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Petroleum

Petroleum
Composition by weight Element Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur Metals Percent range 83 to 87% 10 to 14% 0.1 to 2% 0.1 to 1.5% 0.5 to 6% less than 1000 ppm Composition by weight Hydrocarbon Paraffins Naphthenes Aromatics Asphaltics Average 30% 49% 15% 6% Range 15 to 60% 30 to 60% 3 to 30% remainder a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds. The term "petroleum" was first used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, also known as Georgius Agricola.[1]

Oil exports imports difference

Composition
The proportion of hydrocarbons in the mixture is highly variable and ranges from as much as 97% by weight in the lighter oils to as little as 50% in the heavier oils and bitumens. The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. The exact molecular composition varies widely from formation to formation but the proportion of chemical elements vary over fairly narrow limits as follows:[2] Four different types of hydrocarbon molecules appear in crude oil. The relative percentage of each varies from oil to oil, determining the properties of each oil.[3] Crude oil varies greatly in appearance depending on its composition. It is usually black or dark brown (although it may be yellowish or even greenish). In the reservoir it is usually found in association with natural gas, which being lighter forms a gas cap over the petroleum, and saline water which, being heavier than most

Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Petroleum (L. petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit. "rock oil") or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid found in rock formations in the Earth consisting of

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simpler ones in the fuels. India.[5] Venezuela also has large amounts of oil in the Orinoco oil sands. by volume. and plastics. Because the energy return over energy invested (EROEI) ratio of oil is constantly falling (due to physical phenomena such as residual oil saturation. Due to its high energy density.[9] or 595 km3 (3. more complex molecules in the oil to the shorter. Most of the world’s oils are non-conventional. including gasoline. but as the world’s reserves of light and medium oil are depleted. about twice the volume of the world’s reserves of conventional oil. The alkanes. or 4. heating. Each petroleum variety has a unique mix of molecules. cycloalkanes.[4] forms of crude oil.[7] 84% by volume of the hydrocarbons present in petroleum is converted into energy-rich fuels (petroleum-based fuels). lines are single bonds. also known as paraffins. bitumen is considered a sticky. tar-like form of crude oil which is so thick and heavy that it must be heated or diluted before it will flow. However. oil refineries are increasingly having to process heavy oil and bitumen. the 16% not used for energy production is converted into these other materials.9 km3 per year.[10] Consumption is currently around 84 million barrels (13. Between them. new discoveries. the free encyclopedia Petroleum fertilizers. energy conservation and use of alternative energy sources. as in the Athabasca oil sands in Canada. although trace amounts of shorter or longer molecules may be present in the mixture. These oil sands resources are called non-conventional oil to distinguish them from oil which can be extracted using traditional oil well methods. like color and viscosity. the most commonly found molecules are alkanes (linear or branched). and other fuel oils. for producing fuel oil and gasoline (petrol). and new economically viable exploitation of non-conventional oil sources.4×10^6 m3) per day. these processes generally involve removing carbon from or adding hydrogen to the molecules. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products. a hydrocarbon found in petroleum. easy transportability and relative abundance. Because heavier crude oils have too much carbon and not enough hydrogen. although the hydrocarbons trapped in them are more fluid than in Canada and are usually called extra heavy oil. There is also petroleum in oil sands (tar sands).74 trillion barrels) with oil sands. Canada and Venezuela contain an estimated 3. known recoverable reserves would be gone around 2039. aromatic hydrocarbons.2 trillion (short scale) barrels) without oil sands. and use more complex and expensive methods to produce the products required. and other developing nations.[8] The lighter grades of crude oil produce the best yields of these products. and using fluid catalytic cracking to convert the longer. which define its physical and chemical properties. black spheres are carbon. pesticides. or more complicated chemicals like asphaltenes. diesel. and assuming that oil will be consumed only from reservoirs. Petroleum is found in porous rock formations in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth’s crust. both important "primary energy" sources. potentially leading to a global energy crisis.[6] Petroleum is used mostly. are saturated hydrocarbons with straight or branched chains which contain only carbon and hydrogen and have the general formula CnH2n+2 They generally have from 5 to 40 carbon atoms per molecule. Chemistry Octane. including pharmaceuticals. including the rapidly increasing demand for petroleum in China. and the economic factor of rising marginal extraction costs). At current consumption levels. white spheres are hydrogen Petroleum is a mixture of a very large number of different hydrocarbons. generally sinks beneath it. recoverable oil reserves are significantly less than total oil in place. and liquefied petroleum gas. the ones from nonane 2 . solvents. In Canada. oil has become the world’s most important source of energy since the mid-1950s. jet. where it is usually referred to as crude bitumen. Known reserves of petroleum are typically estimated at around 190 km3 (1. there are factors which may extend or reduce this estimate.From Wikipedia. The alkanes from pentane (C5H12) to octane (C8H18) are refined into gasoline (petrol).6 trillion barrels (570×10^9 m3) of bitumen and extra-heavy oil. Crude oil may also be found in semi-solid form mixed with sand and water.

