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H. A. HEIKAL, Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, El-Mataria and M. G. HIGAZY*, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Shoubra, Cairo, Egypt. 〈maher-higazy@usa.net〉

Received 19th October 1998 Revised 11th October 1999 This paper proposes new appropriate thermodynamic analysis for gas turbine cycles used for power plants rather than that commonly known from the traditional thermodynamic methods. The present analysis is based on using two important design criteria known as the pressure ratio and the temperature ratio. These two criteria are employed to indicate the characteristics of the thermal efficiency and the non-dimensional work. Characteristic charts are established as a function of these two criteria to illustrate the cycles theoretical performance. Appropriate effects of the cycles’ regeneration, intercooling and reheat are also discussed. The obtained charts can be used to indicate possible improvement in the thermodynamics of the gas turbine cycles. Key words: efficiency, work, basic cycles, gas turbine regeneration, intgercooling, reheat

NOTATION cp cv m n p T v W W* γ

*

specific heat of perfect gas at constant pressure (kJ kg K) specific heat of perfect gas at constant volume (kJ kg K) exponent in equation (5) exponent in equation (6) pressure (kN m2) absolute temperature on the Kelvin scale volume (m3) work of a cycle (kJ) non-dimensional work, equation (4) adiabatic exponent, or index of expansion or compression; equal to 1.4

Address for correspondence: Professor M. G. Higazy, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering Shoubra, 108 Shoubra Street, Post Code 11689, Shoubra, Cairo, Egypt.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4

322

H. A. Heikal and M. G. Higazy efficiency of a cycle pressure ratio, equation (1) temperature ratio, equation (2) degree of multi-stage intercooling or multi-stage reheat

η π τ ξ

Subscripts 1,2,3,4 g i min max r th condition of state points regeneration multi-stage intercooling minimum maximum multi-stage reheat thermal

1. INTRODUCTION The design of an effective gas turbine is well known to be the result of sound fundamental concepts combined with a series of practical compromises. Carnot’s brilliant ideas were in deducing many fundamental concepts, in the absence of thermodynamics laws, that are now taken for granted. These fundamental concepts, such as a useful work ratio, can only be produced by a heat engine through a process of controlled heat flow from a high to a low temperature. Thus, work can be produced out of the heat flow from the hot source to the cold sink. Thus, Horlock [1] uses the ratio of the heat source temperature to the sink temperature as design criteria. Wilson and Radwan [2] showed the importance of the work ratio in a gas turbine design and its effect on thermal efficiency, since in a gas turbine, over half its total output work is used to drive the compressor, i.e. the work ratio is less than 0.5. Normally it is about 0.25. The effect of such a low work ratio is a low thermal efficiency. Chen et al. [3], taking into account different practical implications of work ratio, indicated that in many ways the concept of work ratio can be regarded more important than the concept of ideal cycle thermal efficiency. Therefore, it is the main aim of this paper to expose a realistic characteristic of thermodynamics for gas turbine basic cycles. Thermodynamic characteristics for both open and closed cycles are usually based on two concepts: the non-dimensional work criteria as well as the thermal efficiency criteria. Considering the original five air standard cycles of Carnot, Stirling, Ericsson, Atkinson and Joule, [4] and [5]; the characteristic equations for the thermal efficiency, ηth and the non-dimensional work, W* have been developed. Such characteristic equations are derived as functions of two important nondimensional design criteria. These are the pressure ratio, π, and the temperature ratio, τ, as will be shown later.

1.1 The cycle pressure ratio This parameter is taken as the ratio between the highest or maximum pressure of the cycle to the initial or minimum pressure cycle. The pressure ratio π, takes the form:

π=

pmax pmin

(1)

