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MANAGEMENT PLANNING Plan can be simple or complex, long range or short range.

FRONT LINE SUPERVISORS TOP EXECUTIVE Plan is short- range concerns on operation situations Plans for the future; Long range, complex and abstract

PLAN A predetermined course of actions intended to facilitate the accomplishments of tasks, goals or missions. Its PURPOSE is to accomplished the present task as efficiently as possible while responding to changing conditions. LONG- RANGE PLAN (LRP) SHORT- RANGE PLAN (SRP) meeting LRP visualizing goal in certain future dates short time durations (weekly, daily, monthly, annually; add up into

PLANNING A highly individualized activity considering the 1. Characteristic of Enterprise 2. Wishes of Top Management 3. External particular conditions affecting its operations PLANNING VALUES 1. Achievement of the Objective 2. Use of Efficient Method and Development of Standards 3. Integration of Activities of different Units 4. Reduction of Emergency and Unexpected Problems GOOD PLANNING 1. Jobs completed on time 2. Good relationships with other departments 3. People using their highest skills 4. Workers knowing how jobs fit in total pattern 5. Machines doing proper jobs 6. Equipment in good shape. 7. Materials available 8. Wastes kept at minimum DESCRIPTION - Most efficient and economical - Maximizing Profit - For accurate control - Going to Goal- Directed Actions - Forecasting possible problems POOR PLANNING 1. Delivery dates not met 2. Machine s Idle 3. Materials Wasted 4. Big Machines doing Small Machines 5. Unequal working sched; some overtime some undertime 6. Skilled workers doing unskilled jobs; misuse of manpower 7. People working on jobs they are not trained to do 8. Quarrelling, bickering, buck- passing and confusion

QUALITIES OF GOOD PLANNER 1. Good judgement, imagination, foresight, and experience 2. Ability to evaluate business opportunities and hazards. 3. Proficiency in the determination of objectives. 4. Ability to accept changes. EFFECTIVE PLANNING

1. Development of forescasts 2. Setting of Objectives, Policies, Programs, Procedures, Schedules, Budget and Strategies MAJOR STEPS IN PLANNING 1. Clarify the problem DEFINITION A problem well- defined is half- solved. Seeing present condition and place improvement when necessary. Objective must be clarified first. Knowing the effect of both internal and external activities on each other. Knowledge base. Using past experiences, past solutions on problems, practice of other organizations, observations, research, experiments and analysis of data. Each component of information must be treated separately. information on similar subjects is classified and revealing casual relations to other data and information. Determine what department and involve In case of unexpected events, what to do next. Determining cost, expediency and adaptation. Who to do and when to do. Planning strategy. Following up to determine and evaluate results

2. Obtain complete information about the activities involved

3. Analyze and clarify the information 4.Establish planning premises and constraints 5. Determine alternate plan 6. Select a proposed plan 7. Arrange detailed sequence and timing of the proposed plan 8. Evaluate and check proposed plan

FORECASTING An attempt to foretell or predict future trends, events or conditions base on facts and prepare for the incoming changes in business or industry. FACTORS AFFECTING FORECASTINGS 1. Changes in business cycle 2. Changes in the demands or preference of customers. 3. Nature of market: monopolistic, imperfect competition or perfect competition. 4. Political government; war or peace 5. Government control or incentives provided 6. Fiscal Policy of the government. 7. Changes in population: increase or decrease 8. Changes in national income, employment figures and productivity. GUESSTIMATES use as planning instruments LONG- RANGE FORECAST (LRF) 2- 10 years forecast; done by statistical analysis of national economy SHORT- RANGE FORECAST (SRF) controlled by single product or product group using inventory control COLLECTIVE OPINION Sales Force Estimate; used in preference; estimate figures on future, reviewed and use as basis. EXTRAPOLATION OF HISTORICAL DATA Forecasting using last year data as basis. Equation: Average = demand1+demand2+demand3/nos.of demand= Forecast Average= Forecast +demand4- demand 5/3 POLICIES Guides of basic rules formulated by management to govern actions at all levels intended to achieve objectives. It provides the management representatives with standard course

of actions in making decisions. It also as guide when dealing in an organization. PROGRAMS Is consist of listing of activities intended to carry out policies and attain the objectives of an organization.

PROCEDURES Methods to be used or steps to be followed in order to accomplish tasks in an organization. Written to facilitate work. SCHEDULING Answers question WHEN it should be started and must be completed by setting due date or deadlines. BUDGET Plan stated in financial terms. It is an estimate of income and expenditure in the future. CLASSIFICATION OF POLICIES 1. As to Origin a. Imposed Policies b. Appealed Policies c. Originated Policies 2. As to Level in the Organization a. Basic Policies b. Genera Policies c. Department Policies 3. As to Functions or Activity Groupings a. Personal b. Financial c. Production d. Sales CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD POLICIES 1. Must be known and understood by all affected. 2. Stable. Not changing frequently. 3. Must be consistent. Applicable to all. 4. Sincere. Pronouncing the Philosophy and beliefs. 5. Realistic. Giving considerations on situations and conditions. POLICIES FORMULATION 1. Made at the inception of business. 2. Execs formulate and issue memo or circular as guide. 3. Systems, procedures and practices considered as policies. 4. Government impose policies in form of laws, ordinances and administrative orders. 5. Collective bargaining between labor and management. Formulated at the start of the business but can be amended to change on conditions. Basic guides for all. Used by middle management. Specific guides with basic policies. Use by lower management to meet daily requirements. Required by the government laws, rules, procedures and administrative orders. A decision or instruction given to a subordinate and use as guide in the future. Formulated by BOD or Top Execs as guidance of all parties: stockholders, management members, customers and employees. DESCRIPTION

USES OF POLICIES 1. Inform the public, customers and others on the Philosophy of the management in dealing with the organizations. 2. Serve as guide for Labor Relations. 3. Enable execs to make decisions under their jurisdictions. 4. Justify Actions of executives on problem needing decisions. 5. Provide uniformity and consistency in action. 6. Enable executives to delegate more routine matter to subordinates and do more functions.

KAPAMPANGAN LYRICS Atin cu pung singsing Metung yang timpucan Amana que iti Quing indung ibatan Sancan queng sininup Queng metung a caban Mewala ya iti E cu camalayan. Ing sucal ning lub cu Susucdul king banua Picurus cung gamat Babo ning lamesa Ninu mang manaquit Quing singsing cung mana Calulung pusu cu Manginu ya caya.