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CONTENTS
."!l1L 200 .
" OLU M' II • NU M.I II •
LAND MATTERS 115
LETTERS 117
RIPRAP 126
A bright spot in the British wndscape,
the White House lawn provideJ
food for thought, reccJSlon·ready
dnign, skaten pool their rCJotlTCCJ,
and learning about kwdsctJpc
preservation.
Edited by linda Mcintyre
DESIGN 132
Retwl1 on Invesunenl
A Colorado project proveJ the
economic wille 0/ public kndscapes.
By Kim 5Drvlg
ECOLOGY 142
Paradise Put in
Place of a Parking Lot
Lmi.lcape architeds help a univenity
restore PacijicCoas! wi'fLmds.
By Claire Latan.
ART IN THE
LANDSCAPE 158
Ar, as Medi cine
Artwork makes fora unique
pathway at TI'XI1J Tech Univcrsity'r
medical.lchool.
By Elizabeth Lynch
CAMPUS PROFILE 164
Design for Cities
New )nrk's CCNY opens doors
to urban li/e lind ecology.
By Frank Edge.ton Ma.tin
ON THE COYER
Stud."ts m Chtfr a Iookool
/ur/(}urnIS, pagf %.
0, C'i " ••• 1 P.I ...
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VISUAL RESOURCES 174
Wildfire in Yellowstone
Then and Now
Documenhng challge in a viluaify dramatic
Iand.lca{Je. By John C. Ellsworth, FAlLA
RESEARCH 180
Resea.n;h Design Connections
Studies examine landscapes that tell their own
stories, designing safer rotaries, and mapping
A1V tratis with GIS.
8y Sally Augustin altd Jean Marie
Cackowskl-Campbell, AILA
a l lUdsupe Ar(hlte(hre URll ZOot
Penultimate
Plaza
II very amtemporary plaZJl
a facade.
By Mark Hinshaw
102
Water Less
This seaside garden in Soulhem
w/Jjomia offen lessons for
Southern Ca/Jjomians looking
10 lower waler use in their gardens.
By Daniel Jost.
Associate ASLA
110
STUDENT WORKS 19.
SI11dem Projects,
Chilean Stvle
Low-impact de.lig"nlhuifd projectJ take
advalltage 0/ lumher and hand labo,.
By Jlmena Martlgnonl
BOOKS 1118
DISPLAY AD INDEX 1120
BUYER·S GUIDE INDEX 1121
PRODUCT PROFILES 1132
CRITIC AT LARGE 113.
Park's Parks
A photographer uxn hzj photographI to make a
pOInt about small parh. By NIcola Twlilay
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THE MAGAZINE
or THE AMERICAN SOCIETY
or LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS
J . William FASLA
EDITOR I IJlholU/HOII @l(u/fI , org
Li sa S p. 'c· khanlt
MANAGING EDITOR I / s/,('(· /dl(lrdl @(l s /f1.org
M"Gt'.,
ART DIRECTOR I "I/Jr g cc@lIs/u .org
Oanil' ] .los t , A!!lw .. iali' ,\ 5 I,A
WRITER / EDITOR I
Li sa St'lwit z
.... OCI .. TE EDITOR ] / 5c hu{I :;@u s /u.org
CONTRI.UlING EDITORS
.I a n. · Ho)' Ilc-own ; Lak., DOliglas, ASI...;.\
Oi lllW HI,II"ksfln , ASLA ; Pelt' " Jal'obs, FASLA
Fl'lwk Edg" ,·tllll Ma"tin ; Linda Ml'lntY"e
Jaml' s L, Sip" s, ASLA; Kim Snr vig
Janll' s UdJUIl . FA5LA
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51." 1111111010 00 5111 0 VU U • • • III.I L 10
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EDITORIAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
F ... ,tI""i .. k H. Stt' ill ,"', Ft\ 5LA, Chair
Thomas H. Tavt' II a, F/\ SLA, Vice Preside/II., Commullica/.ioll
B"ian Braa , A5 L,\
T. Ca"II')' CI'awfonl , ASIA
Da vic l CuU,' ,', A5Lf\
Barbal':) Faga , FASLt\
Mi"hllt'l M, J aIlIt'S, A5 LA
T0"" O . .Iohnsoll , FA5LA
.I ll l'll an .II1111' S, Studt'nl AS!.,\
Bi IUH"1I E. Km'nig. ,\ 5l.A
F,'al1k Lt'wis. ASLA
Naill') S. ASLA
ScOl1 O. H"est' , A5LA
SI"Il ha ni,' A. Holl .. ". FASLA
Htlnald B. Sawl,iII , ASL,\
Tar'a N. " C', ASLA
EDITORIAL : 2.2.216·2'66 FAX /2 02-898·0062
Introducing
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Pili D;."jef • "'IJIJM a
10 I lilndscapeArchiheture APR I L 20 DI
THE MAGAZINE
OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY
OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS
Ann Lnope r- Pq' ol'
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AS LA
BOARD OF TRUSTEES
PRESIDENT
,\ns .. la D. D,,·,
PRESIDENT·ELECT
Cal") D. g,-.-.It , FASI.,I
IMMEDIATE PAST PREStDIENI
PerC) 1I0,,·onl. FAS!.A
IIIelE PREIIDE"'5
Pa",da ,\1. Blu";;.,, .\51 . .\
Ca t'r A. Il,-own, VASLA
T,.,. ,")" L. ASLA
IJr'i"n J. DOIIg',,·,'t) , F.l.5 1. A
,',1''''11 .... , rASLA
R. 'fa,-,·Il", FASI..\.
EXECUTIVE IIICE PRESIDENT
Nallq' C.
SECRE' ... RY
Mal' Y L. I/"norary ASLA
TREASURER
(;'-",,101 1'.
TRUSTEfS
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Should a River Run Under It?
E
NVIRONMENTAL ARTISTS CHRISTO and Jeanne-Claude
wane ro cover up a white-water river in che Rocky Moun-
rains with 5.9 miles of silvered darh. Should chI' people of
Colomdo let them do it?
That's right: The environmental art duo who brought us
Rmmmg Fence in California and The Gales in New York City now
have their eyes on Bighorn She€p Canyon, a stretch of the Arkansas
River known for its wi ldlife, fishing, and white-water rafting. You
can view their concept drnwings at UlWIlWI!mheritl(!'Y.org. The proj-
eer will cover the Arkansas River with 5.9 miles' worth of "fibril-
lared {Xllypropylene fabric coated with vaporized aluminum on
both sides." These translucent canopies will hover eight to 25 feet
above the water and reach almost bank to bank.
Some Coloradans who live nearche canyon are up in annsabout
rhe project and have formed agroupcalled ROAR (Rags Over the
Arkansas River). They charge that the influx of hundreds of thou-
sands of tourists will create a traffic nightmare on the two-lane
canyon road; that the drilling required to fasten the panels will
permanently deface the riverbanks; that bighorn sheep, elk, deer,
and other wildlife will be kept from their drinking water; and
that eagl es and sjXJrtS fishermen won't be able to fish the river.
And, al though the panels will only be in place for two weeks,
Christo admits that installation and removal will disrupt the area
for two to three years.