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4

During the processes. τ is given by: τ= Tmax Tmin (2) 1. In other words. The cycle processes are for a perfect gas or air having a constant law index. π.3 The ideal thermal efficiency As it is usually known. CYCLES EFFICIENCIES AND NON-DIMENSIONAL WORKS The general analysis of cycles is carried out by employing the perfect gas laws for different processes.2 The cycle temperature ratio 323 The temperature ratio τ. and cycle temperature ratio. Thus.4 The non-dimensional work of the cycle. The work done per cycle. The cycle’s efficiencies and non-dimensional work equations are driven as a function of cycle pressure ratio. 1. heat or work will be transferred into or out of the air. it is the ratio between the source temperature to the sink temperature. Thus. The analysis of the cycles are based on using either the p – v or T – S planes for the five basic cycles. W. W* The non-dimensional work is defined as the work done per cycle. The cycle implies sequence of processes taking place in which either gas or air is eventually returned to its original state. In Figs 2 (a–b) comparison among the five cycles areas on T – S diagram are drawn for the same π and τ. divided by CpT1. Where T1 is the cycle minimum temperature. τ.5 The exponent of a process It is designated as m= and γ −1 γ (5) n= γ γ −1 (6) 2. is the net area of the cycle on T – S or p – v diagrams. where: ηth = work done per cycle net heat added to the air per cycle (3) 1. the non-dimensional work is defined as: W* = W CpT1 (4) 1.On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 1. shown in Fig. the efficiency of the cycle is the ratio between the net work of a cycle divided by the net heat added to the air per cycle. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . is defined as the ratio between the maximum cycle temperature to the minimum cycle temperature.

Fig. 1. Air standard cycles for gas turbines. .

Atkinson. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . 2. ideal multi-stage intercooling. Joule. multi-stage reheat and ideal regenerative cycles. Stirling. (a) Carnot.On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 325 Fig. Ericsson and ideal regenerative cycles. Air standard cycles superimposed on T – S diagrams for the same π and τ. (b) Stirling. Ericsson.

The solid lines* represent the constant pressure ratio lines. In this figure. The non-dimensional work W* is calculated according to the basic principles of thermodynamics for the cycle processes. no matter how much the value of the pressure ratio changes. Heikal and M. 3 * This trend is similar for all figures. i. The constant π lines start from zero and they increase up to a certain maximum value. the cycle does not work. is equal to the ideal thermal efficiency = 1 − Consequently RT1 ( S4 − S1 ) CpT1 RT3 ( S3 − S2 ) CpT1 ηth = 1 − 1 τ (8) The above two equations characterize the Carnot cycle performance as a function of only the pressure ratio π. constant τ.5 to 5000 and for τ varies from 1. then.e. the Carnot cycle is severely limited in work per cycle as illustrated in Fig. Charts representing the above equations are drawn in Fig. It is also demonstrated that the Carnot cycle does not work for every pressure ratio and temperature ratio.5 which is a very limited work. The maximum efficiency occurs with nearly zero work. This temperature ratio. Fig. A. and the temperature ratio τ.326 2. The work reaches its maximum value while the efficiency increases. for a pressure ratio π. 3. equal 30. G. This behaviour is expected from equation (8).e. would be corresponding to maximum temperature of 1500 k when the minimum temperature is taken as 300 k. ranges from 2. for fixed values. work done is equal to: Word done per cycle = heat transferred to the air – heat transferred out of the air According to equation (4) W* = workdone per cycle RT3 ( S3 − S2 ) − RT1 ( S4 − S1 ) = CpT1 CpT1 consequently W * = m(τ − 1)(ln π − n ln τ ) (7) and according to the cycle ideal thermal efficiency. 3 shows that the Carnot cycle operates between a temperature ratio of 5 and corresponding to a very unrealistic pressure ratio of 5000. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . the work starts to decrease to nearly zero while the efficiency gets to its maximum value. and with a temperature ratio τ = 6.e. e. the optimum work corresponding to each pressure ratio and temperature ratio is also plotted. The corresponding non-dimensional work for the previous values is less than 3. they decrease back again. 3 indicates that work ratio increases as the pressure ratio increase. The efficiency-work ratio relationship shown in Fig. Then. i. Therefore. 3 for π.1 The Carnot cycle H.25 up to 8. τ = 5.g. constant π and dashed lines* represent the constant temperature ratio lines. 1(a). i. The maximum work is accomplished before the efficiency reaches its maximum value. Although the Carnot cycle will have the maximum thermodynamic efficiency for a given source and sink temperatures. Higazy The well-known Carnot cycle consists of two isothermal processes and two isentropic processes as shown in Fig. This occurs while both the efficiency and temperature ratio are both constant. This is demonstrated in Fig. equation (3).

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 .On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 327 Fig. Characteristics charts for the Carnot cycle. 3.