These different molecules are separated by fractional distillation at an oil refinery to produce gasoline. Geologists often refer to the temperature range in which oil forms as an "oil window"[14]—below the minimum temperature oil remains trapped in the form of kerogen. widely used in gasoline. those with four or fewer carbon atoms. in a variety of mostly endothermic reactions at high temperature and/ or pressure. sold as liquified petroleum gas under pressure. and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis. and is consumed for just about every application relying on petroleum for energy. The aromatic hydrocarbons are unsaturated hydrocarbons which have one or more planar six-carbon rings called benzene rings. also known as naphthenes. At the heavier end of the range. The shortest molecules. and was buried under heavy layers of sediment resulting in high levels of heat and pressure (known as diagenesis). They are the petroleum gases. it is best known for powering cigarette lighters. The Athabasca Oil Sands is one example of this. They tend to burn with a sooty flame. Astronomer Thomas Gold championed the theory in the Western world by supporting the work done by Nikolai Kudryavtsev in the 1950s. During the winter. are saturated hydrocarbons which have one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula CnH2n. The cycloalkanes.2. the free encyclopedia (C9H20) to hexadecane (C16H34) into diesel fuel and kerosene (primary component of many types of jet fuel). Butane (C4H10). because butane’s high vapor pressure assists with cold starts. which had settled to a sea or lake bottom in large quantities under anoxic conditions (the remains of prehistoric terrestrial plants. jet fuel. exhaust gases from gasoline combustion in car engines usually include nitrogen oxides which are responsible for creation of photochemical smog. and the ones from hexadecane upwards into fuel oil and lubricating oil. a typical depth for the oil window is 4–6 km. Abiogenic origin A number of geologists in Russia adhere to the abiogenic petroleum origin hypothesis and maintain that hydrocarbons of purely inorganic origin exist within Earth’s interior. then separated in a gas chromatograph. Petroleum Formation Geologists view crude oil and natural gas as the product of compression and heating of ancient organic materials (i. is blended into the gasoline pool at high rates. Incomplete combustion of petroleum or gasoline results in production of toxic byproducts. Due to the high temperatures and high pressures involved. are in a gaseous state at room temperature. such as a flame ionization detector or a mass spectrometer[12]. first into a waxy material known as kerogen which is found in various oil shales around the world. Extensive research into the chemical structure of kerogen has identified bacterial cells as the primary source of oil. from cooking to heating to transportation. Too little oxygen results in carbon monoxide. tended to form coal). and above the maximum temperature the oil is converted to natural gas through the process of thermal cracking. to which hydrogen atoms are attached with the formula CnHn.From Wikipedia. oil which is formed at extreme depths may migrate and become trapped at much shallower depths than where it was formed. on the other hand. Liquified under pressure slightly above atmospheric. The molecules are typically extracted in a solvent. as well as failing to explain how inorganic origin could be achieved at temperatures and pressures sufficient to convert kerogen to graphite. and other hydrocarbons. Formation of petroleum occurs from hydrocarbon pyrolysis.[13] Today’s oil formed from the preserved remains of prehistoric zooplankton and algae. Propane can be liquified under modest pressure. but it is also a main fuel source for many developing countries. and finally determined with a suitable detector. Over geological time the organic matter mixed with mud. these gases are either flared off. and many have a sweet aroma.[15] The abiogenic origin hypothesis lacks scientific support. The abiogenic origin hypothesis fails to explain the presence of these markers in kerogen and oil. It has not been successfully used in uncovering oil deposits by geologists. Some are carcinogenic. or used to power the refinery’s own burners. has a chemical formula of C8H18 and it reacts with oxygen exothermically:[11] The amount of various molecules in an oil sample can be determined in laboratory. paraffin wax is an alkane with approximately 25 carbon atoms.e.4-trimethylpentane (isooctane). although these are usually cracked by modern refineries into more valuable products.[16] Crude Oil 3 . Cycloalkanes have similar properties to alkanes but have higher boiling points. kerogen) over geological time. It is currently supported primarily by Kenney and Krayushkin. kerosene. Sometimes. while asphalt has 35 and up. Depending on demand and the cost of recovery. For example 2. as the hypothesis lacks any mechanism for determining where the process may occur. Although this temperature range is found at different depths below the surface throughout the world. This caused the organic matter to chemically change.

The kerogen trapped in the rock can be converted into crude oil using heat and pressure to simulate natural processes. but they contain so much migrating oil that. The method has been known for centuries and was patented in 1694 under British Crown Patent No. The lighter fractions of the crude oil are destroyed first. Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: a source rock rich in hydrocarbon material buried deep enough for subterranean heat to cook it into oil. the process is influenced by underground water flows. Brent. West Texas Intermediate.g. resulting in reservoirs containing an extremely heavy form of crude oil. and oyle out of a sort of stone. Because most hydrocarbons are lighter than rock or water. and a cap rock (seal) or other mechanism that prevents it from escaping to the surface. or Oman)." Although oil shales are found in many countries. The latter set is regularly used in petrochemical plants and oil refineries. they often migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until either reaching the surface or becoming trapped within porous rocks (known as reservoirs) by impermeable rocks above. On the other hand. fluids will typically organize themselves like a three-layer cake with a layer of water below the oil layer and a layer of gas above it. although most of it has escaped. its API gravity (an oil industry measure of density). tarr. and it may be referred to as sweet if it contains relatively little sulfur or sour if it contains substantial amounts of sulfur. Crude oil may be considered light if it has low density or heavy if it has high density. However. a porous and permeable reservoir rock for it to accumulate in. called crude bitumen in Canada. oil shales are source rocks that have not been exposed to heat or pressure long enough to convert their trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil. the free encyclopedia Petroleum two countries have the world’s largest deposits of oil sands. oil shales are not really shales and do not really contain oil. an oil field forms.[17] Crude oil reservoirs Hydrocarbon trap. "A way to extract and make great quantityes of pitch. Classification See also: Benchmark (crude oil) Non-conventional oil reservoirs Oil-eating bacteria biodegrades oil that has escaped to the surface. 330 covering. vast amounts are still present—more than can be found in conventional oil reservoirs.From Wikipedia. and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions. the United States has the world’s largest deposits. 4 . but are usually relatively hard rocks called marls containing a waxy substance called kerogen. Oil sands are reservoirs of partially biodegraded oil still in the process of escaping and being biodegraded. from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping. These A sample of medium heavy crude oil The petroleum industry generally classifies crude oil by the geographic location it is produced in (e. and by its sulfur content. Within these reservoirs. The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions. or extra-heavy crude oil in Venezuela. Technically speaking. causing oil to migrate hundreds of kilometres horizontally or even short distances downward before becoming trapped in a reservoir. although the different layers vary in size between reservoirs. where hydrocarbons are broken down to oil and natural gas by a set of parallel reactions. When hydrocarbons are concentrated in a trap.

