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Taekwondo is one of the most systematic and scientific Korean traditional martial arts, that teaches more than physical fighting skills. It is a discipline that shows ways of enhancing our spirit and life through training our body and mind. Today, it has become a global sport that has gained an international reputation, and stands among the official games in the Olympics. Let's take a closer look at the meaning of the word "Tae" "Kwon" "Do." It is composed of three parts as shown in the English spelling, though it is one word in Korean. "Tae" means "foot," "leg," or "to step on"; "Kwon" means "fist," or "fight"; and "Do" means the "way" or "discipline." If we put these three parts together, we can see two important concepts behind "Tae Kwon Do". First, Taekwondo is the right way of using Tae and Kwon 'fists and feet,' or all the parts of the body that are represented by fists and feet. Second, it is a way to control or calm down fights and keep the peace. This concept comes from the meaning of Tae Kwon 'to put fists under control' [or 'to step on fists']. Thus Taekwondo means "the right way of using all parts of the body to stop fights and help to build a better and more peaceful world." Taekwondo has been developing with the 5000-year long history of Korea, being called by several different names in the course. In Korea, Taekwondo began as a defense martial art called "Subak" or "Taekkyon," and developed as a way of training body and mind in the ancient kingdom of Koguryo, under the name of "Sunbae." In the Shilla period, it had become the backbone of Hwarangdo that aimed at producing leaders of the country. Taekwondo today is similar to the martial arts in other Oriental countries and shares some features with them, because in the course of its evolution it has gained many different styles that existed in the martial arts of the countries surrounding Korea, like Japan and China.
But Taekwondo is very different from many such oriental martial arts. First, physically it is very dynamic with active movements that include a mirage of foot skills. Second, the principle physical movements are in simpatico with that of the mind and life as a whole. Third, it possesses dynamic poses from another perspective. Taekwondo can be characterized by unity: the unity of body, mind, and life, and the unity of the pose ["poomsae"] and confrontation, and cracking down. When you do Taekwondo, you should make your mind peaceful and synchronize your mind with your movements, and extend this harmony to your life and society. This is how in Taekwondo the principle of physical movements, the principle of mind training, and the principle of life become one and the same. On the other hand, the right poomsae lead to the right confrontation, which will eventually produce great destructive power. How come we reach such a unity in Taekwondo? Taekwondo is a way of life, much like having a job, raising a family, fighting for a cause, or any one of numerous raison d'etre. What makes Taekwondo different from these is that it is an activity for survival in extremely antagonistic situations. One must always overcome the enemy that is trying to cause harm. But simply winning a fight is not enough to guarantee one's safety, because the enemy may recuperate and attack again. Moreover, there may be many other enemies than the one that was just defeated. One cannot ever feel safe unless one gains permanent peace. To attain this permanent or lasting peace, one needs unity. This is what Taekwondo aim for. Otherwise Taekwondo would be no different from any other street-fighting skills. Taekwondo pursues harmonious growth and improvements of life through its unique activities. This is why one could say Taekwondo is a way of life. To ultimately enable ourselves to lead more valuable lives, we would do well by finding the guiding principles deeply hidden in Taekwondo.
The philosophy of Taekwondo is very special, but what makes it so special? If we learn philosophy from books, we tend to forget it as soon as we leave them, because it is not related to our actual lives. But since Taekwondo is connected with our lives like every movement of ours is, we can never forget its philosophy.
That is, the philosophy is one of actions that can be learned from other actions, and our everyday activities. Taekwondo philosophy represents the principles of the changes and movements in human beings. It also represents the principles of our lives, since life consists of our movements. Therefore, we can say Taekwondo is a philosophy in itself. We can understand the philosophy of Taekwondo by doing Taekwondo, and this understanding should lead to better understanding and enhancement of our life. The principles of Taekwondo can be explained in several ways but here we will explain it simply with the principle of "Sam Jae" [Three Elements] and that of "Eum" [the Negative or Darkness] and "Yang" [the Positive or the Brightness]. "Sam Jae" refers to "Cheon" [the Heaven], "Ji" [the Earth], and "In" [the Man] and the principles concerning them. In oriental countries, it has been recognized as the central principle that explains the changes of everything in the world. "Sam Jae" and the changes of "Eum" and "Yang" constitute the "Eight Trigrams for Divination" in the "Book of Changes." The principle of Sam Jae has been emphasized in oriental countries, especially in Korea. If you understand Taekwondo's principle, you could understand all the skills and spiritual depth of Taekwondo. The principle of Eum and Yang has also been emphasized in oriental countries as the central principle of life. It maintains that everything has an opposite side. This principle explains various forms of changes, but it comes from "Taegeuk" [the Great Absolute], which represents the ultimate claim that Eum and Yang was the one and the same thing. If we understand Taekwondo according to this principle, we will find a solution, and by continuously changing skills, we will never get stuck, in any situation. After we understand these philosophical principles of Taekwondo, we can find proper ways to understand and develop our lives.
What is the philosophy of Taekwondo? Taekwondo contains thoughts that Han [Korean] people had developed through history. Its philosophy is easily explained with Hongik-Ingan, Jaese-Ihwa, or Hwarangdo spirit. HongikIngan and Jaese-Ihwa were not only ideologies of Tangun Chosun's foundation, but also a fundamental thought of Han people. With time, these ideas developed into the Hwarangdo spirit and the Taekwondo philosophy today. Now, let's look at the principles contents of the philosophy.
Hongik-Ingan" means universal welfare of mankind. It was the idea of the national foundation by Tangun, and the Taekwondo spirit too has inherited the idea of Hongik-Ingan. It is easily confirmed from the fact that the word of Taekwondo, itself means to suppress fighting and induce peace. On one hand, JaeseIhwa means that the world is educated in accordance with the reason of heaven. Taekwondo is a principle, not a simple connection with movements. It is the Korean traditional martial art characterized by the trinity of body, mind and life. Thus, the principle is the reason of all creation, and so it refers to the reason of heaven in Jaese-Ihwa. Therefore, human beings can be educated in accordance with the reason of heaven through correct training of Taekwondo. That's the very meaning of Jaese-Ihwa. HongikIngan and Jaese-Ihwa appear clearly in the myth of the Korean foundation. According to it, "In the early age, Hwan-Wung, the son of Heaven established a nation called Baedal [earliest name of Korea]. He then announced the purpose of the national foundation as Jaese-Ihwa [educate with the reason of heaven] and Hongik-Ingan [universal welfare of mankind].
57 on the southeastern part of Korea. regardless of time and space. . A known martial art book of the days. Man cannot do without physical motions that he grows and developed on them. such as "Hwarangdo" in Shilla and "Chouisonin" in Koguryo. It is believed that this was exactly the true grounding of today's Taekwondo. Shilla kingdom founded in B. which both adopted martial art training as one of the important subjects of learning.C. 37 on the northern part of Korea along Yalu river. "Taekkyon" and so on. In ancient times people had no means other than the bare hands and body to defend themselves. and Koguryo founded in B. there were three tribes. Paekje and Shilla all indulged in growing national strength with trained warriors. At the time. In the latter part of ancient times on the Korean peninsula. modern ages and present times. Thus. people learned techniques from their experiences of fighting against the beasts whose defensive and offensive motions were also the subject of analysis. Man by nature has instinct to preserve his own life as well as his race. it can be easily assumed that Taekwondo was originated from the days of tribal communities on the Korean peninsula. youth warriors were organized. Ancient Timers The historical background of Taekwondo development will be explained following the chronological order of 4 different ages. people continued to enjoy the bare-hand fighting techniques for the purpose of building physical strength as well as showing off through matches at rituals of tribal communities. certainly with Taekwondo as one of the principal subjects of physical training. and therefore engages in physical activities either consciously or unconsciously. middles ages. enabling one to build strength by using the hand and foot freely and training arms and legs as well as the body to adaptable to any critical situations. Therefore. ancient times. which names have descended from "Subak". so they naturally developed the bare-hand fighting techniques. In the early days of the Korean peninsula. each enjoying warrior's martial art contests during the ritual seasons. called "Muyedobo-Tongji" wrote "Taekwondo is the basis of martial art. the Korean history tells that there were military personalities among the wellknown prominent national leaders of the three kingdoms. As a result. both made great efforts to raise their youngsters into strong warriors called "hwarang" and "sunbae" respectively.C. They were Koguryo." which means Taekwondo was already prevalent in that age. which proves the military tendency of ruling hierarchy. three kingdoms were rivaling among them for the hegemony. Even at times when arms were developed as defensive or offensive means.