The maximum work is almost straight-line and slightly increases with the increase of temperature ratios but varies considerably with pressure ratios. the Stirling cycle is shown on the p – v and T – S planes. 1(c) shows the Ericsson cycle on p – v and T – S planes. Higazy In Fig. A. the non-dimensional work W* takes the form W * = m(τ − 1) (ln π − ln τ ) (9) and the thermal efficiency has the form τ −1 π + m ln γ τ ηth = 1 − τ −1 π + mτ ln γ τ (10) In Fig. Following the same principle as in the Carnot cycle. ranges from 2. The line of maximum non-dimensional work is also shown in Fig. The process of regeneration is also possible to apply and to become a reversible cycle also. The cycle is composed of two isothermal processes and two constant volume processes. These charts illustrate that a Stirling cycle has higher efficiency with lower temperature ratios than with higher temperature ratios.328 2.5 up to 30. This will be discussed later.2 The Stirling cycle H. consequently. The importance of this cycle and the following cycles is in their ability to accept the process of regeneration. 2. This illustrates that the Ericsson cycle agrees with the Stirling cycle on having two isothermal processes. Heikal and M. The constant temperature ratio lines start from the origin and they increase outwards. G. The non-dimensional work W* is calculated with the same procedure as mentioned before and takes the form International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . ranges from 3 up to 7 and pressure ratio. 4 where it occurs with an efficiency equal to about two thirds of its highest efficiency. τ. 1(b). π. 4 the thermal efficiency and non-dimensional work are plotted for temperature and pressure ratios. but with two constant pressure processes. the constant pressure ratio lines start from the origin representing a ringshaped curve which closes back to zero. However.3 The Ericsson cycle Fig. The temperature ratio.

Atkinson and Joule. 4. Characteristics charts for basic cycles: Stirling.On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 329 Fig. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . Ericsson.

but lower non-dimensional work of all. 2. both the constant temperature ratio and constant pressure ratio lines eject from the origin. they remain constant and parallel to the work ratio axis. 1(e) on p – v and T – S planes. For the same pressure and temperature ratios.330 H. The line of maximum nondimensional work is also shown in Fig. G. A. This cycle is sometimes referred to as constant pressure cycle. The whole processes are shown in Fig. Then. the non-dimensional work W* is W* = (γ −1) 1 τ π τ − τ − π m − 1 γ (13) Also. The temperature lines start from zero and have a half elliptic shape reaching its maximum with nearly zero work. Fig. Therefore. The non-dimensional work W* is equal to W* = τ +1− π m − τ π m International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 (15) . It occurs when the thermal efficiency is equal to about two thirds of its highest efficiency. Heikal and M. The constant pressure ratio lines increase with the increase of work ratio up to a certain thermal efficiency. An Atkinson cycle has higher thermal efficiency than that of Stirling and Ericsson cycles. 4. 4 shows the thermal efficiency drawn corresponding to the non-dimensional work. 1(d) shows also a representation of an Atkinson cycle on p – v and T – S planes.4 The Atkinson cycle Fig. one a constant pressure process and the other a constant volume process. the Ericsson cycle will have the largest work. 2(a) demonstrates also that the Carnot cycle will have a smaller work ratio than that for Stirling or Ericsson cycles. 2. for variety of pressure and temperature ratios. However. It consists of two isentropic processes. In spite of constant thermal efficiency. 4. Higazy W * = m(τ − 1)ln π (11) and the thermal efficiency has the form ηth = 1 − (τ − 1) + m ln π (τ − 1) + mτ ln π (12) Fig. the Ericsson cycle possesses thermal efficiency and non-dimensional work higher than that of the Stirling cycle as shown in Fig. the thermal efficiency is ηth = 1 − τ γ m − 1 π π τ − τ (γ −1) (14) Equation (13) and (14) are plotted in Fig. 2(b). where the Atkinson cycle is represented by the area 12A34A1. increasing the temperature ratio will result in an increase of the non-dimensional work ratio. High constant pressure ratio lines are almost straight-lines which decrease slightly with the increase of the temperature ratios. This agrees well with the cycle’s representation on T – S in Fig. 4.5 The Joule cycle The Joule cycle consists of two isentropic processes and two constant pressure processes. For an Ericsson cycle.