Although I' m a fan of good environmental art , I' m going to
side widl ROAR on this one. Some of Christo and Jeanne-Claude's
work- most recently, The Gafes in Central Park- has been wide-
Iy praised. Many landscape architects who visited it said that The
Gates framed Frederick Law Ol mstecl's master work in a way that
lel them see it with new eyes. Ot'Ct' fhe Rit'Ct' seems to be doing
quite the opposite-it actually cot'Ct's liP the river. Does anyone,
even Christo, think that 5.9 miles of silvered fabri c is anywhere
near as beautiful as a free-flowing mountain river?
Then there's the question of what to do with all those miles of
fibrill ated jXJlypropylene fabric after the project closes. We're told
it will be recycled, but what does "recycling" mean for these ex-
t ravaganzas? After The Gates was dismantled, the orange vinyl
from whi ch dle 7, 503 gates were made was refashioned into tiny
orange rulers. I happen to be the recipient of one. I have no idea
how I'd ever use it. Is that meaningful recycling?
Conceived in the early 1990s or before, Over the Ritter is a con-
ceptual and environmental dinosaur, a relic from rile days when
some land artists and designers aspired to create iconi c arc with-
oue regard to its environmental cose. As the W'ashi1lgtof/ Post said
of Ot't'r lhe Rn't'r; "There's a sense that this kind of 1970s-era 'envi-
ronmental arc' has more links to heavy industry- to old-fashioned
well drilling and dam building- than to some more recent arc
that's been made with genuine ecolog ical feeling. "
As ocher, better artists strive to create a greener future, what
should environmental art look like?
0 f 7 \ V \ ~ f ~
J. William "'Bill" Thompson, FASLA
Ed itor I blhompson@asla.org
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Would You Pray in This Garden?
T
I-lECOMfo,l£NTS IN Land Matters(Febm-
ary) reveal a narrow view of prayer and an
even narrower view of the place of spi ritual
spaces in our urban environment. To sug-
gest that prayer can only take place alone, in
a sol itary space, misses the essential message
ofChrisrianiry, which exhortS us all to "bear
witness" to the message of the gospels.
\'\fhat better place co bear witness than a
busy srreer in downcown Baltimore, a city
whose street corners are sometimes open-
air drug markets Of refuges for the home-
less? \'Vhat beerer way co reach OUt ro other
flliths and cmdirions, one of the hallmarks of
Pope John Paul's legacy, chan to shed wel-
come sunlight onto rhe beautiful fucade of
rhe long-obscured Unitarian Church? TIlis
is the prayer that rhe new John Paul ll
Prayer Garden invites [Q Baltimore.
ll1ereare many ways co "emer into rhine
inner chamber," as Matthew's gospel sug-
gestS, but the nocion that you need a "soli -
cary spot for all but the most perfunctory
prayer" is simply not true. TIle words ut-
tered by a mother whose child is wheeled
inco surgery- is chat nO{ prayer? The mur-
murs of our soldiers as they enter an enemy
ne ighborhood- is that not prayer? Do
these words nO{ qualify because they were
not uttered in a proper setting?
LETTERS
for prayer even in these imperfect places. In
fan, what bener place for a prayer garden?
CATliERINE MAliAN, FASlA, AND
SCon RYKIEl , FASlA
Balfimore
Thetlfllhors were the Iml(ucape architects for the
Johll Pa,,11! Pra)"er Gardel/.
W
HEN JESUS SAID TO "pray to thy Father
in secret," the context needs co be un-
derstood. Reli gious leaders of Jesus's time
would puff themselves up by praying in a
dramatic fashion on street comers to arrracr
attention. Jesus knew their hearts and was
condemning them for not really praying.
Prayer occurs whenever you have an inter-
nal dialogue with God,eirher in solitude or
cofJXlrately. Prayer can occur while you are
sitting quietly, driving, working, or surf-
ing. This FJ.ll, I attended a 12-hour prayer
evenc furour scate and narion. ·nlOusands of
people joined in prayer at Qualcomm Stadi-
um (home of the San Diego Chargers). I re-
cenrly met someone who artends Sunday
services in a bar.
Al though the prayer garden in Balti-
more may not be conducive co quiet med-
itation or contemplation, any venue is fit-
ting for prayer.
TIMjACHLEWSKI, ASI.A
Sail Diego
Y
OUR USE OF Matthew 6:6 was great, al-
though most readers don't speak King
James English. Here's the same passage
from The Message (www.bihiegatt/lla)'.com):
Here's what I wa'" )"011 to do: Filld a qllieJ, J"f-
c/llded place so ),011 U;(!/I't be tempted to role-play
before God. JIISt be there as simply alld hollest-
I)' as yOIl call mal/age. The locus will shift from
)'0" to God, al/d )'011 will begill to sense his grace.
I've found that most any place full of nat-
ural beaury is grear for doing JUSt thar. A
simple walk in the woocls can't be beat!
BRAD SMITII, ASlA
Melbourne. Florida
I
AM A MASTER'S CANDIDATE in land-
scape architecture. My thesis topic is de-
signing spiritual spaces. My thesis ques-
tion is: Is there a universality of physical
elemenrs or array of elements chat gener-
ates emotions or feel ings of spirituality in
individuals regardless of culture, age, or
rheology? In many ways, the crux of your
question and issues wirh the Balrimore
Pope John Paul n Prayer Garden is very
close to my thesis question.
\'Vou!d I pray in this garden? The an-
swer is NO. All the issues you cite make
one wonder- what were chey thinking?
The John Paul II Prayer Garden offers a
variety of opportunities for
prayer. Some may find prayer
in a quiet moment on the
As to outdoor spaces I have found con-
ducive to meditacion or prayer, I like a space
that feels a little rem()(e, that is quiet, that is
sunny on cold days and shady
on hot days, and chat is not
as manicured (a little mossy
and soft around the edges).
" What better place for a prayer garden? "
bench during a busy day; for
ochers, it may mean an op-
portunity to share John
Paul's story with a child; for
others it may mean finding
the hand of God In the
blooming flowe rs in the
heart of the city.
Perfect sites are rarely
available in our messy, busy,
and sometimes violent urban
environments. Fortunately,
landscape architects are able
[Q bring their skills co all
sites, including this one in
Baltimore, and create spaces
BARBARA DENAHAN,
STUDENT ASLA
'fix Uniz'I:I"Jity 0/ Florida
I
MOVED TO BALTIMORE
partly because of its his-
toric, dense urban fabric.
\'Vhat 's unfortunate is that
the new Prayer Garden ig-
nores this character and [he
surrounding texture of the
Mount Vernon neighbor-
hood. Indeed, Balrimore's
Archdiocese fought a long
legal battle to demolish the
H . ll 20 GI llndscape Archihctu re 117
18 1 lilndscapeArcbihcture APR IL 20 DI
AMERICAN sotlllY Of llMOStlPf AICHlUm
636 m Slim NW. WASHINGTON. DC 100013736
101-898-1444 • fIX 101-898-1185 •
LETTERS
l OO-year-old Rochambeau apartments on
the site. This thin tower, characteristic of
severn! in the area, framed Charles Streff and
added co the neighborhood's fine-grained
pedestrian charaner. 111e old building did
not block views of the cicy Basilica, but it
did screen Ollt the new parking garage that
now overpowers chI' garden.
