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First, we need to set up a table of values which we obtain by substituting various values of t: t x(t) y(t) 0 0 1 0.5 .48 .88 1.0 .84 .54 1.5 1.0 .07 2.0 .91 -.42 2.5 .60 -.80 3.0 .14 -.99 3.5 -.35 -.94 4.0 -.76 -.65 4.5 -.98 -.21 5.0 -.96 .28 5.5 -.71 .71 6.0 -.28 .96
Answer: We plot our 13 points, starting at (1, 0) as follows:
We see that we have formed a circle, centre (0,0), radius 1 unit. Notice that the variable t does not appear in this graph, just the variables x and y. 2. If x = 5t3 and y = 4t2 at time t, find the magnitude and direction of the velocity when t = 10. Answer: When t = 10, the particle is at (5000, 400).
Here is the graph of the motion. Note:
The axes are x and y (and do not involve t). The particle is accelerating as time goes on (the red dots are at one second intervals)
We are told that x = 5t3 So
At t = 10, the velocity in the x-direction is given by:
Also, y = 4t2
so the velocity in the y-direction is:
When t = 10, the velocity in the y-direction is:
If and at time t. relative to the positive xaxis): So θv = 0. Answer: When t = 2.6). 0. Plot the curve.05°. 3.053 radians = 3. the particle is at (8. find the magnitude and direction of the velocity when t =2.So the magnitude of the velocity will be: Now for the direction of the velocity (it is an angle. so .
Also.8 ms-1. So . dx/dt = vx = 20/25 = 0. dy/dt = vy = 0.5 ms-1. so When t = 2.At t = 2.
Now for the direction: So θv = 0.2t3. where x andy are measured in metres and t in seconds. (ii) Find the acceleration of the car at t = 3. (i) Sketch the curve for 0 ≤ t ≤ 60. Answer: (i) Sketch: .558 radians 4. A car on a test track goes into a turn described by x = 0. y = 20t− 2t2.0 seconds.
0.2t3 At t = 3.(ii) Acceleration: Horizontal acceleration: x = 0.6 Vertical acceleration: y = 20t − 2t2 . ax = 3.
5. A particle moves along the path y = x2 + 4x + 2 where units are in centimetres. If the horizontal velocity vx is constant at 3 cm s-1.38 ms-2. -1). and direction 312° from the positive x-axis. To be able to find magnitude and direction of velocity. ay = -4 Now and So the car's acceleration has magnitude 5. we will need to know and . This time we have y in terms ofx.At t = 3. Answer: This is a different situation to the other examples.0. and there are no expressions given in terms of "t" at all. find the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the particle at the point (-1.
So the magnitude of the velocity is given by: The direction of the velocity is given by: .But the question already gives us so all we need to find is . we differentiate the given function with respect to t throughout using the techniques we learned back in implicit differentiation: y = x2 + 4x + 2 Since and we want to know the velocity at x = -1. To find this. we substitute these two values and get: So now we have vy = 6 cm s-1.
at x = 2 km. find the magnitude and direction of the velocity when the rocket hits the ground (assume level terrain) if time is in minutes. and at x = 7 km.4°. the horizontal velocity also increases with the same number (different units. "V(x) = x" means that as x increases. and so on. At this point.So the velocity is 6.5 km. the horizontal velocity is positive (the rocket is going left to right) and the vertical velocity is negative (the rocket is going down). in the direction 63. the horizontal speed is 2 km/min.7 cm s-1. of course). A rocket follows a path given by (distances in km): If the horizontal velocity is given by V(x) = x. to better understand what is going on. So for example. We can see that the rocket hits the ground again somewhere around x = 9. the horizontal speed is 7 km/min. 6. Answer: Let's first see a graph of the motion. .
x = -3√10.4868 km/min (sinceV(x) = x). (2) Vertical velocity.To calculate the magnitude of the velocity when the rocket hits the ground. x = 3√10 ≈ 9. This takes into account both the horizontal and vertical components. x = 3√10 We only need the last value. . We now need to use implicit differentiation with respect tot (not x!) to find the vertical velocity. so we simply substitute: This gives us a negative velocity. (1) Horizontal velocity.4868 km (This value is consistent with the graph above). So the horizontal speed when the rocket hits the ground is 9. as we expected before: So now we need to find the magnitude of the velocity. We just need to solve the following equation to find the exact point the rocket hits the ground: Factorising gives: And solving for 0 gives us x = 0. But we already know dx/dt and x at impact. we need to know the vertical and horizontal components of the velocity at that point.
