Pre Training Manual

Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of the living organism. There are many different types of cells in the human body. None of these cells function well on there own, they are part of the larger organism that is called - you.

Cells group together in the body to form tissues - a collection of similar cells that group together to perform a specialized function. There are 4 primary tissue types in the human body: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue. 1. Epithelial Tissue - The cells of epithelial tissue pack tightly together and form continuous sheets that serve as linings in different parts of the body. Epithelial tissue serves as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body's organs separate, in place and protected. E.g. the outer layer of the skin, the inside of the mouth and stomach, and the tissue surrounding the body's organs. 2. Connective Tissue - Connective tissue adds support and structure to the body. Most types of connective tissue contain fibrous strands of the protein collagen that add strength to connective tissue. E.g. the inner layers of skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone and fat tissue. In addition to these more recognizable forms of connective tissue, blood is also considered a form of connective tissue. 3. Muscle Tissue - Muscle tissue is a specialized tissue that can contract. Muscle tissue contains the specialized proteins actin and myosin that slide past one another and allow movement. Examples of muscle tissue are contained in the muscles throughout your body. 4. Nerve Tissue - Nerve tissue contains two types of cells: neurons and glial cells. Nerve tissue has the ability to generate and conduct electrical signals in the body. These electrical messages are managed by nerve tissue in the brain and transmitted down the spinal cord to the body.

An organ is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common purpose. There are many different organs in the body: the liver, kidneys, heart, even your skin is an organ. In fact, the skin is the largest organ in the human body and provides us with an excellent example for explanation purposes. The skin is composed of three layers: the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer. Epidermis is the outermost layer of skin. Below the epidermis lies a layer of connective tissue called the dermis. The dermis contains blood vessels that nourish skin cells. It contains nerve tissue and muscle tissue. The subcutaneous layer is beneath the dermis and consists mainly of a type of connective tissue called adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is more commonly known as fat and it helps cushion the skin and provide protection from cold temperatures. A cross-section of skin Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous layer

Organ Systems
Organ systems are composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function. There are 10 major organ systems in the human body, they are the: 1

hormones and wastes through the body. Major Organs: Brain. Muscles work in pairs to move limbs and provide the organism with mobility. controls physiological processes such as digestion. such as the stomach and intestine. 2 . circulation.  Nervous System: Major Role: The main role of the nervous system is to relay electrical signals through the body. etc. cartilage.  Respiratory System: Major Role: The main role of the respiratory system is to provide gas exchange between the blood and the environment. Major Organs: Nose. Major Organs: Bones. blood vessels and blood. oxygen is absorbed from the atmosphere into the body and carbon dioxide is expelled from the body. and the heart and circulatory system. esophagus. to protect delicate internal organs and to provide attachment sites for the organs.  Digestive System: Major Role: The main role of the digestive system is to breakdown and absorb nutrients that are necessary for growth and maintenance. along with the endocrine system. tendons and ligaments. stomach. trachea and lungs. gases (such as oxygen and CO 2). spinal cord and peripheral nerves.  Muscular System: Major Role: The main role of the muscular system is to provide movement. Major Organs: Skeletal muscles and smooth muscles throughout the body. The nervous system directs behaviour and movement and. Primarily. Skeletal System: Major Role: The main role of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body. Major Organs: Mouth. Major Organs: Heart. small and large intestines. Muscles also control the movement of materials through some organs.  Circulatory System: Major Role: The main role of the circulatory system is to transport nutrients.