I've walked by the garden several times
and never seen anyone visiting it, let alone
praying there. On my way to services at
"I've walked by the garden
several times and never seen
anyone visiting n, let alone
praying there."
the First Unitarian Church across chI'
street, however, an usher cold me chuc, be-
cause of chI' garden's void, [he Unitarians
are much more visible to chI' city around
them. Stretched across checolumns of their
portico is a banner chat reads: "Civil Mar-
riage is a Civil Right." \'Vith an accidencal
prominence, this message of inclusion
looms over Pope John Paul's sratue and che
garden. h goes w show that landscape ar-
chicects should always consider the unin-
tended consequences of their work.
FRANK EDGERTON MARTIN
Baltimore
F
OR OUTDOOR SPACES conducive to
meditation or prnyer, I like narural set-
tings without odler people in them.
\'Vhether in a garden, a s(Xlt in the wcxxls,
or on a bench in an arboretum, I feel most
comfortable closing my eyes and going
inw an alcered scace, knowing few or no
people will be passing by.
LISA E. BAILEY, ASLA
Maynard. MaJJarhUJefIJ
F
OR A MEDlTATJVE EXPERIENCE I fitvor
narurallandscapes-Steen·s Mountain·s
Kiger Gorge in eastern Oregon or the
Marin Headlands, Mr. Tamalpais,or Mon-
terey Bay in C11ifornia. Closer to home, my
favorite contemplative sites are Japanese
gardens or the wilder, more natural wet-
lands of Oaks Bottom Wildlife Refuge.
MIKE HOUCK, HONORARY ASlA
Porfltmd, Oregoo
Response to the landscape Architect
Who "Drill Baby Drill "
I
WAS AMUSED BY the lener (February)
castigating the "very liberal"' landscape ar-
chitects who "need to o!Xn their eyes and
see what is goi ng on with people."' I had
never thought of advocacy of America's
great natural heritage, smart growth, and
renewed urbanism as liberal monopoljes,
although it may seem that way after the
past eight years.
Oil will continue to play an important
role while we rejoin other countries in seek-
ing to develop urgently needed sources of
alternative clean energy. Having pursued
geologi cal engineering and worked in oil
fields as an undergraduate, r know we can
drill foranotherdrop; we JUSt don't have to
destroy our wilderness legacy in the process.
For anyone who missed it, mindless "drill
baby drill"' attitudes lost last November.
GEORGE HAZEl.RIGG, ASLA
St. f.AJllis
J
ENNI T I-IOl\.\PSON'S lerrer (February)
would make it appear as if landscape ar-
chitects, a small, dedi cated group with
policies on protecting the environment, are
bringing this COUntry's economy and en-
ergy exploration to a halt.
If only we had that much power. \'Ve are
but a small voice against powerful , organized
interest groups-for example, the Wise Use
movement, which is supported by key in-
terests from oil, cool, mining, timber, chem-
icals, and agribusiness. To better Wlderstand
our underdog situation regarding protect-
ing the environment, I quote from Roben E
Kennedy Jr."s Crimes AgaifIJt Natllre: " As
Wise Usefounderand timber industry Aack
Ron Arnold PUt it, ·Our gool is to destroy,
to erndicate the environmental movement.
\'Ve want you to be able to exploit t he envi-
ronment for private .gain, absolutely. ···
Tt may be time for us to go back to ASLA·s
DeclaratiOIl 011 E!I1!irollmfllt alld Development
as well as ASLA·s Ix>licies on public aff.'Lirs.
Here I believe you will find very clear JXlli-
cies regarding what ASLA and its members
stand for and support as professionals re-
garding the environment. ·· Members
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LETTERS
should actively engage in shaping deci-
sions, att itudes, and values that support hu-
man health, environmcntal prmecrion, and
sustainable development."
When I place fASLA behind my name
and 111Ompson putsASLA behind hers, IS it
with the samecommitmem to rhe policies
and canons of ASLA? J don't want this de-
bate to become one of liberal against con-
servati ve but of asking about our profes-
sion's commitment co the environment.
So, co be fai r co Thompson and the debate
she has begun, , ask that readers examine
ASLA's policy on Publ ic Lands and Forests.
{PDf available at /(Jwmasla.orgIGwfAffairs
COI/le1/ts.aspx?fyj1e=pllblic.) 111en answer the
question: Are Thompson's views in line
with our policies and principles, or has she
strayed from the fold?
FRANK C. CLEMENTS, FASLA
\'(IiJru(QII. fIIilloi s
Editor's Nole: The Dec/aratiM Oil E,wiroll1/lem
and Developmtll/ has becn SflperSeded by ASI.A 's
Code of E,wirolimelllal Ethics (www.asla.orgl
Leaclershiphandbook.aspx?id=4308&l tem
IdString=eOfa05764_34_ 120_ 4308).
Kudos for "Influential Ideas"
"L ANDSCAPE PLANNfNG: A History of
Influential Ideas" (February) by the om-
niscient Carl Steinicz, Honorary ASLA, was
an excellent read, and I will certainly rec-
ommend it as a primer in our History of
Designed Environments course for Stu-
dents of Landscape + Urbanism. I am sure
that many readers would be inclined [Q
suggest their own additions to any such
register of seminal figures in the history of
the discipline. My own would probably in-
clude JaneJacobs and Geoffrey Jellicoe.
I would note, however, that although
Rousseau's body was originally buried at
Ermenonville-in what is now, perhaps
ironically, called ParcJean-Jacques Rousseau
- it was re-interred at the Pantheon in Paris
in 1794. Meanwhile, reproductions of the
Rousseau isle-a memorial surrounded by
a circle of "tower" Lombardy poplars-were
created in parks across Europe, including
the recently replanted version at the capti-
vating Dessau-Worl itz Garden Realm in
eastern Germany, also Justifiably mentioned
by Steinitz.
ALAN TATE
UlliI'ffJily of i\fanitoba
I
ENJOYED CARL STEINITZ'S excellent
';Landscape Planning: A Hisroryof ln-
fluent ial ldeas." The notables thar he meo-
tionedcenainly enriched and expanded the
realm of our profession. I would suggest
thar one mOJ"(" could be added: Robert Mor-
ris Copeland. Copeland is probably beSt
known as Hornce Clevel and's early panner
in Bosron. Copeland was also a pioneering
"I am sure that many readers
would suggest their own
additions to any such register
of seminal figures in the
history of the discipline."
visionary in landscape planning at the met-
ropolitan scale. In 1869, Copeland outlined
a visionary city and metropolitan park in
his pamphlet The Most Beautiful CifY ill
America: Essay and Plan ffJt" the lmprovemcm of
the City of Boston, which incl uded a large
foldout map of the city and outlying areas.
J. B. Jackson, whom Steinitz notes in his
article, identified Copeland's proposal as a
pioneering city planning effOrt. "Copeland,"
Jackson wrote in his book American Space,
"was the first to use the phrase 'city plan'
and ... consequently we indirectly owe to him
t he phrases 'city planner' and 'city plan-
ning.' ... Much more significant was the new
meaning heatrached rothe word 'plan': the
continuing spatial organization or reorgani-
zation of a whole community for its bener
functioning in the future."
