuses in / hyperpolarisation / becomes more negative inside; bipolar cell becomes depolarised / action potential formed in ganglion (cell); 4
[6]

6.

17

30. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

1. idea of resting potential {at start / returned to at end} (of post-synaptic membrane); more Na outside axon and more K inside / eq; (imbalance maintained by) Na / K pump; ref to acetylcholine; diffuses across synaptic cleft; binds to receptors; on post-synaptic membrane; membrane becomes permeable to Na / Na gates open; Na enter (by diffusion); causes more {Na channels / voltage gated channels} to open; result in depolarization (of membrane) / figures quoted; idea of depolarization reaching threshold level; (resulting in an) action potential / excitatory post-synaptic potential; propagation by local currents / eq; ref to {wave of depolarization / saltatory conduction / eq};
[10]
+ + + + + + + +

31. 2. 3. 4. (b) 2. 3. (c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

(a) 1. food (alone) leads to salivation, bell and food leads to salivation (bell alone leads to salivation); food – unconditioned stimulus; bell – neutral stimulus; salivation is the conditioned response; 1. (peck key / colour) by {accident / chance / trial and error / random}; 2 3

(correct key) obtain {food / reward} / (wrong key) receive punishment; repeats behaviour in order to get reward; 1. all animals have common evolutionary origin / share genes / eq / OR human and mammal brains are similar; {nervous system / neurones / synapses / neurotransmitters / eq} work in a similar way in all animals; ref. to studies of {Aplysia / sea slug / chimpanzees (Kohler)}; details of {Aplysia / sea slug / chimpanzees (Kohler)} studies; ref to limitations of animals in explaining learning in humans/eq; 2

(d) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

(fMRI) shows which parts of the brain are active / eq;

oxyhaemoglobin does not absorb radio signals / deoxyhaemoglobin absorbs radio signals; active parts of brain absorb fewer radio signals; rapid image production / 3D image; non-invasive / brain of living person; 2
[9]

32.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (b) 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.

(i)

1.

(light hits) photoreceptors (on the retina);

impulses pass to the brain; ref. to sensory neurone; ref. to innate / inborn / autonomic response; impulses along parasympathetic nerve; ref to motor neurone; circular muscles contract / radial muscles relax; pupil {contracts /constricts / becomes smaller}; {faster / eq} impulses due to; myelin acting as an {electrical/ eq} insulator; ref to Schwann cells producing myelin; depolarisation only occurs at the nodes of Ranvier; ref. to saltatory conduction; need rapid response to protect retina; visual stimulation is essential for visual development; 3 4

ref. to critical window / critical period / sensitive period; ref. to visual cortex; growth of axons / formation of synapses / inactive synapses eliminated; kittens less than 4 weeks old have not developed (visual cortex) {connections / synapses} OR kittens over 5weeks old have already developed (visual cortex) {connections / synapses}

3

19

(c) 2. 3. 4.

1. ref. to animal experiments helping to test {medicines / treatments} / give greater understanding of the {human / animal} body; ref. to utilitarian philosophy; expected benefits greater than expected harms / eq; reduces chances of harm when testing on people; 2
[12]

33.

(a)

B = medulla (oblongata); 2 to receive sensory input / eq;

C = cerebellum; (b) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1.

idea of {interpretation/coordination} (of information); {initiates / transmits} impulses to effector; idea of control of voluntary action / eq; reference to {thought / learning / intelligence / memory }; reference to speech; reference to {personality / emotion}; max 2
[4]

34. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1.

effect is longer lasting / eq;

effect is slower / eq; effect is (often) not reversible / eq; reference to involvement of transport in blood system; reference to {several target organs/diffuse effect / eq}; hormonal involves chemical control, nervous involves electrical (and chemical) control; max 3
[3]

È 35. 2. 3. 4. (b)

(a)

1.

reference to influx of calcium ions(into pre-synaptic knob) / eq;

vesicles move to pre-synaptic membrane / eq; fuse with pre-synaptic membrane / eq; (acetylcholine released) by exocytosis; (i) value between 0.85 and 1.95 (ms); max 3 1

(ii) (iii)

3.0 ± 0.05 (ms); 1. 2.

1 correct reading from graph of duration of one action potential;

1000 / reading from graph;

2

(c) 2. 3.

1. idea that the inside of the (post-synaptic) membrane is becoming {more negative / hyperpolarised}; therefore {more Na+ channels must open / more Na+ must enter}; to reach threshold level / eq; max 2
[9]

36. 2. 3. 4. 5. (b) 2. 3. 4.

(a)

1.