Therefore. 4. will be the same as the original cycle That means both the Stirling and Ericsson regenerative cycles will have efficiencies equal to Carnot cycle efficiency as in equation (8).e. Its value does not depend on the temperature ratio.e. Thus. EFFECTS OF REGENERATION One way to increase the thermal efficiency is to employ regenerative processes for a given cycle. where all cycles have the same pressure and temperature ratios. smaller work. and Atkinson cycles. the Ericsson cycle shows an asymptotically trend with regeneration. For comparison the four cycles are drawn on a T – S diagram in Fig. Also.e. i. the work of Stirling and Ericsson cycles will not change. in the case of Stirling and Ericsson cycles. However. This means that the Joule or Atkinson thermal efficiencies depend on the temperature of point 2 at the end of isentropic compression and the temperature of point 4 at the end of isentropic expansion. highest work. i. In this figure the Ericsson cycle has the larger cycle area. the thermal efficiency has the form 331 ηth = 1 − 1 πm (16) Equations (15) and (16) are plotted in Fig. 2(b). The Joule characteristic’s chart has a similar shape as the Atkinson chart. their thermal regenerative efficiency takes the form ηthg = 1 − 1 τ (17) However. 4. These remarks do agree with the conclusion drawn from the mathematical models with the characteristic charts shown in Fig. 4. Also the maximum work is achieved with an efficiency equal to about two-thirds the value of maximum efficiency. 2(b). For any pressure ratio. the non-dimensional work and thermal efficiency relationship for Stirling and Ericsson cycles with regeneration is shown. as shown in Fig. 5 or the same pressure and temperature ratios. However. Ideal regeneration requires reversible storage and recovery of heat with no net entropy generation. for a variety of pressure and temperature ratios. 3. This is also shown in equation (16). storing and recovering heat on the non-isothermal part of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles or on the isentropic part of the Atkinson and Joule cycles. in the case of Atkinson and Joule cycles.On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants Also. implies a fixed horizontal distance between the regenerative process lines on the T – S diagram as shown in Figs 2(a–b).e. their thermal regenerative efficiencies are functions of the temperature of state for point 2. 5. 3. However. Ericsson. i. the Joule cycle has a non-dimensional work higher than an Atkinson cycle but lower than both the Stirling and Ericsson cycles. has the highest thermal efficiency compared to the Stirling. the thermal efficiency is constant. the pressure lines are horizontal straight-lines. The Atkinson cycle has the smallest area. This figure illustrates that the regenerative Stirling cycle has attained the same characteristic behaviour as Carnot cycle characteristic charts shown in Fig. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . Both Stirling and Ericsson cycles have a thermal efficiency equal to a Carnot cycle as shown in Fig. i. 3. as shown in Fig. an ideal regeneration cycle will have a thermal efficiency equivalent to that of Carnot.1 Stirling and Ericsson cycles with regeneration In Fig. which in turn. Of course the Joule cycle.

332 H. A. G. Heikal and M. Higazy International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 .

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 .On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 333 Fig.3 Atkinson and Joule cycles with regeneration The regenerative Atkinson cycle will have a non-dimensional work equal to that of Atkinson cycle as in equation (12) but the regenerative thermal efficiency takes the form ηth g τ −1 πm = 1− (γ −1) (γ −1) 1 τ π π τ − −πm − τ τ γ (18) For a Joule cycle also. Also. Of course this causes regeneration existence. for pressure ratios. For the Joule cycle a regenerative process will not be possible for a pressure ratio equal to 30 or over and the limits of temperature ratio ranging from 3 to 7. π ranging from 7. the non-dimensional work is the same as equation (15) but the regenerative thermal efficiency takes the form ηth g τ −1 πm = 1− τ τ− m π (19) In Fig. Characteristics charts for regenerative cycles. This limitation would be due to the temperature at the end of the isentropic expansion which should be higher than the temperature at the end of isentropic compression. 3. Atkinson and Joule cycles would have a limitation on the regenerative processes. 5. the relation between the work and the thermal efficiency of Atkinson and Joule cycles is shown. an important result is that the Atkinson cycle regenerative efficiency is higher than Carnot cycle equivalent efficiency. these two cycles will have a regenerative efficiency lower or higher than that of Carnot cycle efficiency depending on the temperature limitation. 5. τ ranging from 6 to 7. Therefore.5 to 10 and temperature ratios.