Copeland's popular book Country Life,
long out of print, is being republ ished this
year as parr of ASLA's Centennial Reprint
Series by the Library of American L'Ind-
scape HistOry. The new introduction for
t he hook further illuminates the role of
Copeland as a primary link bet ween scien-
tifi c £'1rming and the founding of the mod-
ern profession oflandscape architecture.
WILLI AM H . TISHLER, FASLA
UnilY:'rJity of \'(/i,romin- i\fadi,on
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LETTERS
I
MUST TAKE EXCEPTION and some of-
fense with the article's not mentioning (or
even having a passing reference (0) one of
the futhers of the A merican landscape ar-
chitecture profession- Jens Jensen.
DAVID WrCK1IAM, ASLA
Lake Mm)', F/()Yida
lutiors Talk Back to Book Reviewers
T
HANKS TO LYNN DUPUIS for review-
ing our Desiglllllg SflStailloble FrJreJl Lalld-
scapes (February). J have only cwo quibbles
with the review. First is Lynn's interpreta-
tion that "this book . .. IS based on very
large-scale forese planning Ulith I(lggillg as a
design reqllirement" (emphasis mine).
Where did we write that logging isade-
sign requirement ? Our cenrral argument is
{hac ifhumans are going roalrerforesc land-
scapes through logging, then this is best
done in the COntext of an integrated, large-
scale, long-range plan. But we never said
logging was a "requirement" fur doing a de-
sign. Logging in conservation reserves or na-
"landscape architects in forest
planning are few and far between.
The reason boils down to our
image as only being concerned
with aesthetics."
ture parks is sometimes used as a tool to
shape or reshape landscape pattern and
structure, often in conjunction with pre-
scribed fire to help get natural processes
back in sync with historic conditions. Ie is
never considered a "requirement,"' but it
may be the best pmctical tool available.
Second quibble: l ynn writes: " ... the
authors repeatedly push large-patch log-
ging as an important factor for the design
to be sustainable, which in my opinion is
an industry-driven idea of what consti-
tutes sustainability."'
\Vhoa there, lynn. The authors did not
"push" large-patch logging. We only
pushed mlng dellgn as a tool for sorting Ollt /xm;
and where to 1Ildlldge landscape pattem and JtrtlC-
tllre. Some forest types lend themselves to
large-patch openings, while others do nor.
Ponderosa pine forests and woodlands of the
interior mountain West, fur example, are in-
appropriate places fur large-patch dearing,
while lodgepole pine Of northern boreal
fOrests are places where this is appropriate.
This has to do wi t h natural disturbance dy-
namics. Plantatioo forests managed to max-
imize timber production are also obvious
candidates fOf large-patch dearing, and we
have one chapter dedicated to this.
\'Qe agrr-t-t here is a lot more work to
do. Landscape architeusdeeplyengaged in
forest planning and management are few
and far between, and there is a lot of resist-
ance to incorporating our profession into
chis field, TIle reason boils down co our i m-
age as only being concerned with aesthet-
ics. Our hope is rlmt in advocating an ime-
gmced design approoch chac includes but is
not dominated by aesthetic considerations,
we will have advanced the idea a bit and
helped open che door for others.
DEAN APOSTOL
Porflalld, Oregon
I
A/l.1 WRITING IN RESPONSE TO che review
(January)ofSceven L Cantor's book,Green
Roofs ill SlISfaillaWe IAlldscape Desigll. Virgi nia
Russell evidently possesses scrong opinions
and a negatiw atcitude, buc one wonders if
she has actually read the ixx:lk. ManyofRus-
sell'scomplaintsare unfounded, and che in-
formacion she cices as lacking was, in facc,
incorporated in these chapters should one
actually read them. For instance, the case
stodies in chapcers four and five, abouc 45
examples, are the heart of the ix>ok and cov-
er more than 150 pages. Russell mentions
only one of chese projects dismissively.
Throughout her review, she gives mis-
leading descriptions of its content. She em-
phasizes "chrifty" covemge on planes in chap-
cer three, without mentioning that chere are
complete plant lists for each of the 21 case
studies from throughout Noreh America in
chapter five. Did she overlook them?
She claims thac the growing medium,
one of the most important elements of the
green roof, is only brieAy described in the
first chapter. However, that sect ion alone
consists of approximately 2,200 words, the
equivalent of 10 double-spaced pages. Fur-
chermore, in the case studies in chapter five
chere is a sepamte section on the growing
medium of each green roof and much oth-
er detailed information.
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24 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
LETTERS
She complains that the design process de-
scribed in chapter two is not an integrative
process of whole building design, when, in
fact, that is emphasized repeatedly. 111econ-
eluding paragraph of that chapter empha-
sizc""S again that green roof design demands
an integrated approach. Did she overlook
this or simply OUt read the text?
She criticizes the two sustainable design
projects cited in chapter six because their
green roofs were nor complete at the time
of publication, but rhe opening paragraph
in that section indicates that they repre-
sent myriad ways that sustainabiJity can
influence architecture and aestherics. She
implies that there is no other reference to
sustainability in the entire book. Chapter
one gives rhree different definitions; rhe In-
troduction to chaprer five, the major case
studies, describes the format of that chap-
rer and indicates that there is a secrion for
each case study that includes information
on sustainability elemenrs, where applica-
ble. Ar leasr 15 major examples are given
in this chapter alone, from projects in
which sustainable design was a goal from
rhe beginning to those in which specific
sustainable design goals were achieved.
She insists thar rhe book should have a
separate chapter on habitat restoration and
implies {har rhere is a shortage of informa-
cion on (his topic when, in chapters four
and five, there are detai led case studies of at
least 10 habitat restoration projects.
The reader is left to quesrion why Land-
scape Architectllre should provide a platform
for a narrow-minded critic who appears not
to have actually read the book to pillory an
author who has written a pivotal book.
CAROLYN SOLOWAY
Deratl/f, Georgia
Virginia Russell, FASLA, responds: Reit as-
Sllmi. dear redders, I did dl!f)rJltr the whole book
/;&:allJe iff titleprollli1fd answers, bllt aldJ, J still
htltl(J qlleitions like, '·What is the carbon foot-
print of ext",ded shale?" My original rel/iew
was edited for space by the editors at Llndscape
Architecture; the aI/thor 0/ the letter /lJ()1//d not
hdll(J relished the deleted text, evell thollgh it
uJOl/ldhat'f!pr()/led that I readall oJthcchapters.
It is perhaps alllllifortlilldle coincidellce that
J was reddillg two good bookJ- abollt sl/stalllaNI-
ity, Meg Ca/kim's Materials for Sustainable
Sites (2009) alld Fred Pearce's Confessions of
an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources
of My Swff (2008), at the tUlU that' begall
writillg Illy ret'iew. Thou two books set the bar
pretty high.