The oil is landed at Sullom Voe terminal in the Shetlands. Oil accounts for a large percentage of the world’s energy consumption. Some of the common reference crudes are: • West Texas Intermediate (WTI). 24% of the oil consumed in 2004 went to the United States alone. refining. asphalt was employed in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon.[18] Petroleum NYMEX Light Sweet Crude prices 1994 2005 to Nov to Mar 2008 2008 The petroleum industry is involved in the global processes of exploration. used as a reference for heavy Far East oil) • The OPEC Reference Basket. 1938.From Wikipedia. More than four thousand years ago. it may be a Russian Export Blend delivered at the port of Primorsk.[19] The production. the actual oil being traded may be a discounted Canadian heavy oil delivered at Hardisty. transporting and marketing petroleum. Nevada. Oil production from Europe. Petroleum is vital to many industries. Africa (41%). Light crude oil is more desirable than heavy oil since it produces a higher yield of gasoline. The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream. and marketing petroleum products. light oil delivered at Cushing. a weighted average of oil blends from various OPEC (The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) countries There are declining amounts of these benchmark oils being produced each year. and is of importance to the maintenance of industrialized civilization itself. Africa and Middle Eastern oil flowing West tends to be priced off this oil. Petroleum. and thus is critical concern to many nations. transporting (often with oil tankers and pipelines). Other geographic regions’ consumption patterns are as follows: South and Central America (44%). up to a high of 53% for the Middle East. Midstream operations are usually included in the downstream category. according to Herodotus and confirmed by Diodorus Siculus.[20] History Petroleum industry Oil field in California. used as benchmark for Middle East sour crude oil flowing to the Asia-Pacific region • Tapis (from Malaysia. and is the oldest petroleum trade association in the United States. sweet. pesticides. a very high-quality. In the US. This is non-profit trade association that was founded in 1907. the free encyclopedia The geographic location is important because it affects transportation costs to the refinery. distribution. extraction.8 km³) of oil per year. comprising 15 oils from fields in the Brent and Ninian systems in the East Shetland Basin of the North Sea. refining. ranging from a low of 32% for Europe and Asia. Each crude oil has unique molecular characteristics which are understood by the use of crude oil assay analysis in petroleum laboratories. While the reference price may be for West Texas Intermediate delivered at Cushing. distributing. there were oil pits near Ardericca 5 . and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represent the single largest industry in terms of dollar value on earth. fertilizers. so other oils are more commonly what is actually delivered. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol). In fact. midstream and downstream. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products. Hawaii. California. while sweet oil commands a higher price than sour oil because it has fewer environmental problems and requires less refining to meet sulfur standards imposed on fuels in consuming countries. and for a Brent Blend delivered at the Shetlands. Barrels from an area in which the crude oil’s molecular characteristics have been determined and the oil has been classified are used as pricing references throughout the world. including pharmaceuticals. and North America (40%). Oregon and Washington. Alberta. and plastics. in one form or another. refining. used as a reference for light Far East oil) • Minas (from Indonesia. the Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA) is responsible for producing. in the states of Arizona. The world at large consumes 30 billion barrels (4. Oklahoma for North American oil • Brent Blend. solvents. which forms a benchmark • Dubai-Oman. and the top oil consumers largely consist of developed nations. is not a recent discovery.

[21] Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus. Petroleum was distilled by the Persian alchemist Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) in the 9th century.[23] and which was mainly used for kerosene lamps. and a pitch spring on Zacynthus. He established a bitumen mine de la Presta there in 1719 that operated until 1986. Azerbaijan. A Russian traveller.[27][28][29][30] 6 . producing chemicals such as kerosene in the alembic (al-ambiq). Joseph de la Roche d’Allion. to produce naphtha. The first streets of Baghdad were paved with tar.[24] Arab and Persian chemists also distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. the free encyclopedia Petroleum Ignacy Łukasiewicz .[21] In 1710 or 1711 (sources vary) the Russian-born Swiss physician and Greek teacher Eyrini d’Eyrinis (also spelled as Eirini d’Eirinis) discovered asphaltum at Valde-Travers. The earliest known oil wells were drilled in China in 347 CE or earlier. They had depths of up to about 800 feet (240 m) and were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles.[22] The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt. the account of a visit of a Franciscan. literally "rock oil") for petroleum. where it was called picula. now in Romania. Oil was exploited in the Roman province of Dacia. to the oil springs of New York was published in Sagard’s Histoire du Canada. These fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan ’Alī alMas’ūdī in the 10th century.creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. Oklahoma.From Wikipedia. whilst thirty-seven years later. derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region. and by Marco Polo in the Oil derrick in Okemah. 1922 13th century.[21] In his book Dream Pool Essays written in 1088. oil fields were exploited in the area around modern Baku. which remains the term used in contemporary Chinese. one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century.[26] The earliest mention of petroleum in the Americas occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh’s account of the Trinidad Pitch Lake in 1595. being recorded as păcură. Peter Kalm. who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. in his work on America published in 1748 showed on a map the oil springs of Pennsylvania. By the 10th century. Through Islamic Spain. (near Babylon). extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. (Neuchâtel). the polymathic scientist and statesman Shen Kuo of the Song Dynasty coined the word ?? (Shíyóu. In the 9th century. Petroleum was known as burning water in Japan in the 7th century.[25] It has also been present in Romania since the 13th century. The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating.