it is detected that the isentropic work is less than the isothermal work between the same two lines only for small pressure ratios. it is the isothermal process 12′ over the isothermal process 12E as shown in Fig. These two values are chosen to indicate the effect of the multi-stage intercooling on the thermal efficiency and work. i. less than 10. Thus.1 and 1. Only two values for ξ i are assumed as 0. τ. with any degree of regeneration equal to ξi with notations 11′ 1′′34A1. i. the two processes in each cycle will be equal. the isentropic work will be between a constant pressure line and a constant volume line. For Atkinson cycles. If the degree of multi-stage intercooling is defined as ξi = S1 − S1′ S1 − S2 s (20) The non-dimensional work W* is given by 1 π m (γ − ξ i ) τ π W * = τ − − m + 1 − mξi ln τ τ γ π (21) Also. The multi-stage intercooling process for the Atkinson cycle is shown in Fig. and the pressure ratio π. the multi-stage intercooling is useful and the non-dimensional work increases with the increases of the temperature ratio. 2(b).334 H. When the degree of multi-stage intercooling is 1. A.e. for pressure ratios more than 10. τ is greater than 5. One is isentropic compression of the air and the second is cooling the air to its initial temperature and so on. the non-dimensional work will increase. multi-stage intercooling is not useful for a pressure ratio.e. i. G. For a pressure ratio equal to 10. For the Atkinson cycle. the thermal efficiency is given by ηth i τ π − 1 + mτξi ln τ πm = 1− γ π m (γ − ξ i ) τ − τ (22) Where ξ i is the degree of multi-stage intercooling as defined in equation (21). Heikal and M. 2(b). Carrying out a process with this feature will possibly reduce the compression work. Higazy 4.e. Therefore. it is equal to the isothermal process 11′ over isothermal process 12S and for a Joule cycle. a compression with an infinite number of these two stages will produce an isothermal process as shown in Fig. it will increase the heat added to the cycle and hence will reduce the thermal efficiency. An optimized process can be used to decide the best value for the degree of multi-stage intercooling. Thus. Therefore. It is expected that the isothermal work between two constant pressure lines is less than the isentropic work between the same lines. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . However. the non-dimensional work increases when the temperature ratio. The Atkinson cycle with complete multi-stage intercooling will be represented by 12S34A1 while the Joule cycle will be represented by 12E34J1. However. the degree of multistage intercooling is defined as the ratio between the isothermal part of the process which takes place to the whole isothermal compression process. in general. 2(b) on a T – S diagram. π. The multistage intercooling thermal efficiency and non-dimensional work are shown in Fig. ξ i. or the Atkinson cycle corresponding to the temperature ratio. EFFECTS OF MULTI-STAGE INTERCOOLING Multi-stage intercooling consists of a series of small processes in which each is performed in two stages. less than about 10. for the Atkinson cycle. 6.

On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 335 Fig. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . 6. Characteristics charts for basic cycles with multi-stage intercooling.

If the degree of multi-stage intercooling is taken as ξi = S1 − S2 ′ S1 − S2 E (23) Then. the thermal efficiency is given by ηth i τ − 1 + mξi ln π πm = 1− τ − π m(1− ξ i ) (25) where ξ i is the degree of multi-stage intercooling. Also. i. as shown in Fig. this disadvantage will be overcome when a regenerative process is employed as will be shown later. It is generally postulated that the multi-stage intercooling will result in decreasing the work input but that will consequently increase the work output. For the Joule cycle. hence.336 H. the complete multi-stage intercooling will be 12S34J1. 2(b) on a T – S diagram. 6. 4. 6. G. the increase in the degree of multi-stage intercooling is proportional to the increase in the non-dimensional work. The non-dimensional work W* is given by W * = τ − π m(1− ξ i ) − τ + 1 − mξi ln π πm (24) Also. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 .e.2 Joule cycle with multi-stage intercooling The multi-stage intercooling process for a Joule cycle is also shown in Fig. for any degree of multi-stage intercooling equal to ξ i with notations 11′1′′34A1. two values are taken equal to 0. the multi-stage intercooling thermal efficiency decreases.1 and 1. Heikal and M. 6 demonstrates that the non-dimensional work increases. in general. A. Higazy Fig. Fig. However.