There's too TIIuch "C/ap YOllr hallds ifyOlI be-
TIl l.>egetated roofi.''' OIltthere, alld Lord help
the general pllblic iftbey (alld u.e) are ill mformed
aoolltthe redlitieJ ofsfljtamable lalldscape deJigli
[rOTII sky to ground. If the title of the !xJok had
beer, "AI/other Good Book aoo," Greel/ RoojS," 1
UJOItld ha/.eagnxd I paid for my {JURI ropy (which
was prillled m Sillgapore alld Ilot 01/ recycled pa-
per), alld' doll't regret addillg il to fit)' green roof
library. bIll it's I/ot what it says it is.
The leller is right aoom ol/e thm!!,: I d{J hare
a lIegatill( alt/flIM. I'm a jllllk)'ard eWg when'
Mull greel/u'ash,
Is Sustainable Affordable?
I
AM A SENIOR IN landscape architecture
at the University of Rhode Island. This
past semester, J had a class in green design
solutions. My thoughts kept going back
to your question (land Matters, January)
that challenges our abi lity to PUt green, af-
fordable, and beautiful all in one space.
I grew up in Serbia and Croatia at times
when those countries were still economi-
cally challenged, mosc1y due to the civil
war. The lack of monetary resources result-
ed in low-tech solutions, which may have
been a blessing. Most households had been
producing f<XXI on their own, keeping live-
stock and vegetable gardens. Even in the
cities, people found ways to behave in more
environmentally responsible ways without
actually striving for "susminability." A hose
bib and a watering can were used instead of
any kind of irrigation system. TIle heat was
on in buildings 50 percent fewer hours than
in our high-tech world. Electricity was used
mostly for light, but not extensively since
people followed {he natural cycle of sleep.
They also built in accordance with the sun's
position throughout the day.
Our ancestors knew much better how to
live with nature, accepting its laws. \'{1e can-
not go back to some previous lifestyle or all
become mrmers. However, their model can
serve as an inspiration and resource of ideas
[hat can be adapted [Q our modern lifestyle.
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LIGHT BRIGHT
"Painting" lVith
POlVered-up "Plants""
G l{Jwing ground (()lJer illumindtes
winter at UK's Eden Project,
C
OMPLETED IN 200 1 by British architect
Nicholas Grimshaw, the Eden Project's
transparent geodesic domes stand in a
former opencase mine in Cornwall in ehe
south of England. This futuristic landscape
was lit up over the winter by a vibrant ·'raft
of light:' as artist Bruce Munro described
it, illuminating agreen rooftop nestling be-
cween dletr:msparenc bubblelike Rain For-
est and Medieerr:mean biomes.
Munro used some 6,000 acrylic stems
co creace the Field of Light, powered by
fiber-optic cables radiating from color-
changing projectors. Steel stakes support
che acrylic stems copped by two-and-a-
half-inch glass balls. Arranging the seems
was "like painting a picture," says Munro,
"or planting a flower bed. " Set up on a
sloping grassy area of around cwo thirds of
an acre , the lighework is "simple scuff,"
says Munro, who used Christmas lights in
a prototype.
Born and educated in the United King-
dom, the now 40-something Munro
HY L I ,'\ I) ,\ .\ l c l ,'1TY IlE
moved to Australia in the mid- 1980s, set-
ting up a Sydney-based firm to build light
sculptures. Moved by the light and land-
scapeof cheoucback on a road trip, Munro
returned to the UK with the idea of creat-
ing an installation. His current ambition
is to rake ehe Field of Light back co Aus-
cralia, co sec it up near Uluru or Ayers
Rock, and be "happy," he says, '"to pUt it in
the middle of nowhere, with just 10 pe0-
ple passing ic"
Munro isn't looking to make high art.
"If you can make something that makes
people smile:' he says, "chat's quite a suc-
cessful experiment."
- ROBERT SUCH
Contac t li nda Mc i ntyre at Imtilltyu ff/ Js/J orl
26 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20U
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Earth. Pollan has suggested turning over
five acres of the \X1hite House grounds to
an organic vegetable garden, an idea sup-
ported by Waters and other foodies.
Frxxi actiIliJfJ lobby for all organic garden
There's precedent for putting the First
L'Indscape to work. During World War I,
then-President Woodrow Wilson brought
in a flock of sheep to graze on the White
House lawn as cheap maintenance (and
perhaps organic fertilization). More recent-
ly, at the behest of Waters, the Clintons
added a small vegetable garden on the
White House roof that cominues (Q pro-
vide produce for fami ly meals. But sup-
port fora moreamhitious approach might
be reaching crici cal mass.
T
HE ECONOMY is raking a nosedive, obe-
sicy is rampant, and poison peanut burrer
and jalapeno peppers have sickened thou-
sands over the pase year. \'{fhat does all of
chis have rada with rhe \'7hice House lawn?
- CREATIVE CLASS
Brotlm' Can ,
You Spare Some
New Conslruclion?
Architects respond to the dOWl/INn/.
T
HE TANKING ECONOMY is hitting the design pro-
fessions hard, and new work has IIftn hard to
come by. Worried landscape architects might
want to keep an eye on their architect colleagues,
some of whom have responded with resource·
ful strategies.
The American Institute of Architects went
straight to the client of last resort, the federal
government, seeking $100 billion-a substan-
tial chunk of the owerall stimulus package-
for new construction and building moderniza-
tion projects that happen to require
considerable design manpower in a short
time frame.
But indiyidual architects haye also been
proactive. One seeking a project management
or project architect position in New York of·
fered on craigslist to work without pay for a
2 s 1 lilndscape Archihcture APR IL lOU
at the White
Plenry, according co crusading gardeners
and food activists including writer Michael
Pollan and resmurameuse A lICe \'Vaters.
Local organic food , t he thinking goes, is
less expensive, healthier, and easier on the
Roger Doiron, founder of the nonprofit
Kitchen Gardeners International , has also
been pushing for a vegetable ploe ac the
White House, and he took thecrusade high-
tech with a multimedia campaign he calls
"Eae ehe View." He has prevailed on garden-
ers and furmers' marker funs co sign an on-
lineperirion fora White Housevinory gar-
den, COntua che Obamas direaly, and join
a Facelx>ok group devmed (Q rhe cause. A
month in the hope that, eyen if the gig doesn't lard farmers' market offering architecture ad·
lead to a full·time job, the experience would yice, is la lucy yan Pelt, for fiYe cents. "One
bolster his resume. nickel turns into one conYersation, turns into
Another has taken a more old-fashioned one design job, turns into a local contractor
approach: John Morefield, yictim of two re- who hires a local painter who buys from a 10-
cent layoffs, set up a booth at SeaHle's 8al- cal supplier," he told a local reporter.
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similar but more old-school petition effort
was led by 20-something farmers Daniel
Bowman Simon and Casey Gustowarow.
They spent rhe late summer and fall travel -
ing the nation in an old school bus stocked
with spices and sporting a grt"(;n roof and
collected more than 10,000 signatures.