(rods contain) rhodopsin;

reference to convergence / summation / eq; therefore the dog will have better {vision in dim light /night vision} / eq; idea that dog can look directly at object (in dark) / eq; dogs are {more active at night / nocturnal} / eq; 1. idea that in dogs only one type of cone stimulated; max 3

therefore the brain receives similar impulses / information / eq; idea that in humans two types of cone are stimulated; idea that the colour perceived by the brain depends on the relative stimulation of each photoreceptor; 1. reference to phytochromes; max 2

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

name two forms {PFR and PR / P730 and P660}; reference to absorption of light (by phytochromes); conversion of PR to PFR AND reference to red light; conversion of PFR to PR AND reference to far red light; max 3
[8]

37.

Sensory 1. 2. 3. Relay
21

transmits {impulses / action potentials} from sense organ to CNS / eq; pseudo-unipolar cells / cell body in centre of {cell / axon} / single dendrite; myelinated;

4.

correct reference to (relay neurone transmitting impulses) {between sensory and motor neurone / to other neurones}; short axons; no myelination / eq;

5. 6.

Effector (motor) 7. 8. 9. 10. transmits {impulses / action potentials} from CNS to {effector / named effector} / eq; multipolar cells / short dendrites / many dendrites from cell body / cell body at end of cell; long axon; myelinated;

General 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. reference to {Schwann cells / nodes of Ranvier}; reference to myelin causing faster impulse / eq; reference to synapses (between neurones); reference to secretion of {neurotransmitter / named neurotransmitter}; credit structural detail of synapse e.g. mitochondria in presynaptic knob / receptor molecules on postsynaptic membrane / sodium channels in postsynaptic membrane;

max 10
[10]

38. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1. loss of rod cells (in retinitis pigmentosa) reduces ability to{receive light / eq}; reference to rhodopsin as photosensitive pigment; light causes {change of shape (in retinal) / reference to cis- to trans- retinal; causes rhodopsin to split into opsin and retinal; opsin decreases permeability of rod cell to sodium ions; reference to generator potential / hyperpolarisation; max 4
[4]

39. 2. 3.

(a) 1. reference to columns being {smaller / narrower /eq}(in visual cortex for left eye) /converse; (sensory) {neurone / axon} {shorter neurone / reduced growth} (for left / deprived eye) converse; {fewer / shorter dendrites} / fewer {synapses / branches} (in left/deprived eye) / eq / converse; 1. reference to {critical/ sensitive} period / critical window (in visual development); 2. idea that if one eye is deprived of {stimulation/light}, {neurones /dendrites/synapses / columns} do not develop / eq; 2 max 2

(b)

(c)

reference to visual deprivation studies e.g. cataract removal from children, bandaging of eyes / reference to development of distance perception e.g. Muller-Lyer

1
[5]

40. 2. 3. 4.

(a) 1. activity in basal ganglia (of treated brain) is {greater than in untreated brain / lower than in healthy brain}; activity in motor cortex (of treated brain) is {less than in untreated brain / same as in healthy brain}; drug stimulates release of dopamine / eq; muscles now {more in control / just tapping fingers / fewer spasms }; max 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. correct reference to calcium ions required;

(b)

(dopamine) released at the (pre)synaptic membrane; by exocytosis /reference to vesicles fusing; idea of diffuses across (synaptic cleft); binds to {receptors / eq} on post-synaptic membrane; {sodium ion / cation} channels open; sodium ions enter; depolarisation of post-synaptic membrane / eq; max 4

23

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1.

dopamine cannot cross blood brain barrier / eq;

therefore L-dopa is used /eq; which is converted into dopamine (in the brain); could have a similar shape to dopamine / eq; bind to dopamine receptors; could inhibit enzymes which break down dopamine; correct reference to selegiline; maintaining a high concentration of dopamine; max 4
[11]

OTHER DRUGS:

41. A Breadth: maximum of 6 marks These marks are to be awarded to the candidate if they successfully introduce the general area of Biology relevant to the essay title. If a relevant B point is awarded then the corresponding A point should also be awarded. Key ideas to look for are in bold type– the candidate need only show evidence that he or she realises that key idea is appropriate in the essay to gain a breadth (A) mark. Indicate A1 to A10 on the script as appropriate Homeostasis B Depth: maximum of 8 marks These marks are awarded to candidates for demonstrating an understanding of relevant A level biological detail expanding on the areas of biology introduced in A. This list is not exhaustive but is designed to give an idea of the type of response worthy of credit for a (B) mark. Allow a maximum of 4 B marks per corresponding A mark. Indicate B1a to B10d on the script as appropriate

A1

B1a

Good definition of what is meant by homeostasis i.e. maintenance of a constant internal environment or similar. Correct description of negative feedback. Description of a control mechanism with reference to at least 2 of the following: set point/norm value, detector/receptor, comparator/regulator, corrective mechanism/effector, control system, signal/nervous impulse/hormones. Credit up to two specific example of homeostatic mechanism not covered in another A/B point below. Correct outline description of the organisation of the nervous system into CNS and peripheral nervous system. Description of structure of a typical neurone. Description of how a resting potential is set up in a neurone. Description of an action potential and the nature of a nerve impulse. Description of saltatory conduction.