5. EFFECTS OF MULTI-STAGE REHEAT 337 The multi-stage reheat process is also considered as a series of small processes. The degree of multi-stage reheat is defined as the ratio between the isothermal part of the process taking place to the whole isothermal process of expansion. 5. Therefore. Each process is performed in two stages. If the degree of multi-stage reheat is defined as ξr = S3 ′ − S3 SE − S3 (26) Consequently. and the complete multi-stage reheat cycle will be 12A34E1. But the heat added to the cycle is also increased and hence.1 Atkinson cycle with multi-stage reheat The multi-stage reheat process for an Atkinson cycle is shown in Fig. an expansion with infinite number of these two stages will produce an isothermal expansion process as shown in Fig. with notations 12A3 3′3′′1. with notations 12J3 3′3′′1. as a general case. 2(b). Their values are taken equal to 0. the thermal efficiency will be reduced. The Atkinson cycle with complete multi-stage reheat will be represented by 12A34E1 and the Joule cycle will also be represented by 12J34E1.On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 5. 2(b). as a general case. When the degree of multi-stage reheat is 1. the non-dimensional work will increase. Then. the two processes in each cycle will be equal. Atkinson cycle’s degree of multi-stage reheat is equal to the isothermal process 3′3′′ over isothermal process 34A and for Joule cycle’s the isothermal process 4′4′′ over the isothermal process 34J as shown in Fig. 2(b) on a T – S diagram together with other cycles similar to the multi-stage intercooling. the multi-stage reheat thermal efficiency is given by ηth r τ −1 π m(1− ξ r ) = 1− τ 1 π (γ −1) − + mτξr ln π γ γ τ (28) where ξ r is the degree of multi-stage reheat. 2(b) on a T – S diagram together with other cycles similar to the multi-stage intercooling. Carrying out a process with this feature.1 and 1 as shown in Fig. 7. the multi-stage reheat will produce a process of isothermal expansion with an infinite umber of these two stages.2 Joule cycle with multi-stage reheat The multi-stage reheat process for Joule cycle is shown in Fig. the non-dimensional work W* is given by W* = τ 1 π (γ −1) τ − + mτξr ln π − +1 γ τ τ (π ) m(1− ξ r ) (27) Also. One is isentropic expansion and the second is reheat to the highest temperature of the cycle and so on. If the degree of multi-stage reheat is taken as International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . Thus. will increase the expansion work and the work of compression is unchanged. and the complete multi-stage reheat cycle will be 12J34E1.

338 H. Heikal and M. Higazy International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . G. A.

the degree of multi-stage reheat takes the values of 0. 7. The non-dimensional work increases and the thermal multi-stage reheat efficiency may be decreased or increased. ranging from 3 to 7. as shown in Fig. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . 7.On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 339 Fig. τ. in the case of the Joule cycle with multi-stage reheat. Characteristics charts for basic cycles with multi-stage reheat. π. up to 20 and with temperature ratios. ξr = S4 ′ − S3 SE − S3 (29) and hence the non-dimensional work W* is given by W * = τ − π m + mτξr ln π − Also. However. 7. 6. 7. the non-dimensional work increases and the thermal efficiency decreases. For Atkinson multi-stage reheat cycle the non-dimensional work and the thermal efficiency are increased with a pressure ratio. the thermal efficiency is given by τ π m (1− ξ r ) +1 (30) τ −1 π m(1− ξ r ) ηth = 1 − τ − π m + mτξr ln π (31) where ξ r is the degree of multi-stage reheat.1 and 1. The characteristic charts for the multi-stage reheat cycles are shown in Fig. EFFECTS OF COMPOUND MULTI-STAGE INTERCOOLING AND MULTISTAGE REHEAT Of course the compound effect of both processes will cause an increase in the nondimensional work and a decrease in the thermal efficiency of the whole cycle. In Fig.