and they were always ready to sacrifice their lives at the time of war. It is really noticeable that in the Shilla epoch the terms "subak" [hand techniques] and "taekkyon" appear together. clearly distinguishing it from Taekkyon. the kingdom organized a strong warrior corps called "Sunbae" in its attempt to consolidate power. "hwarangdo" is the typical example of Shilla's martial arts. saying. The statue also shows "pyon jumok " [flat fist] and the use of legs. which is an assimilation of Koguryo's "sunbae" system. It can be assumed from the painting of Taekkyon match that the dead were either a Taekkyon practical or the subject of condolence with dances and martial art. as can be proven by the wall paintings discovered at tombs of Koguryo days. the chronicle of the Old Chosun Dynasty described the lift of Koguryo days. Especially the shape of a fist shown on the statue of Kumgang Yoksa exactly resembles that of a "jungkwon" [proper fist] in the contemporary term of Taekwondo. Notable among them were Kim Yu-Shin and Kim Chun-Chu that made definite contributions to the unification of those three kingdoms. learning. which is a member of the warrior corps. but along with the birth of Paekje Kingdom on its west flank and the start of invasions by Koguryo from the north. always devoting themselves to the nations. a man of virtue who never recoils from a fight means "sunbae".Koguryo was founded on the northern part of Korea. after selection. members of hwarangdo: "hwarang were selected by the kingdom through contests and. in its early days. fencing and horse-riding. surrounded by hostile Han [Chinese] tribes in the north. signifying that both hand and foot techniques were used in martial arts as shown in today's Taekwondo. "people gathered on march 10 every year at a site of ritual." Hwarangs were particularly influenced by the Buddhistic disciplines and therefore the bronze statues of a Kumgang Yoksa [a man of great physical strength] currently exhibited at the Kyongju Museum clearly indicate that martial arts were practiced at temples by showing a strong man's bare-hand defensive and offensive stances. Shilla was impelled to arm itself with development of martial arts. . which are seen in today's Taekwondo. loyalty to the kingdom and sacrificial devotion to society to become important personalities for the rein of the kingdom. and a third at the same tomb shows the scene of Korean wrestling bout [Ssireum]. working on emergency aids and construction of fortresses and roads. Taekkyon contests and so on." implying that Taekkyon was one of the popular events for the ritual in the Koguryo days. archery. Therefore. they lived together in a group. Later. where they enjoyed a sword dance. it was natural that Koguryo put the priority of interests on the Taekkyon which was the basis of martial arts. and sometimes enjoyed various games of communities. A mural painting at the Samsil tomb shows two warriors engaged in a face-to-face match in Taekkyon stance. The Kingdom of Shilla was founded on the southeastern part of the Korean peninsula where there were no immediate threats from outside. The youth group hwarangdo were well trained with the senses of filial piety. Therefore. In fact. learning history and literary arts at home and going out to construct roads and fortresses for the benefits of society. It also said "sunbae" lived in groups. According to the scholars. exercising subak. The chronicle of Old Chosun described the life of hwarangs.
Therefore.e bare-hand techniques and foot techniques. as sonbaes in Koguryo used to compete in taekkyon games at the time of their national festivals. The chronicles of Koryo dynasty writes: "at a power contest of Taekkyon techniques. Again. which is proof that Taekwondo sports was originated in that epoch. then some of the props of the roof were shaken. it was also handed down to Silla. which reunified the Korean peninsula after Shilla [A. A certain plain soldier who mastered Taekkyon techniques was promoted to a general. and young were invited to Taekkyon contests where the skilled ones were selecte to become military officers. coming down to Silla. dokkyoni or taekkyoni) at such festivals as "palkwanhoe" and "hankawi" . which is justified by the following points of view. from the 4th century the Hwarangs took the takkyon lesson as a systemized martial art at their learning houses to make it also popularized among ordinary people so much so that their techniques were depicted on the mural paintings of ancient warrior tombs. The techniques and power of Taekkyon grew to become effective weapons even to kill human beings." Especially the kings of Koryo dynasty were much interested in "subakhui" [Taekkyon contest]. had the Taekkyon develop more systematically and made it a compulsory subject in the examinations for selection of military cadets. signifying that both hand and foot techniques were used in martial arts as shown in today's Taekwondo. it is also true that taekkyon. a pattern of collective practice. i . 918 to 1392]. There were lots of other examples in which many Taekkyon-mastered youths were picked at contests. (2) (3) Middle Ages The Koryo dynasty.together. called "obyong-subak-hui [5 soldier's Taekkyon play]. martial art abilities were the only required qualifications to become military personnel because th kingdom utterly needed the national defense capabilities after conquering the peninsula. subakhui was also popular out for inspection tours in the villages. as the art of taekkyon was popularized in Koguryo. (1) "Hwarang"(or sonrang) in Silla has the same meaning with the word "sonbae" in Koguryo by indicating both the youth warrior's corps from their etymological origins. According to historical. thus systematically developing the ancient fighting techniques into the taekkyon(or sonbae) as the basis of martial arts by around a.Min punched a pillar of the house with his right-hand fist. In the early days of Koryo dynasty. Both Hwarang and sonbae had the same organizations and hierarchical structure with each other. making it a compulsory course of military training.d. was introduced so that it might be used in a real war. was further developed into a school of martial art with the division of techniques. Lee Yi.D.200. Hwarangs in Silla also played taekkyon games (subak. which can be proved by the fact that both hand and foot techniques art clearly shown in the ancient sculptures buddlistic statues. Another Taekkyon practicer had his fist pierce through the clay-wall. In the military. .
Ho and Choi Nam-Sun." However. afore-mentioned master of Taekkyon. (Taekkyon explained in the Koryo history book) Modern Times In the modern times of Korea. Nonetheless. However. which 4th volume entitled "hand-fighting techniques" contained the illustration of 38 motions. Also noteworthy is the use the term "poom" which signified a face-to-fac The masters of Taekkyon were also under constant threat of imprisonment. naturally neglecting promotion of martial arts. . Song Duk-Ki. the Korean people began recovering the thought of self reliance and the traditional folkloric games resumed their popularity. some famous Korean writers. it was only in the days of King Jungjo after the disgraceful invasion of Korea by the Japanese  that the royal gove measures by strengthening military training and martial art practice. Then. exactly poomsae and basic movements. the Koryo dynasty in its latest years had gunpowder and new types of weapons available at hand. which has bee studies. which resulted in an eventual of Taekkyon as popu Present Day Upon liberation of Korea from the Japanese colonial rule after World War II. Around this period there was a publication of the so-calle martial art illustrations. the Japanese colonial government totally prohibited all folkloric games including Taekkyon in the process of suppre martial art Taekkyon [Taekwondo] had been secretly handed down only by the masters of the art until the liberation of the cou of the then masters testifies that his master was Im Ho who was reputed for his excellent skills of Taekkyon. although the subkhui was still popular in the early days of Chosun. such as Shin Chae. clearly distinguishing Taekwondo from the Japanese Karate which had been introduced by the Japanese rulers." and "subak is like today's Taekkyon which was orig but is now played mostly by children as games. the Annals of Chosun Dynasty tells about the contests of subakhui ordered by local officials for the p others ordered by the kings who enjoyed watching subakhui contests at the times of feasts. T "subakhui" than "Taekkyon" and it suffered an eventual loss of official support from the central government as the weapons w defense. Chosun. 3 pushing-down-the-heel pa pattern and 1 technique of downing-the-whole-body. "jumping over th wood just like a tiger. 4 hand techniques. the governmen importance on power struggles than on the interest of defense. although those motions cannot be compared with today's Taekwondo poomsae. as the government progressed. subakhui was also popular out for inspection tours in the villages. It was also ruled by the defense dep employed when he wins three other contestants in the subakhui bouts. mentioned ab subak prevailing in Seoul came from the sunbae in the Koguryo dynasty. Even under the Japanese colonial rule. thus slowing down its support of martial as the folk games to be transmitted down to the modern Korea. Therefore.military training. the Chosun dynasty [1392-1910] the imperial Korea and the Japanese colonial rule until 1945." (explanation of taekkon techniques in muyedobo-tongji (general illustrations of techniques) (scene of c At the time. which resulted in rejecting Buddhism and giving more im martial art. 14 terms of techniques were used representing 5 kicking patterns. presented demonstration of the martial art before the first republic of Korea president Syngman Rhee on the occasion of his birthday. The Chosun dynasty was founded on the ideology of Confucianism. However.
the present Kukkiwon was founded in 1972 to be used as the headquarters as well as the site of various Taekwondo competitions. also dispatching about 2. The 7th Kup-grade trainees practice this p 3 Jang Taegeuk 3 Jang symbolizes the "Ra". which represents water. The WTF became an IOC-recognized sports federation in 1980. the pan-American games in 1986. In 1973. In 1984. The 5th Kup-grade trainees practice this poomsae. which means the "heave universe. In 1975.bakkat-makki. one of the 8 divination signs. The 4th Kup-grade trainees pra 6 Jang Taegeuk 6 Jang symbolizes the "Kam". This is to en accomplishment of this poomsae will give the trainees a promotion to a blue belt. 2002.html http://w CHONKWON -‐ 6JITAE -‐ 8HANSU 1 Jang Taegeuk 1 Jang represents the symbol of "Keon". Taekwondo was accepted as an official sport by the U. The 8th Kup-grade trainees practice this poomsae. yop-chagi.org/wtf_eng/site/about_taekwondo/poomsae.Martial art experts began opening Taekwondo gymnasiums all over the country and after the end of Korean War [1950-1953] Taekwondo was popularized among the dan-grade black-belters within the country. momtong-jireugi. and continued jireugis. following the nomination of Taekwondo as a national martial art in 1971. meaning incessan . On November 29. one of the 8 divination signs. meaning both mig jumeok-maeryo-chigi. which represent "hot and bright". do does the Taegeuk 1 Jang in the training of Taekwondo. and finally by the Sydney 2000 Olympics in 1994 and then Athens 2004 Olympic Games in 2000. Emphasis is laid on the counterattacks against the opponent's chigi. the 114th IOC Session also confirmed the inclusion of Taekwon in the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. one of the 8 Kwaes (divination signs). one of the 8 divination signs. Then the adoption of Taekwondo as an official eve was followed by the world games in 1981. This poomsae is characterized by its easine momtong-makki. yop-chagi & yop-jireugi. followed by the adoption of official sports event by the International Council of Military Sports [CISM] in 1976. which signifies the inner firmness and the ou The ap-chagi actions appear more frequently than in Taegeuk 1 Jang. The 4 Jang Taegeuk 4 Jang symbolizes the "Jin". one of the 8 divination signs. New actions are sonnal-mok-ch makki and chigi. the biennial World Taekwondo Championships was organized.wtf. and ap-chagi. making Taekwondo an Olympic sport. palkup-dollyo-chigi. Then a year later. Poomsae TAEGUK SIPJIN KORYO KEUMGANG TAEBAE http://www. After all. 2 Jang Taegeuk 2 Jang symbolizes the "Tae". 5 Jang Taegeuk 5 Jang symbolizes the "Son".000 Taekwondo maste to more than 100 countries. which represent the thunder meaning great p jebipoom-mok-chigi. Taekwondo was admitted to the Asian games as an official event. which represent the wind. momtong.S Amateur Athletic Union [AAU] and also admitted to the General Association of International Sports Federations [GAISF]. one of the 8 divination signs. in 1973 the World Taekwondo Federation was established. palkup-pyo-jeok-chigi and such stances as kk as area-makki and momtong-makki and also the chigi by thumbling after running. deung-jumeok-olgul-apchigi and mikkeurombal [slipping cases characterize it.