Whcrher rhe new administration will
dig the idea remains co be seen. Doiron
was hoping fOf anion in the first 100 days,
timing that makes sense for planting in
\Vashingcon's relat ively mild climate. He
was hopeful when Landscape Architectll re
chc--cked in. "I ['(:rnain optimistic that the
Obamas will do this, because they're going
to be looking for small , symbohc actions
that can leverage the resources of the
American people to creacc positive change
in their own lives and communities, "
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The seminars will be held April 7-8 in
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3 0 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL l OU
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Califomia and Arizona, ehe in-ground
swimming pool is a cornersrone of che
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come co ehese sun-drenched
and sacellice images co scope oue likely
venues. Though most grown-ups evince
litde sympathy for the skaters' undertak-
ings, many boarders show noreworchy
idylls, and rampanc foreclo-
sure rntes mean thousands of
erscwhile scatus symbols
have become moribund bur-
dens, stagnant reminders of
wealth's frequem folly, By
some escimaces, abandoned
pools in California number
in the tens of chousands,
foseering a minor plague of
rncs, rnccoons, and mosqui-
POOL PARIY
A Silver
encerprise. Cleaning ouc
chese fecid pits is hard work,
and skaters cake co chern
wich gas-powered pumps,
push brooms, and plenty of
elbow grease.
Lining for
Scrappy
Skaters
In an informal survey of
Califomia realrors,all seemed
reluctant to say anything
chac casc a less-chan-bri!!ianc
lighc on che scace of che mar-
ket. Nevertheless, Fresno-
area realtor Andrea Mazzei
feels chat (he problem- if
there is one-will abate as
the legislature catches up
to larvae.
Backyard stafJ.tS
call be j1eeting
Buc one seccor"s crisis is
another faction's opporruni-
ty: Enter the skateOOarders.
For board-oound suburban
mera
oj Jom/osures.
youch, improvising skaceparks in dor-
mant swimming pools is as much part of
the culcure as two-tone Vans and Thrash-
er magazine. Skating these impromptu
oowls is a trndition that stretches back co
the sport's infancy, but the upsurge in
foreclosures has brought an embarrass-
mentofopportunity. And today'sgueril-
la skaters wield online tools that their
1980s forbearers could only dream of, us-
ing realty web sites to trnck foreclosures
to {he crippled market.
"Everything's going to change shortly,"
she told Ll11tiscape Architecture. ''I'm sure
that they're going to mandace that either
che banks, che realtors, or che sellers wi!!
have to take responsibility to clean up the
property
Until chen, skateboarders wi!! proba-
bly continue to grind hard core wherev-
er [hey can, happily skating over the ash-
es of another family's broken dreams.
- JOSHUA GRAY
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A Colorado project proves the economic value
of publi c lalldscapes. By Kim Sorvig
I
T IS WrnELV BELIEVED rhat
good landscape design rmns-
lates into economic benefits
for the cI ient -bue how many
landscape archirects get rhe
chance to prove it? In terms of
hard numbers and real proof,
not many.
Fewer still get to work with a
public client for mOrt than 25
years and, at dle end, have the
agency {"aBer ro sign up for an-
mher quarter century,
111(1t , howf'\'er, is a capsule de-
scription of an unusual onh'Oing
project in Estes Park, Colorado. Design Sru-
dios West (DSW)ofDenverand Hearh Con-
struction of Fon Collins ha ....e been work-
ing as a (eam on rhe Estes Park Ri\"erwalk
and Streetscape since 1983. The project
32 l llndiuP. Archltechlr. APR IL laDl
won both the President 's Design Excellence
Award and the Land Stewardship Award
from the COlorado .... su. in late 2007, and ir
won state approval forconrinuoo funding a
few months later.
And what stare wouldn't renew a proj-
ect fhat invested $20 million bur increased
revenue by more than $50 million with-
our raising (ax rates?
"The hallmark," says Don
Brandes, ASLA, DSW's president,
"is that rhe muni cipali ty doesn't
view landscape improvements as
public works expenses-they are
an investment in an economic en-
gine." With a 250 percent rerum
on investment in real dollars di-
rectly att ributable to rhe land-
scape project, he makes a com-
pelling case for [he value of place
and placemaking. It's a case that
many landscape professionals will
want [Q analyze, because it is pan
of a (fend d 13t looks [Q livable
places and landscapes for financial
and community survival despi te hard times.
This trend is changing rhe American
\'\fest, in particular, away (rom landscape-
destroying indust ries and thoughtless
suburbanization.
.
1
,
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lES Files Auailable
DESIGN
L
ike moS{ good
stories, it scartS with a
disaster.
The original concept plan shows fiver walk and streetsc:ape improvements completed
over iI 25-yeaT period: IAI Performance Park (not pictured, just off phm!;
~ ! § ; : - IBI kayak course; lei Riverspointe; IDI Wiest Plaza; lEI Conflnence Riverfront;
On July 15, 1982, the
single movie theater in the
town of Estes Park was play-
ing III Starch 0/ Noah'J Ark.
No film could have been more
prophet ic. By the end of char
day, 75 percemof the town's busi -
nesses were closed, in the middle of
tourist season, up ro their coullrercops in
mud deposited by a flash flood of biblical
proportions.
Estes has a history of serious floods. The
town is the gateway to Rocky Moumain
National Park and has (WO rivers running
through ir. At least cwice since che town's
founding in 1860, flash floods up to 25 feet
deep had been recorded. The worst flood
on record had been just six years earlier-
cars had been rolled into huge mecal mar-
bles, {Qurisr cabins and campers were
swept away, and 139 people were killed.
Despice chis warning (and Nacive Ameri -
can lore t hac spoke of other great floods),
by 1982 people had rebuilt in the flood-
34 1 lilndscape Architecture APR I L 20 DI
IFI Riverside Plaza; IGI Barclay Plaza; ilnd IHI Big Thompson River-
front. The lawn Lake flood inundated Estes Park in 1982. bot-
tom, causing major damage but triggering awareness
of riven as anets in need of inrestment.
plain. Memories are shorr where land de-
velopment is concerned.
Upstream, a different kind of land-use
lunacy prevailed: For che benefic of a dozen
farmers on the eastern plains , the Park
Service had permiued a poorly built reser-
voir called L'Iwn lake wit hin park bound-
aries. The collapse of its overfilled and un-
derinspected earth dam sem some 36
million cubic fee t of water down on Estes
Park, carryi ng boulders the size of houses
and mud that buried
177 busmesses . It's re-
markable chat only three lives
were lost. Several enrrepreneurs
pm up signs advertising free mud.
Enter the landscape architects, riding
stallions and wearing white hacs.
In theafCermath of che Lawn Lake flood,
the Fort Collins office ofEDAW under Herb
Schaal, FASLA, prepared a mascer plan for
the town. Brandes calls it ""che documenc
that enabled the formation of EPURA"-
che Esces Park Urban Renewal Auchority.
By 1983, Esces Park desperately needed
renewaL Besides floods of the liteml sort, it
had been washed out and worn down by
floods of tourists bound for Rocky Moun-
tain National Park.
Although the valley's namesake Estes
family had tried raising beeffor the Den-
ver market , by 1867 tmnsport COStS had
driven them out of ranching. The home-
steaders sold the valley for a wagon and a
pairof oxen, and from chac day onward, ic
was landscape amenities that created the
local economy.