At the time. [36] Uses The chemical structure of petroleum is heterogeneous (composed of hydrocarbon chains of different lengths). and California. The first commercial oil well in Romania was drilled in 1857. Qatar and Kuwait.936 barrels (~1. Petroleum’s worth as a portable. It became a major national concern in the early part of the 20th century. leading to "oil booms" in Texas. Even until the mid-1950s. Ontario.000 barrels (~270 t) • 1869: 4. and the world’s first oil refinery opened at Ploiesti. dense energy source powering the vast majority of vehicles and as the base of many industrial chemicals makes it one of the world’s most important commodities. Fuels include: • Ethane and other short-chain alkanes 7 . Romania being the first country in the world with a crude oil output officially recorded in international statistics. [36] First adopted by PEMEX in 1986. about 90% of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil.163. but oil quickly took over. a science professor at Yale University in New Haven. WTI . with high oil prices. the Dutch East Indies (1885.[35] About 80% of the world’s readily accessible reserves are located in the Middle East. Access to it was a major factor in several military conflicts of the twentieth century. dug by James Miller Williams. namely 275 tonnes[32][33].[31] The Pechelbronn oil field was active until 1970.4 m³/ d)). (1863. However. in Zorritos District) Peru.493. the free encyclopedia Oil sands were mined from 1745 in MerkwillerPechelbronn. Oklahoma. Canada in 1858. driven by the demand for kerosene and oil lamps. At that time Baku produced about 90% of the world’s oil. by special appointment of Louis XV.914.513 barrels (~4. market-linked pricing received wide acceptance and by 1988 became and still is the main method for pricing crude oil in international trade. Persia (1908. Iraq. Venezuela. The industry grew through the 1800s. Fuels The most common distillations of petroleum are fuels. Benjamin Silliman.215.788×10^6 t) • 1906: 126. the most common and popular predictions were quite dire. Petroleum also makes up 40% of total energy consumption in the United States. and were being developed at an industrial level. (above $100/barrel) Venezuela has larger reserves than Saudi Arabia due to crude reserves derived from bitumen. Because of this. but is responsible for only 2% of electricity generation.[31] The modern history of petroleum began in 1846 with the discovery of the process of refining kerosene from coal by Nova Scotian Abraham Pineo Gesner. Price of petroleum After the collapse of the OPEC-administered pricing system in 1985.146 barrels (~2. Petroleum During World War II. to be used for a variety of purposes. and was the birth place of companies like Antar and Schlumberger. significant oil fields had been discovered in Canada (specifically. by the end of the year output was at the rate of 15 barrels per day (2. oil-exporting countries adopted a market-linked pricing mechanism. there was significant media coverage of oil supply levels. Early production of crude petroleum in the United States:[21] • 1859: 2. including World War II. The first modern refinery was built there in 1857. Ignacy Łukasiewicz improved Gesner’s method to develop a means of refining kerosene from the more readily available "rock oil" ("petr-oleum") seeps in 1852 and the first rock oil mine was built in Bóbrka.750×10^5 t) • 1879: 19. at least as an economically viable energy source. This brought to light the concern that oil is a limited resource that will eventually run out. with 62. Russia.0 m³/d).084. These discoveries rapidly spread around the world.From Wikipedia. and a short lived experiment with netback pricing. UAE. the introduction of the internal combustion engine provided a demand that has largely sustained the industry to this day. and the United States. or pricing markers. See Petroleum products.797×10^6 t) • 1899: 57. and Dubai/ Oman. Early "local" finds like those in Pennsylvania and Ontario were quickly outpaced by demand. near Krosno in Galicia(Poland/Ukraine) in the following year. in Masjed Soleiman). for the Seneca Oil Company (originally yielding 25 barrels per day (4. The US petroleum industry began with Edwin Drake’s drilling of a 69-foot (21 m) oil well in 1859.000 barrels (~5. Following the 1973 energy crisis and the 1979 energy crisis. are Brent. The first oil well in North America was in Oil Springs. and Mexico. in the province of Alberta). in Sumatra). Today. was the first to fractionate petroleum by distillation. coal was still the world’s foremost fuel.5%).726×10^7 t) By 1910.[34] The top three oil producing countries are Saudi Arabia.717×10^6 t) • 1889: 35.[36] The current reference. on Oil Creek near Titusville. and Meerzoeff built the first Russian refinery in the mature oil fields at Baku in 1861. Alsace under the direction of Louis Pierre Ancillon de la Sablonnière. Pennsylvania. petroleum may be taken to oil refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals separated by distillation and treated by other chemical processes.5% coming from the Arab 5: Saudi Arabia (12. In 1854. a period of increased production and reduced demand caused an oil glut in the 1980s. oil facilities were a major strategic asset and were extensively bombed. However.428 barrels (~7.