B1b B1c

B1d/B1e A2 Neurones and the nervous system / reflexes B2a

B2b B2c B2d B2e

25

B2f B2g B2h A3 Role of brain in control and coordination / synapses B3a

Description of a reflex arc. Credit a specific examples of reflexes such as the pupil reflex. Explanation of purpose of reflexes e.g. fast, automatic and protective. Correct reference to at least two regions of the brain and their corresponding functions: e.g. thalamus for relaying sensory information, visual cortex for interpreting visual information etc. Role of hypothalamus in control of much of the endocrine system (via pituitary gland) Correct reference to role of the pituitary gland. Description of the role of the brain in either: learning, processing information, recall and memory, calculation, control of behaviour etc. Description of how information is passed at a synapse. Role of synapses in coordination of information e.g. temporal and spatial summation or inhibition. Description of how synapses can be directly affected by the internal environment e.g. chemical imbalances/drugs. Correct description of habituation and/or sensitisation. Provide examples of at least 2 types of receptor and what they detect e.g. mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermorecptors, photoreceptors, baroreceptors, proprioceptors. Further specific detail of a receptor e.g. details of a rod photoreceptor in the retina.

B3b

B3c B3d

B3e B3f

B3g

B3h A4 Receptors/sense organs B4a

B4b

A5

Autonomic nervous system

B5a

B5b A6 Hormones/endocrine system B6a

B6b

A7

Control and co-ordination at level of the cells

B7a B7b B7c B7d

Role of parasympathetic nervous system described e.g. rest and digest described. Role of sympathetic nervous system described e.g. fight or flight described. Outline description of the endocrine system as glands releasing hormones into the blood. Example of a specific hormone and its role in control and coordination e.g. adrenaline in fight or flight, or insulin/glucagons in blood glucose regulation. Good example of control of cell cycle via cytokines etc. Consequence of loss of control of cell cycle. Description of role of tumour suppressor genes / eq. Example of control of metabolic pathway e.g. end point inhibition / lac operon. Outline description of control of gene expression. Further detail of control of transcription / translation e.g. selective splicing of mRNA, transcription factors / methylation etc. Non-specific immune response described e.g. inflammatory response / fever. Clonal selection of relevant lymphocytes. Role of macrophages described / eq. Blood clotting described.

B7e B7f

A8

Response of body to infection / damage

B8a

B8b B8c B8d

27

A9

Response to damage in external environment (not credited elsewhere) e.g. thermoregulation / uv light

B9a B9b

Role of hypothalamus in thermoregulation. Correct description of 2 methods of increasing heat loss e.g. vasodilatation leading to more radiation, sweating leading to more heat loss through evaporation. Correct description of two methods of conserving heat/ generating more heat e.g. vasoconstriction – less radiation, shivering – more heat generated from respiration. Outline description of melanin production in response to uv light exposure. Reference to role of MSH and MSH receptors – different sensitivities to uv light. Ventilation centre in medulla (oblongata). Chemoreceptors respond to {CO2/ pH / temperature} of the blood which change as a result of respiration. pH change explained by production and dissociation of carbonic acid/ production of lactic acid by anaerobic respiration. Stimulation of stretch receptors causes exhalation. Cardiac muscle is myogenic. SAN under influence of cardiovascular control centre in the medulla (oblongata). Specific correct ref. to sympathetic nerve/vagus nerve. Greater venous return causes greater stroke volume.

B9c

B9d

B9e A10 Control of heart/breathing B10a B10b

B10c

B10d B10e

B10f B10g

A11

Osmoregulation/excretion

B11a

Description of role of liver in wide range of roles e.g. urea production for excretion. Outline description of role of kidney in osmoregulation. Role of kidney in excretion Role of kidney in control of pH/salt/blood pressure Outline of a correct description of a behavioural response to help survival in a suitable context e.g. hide to avoid predator, adjust clothing worn/diet to survive in different environment.