Longs Peak dominates the green "park'"
valley and by 1868 had been climbed by
no less than John Wesley Powell; photos of
the Estes area were presented alongside
images of Yellows tone's wonders and pro-
moted by Denver newspapers. Hostelries
sprang up; for a brief period, a land scam
by an Irish lord turned Estes Park into a
The completed river walk, right, relinks the
main street and shops to the ri¥er and has
cilptivated Rocky Mountain Miltionill Park
visitors, who used to pass through without
lingering, as well ilS locills, bottom.
private hunting preserve. Then, in L903,
inventor F O. StanLey came to town, seek-
ing a high dry cure for tubercuLosis. \With
him he brought two basic prerequisites of
courism: The Stanley Steamer, a high-
corque, hi gh-clearance forerunner of (he
sporr utility vehicle, which was the only
way to drive the horrible canyon roads of
the period; and another Stanley invention,
a dry-plate photographic method, which
helped launch Kodak at the dawn of the
vacation snapshot era. The great Scan ley
Hotel remains a main feature of Estes
Park's tourist economy today.
Championed by a local naturalist, the
surrounding mountains became Rocky
Mouncain National Park in 1915, with
Trail Ridge Rood as a feature attraction.
Tourism, though, is a two-edged business.
In Stanley's day, the "Estes Park Trail"
newspaper advercised shops "wherequali-
ty is always paramounc and prices are on a
par" with New York City, By the 1950s,
however, Estes Park was an overcrowded
place of rubber comahawks and conon
candy, tacky T-shirrs, and saltwater taffy, a
thousand miles from any ocean. "To be
perfectly honest," says \'Vil Smith, execu-
tive director ofEPURA, "visicors tolerated
the town to get co the park."
"\'Ve 'd pile in the family car," recalls
John Lanterman, a landscape architecture
professor at the University ofG:Jlorado and
former DSW principal. "Coming up from
Boulder, you'd crest the ridge and see how
beautiful it was , and then you were in
Trinket Town. Once you got past that, you
could go up into the National Park and
see some amazing things."
\'Vhat is it about nacural grandeur that
inspires (he worst in commercial schlock?
\'Vhecher it's (he vast ocean at Atlantic City,
New Jersey, or Brighton Beach, New York,
or the mountains at Yosemite or Estes Park,
humans seem to respond tooverwhelming
nacural power by installing video arcades,
casinos, and sugar-based distractions.
As for the river, "Ie's a classic American
story," says lanterman, "curning our backs
on the riverways. \'Ve neglected them,
made them a dumping ground for junk
cars, old refrigerators on their sides- the
river in Estes was an alley at best. k s inter-
esting to make up stories about what Estes
Park might have been without the flood-
that pulled the trigger for them."
Smith agrees: "It's not too many decades
since the river, in places, was nearly an
open sewer.
\'Vhat brought Estes Park back- both
from the flood and from being a threadbare,
congested tourist trap--was landscape
H . ll 20 GI llndseape Archihcture 135
improvements. EPURA and OSW started
small, installing a life-size bronze of the
native bighorn sheep at the entrance co the
town, set on boulders amid alpine flowers.
Miniatures of the sculpture were sold for
initial fund-rnising, and the designers be-
gan changing the screetscape. Old-timers
remember the main drag through town as
a garish trnffic jam, where cars backed up
as they waited to emer the national park.
OSW added street trees and rnised planters,
crosswalks, benches, and coherent signage.
Visitor surveys began to report people
stopping and staying, not just passing
through.
As the streetscape evolved, the focus of
design work shifted to creating a river
walk. Tooay there are severnl miles of trai ls
and promenades, mostly paved in local red
or cream flagstone and doned with exist-
ing boulders. Where the Big Thompson
and Fall rivers meet, Confluence Park pro-
vides space for public events, picnicking,
splashing in the river, and plazas where lo-
cal restaurnnts and businesses have seating.
36 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
Farther west an amphithe-
ater, bllilt of the same flag-
scone with a steel canopy
over the stage, fits into river-
side cliffs and overlooks a
kayak run.
The individual features,
however, are not what makes
this protect remarkable. Both
the design and construction
are high quality, but deliber-
ately a bit low key, echoing
both "national park scyle" and other river
walks. (San Antonio landscape architect
James Keeter, FASLA, who designed that
city's well-known riverside restoration, col-
laborated with OSWon Estes,)
What is truly outstanding about this
project is how it was accomplished: an un-
usual methoo offunding (and one chac ex-
plicitly shows the economic benefits of the
landscape work), long-term consiscency as
an overriding concern, and close team-
work within the development team and
the community.
EPURA's charter is explicit: It invests
public money in landscape improvements
in a carefully defined zone. That zone's
sales taxes are benchmarked ac the level be-
fore the landscape work, and any increase
in revenues (discounted for legislated
changes in the cax race) belongs to EPURA
to reinvest. By the time it came up for re-
newal in 2008, this methoo had invested
an average of $805 ,000 annually and gen-
erated tWO and a half times that much in
increased sales-tax revenue. By creating an
environment where people wanted to be,


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The kayak
run, top and .. bore,
attracts both participants and
spectators, plus special events, adding another
layer of economic , alue to the river amenity. Shops
gained outdoor seating along stabilized riverbanks, beloM'.
the street and river scape projects procluced
a remarkable economic return.
"We hooked up with DSW and I-Ieath,"
says Smith, "when they were JUSt gerring
started." DSW had done some valleywide
planning and had worked on renovating dIe
Smnley Hotel. Both DSW and Heath had
to bid competitively fOr continued involve-
ment, but as Smith notes, "\Vhen you've
got a reliable firm that has tremed you well
and fuirly, why would you change it to save
a nickel- which you won't anyhow?"·
In the earliest stages of the project, DSW
designer Russell Moore established several
key design ideas with community help.
"We invited the whole community to
come in and play planner;' recalls Smith.
Square pavers oflocal red flagstone, orient-
ed toward Longs Peak, became a thematic
element that ties phases together across the
decades. The "rustic" style of national park
3s l lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
design provided some inspiration, al-
though the gateway community can·t com-
pete directly with the park and is disrinct-
ly more urbane. Consistent de-
sign basics, adapted to each new
phase, unify streetscape and am-
phitheater, riverside walkways
and shop-front plazas.
An important part of the de-
sign brief was to restore the riv-
er, stabilize its banks, and reveal
it to visitors; people "used to
discover it by accident ifm all,·'
according {O Smith. That·s
where Heath Construction got
its foothold, as an engineering
firm With experience not in
landscape work as such bm
in structural streambank and
bridge design, says principal
Randy DeMario. Wct:kly meet-
ings with DSW, Heath, and
other consultams were critical
to the work, which mosdy takes place in
the wimer, when the river (as well as the
Rood of tourists) is down. DSW·s Bob Eck,
ASLA, came up with the concept of put-
ting "reveals" (shadow lines) into stream-
bank retaining walls to show the hundred-
year Rood and the level of the Lawn Lake
disaster. Brandes says, "\Ve learned so
much from Heach about technical reli a-
bilityand maintainabi lity. r can't cell you
how many other communities we come
into as consultants on a project's chird
phase, and they say the first phase design
was grear, but we didn·t have che machin-
ery to change the streetlights, or the pe0-
ple to winterize the irrigation, or we un-
derestimated the trash pickup issue.