9 10.76 2.2030.3 315.18 1.90 2.From Wikipedia. from 1980 to percentage of total 1980 . a byproduct of sulfur removal from fuels. and greases.4 346. Sulfuric acid is usually prepared as the Global fossil carbon emissions. low=Asia+Oceania Consumption This table orders the amount of petroleum consumed in 2006 in thousand barrels (bbl) per day and in thousand cubic metres (m3) per day:[37][38][39] 8 .216. 2006 per region from Source: Inter1980 to 2006: national Enred=USA. used in the packaging of frozen foods.571.691.139.9 428.9 826. among others. Oil is in blue.201.179. daily oil conWorld energy sumption oil consumption by consumption. • Wax.2 12 0. • • • • • • Diesel fuel (petrodiesel) Fuel oils Gasoline (Petrol) Jet fuel Kerosene Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) acid precursor oleum. adding viscosity stabilizers as required).51 1.0 288.1 11.296.9 8. the free encyclopedia Consuming Nation 2006 United States 1 China Japan 2 Russia 1 Germany 2 India 2 Canada Brazil South Korea 2 Saudi Arabia (OPEC) Mexico 1 France 2 United Kingdom 1 Italy 2 Iran (OPEC) (1000 bbl/day) 20.8 7.0 408.42 2. • Sulfur or Sulfuric acid.5 4.70 2.9 • • • • • A traffic jam on a typical American freeway.197. motor oils.742.58 1.81 2.9 7. Total is black.66 2.84 2. Bulk tar.8 1.4 446.1 277.9 365. yel2006.3 28.20 (1000 m3/day) 3.812.289.8 26.90 2. Petroleum by country Consumption statistics Other derivatives Certain types of resultant hydrocarbons may be mixed with other non-hydrocarbons.0 1. the Santa Monica Freeway in Los Angeles.42 7. These are a useful industrial materials.144.9 10.810.687.6 340.0 population in millions 304 1369 128 142 82 1201 32[40] 187 49[41] 27[42] 107 61[43] 61[44] 58[45] 68[46] Petroleum bbl/year per capita 24.0 267.981.1 352.01 1. ergy Outlook blue=Europe.1 330. an indicator of consumption.077.679.3 16. Paraffin wax Aromatic petrochemicals to be used as precursors in other chemical production. Asphalt Petroleum coke.28 5. to create other end products: • Alkenes (olefins) which can be manufactured into plastics or other compounds • Lubricants (produces light machine oils. used in speciality carbon products or as solid fuel.9 14. for 1800 2004.

Import Oil imports by country In order of net imports in 2006 in thousand bbl/d and thousand m³/d: Source: US Energy Information Administration 1 peak production of oil already passed in this state 2 Major oil producer whose production is still increasing Graph of Top Oil Producing Countries 1960-2006.S. not the literal creation of the product. production refers to the quantity of crude extracted from reserves. Total world production/consumption (as of 2005) is approximately 84 million barrels per day (13.400. 3 Though still a member. the free encyclopedia 2 Petroleum Although Canadian conventional oil production is declining.S. [1]. If oil sands are included. See also: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Energy Information Administration 1 Non-producing consumers Countries whose oil production is 10% or less of their consumption. Iraq has not been included in production figures since 1998 Export Oil consumption per capita (darker colors represent more consumption). Source : CIA World Factbook Peak production of conventional oil already passed in this state 9 .From Wikipedia.000 m³/ d). total oil production is increasing as oil sands production grows. Source: US Energy Information Administration 1 peak production of oil already passed in this state 2 This country is not a major oil producer See also: Fossil fuel exporters Production Oil exports by country In order of net exports in 2006 in thousand bbl/d and thousand m³/d: Source: US Energy Information Administration 1 peak production already passed in this state 2 Canadian statistics are complicated by the fact it is both an importer and exporter of crude oil. including Soviet Union[47] In petroleum industry parlance.5 MMbbl/d in August 2007. imports of oil and products. it has the world’s second largest oil reserves after Saudi Arabia. and refines large amounts of oil Oil producing countries for the U. Source: U. It is the leading source of U. market. averaging 2.S.

845 3.677 8.044 881 850 791 714 703 664 595 543 512 466 446 400 361 352 349 314 250 244 Petroleum 10 .613 2.481 4.234 9.443 2.876 8.803 2.102 854 648 802 743 729 667 552 544 536 380 449 386 377 362 334 344 247 237 103bbl/d (2007) 10.435 1. the free encyclopedia # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Producing Nation Saudi Arabia (OPEC) Russia 1 United States 1 Iran (OPEC) China Mexico 1 Canada 2 United Arab Emirates (OPEC) Venezuela (OPEC) 1 Kuwait (OPEC) Norway 1 Nigeria (OPEC) Brazil Algeria (OPEC) Iraq (OPEC) 3 Libya (OPEC) Angola (OPEC) United Kingdom Kazakhstan Qatar (OPEC) Indonesia India Azerbaijan Argentina Oman Malaysia Egypt Australia Colombia Ecuador (OPEC) Sudan Syria Equatorial Guinea Yemen Vietnam Thailand Denmark Congo Gabon 103bbl/d (2006) 10.352 2.809 1.445 1.043 3.665 9.008 1.331 4.948 2.173 2.388 1.769 1.901 3.845 1.136 1.358 2.148 3.166 2.707 3.122 2.690 1.094 1.565 2.786 2.667 2.From Wikipedia.288 2.945 2.279 2.675 2.141 1.689 1.501 3.