vagina and mammary glands. Excretion :.It explores what a drug does to the body.The process of release of drug from the Formulation Absorption :. Major Organs: Many glands exist in the body that secrete endocrine hormones.  Reproductive System: Major Role: The main role of the reproductive system is to manufacture cells that allow reproduction. Among these are the hypothalamus.  Lymphatic/Immune System: Major Role: The main role of the immune system is to destroy and remove invading microbes and viruses from the body. bladder and urethra. prevention.Branch of Pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. Major Organs: Kidneys.Dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body. etc. growth.The process of a substance entering the body. In conjunction with the nervous system. (Body does to Drug-LADME) Liberation :. toxins and excess water or nutrients from the circulatory system. Pharmacodynamics :. Major Organs: Lymph.  Endocrine System: Major Role: The main role of the endocrine system is to relay chemical messages through the body. In the male. lymph nodes and vessels.Science that deals in identification of drugs. standardization. thyroid.Irreversible transformation of parent compounds into daughter metabolites. oviducts.and B. these chemical messages help control physiological processes such as nutrient absorption.Detailed study of drugs particularly their actions on tissues. Excretory System: Major Role: The main role of the excretory system is to filter out cellular wastes.It is the chemical substance that is used for diagnosis. Distribution :. ureters. Male (bottom): testes.Science of identification. Drug :. Pharmacy :. treatment and cure of diseases. compounding & dispensing of medical substances. preservation. Pharmacokinetics :.Elimination of the substances from the body. uterus. Pharmacognosy :. 3 . selection. Metabolism :. COMMONLY USED TERMS Pharmacology :. The lymphatic system also removes fat and excess fluids from the blood. pancreas and adrenal glands. white blood cells. It is a qualitative study. organs and living animals. seminal vesicles and penis. pituitary. Major Organs: Female (top): ovaries.cells. T. sperm are created to inseminate egg cells produced in the female.

tooth Pulmo. Clinical Pharmacology :.) Intolerance :.spinal cord Peps.I.lower back Orchido.T.T.It is time required to have visible effect of the drug after its administration. in its colour.bone Algia. (Safety. gall Lachry. Duration of Action :. taste. : Respiratory Tract Infection U.cancer Hepato.germ Glyco.membrane Patho.T. Clinical Pharmacology :. : Urinary Track Infection S.death Philo. taste. Intolerance :.vessel Derma.sugar Nephro.ear Angi. : Upper R.joint Entero. blotch Osse-.lung Cerebro.trachea Hema. There is to generate data for optimum use of the drug. Plasma Concentration :.I. safer is the drug.bile. TONSILITIS : Inflammation of Tonsils PHARYNGITIS : Inflammation of Pharynx INFLAMMATION : complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli Disease and meaning U.Amount of the available drugs into unit volume of the plasma either free or in combined form.muscle Phago. Osteo. smell and shape.S.T.intestine Myelo.brain Bio.Bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation. It includes pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics investigation.gland Cysti.cartilage Lipo.eye Ren.R.vein Broncho.R.) NAME-MEANING NAME-MEANING NAME-MEANING NAME-MEANING Adeno.body Lumbo.T.stomach. side effects. side effects.It is pharmacologically an inert substance with no known effect.blood Neuro. : Lower R. lump Vas.T.cell Mamm.kidney Phleb.I.Time to attain maximum level by the drug in the blood. efficacy. C max :.I. : Skin and Soft Tissue Infection ESOPHAGITIS : Inflammation of Esophagus ULCER : Damage to mucosal tissues RHINITIS : Stuffy nose Bronchitis : Inflammation of Bronchioles 4 .stand still Thromb.It is pharmacologically an inert substance with no known effect.I.eye Pneumo.Bioavailability :.fat Oro.ileum Onco.tears Ophthalm. bladder Macul.vessel.hard Stasis. L. T max :.diaphragm Meningo.It is the ratio between LD-50 and ED-50.disease Arthro.pain Cyto. Ratio less than one is suggestive of unsafe drug. Onset of Action :. Larger the therapeutic Myo.liver Oculo. There is to generate data for optimum use of the drug.ED-50 is the dose needed to cure 50% of the patients.The biological half-life or elimination half life of a substance is the time to attain half of the peak plasma concentration (Cmax). (Safety. adverse effects comparative trials etc. Therapeutic index :.breast Oto.digestion Auto. belly Necro. Placebo :.Maximum level attained by the drug in the blood. Placebo :. LD-50 is the dose needed to kill 50% of the experimental animals. It includes pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics investigation.kidney Chondro.testicle Scler.self Erythro.tumour Pyo.I. efficacy. which matches with the drug (under study).It is the scientific study of the drugs in man.It is an exaggerated response of an individual to the therapeutic dosage of Gastro.mouth Rhin.uterus Odont. It is generally used in the clinical trials to avoid the psychological effects produced by drug. duct Disease and meaning R.heart Hyster. which matches with the drug (under study).lung Cardia.pus Chole.It is time for which action of drug persists. smell and shape. T1/2 :.sac. in its Blast.I.It is the scientific study of the drugs in man. It is generally used in the clinical trials to avoid the psychological effects produced by drug.T. adverse effects comparative trials etc.It is an exaggerated response of an individual to the therapeutic dosage of drug.nerve Phren.nose Corpus.

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