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FACULTY OF ENG. & TECH. ELECTRICAL ENG. DEPT. ELECTRONICS LAB. 368
EXPERIMENT N0. 4
BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS
Prepared by: Ziad R. Al-Khatib
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this lab experiment is to identify the leads of the Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) by using the DMM, and to investigate the DC behavior analyze and design a DC bias circuit, its operating point, and the characteristics of a BJT in several regions of operation. The key concepts introduced in this laboratory are: The 4 regions of operations of the BJT Determination of the region of operation based on the voltages VBE, VBC and VCE Determination of small signal parameters such as β, VA, re, hfe, hie, … etc. analyze and design a DC Bias Circuit, its Operating Point, and Region of Operation for amplification. EQUIPMENT and PARTS LIST: 1- 2 Digital Multimeters (DMM). 2- DC power supply. 4- Resistors of 1KΩ and 100KΩ. 6- BC107 transistor or equivalent. 3- Project Breadboard. 5- Connection Wires.
Pre1. Read this lab sheet completely, and do all the problems indicated. Pre2. By using the data sheet of the BC107 transistor, look up to the following: o Pin out configuration package (Bottom View) o Minimum hFE (β) __________ . o Maximum hFE (β) __________ . o VCE (max) _____________ V . o VCB (max) _____________ V . o IC (max) _____________ V . o Reverse saturation current, ICBO _______________ nA . o Total maximum power dissipation ______________________ mW . o Semiconductor material and the type of transistor ______________________ . o The complementary transistor of the BC107 is _________________________. Pre3. Using the minimum given value of hFE (β), plot the output collector characteristics of a common-emitter configuration for VCE up to 15 V, IC up to 10 mA, and IB in increments of 10 μA. Use the i,v data to determine the small signal h-parameters of the device. Pre4. What is the difference between a BC107 BJT and its complementary transistor; use the data sheets to determine the differences. Pre5. Use the above curves to determine the Q-Point for maximum output swing voltage for RC=1KΩ. Pre6. Specialized equipment, called “Curve Tracer” is capable of sweeping DC voltages or currents, and displaying DC characteristics of a device under test graphically. In this pre lab part, your task is to achieve the functionality of a Curve Tracer for transistors using the available lab equipment and parts: i.e. an oscilloscope in the XY mode, a function generator, and a circuit of your design. Pre7. Build the circuits in the experiment by using the PSpice or the Electronics Work Bench (EWB, MultiSIM) simulation packages, to obtain the expected results.. Pre8. Use the curve tracer of the simulation package, to obtain the transistor curves.
and sizes of transistor. y.Insert the three leads of the BC107 BJT to the breadboard sockets. For the following experiments you should use the BC107 Si. satellite receivers. 3. microwaves. amplifiers. can contain hundreds or thousands it's likely that there are many more transistors on the Earth than people!. and it gives more understandable information about the typical PN-junction voltages of the BJT.e.1. …est.1. the remaining leads must be the emitter (E) and collector (C). usually about 1. Plug a black test lead into the Common (−) 4mm banana socket.R.. if the PN-junction is forward biased. the bipolar junction transistor.5 to 3. 4-2 . Part-A BJT Lead Identifications by using the DMM The DMMs in the lab have a separate function for PN-junction testing.0 Volts.65 V for Si. 4. OP-AMPs. 2. In this mode. Z.K Exp. Some meters give an over-limit (. The PC computer contains around a hundred million transistors. record the deductions in Table 4. 1. i. Record the results in Table 4. Try to identify them depends on the obtained measurements. TV's.Use the DMM according to Table 4. radios. and a red test lead into the VΩ (+) 4mm banana socket of the DMM.1 to determine which lead of the BJT is the base (B) and identify it.Turn on the DMM and configure it to measure . In this lab we will only consider one basic general purpose type. or 2 to 3V) indication in this case. video cameras. and whether the BJT is an NPN or PNP device.. Figure 4-1 Actual BC107 transistor of TO-18 package and identifies the leads. calculators. Ordinary sets like watches. Using the diode function of a DMM is another way to perform the above tests. There are all sorts. Figure 4-1 below shows what the package looks like and identifies the leads.With the base (B) lead identified. shapes. collector (C) and emitter(E). mobile. If the PN-junction is reverse biased. The measured voltage is the threshold voltage (Vγ. label the leads of the transistor as x. z. • Sketch a bottom view drawing of the device package and label the leads appropriately as base (B). • Is it possible to distinguish the emitter lead from the collector lead using only an ohmmeter? Explain why or why not.OL. 5. 0.5 .Randomly. then the DMM cannot force 1 mA of current into the PNjunction and the voltage across the PN-junction rises up to the upper range limit of the DMM. hi-fi's.7 V) of the PN-junction for a 1 mA current. They are found everywhere and used in many electronic circuit applications such as in sensors. This comes in two constructions called PNP and NPN. On some meters this is an option on the resistance measurements. The BC107 is built into a standard TO-18 package with three leads. often termed “diode test.0.PROCEDURE: A Bipolar Transistor essentially consists of a pair of PN-Junction diodes that are joined back-toback. or more!. DVDs. NPN transistors which are available.” the DMM outputs a constant current of about 1 mA and it measures the voltage between the two leads without computing a resistance. oscillators and digital logic gates. 1. typically less than the normal drop of 0.