220 5. Extraction Oil extraction is costly and sometimes environmentally damaging.150 1. and many oil fields are found due to natural seeps.565 2.555 942 936 787 606 576 546 199 (103m3/d) 1.438 1.376 1. drilling.097 3.943 810 547 395 342 301 268 248 247 150 149 125 96 92 87 Petroleum Environmental effects The presence of oil has significant social and environmental impacts. and generation of polluting wastes not produced by other alternative energies.687 1.150 2.542 2.438 2. from accidents and routine activities such as seismic exploration.363 1. although Dr.071 (103bbl/day) 12.893 1.146 1.114 1. the free encyclopedia 40 # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 South Africa Exporting Nation (2006) Saudi Arabia (OPEC) Russia 1 Norway 1 Iran (OPEC) United Arab Emirates (OPEC) Venezuela (OPEC) 1 Kuwait (OPEC) Nigeria (OPEC) Algeria (OPEC) 1 Mexico 1 Libya (OPEC) 1 Iraq (OPEC) Angola (OPEC) Kazakhstan Canada 2 Importing Nation (2006) United States 1 Japan China 2 Germany South Korea France India Italy Spain Republic of China (Taiwan) Netherlands Singapore Thailand Turkey Belgium 204 (103bbl/d) 8.847 1.651 6.044 404 401 400 350 342 341 297 266 242 229 217 177 170 (103m3/day) 1.203 2. John Hunt of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution pointed out in a 1981 paper that over 70% of the reserves in the world are associated with visible macroseepages.676 1.From Wikipedia. Offshore exploration and extraction of oil disturbs the surrounding marine 11 .558 1.515 2.483 2.525 1.519 2.

Control of oil spills is difficult.From Wikipedia. offshore oil platforms also form micro-habitats for marine creatures. The quantity of oil spilled during accidents has ranged from a few hundred tons to several hundred thousand tons (e. production of plastics). requires ad hoc methods. thus eliminating the economic imperative for open-boat whaling. the Galapagos Islands. 24% by industry (e. shellfish and other organisms it coats.831 425.g. which stirs up the seabed.363 150. gasoline. Amoco Cadiz).609 327. killing the sea plants that marine creatures need to survive.942 244. 5% for residential and commercial uses.g. Atlantic Empress. a higher proportion of petroleum tends to be used for electricity. Alternatives to petroleum-based vehicle fuels Alternative propulsion refers to both: 12 .537. jet fuel).874. such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill Oil spills at sea are generally much more damaging than those on land. But at the same time.677.000 2.000 2.673 327. France and many other places. This can kill sea birds. since they can spread for hundreds of nautical miles in a thin oil slick which can cover beaches with a thin coating of oil. the free encyclopedia # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Consuming Nation Japan Germany South Korea France Italy Spain Netherlands (bbl/day) 5.000 946.[51] Oil spills Alternatives to petroleum Further information: Renewable energy In the United States in 2007 about 70% of petroleum was used for transportation (e. diesel.000 2. and often a large amount of manpower (picture).513 Petroleum Diesel fuel spill on a road environment. Oil spills on land are more readily containable if a makeshift earth dam can be rapidly bulldozed around the spill site before most of the oil escapes.000 1. like in the Prestige oil spill or the Erika oil spill.[48] Extraction may involve dredging. and land animals can avoid the oil more easily.061.060.g.578. mammals.. [52] Outside of the US.514 297. and 2% for electricity production.700 (m³/day) 886.000 1. Robbins has argued that the advent of petroleum-refined kerosene saved some species of great whales from extinction by providing an inexpensive substitute for whale oil. The dropping of bombs and incendiary devices from aircraft on the Torrey Canyon wreck produced poor results. Smaller spills have already proven to have a great impact on ecosystems.[50] Whales James S. [53] Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill Crude oil and refined fuel spills from tanker ship accidents have damaged natural ecosystems in Alaska.[49] modern techniques would include pumping the oil from the wreck.