the founder of the nation of Korean peop Tangun's thought of "hongik ingan"[humanitarian ideal]. which means "seonbae" or "seonbi".pyojeok-jireugi. which represents "Yin" and earth. but Mt. which is the background of organizing the Koryo poomsae. a learned man or a man virtue in the Korean language. The poomsae line is symbolic of the Chine dignity. Keumgang [meaning diamond] has the significance of "hardness" and "ponder". sonnal-opeo-japki [grabbing]. 8 Jang Taegeuk 8 Jang symbolizes the "Kon". Paektu. Koryo poomsae symbolizes "seonbae" which means a learned man. japhin-son-mokbakkat-chigi. which represent the wind. The 2nd Kup-graders practice this poomsae. jechin-du-jumeok-momtong-jireugi. The Keumgang Mountain on the Korean peninsula.momtong-makki in addition to pyonhi-seogi [at-ease stance]. momtong-hecho-makki. dol-tzeogi [hinge]. palkup-yop-chagi. Taebaek is the name of a mountain with the meaning of "bright mountain". are the background of denominating this poomsae. warrior] as named by Buddha. palkup-dollyo-chigi. one of the 8 divination signs. momtong-hecho-makki. New techniques introduced in this poomsae are sonnal-arae-hecho-makki. Emphasis must be laid on the accuracy of stepping and the difference between jumping-over kick an poomsae. one of the 8 divination signs. me the tong-milgi that requires mental concentration by positioning the hand in between the upper abdomen and the lower abdomen wh letter. kodureo. meaning both mig jumeok-maeryo-chigi. pyonson-kkeut-jecho-jireugi. and the hak-dari-seogi. meaning incessan bakkat-makki and batang-son. kheun dol-tzogi [large hinge]. etc. one of the 8 divination signs. which requires concentration of force in the beginning and source of . one of the 8 divination signs.5 Jang Taegeuk 5 Jang symbolizes the "Son". It is the source of life for all the creatures and the field where human bein resulting from the principles of origin and use. meaning poomsaes. Pyongwon means a plain that is a vast stretched-out land. who is characterized by a strong martial sprit as well as a right and down to Koryo. The 4th Kup-grade trainees pra 6 Jang Taegeuk 6 Jang symbolizes the "Kam". yop-chagi & yop-jireugi. mureup-chigi. New movements are d dollyo-chigi. which represents water.olgu seogi is the moa-seogi-wen-kyop-son [left overlapping hands]. jumeok. santeoul-makki. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are palkup-ollyo-chigi. where Tangun. There are numerous sites known as Taebaek. who represents the mightiest warrior. which may enable the trainees to undergo the Dan [black belt] promotion test. which represents the mountain. which has be poomsae. meaning po bo-jumeok-kawi-makki. batang-son-nullo-makki. palkup-pyo-jeok-chigi and such stances as kk as area-makki and momtong-makki and also the chigi by thumbling after running. The new techniques appearing in this poomsae are kkokki. New techni Keumgang-makki. T 7 Jang Taegeuk 7 Jang symbolizes the "Kan". otkoreo-arae-m Smooth connection of movements is important for training. which symbolized the bridge between the Heaven poomsae movements are largely composed of momtong-makkis and chigis. The line of poomsae is like a Chinese letter. One should be caref hand by a palm's length at the time of delivering a batang-son momtong-makki lower than in the palmok-makki.
looking over the sky. numerousness. all giving human beings faith.olgu seogi is the moa-seogi-wen-kyop-son [left overlapping hands]. the poomsae Ilyeo represents the harmonization of spirit and body. "han" has the various meanings. kodureo. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are son-nal-deung-momtong-hecho-makki. length and even t background of organizing this poomsae. The new techniques intro jumeok-yop-pyojeok-chigi only. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are palkup-ollyo-chigi. Over 4. which is characterized by the philosophy of onen one. the name of a country. and a crouched walking manner. etc. 2 plants and 3 animals. Its infinite com of Heaven for all principal earthly shapes and meanings because they felt afraid of the Heaven's mighty. the "heavenly" town as the capital near the heavenly sea and heavenly mountain. where the Han people as the heavenly race gave birt Chunkwon is based on such sublime history and thoughts The new techniques introduced in thtis poomsae are nalgae-pyogi [wing opening]. namely. son-nal-deung-m otkoreo-arae-makki. 3 natural resources. namely. which counts 10. me-jumeok-yang-yopkuri[both flanks]-ch also modum-bal as a stance. keumgang-yop-jireugi. Saint Wonhyo. son-nal-arae-makki. evenness. which means the oneness betwe The word "Hansu" means water is the source of substance preserving the life and growing all the creatures. which advocates there are ten creatures of long life. thus symbolizing the greatness of Chun submitting to the will of Heaven. and the poomsae line signified a man standing on earth to spring up toward the heaven. bam-jumeok-sosum-chigi [knuckle protruding fist drawing]. The characteristics of movements are large actions and arm sections forming gentle curves. moon. Actions should be practiced softly like water but continuously like a drop of water gathering to make an ocean.000 years ago. after a long t practice. A man on the earth represents the way o the poomsae symbolizes various aspects occurring in the course of human being's struggle for existence. The poomsae line sy Ilyeo means the thought of a great Buddhist priest of Silla Dynasty. son-nal-deung-momtong-makki.resulting from the principles of origin and use. The word "Chonkwon" means the Heaven's Great Mighty. . The poomsae Sipjin s [bull makki]. which requires concentration of force in the beginning and source of The word "Sipjin" derived from the thought of 10 longevity. sun. The Chinese letter meaning ten is the form of the poomsae li The word "Jitae" means a man standing on the ground with two feet. largeness. Therefore. 2 heavenly bodies. opeun-son-nal-jireugi.. which is the essence of martial art. bawi-milgi [rock pushing]. son-badak[palm]-kodureo-makki. Hansu symbolizes birth Especially. taesan-milgi. being endowed power by the Heaven and worshiping the Heaven. hope and love. which is the origin of all the creature and itself the cosmos.
practice. as the last step of poomsae tra unification and moderation. The new techniques introduced in this poomsae are son-nal-olgul-makki. in which. substance and service come into congruity. wesanteul-yop-chagi. so that the spiritual energy can flow freely into the body as well as the two hands. Dan grading All matters about black belt Poom/Dan certification are dealt with by the Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo Headquarters). Dan/Poom promotion tests are conducted according to the Regulations for Promotion Tests of the Kukkiwon. Jumbi-seogi is the bo-jumeok-moa-seogi [wrapped-up fist moa-seogi]. du-son-pyo[two opened hands]-bitur back]-hakdari-seogi. please click here. The line of poomsae s state of perfect selflessness in Buddhism where origin. . To go to the website of the Kukkiwon.
On the 11th of April. In fact. This single unified name of Taekwon-Do replaced the different and confusing terms. the 2nd Chief instructor in Vietnam. Taekwon-Do spread beyond its national boundaries. declared Taekwon-Do as the national martial art of Korea. Moral Culture (Jungshin Sooyang) The broad connotations and various possible interpretations of the moral culture are often very difficult for the western mind to grasp because this is an aspect of Oriental Philosophy which pervades the lives of Oriental people. it is the endeavor and process of becoming an exemplary person such as Confucius (552-479 AD). a special board was formed which included leading master instructors.org/?Content=Home Taekwon-Do History Although the origins of the martial arts are shrouded in mystery. "to promote the sense of morality one must treat others with faithfulness and sincerity based on righteousness. There is. the International Taekwon-Do Federation was formed with associations in Vietnam. Italy. Thus. In a word. it is our obligation to build such a society for the people. the dream of the sickly young student of calligraphy.C.http://www. This trip is significant in that the Ambassador. Han Cha Kyo. the board summoned by Gen. the Head Instructor in Singapore and Mr. even after death. one has to first find himself and acquire a moral character which is respected by all. To become such a person. desires to live in a free and peaceful society. and prominent leaders of society. Italy. In 1965 Ambassador Choi. This was the basis not only for establishing Taekwon-Do Associations in these countries but also the formation of the International Taekwon-Do Federation as it is known today. Colonel Ko Jae Chun. At the same time. if the times call for it. Many of these black belt holders such as Nam Tae Hi. In this year. President of his newly formed Korea Taekwon-Do Association and deputy commander of the 2nd Army in Tae Gu. retired two star general. etc. any country might claim credit for inventing Taekwon-Do.Do". I have quoted various words of wisdom of ancient saints and philosophers for creating an ideal society in the hope that students of Taekwon-Do use them as a guide to cultivating their moral culture. was appointed by the Government of the Republic of Korea to lead a goodwill mission to West Germany. On the 22nd of March. President of the Asia Taekwon-Do Federation. and Singapore. Colonel Baek Joon Gi. Arab Republic of Egypt and Korea. The father of Taekwon-Do and nineteen of his top black belt holders toured the Far East. Turkey. In 1966. astounding all spectators with the excellence of the Taekwon-Do techniques. Technically. Malaysia. who rose to Ambassador and the Association President of the most respected martial art in the world came true. however. Singapore.itftkd. and the crude forms of unarmed combat developed in the past. Modern Taekwon-Do differs greatly from other martial arts. historians. Choi Hong Hi. 1955 signaled the beginning of Taekwon-Do as a formally recognized art in Korea. United-Arab Republic. as a social being. and to eliminate completely vicious thinking". through his everlasting examples. Turkey. for the first time in Korean history. decided on the name of Taekwon-Do which had been submitted by him. Part One Everyone of us. If we ere to define these physical actions as "Taekwon. Confucius said. scant esemblance between Taekwon-Do. During that year. Gong Soo. Malaysia. Kwon Bup. the United States. . Brigadier Gen. Taek Kyon. presently an international instructor in Washington D. the 5th Chief of Taekwon-Do instructors in Vietnam. Choi was elevated to two illustrious posts. we consider it an undeniable fact that from time immemorial there have been physical condtions involving the use of the hands and feet for purpose of self-protection. eventually went on to spread the art to the world. as it is practiced today. The tour was a major success. West Germany. no other artial art is so advanced with regard to the sophistication and effectiveness of its technique or the over-all physical fitness it imparts to its practitioners. In 1959. the mentally disciplined man can contribute to the building of an ideal society through wise counsel to the government and. A number of names for the new martial art were submitted. Woo Jong Lim. Cha Soo Young. Mr. This can only be achieved through constant practice of mental discipline. Dang Soo.