Higazy 6. 8. as shown in Fig.1 Atkinson cycle with multi-stage reheat and multi-stage intercooling This will result in a non-dimensional work as follows 1 W* = γ π m(1− ξ i ) τ π τ − + mξr ln π − m(1− ξ r ) + 1 − mξi ln τ τ π (32) Also. the thermal efficiency is given by τ − 1 + mξr ln π π m(1− ξ r ) ηth = 1 − m (1− ξ r ) 1 π π τ − − mτξi ln τ τ γ (33) where ξ r and ξ i are as above. Heikal and M.340 H. Their values are taken equal to 0.5 and 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . A. G.

8. 6.2 Joule cycle with multi-stage reheat and multi-stage intercooling This will result in W * = τ − π m(1− ξ i ) + mτξr ln π − Also. Characteristics charts for basic cycles with multi-stage reheat and multi-stage intercooling. the thermal efficiency is equal to τ π m (1− ξ r ) + 1 − mξi ln π (34) − 1 + mξi ln π ηth = 1 − π m(1− ξ ) r + mεξ ln π τ −π r m (1− ξ r ) τ (35) where ξ r and ξ i are as above. The non-dimensional work is doubled due to the combined effects of multi-stage reheat and multi-stage intercooling.5 and 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . as shown in Fig. 8.On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 341 Fig. Their values are taken equal to 0.

the following conclusions can be drawn. S. S. Higazy 7. G. 114. two important aims have been gained: the improvement of both the work and the thermal efficiency.. Also. V. multistage reheat and then regeneration processes. Ideal multi-stage intercooling. [2] Wilson.. but the work of the cycle should be the other important criteria. The obtained cycle will result in a cycle similar to Ericsson with Carnot cycle efficiency. Mei. multi-stage reheat and a combination of both are also presented. present and future’. Oct. Characteristic charts for five air-standard cycles are given. but with the same non-dimensional work.e. multi-stage intercooling. Joules efficiency or Ericsson is higher than that of constant volume cycles such as Stirling or Atkinson. [3] Chen. EFFECTS OF COMPOUND MULTI-STAGE INTERCOOLING. 117. J. 5(1). Ideal regenerative effects on the cycles are well illustrated. Oct. (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) REFERENCES [1] Horlock. and Chen. MULTI-STAGE REHEAT AND REGENERATION The final method of improving the thermal efficiency.342 H. ‘Combined power plants—past. is to apply a regeneration process to the cycle which has been operated under combined multi-stage intercooling and multi-stage reheat processes. Murphy. By employing these three operations. Thermal efficiency of constant pressure cycle i. S. because there is no meaning in having a high efficiency with severely limited work.g = 1 − 1 τ (36) This demonstrates that the cycles have Carnot cycle efficiency and non-dimensional work. multi-stage reheat Atkinson or Joules cycles will have a thermal efficiency equivalent to that of the Carnot cycle.r . i. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering. M. Transactions of ASME. Journal of Engineering Gas Turbines and Power. CONCLUSIONS From the above analysis of five basic gas turbine power plant cycles. Journal of Engineering Gas Turbines and Power. multi-stage reheat and regeneration will have values of thermal efficiency and non-dimensional work similar to those of the Ericsson cycle. These charts may be used by the designers for possible improvement in the thermodynamics of gas cycles.e. Transactions of ASME. respectively. Heikal and M. 1995. The thermal efficiency is given by ηth i. as equations (31) and (33) indicated for the cycles. ‘Appropriate thermodynamics for heat engine analysis and design. G. R. 608–616. The regeneration process of the multi-stage intercooling. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . the Joule cycle after multi-stage intercooling. ‘Thermodynamic analysis of four magnetic heat-pump cycles’. 1977.. An Ericsson cycle may be obtained with Carnot cycle efficiency if one may employ Joule cycle with the multi-stage intercooling followed by multi-stage reheat and then ideal regeneration processes. and Radwan. 68–82. C.. W. 8. A. 715–720. F. H. (1) Carnot cycle efficiency is not the only criteria for evaluating the cycles ideal performance. L. 1992. C.

On the thermodynamic cycles of gas turbine power plants 343 [4] Howell. 1992. London and New York. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education Vol 29 No 4 . Fourth Edition. Apply Thermodynamics for Engineering Technology. T. and McConkey. 1986. R. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics. A. Mechanical Engineering Series. R. McGraw-Hill. J. D. and Buckius. Longman. O. International Editions. [5] Eastop.

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