.4° below the horizontal. we have: In degrees.25578 = -63. Now for the direction part. this is equivalent to -1. we have: Velocity has magnitude and direction.2 km/min in the direction 63. the velocity of the rocket when it hits the ground is 21.3907° We can see that this answer is reasonable by zooming in on the portion of the graph where the rocket hits the ground (with equal-axis scaling): So in summary.Magnitude = Substituting.107148718 × 57. Angle of motion: Substituting our vertical and horizontal components.
Determine the equation of motion for the car with a radius r = 400 ft. The rated speed of the banked curve road is the speed at which a car should travel if no lateral friction force is to be exerted on its wheel.30 m/s ) ( 2 m ) 2 = 5. q = 18o.90 m/s 2 Compute the tangential velocity . Answer: Draw the free body diagram of the mass . Determine the rated speed of a highway curve of radius r = 400 ft.81 m/s2 ) sin ( 30o ) at = 4. ∑ F = ma t ⇒ 2mg − mg cos ( 30o ) = man Solve for the acceleration . mg sin ( 30o ) = mat ⇒ at = ( 9. banked through an angle. ∑F ∑F y =0 ⇒ R cos ( 18o ) − W = 0 ⇒ R sin ( 18o ) = man = man n .81 m/s2 ) 2 − cos ( 30o ) v an = t ⇒ vt = an ρ ρ at = 16. banked through an angle.7.71 m/s 8. . 2mg − mg cos2( 30o ) = man ⇒ an = ( 9. find the velocity and acceleration of the bob at the position.30 m/s 2 ∑F ⇒ mg sin ( 30o ) = mat = man t n ( ) vt = ( 16. q = 18o. If the tension in the cord is 2. The bob of a 2 m pendulum describes an arc of circle in a vertical plane.5 times the weight of the bob for the position show.
Draw the free body diagram of the block B.1 mph 88 ft/s an = g tan ( 18o ) = ( 32. tangential velocity . (b) the magnitude of the horizontal force F exerted on B by the arm OA. mg R= cos ( 18o ) man = R sin ( 18o ) mg sin ( 18o ) = cos ( 18o ) an = vt = vt2 ⇒ vt = an ρ ρ Compute the ( 10.46 ft/s 2 9. which rotates in a horizontal plane at a constant rate .Knowing that B is released at a distance r0 from O and express as a function of r (a) the components vr of the velocity of B along AO. A block B of mass m may slide freely on a frictionless arm OA.2 ft/s2 ) tan ( 18o ) = 10.46 ft/s ) ( 400 ft ) 2 = 64.7 ft/s 60 mph = 64.Solve for R and find an. Answer: ∑F ∑F r = mar = maθ ⇒ 0 = m &− rθ& r& 2 ( ) ) θ &+ & & r& & vr = r ⇒ &= vr ⇒ F = m rθ& 2rθ& dv Determine the velocity of the r component dvr dr &= & r& vr = = vr r dr dt dr ( .7 ft/s = 44.
Solution The equation of the skateboarder’s path is that of a quarter circle: where R is the radius. we need to determine the actual location of the skateboarder when she has dropped 1 m. First. A skateboarder has dropped into a 3 meter (radius) quarter pipe. dv 2 & 0 = mv r Substitute into the equation for r double dot r dr − rθ & Insert ther and ω = θ& θ& 0 ⇒ &= 0.2 m/s and is increasing by 7.5 2 = m 2θ& ( r 2 − r 2 ) ( ( ( 0 ) )) 10.8282) * 180/pi ans = 70.5273 . ans = 2.8282 The angle in degrees at point A can then be determined as: >> atan(2. When she’s dropped a distance of 1 meter her speed is 3. 0. Determine the normal and tangential components of the skateboarder’s acceleration.8 m/s. 3 m.5 F = m r ( 0 ) + 2 θ& r 2 − r02 ) θ& ( to find the force.