He took the carafe and slowly emptied it into the flowing river in full view of the puzzled soldiers and invited them to share the wine with him by taking a sip of the water from the river. resorts to various laws to govern his people. In such a society. To put others' freedom. for it not only promotes a healthy body and keen mind but good sportsmanship and the perfection of moral behavior. To love people. This privilege is not reserved for any specific person but for all human beings. "Virtue is like the North Star. and trust. courtesy.400 years ago. and attempt to grasp these very fundamental essences of moral culture. before your own. PROPRIETY (Ye) . In Taekwon-Do a heavy emphasis is placed on moral culture. Thirdly there is a "legalistic society in which the ruler. However. his intention to rob the house.An ideal society. This good nature becomes obscured or completely lost by greed for money and power. To implement humanity he said one should: 1) Practice utmost prudence. A. "for the ordinary person life and death are the most important in the life." Righteousness is well defined in the act of a certain army general depicted in the book of "War Manual" written about 2." 2. 3) Demonstrate sincerity with whole-heartedness to others at all times. however. humanity. Confucius defined humanity in the following ways: A. Next. 3." Under these circumstances. naturally will act for the betterment of society. 2) Devote oneself to assigned work be it large or small. Be virtuous . digest. misuses his legal authority to further his personal ambitions and imposes his rule upon his people by force as he deems necessary." Therefore. humanity lies in the idea of sharing the fruits of nature with all people. forgetting for the moment.. who by merely doing their duty can live freely in peace without fear and anxiety. it would behoove the serious student of Taekwon-Do to read. a moral society is one in which the people admire and praise their ruler in gratitude for his love and the benign disposition he bears toward his people. Tae Kong Mang (12th century BC) said. Even a ruthless robber. Finally the worst kind of society is that in which the ruler. wisdom. righteousness. Mencius said. according to LAO-TZU. the more disciplined and cultivated the mind is.Mencius gave the following analogy when he reasoned that a man is basically good. A General was taking a break from the grueling war with his soldiers by a river bank when an aide brought him a small carafe of wine for his refreshment. Confucius said. people who surround the virtuous person. E. 1. through deception and trickery. especially one's parents. the ruler loses touch with his people. D. To have unbending desire to accomplish what is right regardless of how insignificant the result may initially seem when compared to the amount of effort put forth. Therefore. the ruler is despised and hated by his people and eventually invites not only his own downfall but with him the downfall of the people and the country. not by interference or fear but by appealing to the good nature of his people. All the stars revolve around it in an orderly fashion. will try to save the child. Not asking others to do what you would rather not do. No doubt the following lessons may be somewhat hard to fully understand. creative spirit concept. the more disciplined and cultivated will be the student's use of Taekwon-Do. B. However. RIGHTEOUSNESS (Ui) The ability to feel ashamed of unjust acts and to do one's duty to others. As ancient Greeks first espoused in their sound mind. To value others' honor before your own. B. C. for the virtuous person to and live and die for righteousness is far more important than life and death themselves. sound body. these are five human qualities which have been recognized as virtues since ancient times. modesty and discretion in everyday life. HUMANITY (In) The ability to feel sorrow for the misfortunes of fellow men and love them all equally as parents love their children equally. is one in which the ruler is of such high moral character that he can rule naturally.It is difficult to define what virtue is. Return to the basic nature . because he lacks the moral authority.. coming upon an innocent child about to fall into a well. To be virtuous one must constantly cultivate and practice these virtues. F. "The heaven provides us four seasons while the earth has the power to produce all living things. To behave with the nature of propriety by controlling on oneself. who in turn obey because they fear the retribution that the violation of these laws will bring.
" finally becoming no better than an animal. one is the live virtues given by heaven. a person can easily fall victim to the temptations of personal power and wealth. On the other hand. 4. can man discover his own human nature? There are two ways by which a person can find himself. On the other hand." "Prudence without courtesy can be rather cowardish. To be humble is not to engage in petty squabbles. but to be like the magnamous river in the low valley which irrigates the farm fields around it. Part Two How. a generous and loving man cannot have enemies. a courteous man would offer another man a piece of bread even though both were starving. and secondly by renouncing greed for material things. This is not to say that we reject all worldly things but rather that we keep both positions in proper balance so that the virtues of the former position provides guidance for the proper use of the latter." "Courageousness without courtesy can be rather violent. Without proper guidance. he may yet be poor. but worst of all. such as a cabinet minister. In this manner a man will gain respect and set good examples for others to follow. Greed is Insatiable He who is content with what he has is the richest man in the world. "constant material dissatisfaction is considered to be the root of all misfortunes. explained earlier. bureau chief. the first virtue. then. if one has everything and still more. Without trust a person loses all principles and dignities and becomes a liar and a cheater.Unlike animals fighting over food. According to an ancient adage. or a dictator and an enemy of the people. humanity. WISDOM (Ji) The ability to judge right from wrong. and whoever lacks sincerity in his words. not only to one's friends but to everyone in general. etc. once having acquired knowledge we learn to correct these shortcomings. As human beings we have many faults and are prone to make mistakes." Ye is a term describing proper code of conduct between various social status. is like a strong secure fortress. A. C. not especially in matters concerning the right and wrong of others but in matters concerning oneself. for what man gives can also be taken away. Be humble A weed holds up its head in arrogance while a mature grain bows its head in humility. Therefore. old and young. Man may occupy two positions in a lifetime Basically there are two kinds of position. intrigue and exploitation of others. Self-criticism No one is wise from the moment of birth. On the other hand you must do what is right no matter how small it may seem. D." He also said: "Frankness without courtesy can be rather ruthless. A wise man (Yu Bee) once said to his sons. and the other given by man. B. he casts himself in the position of "friend fighting against friend. out of respect and good manners." "Respectfulness without courtesy can make the recipient rather uncomfortable. Unfortunately man often relies too much on worldly position which is transient at best. There is certain truth in the old saying that a truly good person cannot be rich. for example: superior and inferior. and so on. by preserving the goodness given to him by God or heaven at birth. It would not be impossible to eventually become perfect . noble and common. A man who is blinded by greed is not only given to corruption. Ultimately such a person will become a tyrant. Confucius said. rich and poor. Lao-Tzu taught that lofty virtue is like a deep valley into which all streams of water flow. TRUST (Shin) The ability to keep one's words and promises. first. and a rich person cannot be a truly good person. father fighting against son." 5. According to Confucius. employing unethical means to further his ambitions. A virtuous man will draw the respect of others toward him in the same fashion while one who is selfish and egotistic will lose the respect of his fellow man and become despised and isolated. what heaven endows us with is eternal. However. "propriety must be practiced for the proper development of personality. cannot be considered a gentleman." There is no better way to self satisfaction and human growth than the constant development of a generous nature. "no matter how small it is you should not do what you realize is wrong.
000 BC. "To common men. For this purpose. honour. who usurped the throne by force and not by legitimate process. it can illuminate and give warmth to even hidden corners. honor and moral integrity. and one of the distinctions between human and animal. and death. position is considered important. Be Soft Because light is formless and soft. in a community. Baek-E-Sook-Je lived in Chou period about 2. people who in jealousy have stolen the recognition due to others and have stolen their possessions out of avarice have always left dark imprints of shame and dishonor. yet all creatures within it acknowledge her eternal accomplishments. he eventually starved to death in a self -imposed exile in the Sooyang mountains. while being uncertain myself 4) Have I neglected to practice virtue 5) Have I erred in my studies 6) Have I avoided acting with righteousness 7) Have I corrected myself immediately upon realizing my fault E. Be frugal Since ancient times. younger brother respects older brother. A society and a nation could not avoid chaos without its culture and social order being based on respect for the knowledge and wisdom of its elders. Such notable figures as Baek-E-Sook-Je of China. The same principle also applies to human beings. Indeed. excessive luxury and pleasure caused the downfall of many kings and nations without exception and history is full of such examples. If one claims to be strong. such as a sapling.human beings. at the time. As water can assume any shape or form. moral integrity. Sung-Sam-Moon was an important minister of the King Se Jong. As the old adage goes "if the water is muddy upstream so it will be downstream. there can be no children without parents. It is said that Confucius and his pupils practiced self-criticism by repeating the following three times daily: 1) Have I neglected others' requests because of selfishness 2) Have I behaved with a sincere attitude towards friends 3) Have I inspired others with certainty. G." . one of the loyalists was also executed in protest when the Doku-Kawa military government. Old sages used to say. Once water becomes a part of the ocean. he refused to serve the new King. Persons in leadership in particular must learn to be frugal and live moderately. This is the beauty of mankind. Throughout human history. most fearful" However. it can better serve the living things that need to survive. man must always respect his elders or seniors. and for a leader or advisor. Mencius said there are three things of value in human society: position. I. can withstand a strong wind when it is soft and flexible but may be toppled or broken after it becomes old and brittle. After the king died and the young Dan Jong became king his uncle Se-Jo conspired against the boy king and took over the throne. Mother Nature does make claims to her domain. to covet other's possessions and to steal the merits of others are the marks of an unscrupulous man. To help others develop and succeed in life is a reward in itself and has a true value only if nothing is expected in return. Yoshida-Shoing. nor a young generation without the old generation. F. Be just To be correct and forthright is to live one's life correctly. When King Moo toppled the twenty-seventh King. inventor of Han-Gul (Korean alphabet) in the 14th century. In government. and its awesome fury when aroused can conquer the tallest mountain. Respect of elders As son respects parents. Respect the rights of others To criticize someone who is better. it is essential not to be idyllic towards learning and continue to be willing to criticize oneself. who was a very notorious tyrant. a righteous man would value justice above life itself and would be willing to die rather than submit to injustice. Sung-Sam-Moon of Korea and YoshidaShoing of Japan all chose death in defiance of injustice leaving to their posterity lasting examples. he will soon meet someone who is stronger. Minister Sung was later executed because of his persistent protest over the unlawful act of King Se-Jo. H. even the largest ship is like a mere leaf. tried to abolish the Mei-Ji monarchy. A tree. life is most valuable.