B11b B11c B11d A12 Behavioural responses B12

UNPACKING THE QUESTION – MAXIMUM OF 6 MARKS C1 C2 C3 A good comparison has been made between the nervous and endocrine systems. The essay clearly conveys that the systems described work closely together and rarely in isolation. Importance of thermoregulation described i.e. clear consequences of lack of regulation hypo or hyperthermia described – e.g. consequence on enzyme action and metabolism due to temperature change. Importance of cardiac output/ ventilation rate linked clearly to supplying muscle cells with oxygen/removing waste for respiration so we can respond to danger and move faster. Linked point to C4. nervous system. but description also includes role of adrenaline and sympathetic

C4 C5 C6 C7

Importance of the reflex described for B3b clearly described together with consequence of the reflexes not working e.g. damage to retina if pupil does not constrict in bright light. Importance of osmoregulation or excretion well described with consequences of lack of excretion of CO2, urea, imbalance of water/salt levels etc described.

29

C8 C9

Example of consequence of a hormone not working correctly e.g. lack of insulin leading to diabetes mellitus and consequent potential problems described. Example of damage to brain and the effect it can have on a person - ultimately if your brain doesn’t work you die.

C10 Good description given to explain how a human can survive in a particular environment / hazardous situation because of the way he/she can respond to the situation – probably combining physiological and behavioural responses. C11 Explanation that complex brain has enabled complex behavioural responses and social learning,/ detailed communication / tool use etc which made possible cultural and technological evolution so that we can manipulate our environment to help survival / eq. C12 Description that human populations have shown evolutionary adaptations to survive in their environments e.g. melanin levels in skin, surface area to volume ratio due to body shape, etc. C13 Description of effects of drugs or disease on control and coordination and the potential consequences for the body. D: Coherence, clarity and expression of the answer - maximum of 4 marks This strand will award students for style of their answer and is quite distinct from mentioning the big ideas (C). It isn’t what candidates say but how they say it. Level Level 5 Mark 4 Descriptor A truly synoptic essay which links together information from different parts of the specification in a coherent and logical style (introduction, conclusion, good use of paragraphs and well illustrated by examples). Good spelling, punctuation, grammar and sound use of technical terminology. Good logical structure with good spelling, punctuation, grammar and sound use of technical terminology, but tends to be a collection of information which, although relevant, tends to be disjointed and only partly attempts to synthesise information. A reasonably coherent account that includes satisfactory spelling, punctuation and grammar, which tends to be disjointed. A collection of information with little or no attempt to link ideas together. Some relevant information is presented in an intelligible way using correctly formulated simple sentences. The use of English is not adequate to convey scientific information beyond naming a list of examples. A candidate who has scored some marks (particularly in strand A) for mentioning some relevant points may nevertheless fail to score marks in strand D if he or she fails to form simple sentences.
[20]

Level 4

3

Level 3 Level 2 Level 1

2 1

42.

(a) Cerebral hemispheres; Accept cerebrum Reject hemisphere, cerebellum Hypothalamus; Medulla oblongata Accept medulla (b) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. Locality Size What brain functions might be affected 2
[5]

3

43.

(a) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of four marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (b) PD results from low levels of dopamine; structure of L-Dopa similar to dopamine / credit details of similarities; therefore can bind to the dopamine receptor {protein/molecule}; initiating action potential; idea that L-Dopa can be converted to dopamine; credit details of mechanism; ref to ability to cross the blood brain barrier; (possibly) due to COOH grouping; 4

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of five marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. neurotransmitter diffuses across cleft; binds to receptor {molecules/proteins} on postsynaptic membrane; ligand-gated ion channels; sodium gates open/ increase in permeability to sodium ions; diffusion of sodium ions into postsynaptic neurone; depolarisation of membrane; idea of more (sodium) channels opening; summation of postsynaptic potential to form action potentials; 5
[9]

44.

(a)

(i)

←   

1
31

(ii) Relay neurone Cell A Cell B 1 mark for each row. Do not award the mark if there is more than one cross in the row. (b) (i) Retinal 1 2 Motor neurone Sensory neurone

Accept transretinal, retinine Reject cis retinal, retinol (ii) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of three marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (iii) opsin binding to membrane/eq cation channels closed sodium ions cannot enter cell by diffusion active pumping of sodium ions is unaffected net loss of sodium ions 3

hyperpolarised Accept hyperpolarisation Reject bleached, depolarised 1
[8]

45.

(a) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of three marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Recovery time falls steeply initially Stays low Fluctuations ref to reinforcement credit appropriate manipulation of data ref to anomalous point 3 3

(b) (c)

habituation 1 Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of four marks. 1. Ignore unimportant stimuli

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

More receptive to important stimuli Less time wasted with gill covered More time for oxygen uptake Can remain active when being touched Such as by wave action 4
[8]

33

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