0025·a .062 N = 0. due to greater momentum (mass times velocity).3655 The angle of the acceleration in degrees from the positive x axis is: >> ANGLE = THETA + 90 + PHI ANGLE = 226. will be less sensitive to smalldrag and other forces that may tend to alter its trajectory.8 m/s2 !! Thus.8941 11. when applied to a very light ball. this seemingly small drag force. weignore wind.21 kg/m3)[π(.5 m/s): Fd = ( _ )(1. ⇒ a = 24. Determine the drag force on a ping pong ball (immediately after launch. lift.( Conclusion: A ping pong ball is an unsatisfactory projectile because of its low mass and high crosssectional area. Page 2 more massive projectile. and drag and only consider weight03/09/04. but consider it in the light of the mass (0.5 m/s)2 = 0.062 Newton This may not seem like a large force.062 kg·m/s2 = 0. . >> PHI = atan(v_dot / ( v^2/rho )) *180/pi PHI = 66. The optimal projectile will have a higher mass and a fairly small cross-sectional area. produces an acceleration that is over twice the acceleration due to gravity!! (24. is found using the atan() function and multiplying by the conversion factor 180o/π.While the angle (in degrees).8 m/s2> 9. φ.0025 kg = 2. A Figure 1: Some forces (wind excluded)that may act on a projectile Figure 2: For an idealized projectile. assuming a launch velocity of 9.81 m/s2. Using F = ma: 0.038/2)2](9.5 gm) of aping pong ball.
(2) The time the ball passes through the rim. (3) The maximum height of the trajectory. .12. If the ball is released from a point 7 feet above the floor and at an angle of 50º. A player shoots a free throw to a basket 15 feet away and 10 feet off the floor. v0. and (4) The speed of the ball and the angle of its trajectory as it passes through the rim. determine: (1) The required initial velocity.
In the previous problem an iron worker tosses a rivet at 10 m/s and we saw that two trajectories are possible for the rivet to strike the leading edge of the bucket on the scaffold. wishes to toss a rivet so that it lands in a bucket of rivets on a scaffold. on the ground. determine the two launch angles at which the rivet could be thrown to strike the rim of the bucket. What if he tosses therivet at some lower velocity? Is there a single minimum velocity and associated angle that will allow the rivet to justreach the rim of the bucket? . An iron worker. 14. If the iron worker tosses the rivet at 10 m/s.13. Specifywhich of the two trajectories will enable the rivet to land in the bucket.
A “heuristic” is a “rule-of-thumb. Determine.”The objective of this example is to use some simple numbers is to help the learner to more easily estimate approximately what speeds might be necessary for a launched projectile. (1) The launch angle that gives the maximum distance. . (3) The maximum height of the trajectory. for level ground. (2) The corresponding launch velocity.15.
The complex path of a particle for times between 0 and 10 seconds has been fit using multivariable regression to the following functions: .16.
v2 = u2 + 2as. Calculate retardation and time required to stop the car. He instantly stops the engine and applies brake. finds a child on the road 50 m ahead.a. Here u = 20 m/s and v 0 = (20)2 + 2. Solution: =0 Let 'a' be the acceleration.10) . a motorist rushing at 20 m/s. On turning a corner.(50 .17. so as to stop the car within 10 m from the child.
18. Hence the distance traversed by the stone in time 't' is s = ut + � at2 = 0 + 0. What is the total acceleration at B? .5 m/s2 ( Retardation of the car ) We also know that v = u + at. Distance traversed by the stone in time 't' is 50 . Hence the time required to stop the car is 0 = 20 + (-5) t.a = . 19. For this u = 0 and a = g.5gt2 Now consider the stone that was thrown from the bottom. w = wo + at.5gt2 Adding both the equations we get the value of t = 2 seconds. A stone is dropped from the top of a tower.0. What is the angular deceleration? Solution: Time t = 300 seconds. u = 25 m/s and a = -g.s = 25t . When and where the two stones cross each other? Solution: Height of the tower is 50 m.5 x 9. A racing car takes a bend. Hence retardation a = ( 0 .6 m.8 x (2)2 = 19. Given that vA = 40 m/s . The distance at which both stones cross each other is s = 0.33 rad / sec2 20.5gt2 = 0. A fly wheel runs at a constant 100 rad/s. Initial angular velocity wo = 100 rad / sec and w = 0.100 ) / 300 = -0. 50 m high. At the same time another stone is thrown upwards from the foot of the tower with a velocity of 25 m/s. First the stone that was dropped from the top is considered. vB = 48 m/s Constant tangential acceleration and R = 300m. t = 4 seconds. When the drive motor is switched off the wheel takes 5 minutes to come to rest.
00252 = 0.16 rad / sec Angular acceleration a = ( wb2 .68 m / s2 Total acceleration = � 0.133 rad / sec.762 + 7.wa2 ) / 2qA .72 m / s2 .682 = 7.B = p / 2 wa = 40 / 300 = 0.Tangential angular acceleration at = ra.00252 rad / sec2 Hence Tangential acceleration = ra = 300 x 0.76 m / s2 Normal acceleration an = vb2 / R = 7.B = 0. wb = 48 / 300 = 0. and angle qA .
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