To live with pride and honor through correct behavior. "He who acts without thinking at least three times. he has the moral strength to admit his mistakes to even the most humble and has the courage to stand up to the mighty if he believes himself or herself to be right. Let your actions speak for yourself. big and small. night and day. A closed mouth can save a fish from the hook as well as stay secrets from the enemy. meditation in Taekwon-Do does not mean a total divorce from the world. more plaintive their lament. one must not decide hastily but must deliberate to reach a decision that is both fair and objective. Know true happiness Lao-Tzu pointed out that nature was based upon harmony contrasts. a person must not be impulsive or reckless but be patient and thoughtful. For example.will is the motivating force: the former moves. will later regret his action. enabling man to reach a new height of great achievements. Yin (female) and Yang (male). while traveling the countryside incognito. This active thought process in silence is called "Jung-Joong-Dong. Remember that there are tears and heartaches of many behind one man's pleasure. A man of virtue expresses himself more through deeds than words. 2. In the middle of the feast he recited his famous poem: The sweet wine you drink from the glittering cups Flows from the tears of people who toil The tender meat which fills the dishes of jades is torn from their aching flesh Merrier you laugh. J. so Mencius exhorted his disciples. Develop peace of mind A clear pond becomes muddy if agitated and then returns to its original state when allowed to settle undisturbed." warns an old proverb. Thus." N. on a matter of an important appointment or punishment. long and short. Be discreet In every thing he does. solid and empty. Strong conviction can be gained through the broad and deep "Ki"-spirit. On a more practical level "Ki" helps us to keep our . Misery can only come from having been happy once and sorrow from joy. Even the ablest orator is apt to err if given to verbiage. but it does not last too long. there are countless poor and for each tyrant. For every rich person. the truly effective way to teach was believed to be by the actions not by the words of the teacher. All things in this world are relative to one another. but rather an active moment to reflect on our past mistakes in silence and in the privacy of our thoughts. beautiful and ugly. When proved wrong. We can attain peace of mind through meditation. Undoubtedly you can endure the hottest summer heat if you sit calm and composed. It is said that calm will be able to conquer the heat. a nation of oppressed. People talk mostly to brag about themselves or to gain advantage over others. Conversely. the king's roving inspector. the universe was made up of two forces. To educate the young to become upright and useful members of society. The wealthy and the powerful are not necessarily happy. like a dead body. he influences others through living examples. Healthy parents and harmony within the family. Mencius defined life's three happinesses as follows: 1. and through penitence. L. became frightened and fled from the scene. In the old days. Accordingly. The governor and his cohorts recognizing the true identity of the poet. Lee-Mong-Yong. Unlike in Buddhism or Zen.An extravagant leader will affect his subordinates in this same way and will bring more hardship to his subjects through increased taxation and bribery. K. To speak only what is meaningful is a sign of a cultivated person. if you move too much in order to warm your freezing body you may get temporary relief. M. Ki is a form of active energy which fills every physical cell and organ while "Chi". Be firm of mind A person of strong conviction is unsuspicious and unafraid. If "Ki" is nurtured with great care and allowed to grow based on humanity and justice. was invited to one of the lavish dinner parties of a notorious governor. its soaring power and outreaching strength can fill the heaven and earth. the latter leads. sadder they will weep Louder you sing. During the Lee Dynasty of Korea. to continue our self-improvement toward becoming better men and women. Other contrasts were hard and soft. cold and warm. 3. by emptying our minds of all petty thoughts and returning to the natural state of man.
2. O. Moral culture is considered to be a cultivating movement to make one devote oneself to his work. but because this type of student will usually work much harder and become the most dedicated student. the student has the convenience of training by himself any time it suits him. those best suited for an individual student can be chosen or modified. Without this. we can enjoy a greater freedom of action by preserving our basic nature while making ourselves impervious to the temptation of power." With a strong will and firm determination. As ancient proverbs say. A 60 year old. In other words a person's unflinching dedication to his own interest and duty is the source of life and power. one can just as easily train in shirts. or sees us through sleepless nights when our loved one is gravely ill. as an 18 year old Olympic decathlon champion. a bag filled with sand or a piece of cloth or paper suspended by a string can suffice if the regular training aide is not available." "One should not look afar. should avoid: . and in some cases even handicapped persons are able to practice Taekwon-Do. so is moral culture to the practitioner of the martial arts. 3. A person who has attained this stage of self-cultivation is sometimes called a "Saint.minds clear and alert when the affairs of life become strained and confused. Cultivation of mind. the instructor would be guilty of imparting a devastating force to those who could eventually become so enamoured of their newly found techniques they might very easily become bullies or use this knowledge as a means to achieve their personal ambitions. and self-confidence. technique. 85 pound. an instructor usually prefers an underdeveloped student not only becasue of the personal challenge. therefore. concentration and devotion is to the artist. but also for the cultivation of character. In fact the sincerity and effort definitely produce the belief and the belief makes one able to reach the final goal. Also a student with even limited training can introduce another beginner to techniques the student himself has already mastered. Benefits of TKD 1. whatever it might be." It must indeed seem like an impossible undertaking to a mere mortal. Patterns may be chosen according to a student's limitations and since Taekwon-Do boasts a myriad of techniques. track suit. or even street clothes. Be devoted As meditation is to the religious. Taekwon-Do is similar to gymnastics. To train or harden an attacking or blocking tool. Tenacity There are two pitfalls all students. Part Three In summary. regardless of rank. Popularity Young and old. In some ways." "Even heaven can be moved if one devotes himself to his cause. straw rope wound around a piece of wood. one armed woman can derive as much personal satisfaction. Economy Although a practice suit is a prerequisite in classroom training as an aid for mental and spiritual conditioning. A word of encouragement for those who are physically underdeveloped. is no monopoly of any particular person. This moral culture is uniquely tied in with Taekwon-Do. A mountain crossing begins with a single bold step and an ocean begins with each small stream. and perseverance is to the laborer. male and female. when the way is right in front of you. Physical strength. along with marked improvement in her mental and physical state of health. money and sex. weight and body build are of no consequences. not only for the eventual attainment of the highest goals in Taekwon-Do and the promotion of power. A student has merely to repeat what the instructor has demonstrated with occasional corrections on proper technique. it is within the reach of anyone who is willing to make the effort. "Where there is a will there is a way. Since Taekwon-Do can be practiced in a cleared space in your back yard or even public park in the absence of training hall. until his life and work become one. In fact. the majority of Taekwon-Do masters today were not initially endowed with physical strength or natural coordination.
7) All movements must begin with a backward motion with very few exceptions. in Taekwon-Do. a student who trains earnestly with dedication will learn the true techniques of Taekwon-Do in a comparatively short period of time with less effort. 3) To bring the action of eyes. However. Lack of Thoroughness Too often the students sacrifice thoroughness in the learning process. Boredom will usually set in between the third and sixth month for a beginning student. 4) To choose the appropriate attacking tool for each vital spot. because they tend to lose patience and insist on progressing to a higher technique before mastering the previous one. instructions from a false or unqualified instructor would be worse than not being taught at all because unscientific movements not only reduce the power but require a tremendous amount of time to correct. feet and breath into one single coordinated action. 5) To become familiar with the correct angle and distance for attack and defence. 8) To create sine wave during the movement by utilizing the knee spring . Training Secrets of Taekwon-Do An old proverb says that even heaven cannot make a diligent worker poor. On the other hand. Boredom There is a common tendency among beginners to tire of repeating the same techniques over and over. This is the period when a student is building his Taekwon-Do foundation by learning fundamental technique and building power. diligence or intensive training alone does not produce quality techniques. inability to perceive improvement and just plain physical fatigue combine to cause a psychological and physical ennui. Impatience. The student begins to learn techniques that he can use to gauge his rate of advancement. the student develops physically and fatigue is reduced. On the contrary. lack of self-confidence. but developing mental concentration as well. learn thoroughly each technique. especially patterns. 2) To understand the purpose and method of each movement clearly. B. and through breaking techniques and sparring the student develops confidence. under the proper guidance of a competent instructor. not only developing a physical reflexive action. however. Students should keep in mind the following secrets: 1) To study the theory of power thoroughly. step by step. 6) Keep both the arms and legs bent slightly while movement is in motion.A. The secret of becoming a black belt is a simple one. Students should realize that it is extremely important for them to know thoroughly one single technique until it becomes reflexive before advancing to the next. hands. After the seventh month. The best way to combat boredom is to attend classes regularly and develop resolve to attain a specific goal.