summarize the type and terminals of the given BJT Base (B) Collector (C) Emitter (E) Part-B Current-Voltage Characteristics of a CE BJT The operation of the BJT transistors is very strongly affected by heat.1 BJT lead identification by using the DMM. and the external DC power supply for VBB.x.Adjust the DC power supply of VCC according to Table 4. Then adjust the VBB power supply to obtain approximate values of VRB according to Table 4.y + x. + y .Repeat steps 7 and 8 for all values of VRB. 8. It is advisable. and record the readings in Table 4.Construct the circuit shown in Figure 4. 2. (Make sure the transistor is connected with the correct polarity as shown in Figure 4. 1.2.0V. By using the BC107 BJT of TO-18 package.x. Then switch OFF the DC power supplies.z . ( Note: Don’t disconnect the ammeter of IC through the experiment). 6. + z From the measurements above. . 4-3 . and then progressively reducing the current. then switch the supplies ON. 10Repeat steps 6 to 9. 5. .2.Connect the voltmeter to measure VRB. Table 4. 11When finished.Ask the instructor to inspect your circuit. DMM leads test (V) Resistance (Ω) Transistor type + x. therefore.R.Set the correct setting of the DMMs to measure VRB and IC. VCE and read ammeter of IC.2 Schematic diagram for measurement of a CE BJT Characteristics. which is usually internally generated due to power dissipation. to limit transistor heating in this experiment by starting data runs with maximum current and voltage. (Note: Transistor currents change due to heating effects even when supply voltages are kept constant).z . when the transistor is still cool.y. set the VBB and VCC to 0. .K Exp. 9.• Look up the data sheet for the BC107 and compare your deductions with the manufacturer's specifications. Z. 3. 4.Note: Use the project breadboard +15V variable DC power supply for VCC.Use the voltmeter to measure the remaining values of VBE.1). 7.2. + z + y. VRB RB 100KΩ VBB Q1 BC107 RC 1KΩ IC VCE 0 – 15V 0 – 15V VBE VCC Figure 4.2.Set the DC power supplies output adjustment potentiometers fully counter clock wise.
0 10.0 * IB = VRB / RB = VRB / 100KΩ = 10 x VRB (μA).0 0.0 4.0 12.5 0.K VCC = 0 V VCC = 1 V VCC = 2 V VCC = 3 V VCC = 6 V VCC = 9 V VCC = 12V * VBC = VCE – VBE (V).0 2.0 8. Z. Exp.2 DC Current and Voltage of a CE BJT Data.Table 4. VCC VCC = 15V VRB(V) IB (μA) IC(mA) VBE(V) VCE(V) VBC*(V) βDC* IB*(μA) IC(mA) VBE(V) VCE(V) VBC*(V) βDC* IB*(μA) IC(mA) VBE(V) VCE(V) VBC*(V) βDC* IB*(μA) IC(mA) VBE(V) VCE(V) VBC*(V) βDC* IB*(μA) IC(mA) VBE(V) VCE(V) VBC*(V) βDC* IB*(μA) IC(mA) VBE(V) VCE(V) VBC*(V) βDC* IB*(μA) IC(mA) VBE(V) VCE(V) VBC*(V) βDC* IB*(μA) IC(mA) VBE(V) VCE(V) VBC*(V) * 14. 4-4 .0 1.0 6. * βDC = IC / IB.R.
and determine the Q-point (operating point). so use the maximum hre given on the data sheet.2. VCE curves. hie = Δvbe / Δib | at vce = constant. • By using the (IC vs. VCE) to the same scale as your prelab plot. The h-parameters of the CE transistor are defined as follows: vbe = h11 ib + h12 vce. hre = Δvbe / Δ vce | at ib = constant. and the parameter hfe is also often called β it is the current gain of the transistor. For what significant reasons is the experimental β different from the manufacturer's specified value?. • Draw the ac model for the BJT in this region of operation. ic = h2e ib + h22 vce. ic = hfe ib + hoe vce.R. • By using the output transistor characteristic IC vs.2. Determine Early Voltage (VA).K Exp. Determine all h-parameters around the Q-point (operating point).• From your data in Table 4. • From the experimental results calculate the average βDC (hFE). Z. • Determine ICEO as accurately as possible from your data. VBE). • Explain how the CE characteristics would be different if β were increased? • What is the highest power dissipation of the transistor from the data of Table 4. • On the plots determine the 4 regions of operations. Referring to the two port network. can be measured using the family of IC vs. hfe and hoe. Two of the h-parameters. hie can be determined from a plot of VBE vs. VCE) plot draw the load line. Be careful to determine all h-parameters around the Q (operating point). • By using the above equations and the input and output transistor characteristic plots. calculate the corresponding alpha α. hoe = Δ ic / Δ vce | at ib = constant. what material is the transistor made of? How did you arrive at this conclusion?. The parameter hie is called in some text rπ it is the input impedance of the transistor. plot the input characteristics (IB vs. The hre parameter is difficult to measure accurately with the equipment available in the lab. Where: Input impedance = Reverse transfer voltage ratio = Forward transfer current ratio = Output admittance = vbe = hie ib + hre vce.2? • Explain qualitatively how the CE input characteristics would be affected by a decrease and increase in temperature. • From the above β. hfe = Δ ic / Δib | at vce = constant. IB. 4-5 . • From your data in Table 4. • On the basis of the measurements you made. plot the experimental output collector characteristics (IC vs. VCE plots.
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