Alternatives to using oil in industry Biological feedstocks do exist for industrial uses such as plastic production. most other countries have also peaked. such as Azadegan.[56] In 1956. the effect of which was to delay the date of any peak by several years. Renewable energy technologies such as solar power. hydrogen vehicles. but today the primary alternatives remain large scale hydroelectricity. such as those based on electricity (for example. Others claim that technology will continue to allow for the production of cheap hydrocarbons and that the earth has vast sources of unconventional petroleum reserves in the form of tar sands. while past understanding of total oil reserves changed with newer scientific understanding of petroleum geology. Jidong Nanpu/Bohai Bay. Tahe. oil is sometimes burned to produce electricity.S. Tupi. USA Today news reported in 2004 that there were 40 years of petroleum left in the ground. leading to the 1973 and 1979 oil crises. the free encyclopedia • Alternative fuels used in standard or modified internal combustion engines (i.g. Pemex. biodiesel and biobutanol). or fuel cells (i. has announced that Cantarell Field. one of the world’s largest offshore fields.[17] 13 . It also suggests a method to calculate the timing of this peak. as these predictions are dependent on the past production and discovery data used in the calculation as well as how unconventional reserves are considered. Some of these predictions date from before the recession of the early 1980s. The peak of oil discoveries was in 1965. West Kamchatka. such as electric cars. and then decline 14% per annum. • propulsion systems not based on internal combustion. with both the Canadian tar sands and United States oil shale deposits representing potential reserves matching existing liquid petroleum deposits worldwide. Since then. • Petroleum free cars. albeit far more efficiently. It is difficult to predict the oil peak in any given region. Further. Supergiant fields have been discovered in the past decade. M. Petroleum Hubbert peak theory The Hubbert peak theory (also known as peak oil) posits that future petroleum production (whether for individual oil wells. or 1995-2000. compressed air. proponents have previously predicted the peak for the world to be in years 1989.e. biofuels or combustion hydrogen). Currently. Just as the 1971 U. Controversy surrounds predictions of the timing of the global peak. and the consequent reduction in global consumption. or worldwide production) will eventually peak and then decline at a similar rate to the rate of increase before the peak as these reserves are exhausted. • Advanced technology cars such as hybrid vehicles which use petroleum and/or biofuels. all-electric or hybrid vehicles). hydrogen fuel cells).[58] Based on available production data. and proven oil reserves. Future of petroleum production The future of petroleum as a fuel remains somewhat controversial. bitumen fields and oil shale that will allow for petroleum use to continue in the future.[54] • Plug-in hybrids. nuclear and coal-fired generation. [55] Alternatives to burning petroleum for electricity In oil producing countries with little refinery capacity. Some argue that because the total amount of petroleum is finite. China has confirmed that two of its largest producing regions are in decline. predictions regarding the timing of the peak are highly dependent on the past production and discovery data used in the calculation. When this occurred and the US began losing its excess production capacity. and Kashagan. entire oil fields. peak in oil production was only clearly recognized after the fact. 1995. the dire predictions of the 1970s have merely been postponed. biomass and biofuels might someday be used to replace some of these generators. King Hubbert correctly predicted US oil production would peak around 1971.From Wikipedia. based on past production rates. as well as tremendous reservoir growth from places like the Bakken and massive syncrude operations in Venezuela and Canada. was expected to peak in 2006. Ferdows/Mounds/Zagheh. OPEC gained the ability to manipulate oil prices. due to the lack of transparency in accounting of global oil reserves.[57] However. cars can be classified into the following groups: • Internal combustion engine cars. that can store and use externally produced electricity in addition to petroleum. current estimates of total oil reserves have been in general agreement since the 1960s.e. whole countries. micro hydro. a peak in world production will be difficult to discern until production clearly drops off. which use only petroleum and biofuels (e. and Mexico’s national oil company. Carioca/Sugar Loaf. Jupiter. and oil production per year has surpassed oil discoveries every year since 1980. the observed peak of past discovery rates. wind power.

Glossary". and Production. 2008.wspa. p. [26] Istoria Romaniei.tb00271. "Abiogenic origin of hydrocarbons: an historical overview" (PDF). 1959. Geoffrey P. Drilling. Construction Equipment Guide. http://www. Infomine Inc. Mines and Minerals Act. & celui de la Société. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum. Marcel Dekker. Deffeyes Thomas Gold David Goodstein Daniel Yergin Derrick Jensen See also • • • • • • • • Barrel of oil equivalent Gas oil ratio List of oil fields List of petroleum companies Oil burden Oil reserves Petroleum geology Thermal depolymerization References [1] [2] Bauer Georg. American Petroleum Institute. "petroleum".. 300. Alboudwarej et al. Kasem Ajram (1992). http://www. Oilfield Review. Retrieved on 2008-06-30. doi:10. Encyclopædia Britannica. ISBN 0-911119-43-4.asp. Geneva. [19] "International Energy Annual 2004" (XLS). James G. & ce qui sera dû à Mr d’Erinis à qui elle apartient ’per Ligium feudum’ " is held at the BPU Neuchâtel . "Oil Shale: Ready to Unlock the Rock".slb. Dismissal of the Claims of a Biological Connection for Natural Petroleum. (Summer 2006) (PDF). New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX).com/lsco_fut_descri. ISBN 087814823X.1751-3928.energy. Knowledge House Publishers. "Oil Sands . http://www.htm. Atwater. accessed 2007-10-26 [28] Le bitume et la mine de la Presta (Suisse).org/about/index. 2006. http://www.gov/pub/international/iealf/ tablee2. Energy Information Administration. 215–216. Retrieved on 2008-10-02. [24] Zayn Bilkadi (University of California.pdf Petroleum Study Oil Is Mastery [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] 14 . "The Oil Weapons". [22] ASTM timeline of oil [23] Dr. 20-7 [25] Joseph P. PennWell Corporation.x. http://oilsands. OCLC 26084778. American Petroleum Institute Quarterly – Centennial Issue.com/countries/.pdf. and Gordon I. [21] ^ This article incorporates text from the article "Petroleum" in the Encyclopædia Britannica.infomine. TemaNord 2003:516. 1960 [27] (broken link) Muséum d’histoire naturelle.Fonds d’étude [Ne V] catalogue [31] ^ History of Pechelbronn oil [32] The History Of Romanian Oil Industry [33] PBS: World Events [34] Hanson Baldwin.asp?story=10092.(tr. Saudi Aramco World. Nontechnical Guide to Petroleum Geology. Highlighting Heavy Oil.). pp.eia.xls. Giles (2008-02-16).scribd. http://www.ca/OilSands/1106. De Natura Fossilium.aspx. Jacques Lapaire. Eleventh Edition. (2001).).From Wikipedia.. Energia 2001 [16] Glasby. pages 10-11. the free encyclopedia Petroleum [15] Kenney et al.gov. Bandy Mark Chance (tr. Bandy Jean A.2006. Retrieved on 2008-11-03. (1999). Resource Geology 56 (1): 83–96. Hyne. Mineraux et Fossiles No 315 [29] "Asphaltum" Stoddart’s Encyclopaedia Americana (1883) pages 344–345 [30] Eirinis’ paper. pp.com/ EBchecked/topic/454269/petroleum.com/media/ services/resources/oilfieldreview/ors06/sum06/ heavy_oil.com/docs/ j79lhbgbjbqrb. Campbell Kenneth S. [17] ^ Lambertson. 2006-07-14. [18] "Light Sweet Crude Oil". p. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.org/pub/ ebook/2003-516.nymex. a publication now in the public domain. IEA Key World Energy Statistics "Crude oil is made into different fuels" EIA reserves estimates CERA report on total world oil Heat of Combustion of Fuels Use of ozone depleting substances in laboratories. pp. Berkeley). Exploration. Retrieved on 2008-05-21. "Oil Sands in Canada and Venezuela". http://www. Retrieved on 2008-10-02.1111/ j. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. Riva Jr. (2006). About the Exchange. http://www.ab.norden. http://static. 2007.com/story.cegltd. JanuaryFebruary 1995.doe. The Miracle of Islam Science (2nd ed. translated 1955 Speight. Vol II. ISBN 0824702174. Government of Alberta.4. “Oil Strategy in World War II".About Us". [20] "Western States Petroleum Association . Norman J. http://www. entitled "Dissertation sur la mine d’asphalte contenant la manière dont se doivent régler Messieurs les associés pour son exploitation.). le profit du Roy.britannica.pdf. Writers covering the petroleum industry • • • • • • • Brian Black Colin J.