Taekwondo is often translated as 'the way of hand and foot'. 5.php Introduction to Taekwondo • What is taekwondo? • Disciplines of taekwondo • Objectives of taekwondo • Taekwondo for kids • Is taekwondo dangerous? What is taekwondo? Taekwondo is a modern martial art. or 'to kick'. 4. Disciplinces of taekwondo Taekwondo has four disciplinces which are explained in a seperate page/chapter of this site. Although children wear full body protection (preferably thicker than the protection for adults) only kicks and punches to the body are allowed. The four displinces are: • Patterns • Sparring • Self-defence • Breaktest It is the combination of these four disciplines that makes the art called taekwondo. The sport has been founded in Korea and is one of the popular modern martial arts. learn to respect others and learn to know their abilities and disabilities. There are multiple interpretations of the name taekwondo.barrel. characterized by it's fast.http://www. 2. 3. Is Taekwondo dangerous? Although WTF Taekwondo is a full contact sport where it is allowed to kick to the head (throwing punches to the head are not . Objectives of Taekwondo 1. no kicks to the head.net/introduction. 'to strike or block with hand' Do='The way of' or 'art'. They learn fast reactions through games. My definition of the name Taekwondo is • Tae='to strike or block with the foot' • • Put this together and Taekwondo means: "The art of Kicking and Punching" or "The art of unarmed combat". to develop an appreciation for Taekwondo as a sport and as an art to achieve physical fitness through positive participation to improve mental discipline and emotional equanimity to learn self-‐defense skills to develop a sense of responsibility for one self and others. Taekwondo for kids Taekwondo has no age limits and is a very good sport for children. Competition rules are a bit different for children then they are for adults. high and spinning kicks. it also means 'jump' K'won='Fist'.
During competition. ITF uses gloves at sparring-competition. nor do we want to get hurt ourselves. Taekwondo is not a destructive and aggressive sport. Another K. stop just an inch before the target. These commandments are influenced by the HwaRang Do code of honor: 1. there is a general code. full protection is used to protect the competitors. The final goal is to achieve harmony with nature and oneself.barrel. in both physical and mental ways. and mentally by training.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. often seen as an aggresive sport. but to test your strength. As I see it. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "Copyleft". it is allowed to throw punches to the head. but it's a way of life. It is not allowed to attack the head with full force. To avoid head injuries. HwaRang code of honor Because of the military background. Ethics basically all comes down to one point. or one can look at social ethics. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. as part of a whole. 5. During training.allowed). by using the so-called "killing-blow". Serve your lord with loyalty Serve your parents with filial piety Trust your friends Never retreat from a battle When taking life. We practise taekwondo. it is not very dangerous to practise Taekwondo. 4.O. Taekwondo students can improve themselves physically. but a sportive one. taking part in a competition is not to hurt your opponent. 2. One can look at individual ethics. to the head after this half year period results in a permanent exclusion of competitions. ethics are of great importance.be). ITF Taekwondo is so-called semi-contact. but this should not result in a false sense of superiority.net/ or http://www. No student who does not fully understand these tenets can ever hope to master the true essence of the art. with no Invariant Sections. you are not allowed to participate for half a year. no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. These codes are reflected in the so-called 'Commandments of modern Taekwondo' and is strongly influenced by the Buddhism. Yang): A true Taekwondo student knows how to behave in all situations. Balance is gained by controlling both evil and good forces (Yin vs. Commandments of modern Taekwondo: 1. treat a fellow-man right. Copyright (c) 1994-2010 by Barry Nauta (barry_at_nauta_dot_be. a competitor is not allowed to participate in a competition for three months (this time-period seems to vary) if one was knocked out by a kick to the head. the difference between 'good' and 'evil'. Permission is granted to copy. be selective The commandments of Taekwondo are used as a guide for the moral development of students and art. If the same incident happens again after these three months. To avoid injuries. but does this mean that we can be aggresive? Do we want to be aggresive? The answer is NO! We wear protection. 3. http://www. However. Version 1. Taekwondo (and I guess this goes for every Martial Art) is not only a way to improve skills of self defence. Loyalty to your country . Practicing Taekwondo gives the student more self-confidence. Ethics • • • • • Ethics HwaRang code of honor Commandmenst of modern taekwondo Tenets of taekwondo How to behave in a dojang Ethics As in all Martial Arts.nauta. there is no need to actually win so contact is light. because we don't want someoneelse to be injured. In my opinion.
smoke or eat in the dojang (no chewing gum!) Be on time. Taekwondo practisers (both students and instructors) should be polite. Respect your brothers and sisters 5. Respect your elders 7. • Always wear a clean Dobok. Never take life unjustly 9. To be honest and good. Loyalty to your friends 6. This basically stands for your internal drive. and show consideration for others. • Don't wear sharp things (if you do not have a Dobok. To have courage in the face of adversity. Perseverance (In Nae). • Clean hands. or have his spirit broken by another. earn respect and trust. do not wear pants with • • • • • zippers etc. unless it is necessary . Finish what you begin The Tenets of Taekwondo Courtesy (Ye Ui). Indomitable spirit (Baekjool Boolgool). Indomitable spirit 10. Respect your teacher 8.) No jewelry allowed Don't drink. Self control (Guk Ki). Respect your parents 3. Faithfulness to your spouse 4. To be thoughtful and considerate of others. To have control of your body and mind. Integrity (Yom Chi). Challenges allow us to improve ourselves and should therefor not be avoided. How to behave in the dojang There are a few general rules. A Taekwondo student should practice controlling his actions and reactions. Integrity describes how you should interact with others. feet.2. Loyalty to your school 11. make a proper bow Don't talk. short nails. When entering and leaving the dojang. A Taekwondo student should never be dominated by.
The closed lines represent Yang. one of the four disciplines that are part of Taekwondo. hosinsul and gyorugi. I like to take a look at a different side of the Taekwondo training: the spiritual side. The I Ching has 64 hexagrams. In times of peace. like: "We have trained hard and are very tired. without thinking. All opponents are imaginary. or Poomses in Korean language. You can distinguish these four disciplines. The Poomse is a strict pattern. I will use the Poomse as illustration. Through the practice of forms..F. a Chinese oracle. Arashi for one-and-a-half year now. What comes to my attention. .T. but hard to train during sparring.. What is a Poomse? The Poomse (pattern. students come to learn the applications of various techniques of Taekwondo. and that is something I regret. all of which are essential skills to the Taekwondo student. In my training. The associated trigram represents Yang (heaven. this Poomse should be performed with the greatness of Heaven. Unfortunately. in which one can practice all techniques without a partner. The sets of three lines are called trigrams.S. the Netherlands I have trained students at V. needed in war. I try to teach Taekwondo as a union of the Poomse. therefore. Arashi . and every new Poomse is a more difficult one. sometimes both beginning and more skilled students practice the Poomse without the knowledge why.. is that mostly only the physical training is appreciated. shape) is. aiding in development and refinement of coordination. The situation was quite different compared to the battle-field. In the Korean language. you have to go back to the origin of Taekwondo. are a series of defending and attacking movements performed against imaginary opponents in a set pattern. Father) The first Taeguk/Palgwe is the beginning of all Poomses.A. hosinsul (self-defense) and gyorugi (sparring). My experiences are positive. The Poomse was needed to practice techniques. besides kyepka (breaktest). Taekwondo techniques are sometimes trained for hours.Thoughts Poomse By Freddy Lufting (5th dan. 1998. Taekwondo instructor of V.S. closed or broken. The sum is more than separate parts! Patterns • Poomse's • Tul's Forms. The eight trigrams together are called Pal-gwe as in Poomse Palgwe. the unity of Yin and Yang is called 'taich'i'. gyekpa. but you cannot part them. breath control and rhythm. uses Poomses for patterns. Depending on the students skill (the color of the belt is an indication) the student practices a Poomse. This explains the term Poomse Taeguk. a combination of two sets of three lines. Poomse's W. In the chinese language. balance. Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Il Jang -‐-‐ Heaven (South. however. the unity is called T'ae-guk. there was still the need to practice combat-techniques. Forms serve a multi-dimensional role. the open lines Yin. june 2002). The Taekwondo students are willing to learn a lot about Taekwondo." They seem to think that only a hard training is a good one. timing.A. light). Poomses originate from the book 'I Ching'.University of Twente. To understand the Poomse.
Second daughter) Fire contains a lot of energy. The definition of Taebaek is "lightness". Eldest daughter) Wind is a gently force. This Taeguk/Palgwe should be performed with this in mind. This Poomse represents the orderliness of the decimal system. but knowing the ability of mass destruction with a single movement. majestic. Youngest son) Mountains will always look majestic.. This form should be performed rhythmically. Each movement of this Poomse represents the strength and energy needed to control the Mongols. Poomse Keumgang The definition of Keumgang is "Too h3 to be broken". there is still some light. Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Pal Jang -‐-‐ Earth (North. Both Palgwe's and Taeguk's are numbered from one to eight. Thunder is one of the most powerful natural forces. Fire helped man to survive. Every movement in this Poomse must not only be exact en fast. Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Oh Jang -‐-‐ Wind (South West. with some outbursts of energy. no matter the size. or "diamond". but that we can overcome these limitations. but with determination and hardness. Mother) The associated trigram of this Poomse is Yin: the end of the beginning. Even in this darkness. knowing that we can control our future. circling. Second son) Water can move a mountain. Poomse Koryo Koryo (Korea) is the name of an old Korean Dynasty. After this point. and therefore it is also the first. Sometimes standing still like water in a lake. Poomse TaeBaek The legendary 'Dangoon' founded a nation in Taebaek. destroying everything in it's path. the evil part of all that is good. Youngest daughter) In the depths of the lake are treasures and mysteries. Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Oh Jang should be performed like the wind: gently. but on the other hand had some catastrophical results. sometimes thriving as a river. there is no longer a difference between the patterns. near Korea's biggest mountain Baekdoo. the second etc. This Poomse should be performed with the feeling that all movements are this majestic and deserved to be praised. but can sometimes be furious.Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Ee Jang -‐-‐ Lake (South East. Eldest son) Thunder comes from the sky and is absorbed by the earth. Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Yook Jang -‐-‐ Water (West. Their spirit is reflected in the movements of the Poomse Koryo.. Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Chil Jang -‐-‐ Mountain (North West. The patterns below follow the Poomse Taeguks as well as the Poomse Palgwes. Poomse Sipjin Sipjin stands for decimal. This should lead to a feeling of joy. it also is the end of a circle. The movements of this Taeguk/Palgwe should be performed knowing that man has limitations. Baekdoo is a symbol for Korea. The movements of this Poomse should be performed like water. It also means the endless development and growth in a systematic order: stability. . vast plain": big. gyrating. The people from the Koryo-period defeated the Mongolian aggressors. Poomse Pyongwon The definition of Pyongwon is "stretch. The movements of the Poomse Keumgang are as beautiful as the Keumgang-san (a Korean mountain) and as h3 as Keumgang-seok (diamond). Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Sam Jang -‐-‐ Fire (East. Performing this Taeguk/Palgwe. one should be aware that this is the last Taeguk/Palgwe to be learned. Poomse Taeguk/Palgwe Sa Jang -‐-‐ Thunder (North East.