com/nationalpost/ financialpost/story.. at 12:15 (UTC).509" . IndexMundi.897".html. Robbins.eia.Policy Backgrounder 159 .153" .doe. [41] IndexMundi.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/ sec11_10. Retrieved on 2008-11-11.xls from web page http://tonto.pdf [48] Waste discharges during the offshore oil and gas activity by Stanislave Patin.. "60." Retrieved 2008-11-11 [44] IndexMundi.S." Retrieved 2008-11-11 [46] IndexMundi. Eric (2007-03-13). Italy Population .433" ." Retrieved 2008-11-11 [42] Sources vary: 24. 9780199207381.Demographics". Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (2006).133.From Wikipedia.Demographics. http://indexmundi.the trade association of the US oil industry. 1992. challenges and opportunities. Retrieved on 2008-11-11. Oil in the 21st century: issues. Elena Cascio [49] Torrey Canyon bombing by the Navy and RAF [50] Pumping of the Erika cargo [51] How Capitalism Saved the Whales by James S. Inc. The Freeman. "60. http://www.688. 2008" [38] From DSW-Datareport 2006 ("Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevölkerung") [39] One cubic metre of oil is equivalent to 6.gov/dnav/pet/ pet_pri_wco_k_w. United Kingdom Population Demographics.. "We are 31. http://www. • Oil survey .Demographics. Iran Population . Jonathan G. [57] NCPA .World supply and consumption • Who are the major players supplying the world oil market? • American Petroleum Institute .. Energy Information Administration [53] needtitleUN Energy Program [54] Amory B..S. Retrieved on 2008-11-11. while IndexMundi listed a July 2006 estimate of 27.xls) "Table Posted: November 7. [37] U. 2007". Energy Information Administration • U.609. "58..htm (direct link: http://www.Saudi Arabia".eia." Retrieved 2008-11-11 Petroleum [45] IndexMundi. Nathan J.73: "Saudi Arabia Population . Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers 15 .wikipedia. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. "July 2006 est. "48. South Korea Population Demographics.html. National Post. Glassforming liquids and melts This page was last modified on 17 May 2009. Oxford Press. Chemical mixtures.. "July 2006 est.. (See Copyrights for details.OECD International Energy Agency • Oil volume-weight and price converter Retrieved from "http://en. ISBN 0199207380.. France Population . Koomey. Department of Energy EIA .html?id=73b94aac-08f0-477f-a72ab8b640f6658f&k=90795. "Peak Oil Presentation at the Technical University of Clausthal"]. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. tr.org/wiki/Petroleum" Categories: Oils.Are We Running Out of Oil? [58] New study raises doubts about Saudi oil reserves External links • Petroleum at the Open Directory Project • U. E.019.doe. Soil contamination. "July 2006 est.html.612. Kyle Datta.876.unhcr. "68.000 from "UNHCR / Refworld / The Worst of the Worst 2006 . pp. Petroleum. [43] IndexMundi. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.com/saudi_arabia/population. Fuels.doe. Lovins. August.canada. "Winning the oil endgame" Rocky Mountain Institute [55] Bioprocessing Seattle Times (2003) [56] Campbell CJ (2000-12).S. a U.Demographics.846..gov/emeu/international/ RecentPetroleumConsumptionBarrelsperDay. Odd-Even Bustnes.28981077 barrels of oil [40] Beauchesne.eia. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector. "July 2006 est.136" .) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. . [52] "U. the free encyclopedia [35] InfoPlease [36] ^ Mabro.600. http://energycrisis. Excel file RecentPetroleumConsumptionBarrelsperDay. 351.S.org/refworld/docid/4917f8351e." Retrieved 2008-11-11 [47] http://www.S. "July 2006 est. Energy Information Administration. Robert.823" . Glasgow..org/de/lecture.

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