spirit and substance. The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38 degree latitude and the diagram of the pattern represents scholar. Poomse Hansoo This poomse is derived from the fluidity of water which easily adapts within nature. It is used in I. therefore it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37 degree latitude. . Do-‐San Tul (24 movements) Do-San is a pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876 .C. The primary difference between I. Hwa-‐Rang Tul (29 movements) Hwa Rang is named after the Haw Rang youth group which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. It is in the orient interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history.F. Poomse Ilyo The state of spiritual cultivation in Buddhism is called 'Ilyo' which means more or less 'oneness'. or the whole of a man's life. the first Japanese governor-general of Korea.T.T. Dan-‐Gun Tul (21 movements) Dan Gun is named after the Holy Dan Gun. body and mind. The 24 movements represent his entire life which he devoted to furthering education in Korea and the Korean independence movement. It causes the body to move in a "sine wave" resulting in the whole body being involved at the moment of impact.com Chon-‐Ji Tul (19 movements) Literally means heaven and earth. Joon-‐Gun Tul (32 movements) Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro Bumi Ito.Poomse Jitae Jitae is derived from the meaning of the earth. (from looking to the two) is that I.1938). blocking or attacking.T. The 29 movements refer to the 29th infantry Division. Tul's I.1584) nicknamed the "Confucius of Korea".F.F. obsessions and extermal influences behind. The motions of Cheonkwon are full of piety and vitality. practioners as "Sinewave". There are 10 patterns for the first black belt.F.F.T. at which point the member moves from being a 'beginner' to a 'novice'. where Taekwondo developed into maturity. has 24 patterns (or Tul) representing the 24 hours of the day. uses a 'stepping' movement for all hand techniques.T. one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth. utilizes is referred to by I. infinite and profound. known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger.T. In Ilyo. Contributed by jeja@gnn. This pattern consists of two similar parts.T. and W. Contributed by John Browne. This techniques us not just used for hand-techniques. There are 32 movements in this patter to represent Mr Ahn's age when he was executed at Lui-Shung in 1910.F. Toi-‐Gye Tul (37 movements) Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century) an authority on neo-Confucianism. The sky should be seen as ruler of the universe. the legendary founder of Korea in the year 2333 B.F. the diagram represent "scholar". kicking techniques as well. Poomse Cheonkwon Cheonkwon means 'sky'. "Knee Spring" or "up/down Motion".. Won-‐Hyo Tul (28 movements) Won-Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 AD. This 'stepping motion' that the I. It is a discipline in which we concentrate on every movement leaving all materialistics thoughts. Yul-‐Gok Tul (38 movements) Yul-Gok is a pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536 . the earth is the beginning and the end of life. The ultimate ideal of taekwondo can be found in this state. It is both mysterious. I and you are unified. All things evolve from and return to the earth.
14th century. This pattern ends with a left hand attack to symbolise the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity. Yon Gae Tul (49 Movements) Yon Gae is named after a famous general during the Koguryo Dynasty. The diagram represent his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty. Choi Yong Tul (46 Movements) Choi Yong is named after General Choi Yong. leader of the Korean independence movement on March 1. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty. 1919. in other words. patriotism. a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (Kobukson) in 1592. to symbolize his regrettable death. the year he came to the throne. who later became the first king of the Yi Dynasty. The diagram represents his indomitable spirit. Premier and Commander-in Chief of the armed forces during the 14th century Koryo Dynasty.Choong-‐Moo Tul (30 movements) Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Yi Dynasty. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn to the right rather than the left side. who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 AD. Juche Tul (45 Movements) Juche is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything. the 19th king of the Koguryo Dynasty. The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline. displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation. UL-‐JI Tul (42 Movements) UL-JI is named after general UL-JI Moon Dok who successfully defended Korea against a Tang's invasion force of nearly one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612 AD. The diagram represents Baekdu Mountain. Choong-‐Jang Tul (52 Movements) Choong-Jang is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty. Kwang-‐Gae Tul (39 movements) Kwang-Gae is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang. the idea that man is that master of the world and his own destiny. Sam Il Tul (33 Movements) Sam Il denotes the historical date of the independence movement of Korea which began throughout the country on march 1. Ge-‐Baek Tul (44 Movements) Ge-Baek is named after Ge-Baek. symbolizing Yoo sin's mistake of following his king's orders to fight with foreign force against his own nation. 1919. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. Yon Gae Somoon. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mount which symbolise the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represent the expansion and recovery of lost territory. Po-‐Eun Tul (36 movements) Po-Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong-Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and who's poem "I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred time" is know to every Korean. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 AD the year Korea was unified. He was executed by subordinate commanders headed by General Yi Sung Gae. Ul-JI employing hit and run guerilla tactics . He was noted for his unrestrained loyalty to the King. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed his name of Dong Hak (oriental Culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. Eui-‐Am Tul (45 Movements) Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi. a great general in the Baek-Je Dynasty (660AD). The 49 movements refer to the last two figures of 649 AD the year he forced the Tang Dynasty to quit Korea after destroying nearly 300. Yoo-‐Sin Tul (68 Movements) Yoo Sin is named after General Kin Yoo Sin.000 of their troops at Ansi Sung. and humility. This pattern ends with a left hand attack. The 33 movements in the pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.
including grappling/locks as well as depending against armed attackers etc. of course) practised (where the opponent either uses his body (i. Se-Jong. it focusses on high and spinning kicks which are not very suitable for real life (street) application. Contributed by Kirsten Smith Self defense (Hosinsul) Hosinsul (self defense) is one of the four principles of taekwondo.1604) during the Lae Dynasty. His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King's Rock). locks and strangling techniques. Although taekwondo is a "self defense" sport in itself. The diagram represents the king. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 6612 AS when Moon Moo came to the throne. The diagram represents his surname.was able to decimate a large percentage of the force. According to his will. Linear vs. (The photo shows Yvan de Wever. the body was placed in the sea "Where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese". You will learn how to react (and how not to react). Moon-‐Moo Tul (61 Movements) Moon Moo honors the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty. who invented the Korean alphabets in 1443. The following techniques are generally (this is not a rule. 6th dan Hwalmoo Hapkido) Self defense is something that cannot be practised alone.e. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592. You will need a partner that has equal strength. Circular . Hosinsul is a mixture of all kinds of techniques. while the 24 movements refer to the 24 letters of the Korean alphabet. Tong Il Tul Tong Il denotes the resolution of the unification of Korea which has been divided since 1945. The diagram symbolises the homogenous race. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organised a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myung Dang. hands). So-‐San Tul (72 Movements) So San is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyong Ung (1520 . and was also a noted meteorologist. a knife or a stick): • Control techniques • Freeing techniques (Paegi) • Termination techniques You will often see a big resemblance between the self defense techniques used in taekwondo and those applied in Hapkido. Se Jong Tul (24 Movements) Se-Jong is named after the greatest Korean King. The 42 movements represent the author's age when he designed the pattern. The Sok Gul Am is a fine example of the culture of the Silla Dynasty. It is said that the Sok Gul Am (Stone Cave) was built to guard his tomb. proper freeing techniques.
The disadvantage is that this method requires a lot of power and it may look extremely violent for outsiders. it might help you to focus a few inches behind the actual point of impact. but breaking can also be done by using the elbow. Kyepka (Break test) • Why perform breaktests? • How to perform a breaktest • The physics behind a break test One of the four elements fo taekwondo (besides sparring. the most common are the hand or the foot. speed and precision on non-living objects. performing a breaktechnique with his head) In order to break an object. and start with a technique in which you feel confident. How? The material that is most often used for breaking techniques is wood since it can be easily broken with either hand or foot. which results in pain for the opponent. Use an object that is easy to break. without injuring oneself or another.There are two sorts of self-defense (this is a BIG generalisation): The hard or linear way and the soft or circular way. (The photo show GM Moon of the Hwalmoo Hapkido federation. It also helps you to understand that during practise with a partner. The circular form has a different view. The advantage is that there is a direct counter-threat. sometimes even permanently! Practising breaking objects helps you to realise that your body itself is a very strong weapon. The advantage is that you can neutralise your opponent without hurting him and that no strength is required. tiles and sometimes even baseball bats! Breaking objects can be performed with any rigid part of the body. focus. It is a obligatory part of the black-belt exam and is s popular element of taekwondo demonstrations. Why? Breaking an object is a good way to practise concentration. When starting practising breaking techniques. Other materials include bricks. instead of directly trying to break a thick board. the knee and even the head. It is very important to realise that a proper technique is needed and a breaking technique within your limits. styleforms and self-defence) is the breaktest. you have to be very careful. In taekwondo. The physics behind a breaktest • Dry board are more brittle than wet ones and will break more easily . it is best to start light. In the linear form one uses arms and legs to block a strike of the opponent. Use your techniques as they are taught to you and try to be as releaxed as possible. because without it you can easily injure yourself. power. You will most likely use a combination of both. The disadvantage is that it takes a lot of skill and practise to come to the necessary level. Here you use the power and speed of the opponent to neutralise him/her using circular movements.
Call for Contestants The name of the contestants shall be announced three times beginning three minutes prior to the scheduled start of the contest. Both parts will supply a reverse force of half the initial force. a large force is transmitted back to your body for a relative long time. the easier the board will break. momentum = mass (weight) x velocity (speed in a certain direction). The contestant who fails to appear in the contest area within one minute after the scheduled start of the competition shall be regarded as withdrawn. the contestant shall enter into the . and the contestant shall not show any signs of aversion. the shorter your contact with the board. When you try to break a board. size of attacking tool WTF Competition Rules << Article 9 Article 11 >> COMPETITION RULES Article 10. it will soften your technique. (The second law of Newton). Entering the Competition Area Entering the Competition Area: After inspection.• • • • Impulse = force (delivered by the strength of t=your muscles) times time (delivered by the speed of your movement). which is determined by weight and speed (== impulse??)/ The force applied to stop a movement determines how quickly it is stopped. When the force meets the board. That is why often multiple smaller boards instead of one thicker one are used. Physical and Costume Inspection After being called. other factors not coverd: angle of strike. If the torque is great enough the board will break. make sure that the persons who hold the board have a firm grip. the bigger the force component will be and therefor. It is much easier! When breaking a board. since we can say the the mass used to create the momentum will not change. If a board does not reak. If you perform your breaking technique well. In order to break a board (or any kind of material). Besides force other elements that are important are power and pressure. 3. the board itself is supported as both sides. you must cause a shearing moment in the board that is larger than the critical moment for that type of material. you will hit the board in the center which leads to an equal distribution of force on the two parts. and also shall not bear any materials which could cause harm to the other contestant. This might hurt :o) Break boards with the grain. The thicker the board. Therefor. Procedure of the Contest 1. the contestants shall undergo physical and costume inspection at the designated inspection desk by the inspector designated by the WTF. If the board moves during your technique. This will produce a torque on an axis through the middle of the board. 2. The change in momentum is the momentum when you hit the target minus the momentum whem you come to a stop. the harder it is to break the board. the top of the board will be in a state of compression and the bottom will be in tension.
Procedure Before the Beginning and After the End of the Contest 1) The contestants shall face each other and make a standing bow at the referee's command of "Cha-‐ryeot" [attention] and " Kyeong-‐rye" [bow]. 2. Permitted Techniques and Areas 1. Permitted Techniques A. 3) After the end of the last round. 4) The referee shall declare the winner by raising his/her own hand to the winner's side. The referee shall declare the winning team by raising his/her own hand to the winning team's side. 5. 2) Procedure before the beginning and after the end of the contest shall be conducted as in item 5 of this Article. such attacks shall not be made on the part of the back not . Both teams shall line up in the Contest Area immediately after the end of the final match facing each other. However. 3) Both teams shall leave the Contest Area and stand by at the designated area for each contestant's match. A standing bow shall be made from the natural standing posture of "Cha-‐ryeot" by inclining forward at the waist to an angle of more than 30' degrees with the head inclined to an angle more than 45' degrees and the fists clenched at the sides of the legs. "Kyeong-‐rye".waiting position with one coach. and then wait for the referee's declaration of the decision in a standing posture. 4) 5) Article 11. Trunk: Attack by fist and foot techniques on the areas covered by the trunk protector are permitted. the contestants shall stand at their respective positions facing each other and exchange a standing bow at the referee's command of "Cha-‐ryeot". Fist techniques: Delivering techniques by using the front parts of the forefinger and middle finger of the tightly clenched fist. Foot techniques: Delivering techniques by using the parts of the foot below the ankle bone. 5) Retirement of the contestants 6. 2) The referee shall start the contest by commanding "Joon-‐bi" [ready] and "Shi-‐ jak"[start]. Contest Procedure in Team Competition 1) Both teams shall stand facing each other in line in submitted team order towards the 1st Boundary Line from the Contestants' Marks. 4. Start and End of the Contest The contest in each round shall begin with the declaration of "Shi-‐jak" [start] by the referee and shall end with the declaration of "Keu-‐man" [stop] by the referee. B. Permitted Areas A.
However. 3. B. A. Face: This area is the faxe excluding the back of the head. Grabbing the opponent b. the odd "Kyong-‐go" shall not be counted in the grand total. Article 14.covered by the trunk protector. B. B. Prohibited Acts 1. such a technique shall be regarded as a point. Prohibited acts: " Gam-‐jeom" penalty A. C. Avoiding the match 7. Invalidation of points: When the following are committed. Hitting the opponent's face with hands or fist i. Inteference with the progress of the match a. Use of any of the prohibited actions. Pretending injury e. the delivered technique will not be scored. and attack by foot techniques only is permitted. Face: the permitted parts of the face. the heavier penalty shall be declared. Penalties are divided into "Kyong-‐go" [warning penalty] and "Gam-‐jeom" [deduction penalty]. Points shall be awarded when permitted techniques are delivered accurately and powerfully to the legal scoring areas of the body. Holding the opponent c. when a contestant is knocked down as a result of the opponent's attack on a part of the trunk protector that is not part of a legal scoring area. 4. In the case of multiple penalties being committed simultaneously. Undesirable acts a. 2. Intentionally falling. 5. Penalties on any prohibited acts shall be declared by the referee. Prohibited acts: "Kyong-‐go" penalty A. Interrupting the progress of the match on the part of the contestant or the coach j. Evading by turning the back to the opponent B. Touching the opponent with the hand or the trunk d. Mid-‐section of the trunk: the abdomen and both sides of the flank. The valid points are divided as follows: 1) One (1) point for attack on trunk protector 2) Two (2) points for attack on face 3) One (1) additional point shall be awarded in the event that the contestant is knocked down and the referee counts. Falling down c. Article 12. Crossing the Boundary Line b. immediately after delivery of the legitimate technique. Match score shall be the sum of points of the three rounds. Committing an illegal act after delivery of the legitimate technique. Inteference with the progress of the . 5. Stamping or kicking any part of the leg or foot h. Two "Kyong-‐gos" shall be counted as deduction of one  point. 3. Butting or attacking with knee f. Valid Points 1. Legal Scoring Areas A. A "Gam-‐jeom" shall be counted as minus one [-‐1] point. 6. However. Attacking the groin g. 2. 4.
C. it is controlled on the target.) defender must maintain complete balance. Head and neck area at the front and sides but not at the back. iv.) opponents balance must be broken. POINT AWARDS A. hand attack while in air (both feet must be off the ground) directed to mid section. Article 34. Any competitor suspected of being under influence of alcoholic beverages or drugs. Misconduct against officials or ignoring instructions. B. FOULS One point will be deducted for the following offences: A. foot attack directed to mid section. perfect block. Undesirable acts a.) block must be powerful and accurate. Committing 3 fouls. Throwing down the opponent by grappling the opponent's attacking foot in the air with the arm or by pushing the opponent with the hand b. v. insulting an opponent in any way. hand attack while in air (both feet must be off the ground) directed to high section. One (1) point will be awarded for: Hand attack directed to mid or high section. When the contestant receives minus three [-‐3] points. C. ii. . rapidity and precision. it is executed correctly. Heavy contact. Article 35. C. Temporary suspension of the match due to violent remarks or behaviors on the part of the contestant or the coach 8. TARGET AREA A.) an appropriate blocking tool must be used. Trunk of the body from neck to navel vertically and from a line drawn from the armpit vertically down to the waist on each side (that is frontal area only excluding the back). 10. B. elbow or forehead. C. SCORING PROCEDURE In competition a technique is valid when: A. D. Intentionally attacking the opponent's face with fist B. 9. Two (2) points will be awarded for: Foot attack directed to high section. iii. Loss of temper. "Kyong-‐go" and " Gam-‐jeom" shall be counted in the total score of the three rounds. Article 37. B. purpose. When a contestant refuses to comply with the Competition Rules or the referee's order. Three (3) points will be awarded for: Jumping or flying kick directed to high section. c. the referee shall declare him/her loser by penalties. Article 36. it is dynamic. biting/scratching/clawing. Intentionally attacking the fallen opponent after declaration of 'Kal-‐yeo'. attacking with the knee. jumping or flying kick directed to mid section. ITF Sparring Article 33. B. the referee may declare the contestant loser by penalty after one (1) minute. perfect block: i. D.) defence must be maintained at a proper distance. that is to say it is delivered with strength.match a. D. DISQUALIFICATION A. B.
pretending to be injured to gain an advantage. whether intentional or not (this means any part of the body. contact. The Shih Ching The Book of Odes. The Li Ki Part I The Li Ki Part II The Book of Rites.E.E. this famous oracular book is one of the oldest sacred texts in the world.). G. This contains poems dating back to 1000-500 B.. stepping completely out of the ring (both feet). There was also a sixth classic.C. D. The Five Classics Four of the 'Five Classics' of Chinese have survived to our day. This text describes events dating back to the third millenium B. N. holding/grabbing/pushing. The sum of 3 warnings automatically means deducting 1 point.: If an athlete is pushed out of the ring with intent (without undergoing a technique) then he will not receive a warning.E. attacking a fallen opponent.. other than the feet. faking a blow. the Classic of Music (the Yüeh Ching). Dating to approximately 3000 B.C. C. F.C. The fifth classic (which we don't currently have translation of at this site) is the Spring and Autumn Annals. E. .E. pretending to have scored a point by raising the arm.C. Attack to an illegal target. This text describes Chinese religious practice from the eighth to the fifth century B. The Hsiao Ching The Book of Filial Piety. from SBE 3. F. intentionally avoiding sparring. falling down. touching the ground).E. The Book of Filial Duty by Ivan Chen  A translation of the Hsiao Ching. Article 38. WARNINGS Warnings will be assigned for the following offences: A. H. B.B. These are links into the above entries: The Shu Ching The Book of Historical Records. The I Ching The Book of Changes. and was written down during the Han dynasty (23-220 C. a classic text which defines the web of Confucian social relationships. which was lost.E. the Ch'un Ch'iu. NB. sweeping.
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