Public comracrs too often segment the
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40 I lilndscape Architecture APRI L 20 DI
work- "the comracmr is SO isolated he
doesn'ceven know the hisrory," notes De-
Mario. "DSW did a great job of breaking
down those mental barriers." Landscape
architecrs, says Brandes, ··need ro feel less
insecure about gening rhe right people
around the cable: contracrors, police, fire,
special-events managers." This collabo-
rative attitude is critical, not only with
the design/ build team, but with the
community. "\'{1hatever you're contem-
plating with a riverfront or downtown,"
Brandes tells civic groups, "do it for your
residents. They' ll invite relatives and
friends; visitation will grow. I' m nor big
on creating a wow facror or a hook."
This concept-creating places that
people want ro live in and relying on the
value of place co attract new residents, en-
trepreneurs, appropriate businesses, and
visitors- has a name. It's been cermed
"amenity migration" by lawrence Moss,
ASLA, who has authored a Ixx:lk by thac
title and organized several conferences on
che subject (llIW1lwfIlmitymigratiol1.org).
In essence, amenity economies are
based on inherent and holistic qualities of
landscapes-the beauty of a national park
or a state reserve, outdoor recreation pos-
sibilities, wildlife, or bird-watching-as
well as the social amenities of rural and
small -town locations . These coincide
with many of the concepts of \'{Ialkable
Cities and New Urbanism, a mix of bus i-
ness and residence, clean industries,
telecommuting, and web marketing.
Place-based amenity
. .
economics IS an
viable
alternative, and one in
which landscape arcMects
could playa major role.
The economic crisis that we face today
is direccly related co unsustainable land
development, whether sprawling sub-
urbs that have pushed mortgage debt be-
yond cheactual value of the land or min-
eral development that devours and
pollutes the land while claiming to be 111-
dispensable to national security or com-
merce. Place-based amenity economics is
an increasingly viable alternative, and
one in which landscape architects could
playa major role if they became familiar
with the concept.
"nle landscapes that we create can either
contribute to amenity-based economies,
as the Estes project shows, or risk being
literally undermined by a focus on re-
movable resources. This issue remains
under the radar for many landscape and
planning professionals, but conflicts be-
tween residential development and min-
ing are increasing. "Extractive industry"
such as mining, timber, big agricul ture,
and petroleum has ruled the \'{fest for a
century or more. Advocates of these ind us-
tries insist that they are the golden goose
that no legislature dares risk killing. Yet
throughout the New \'{fest, amenity
economies already actually outstrip extrac-
tive industry by a focror of nearly LO to one.
In the /lve major energy-producing states
studied by Headwaters Economics (lIIww.
headwaterJwrwT/lla.org), oil and gas produc-
tion supportS less than 3 percent of actual
income, although those industries chum ro
supply much larger amounts of state tax
revenue. Reliance on a single industry, es-
pecially one that constantly swings from
boom co busc, is a risky stracegy. Amenity
econom ies, based on the long-term draw of
healthy and attractive places, already surpass
mining revenue for most staces--and with-
out the destructive risks of pollution and
unreclaimed surfi:tce lands. As the Estes re-
sulcs document , treating the creation of
place-specific amenicies as an investment
is a powerful economic strategy.
Granced, the Tax Increment Fundi ng
chat EPURA has used so successfully to link
landscape improvements co a community
economic base mighc noc work everywhere.
Still, attractiveness to long-term residents
(some of whom stare businesses and creace a
second layer of economic benefits) can be
creaced in many ways and, as Don Brandes
points OUt, is noc JUSt about tourism.
To capitalize on local landscape accrnc-
cions requires several chings:
- a clear focus on long-term community
- a collaborntive approoch to design and
construct ion
- a willingness on the pare of polit ical
agencies to use inwnrive methods of fund-
ing such investments
Given the Obama administration's
commitment co job creation through
rebuilding of infrastructure, sustainable
energy, and community economics, land-
scape archicects should be studying ameniry-
focused projects like Estes Park hard. The
housing crisis may turn out to be a benefi-
cial flood, washing away some unsustain-
able development but triggering new ways
of using the landscape boch profitably and
suscainably.
Kim S()I'l)ig is tlltllUllCtljJe alrhitect, design crit-
ic, alld envirollmental author who residM ill
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EtD1 0ljY
S
TANDING ON THE BOARDWALK
amid vernal pools and fragrant
coastal sage scrub overlooking the
Pacinc at rhe UniversicyofCalifornia
5ama Barbara (UCSB), it is difficult
to imagine this landscape as any thing else.
A steady trickle of bicyclists and runners
passes by, and a young woman sings loud-
ly over her guitar while draped across a
nearby bench. Swdems ascend the beach
stairs on the way to rhe Manzanita Vi llage
dormitories. A network of boardwalk
paths, landings, and decomposed granite
pathways connects Manzanita Village to
the beach, to the lagoon, ro adjacenr Isla
Vista, and to the Coastal Route Bikeway.
Coastal sage scrub surrounds a mosaic of
grasslands and wedands creacing a pillow
of prickly plantings benveen rhe bluffs and
thedormitoriesofManzanira Village. This
natural transition to the ocean is known as
Lagoon Park.
In 2002, while initiating construction
in Manz.'mica Village on what was a g r a v ~
el parking lot, workers discovered tarwet'd,
42 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
Landscape architects help a ulliversity restore
Pacific Coast wetlands. By Claire Lalane
a native plant indicating wetlands, which
halted [he permit t ing process. This de-
graded site had been dramatically leveled
during \'Vorld \'Var rr for use as a milicary
base. All of [he topsoil had been removed,
and very few nat ive plants reestablished
themselves. Inadequate drainage was par-
t ially responsible for allowing the tarwet'd
to establish itself in a small, low-quality
wetland. Aerial photos and adjacent site
analyses decermined chat this area could
support the reestablishment of some na-
t ive riparian plant communities. The Cal-
ifornia Coascal Conservancy requi red t he
university to protect a buffer zone around
this small wetlands area.
So the university brought in Wayne Fer-
ren, an expert in wetland Yegecarion. The
university is home to the Cheadle Center
for Biodiversity and Ecological Restoration
(CCBER), and Ferren, its former director,
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Some will wall< through it to refresh the mind and body
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also founded (he reswmrion group responsi-
ble for mitigating threatened Wetland habi-
tats on camPUS:loo initiated a narural areas
44 l llndluP' Archltechlr. APR IL laDl
IlllIIYe InMII
rwalive plant bufl'or
-
....,. m""""
-
vemal pooIl
-
vernal !TI8rthe,
-
native grassl&nd,
_ho ..
.mllng topognlphy
~ , . . . . . ,
_ decomposed IInmae pallrwllr-
_ reeyeIed wood pIatfotm& and Ita ..
-
oontal". tct\Ib • muttluw accu. tn ••
-
OOMtaI bluff IO'\Itl 0I.Itd00r .wdy and picnic arlllill'
village
plan dlat was completed in 1995. 11le plan's
major feature was that ("\,("ryarea on campus
in need of mitih'ation would be linked [0 a
1. r".. tn.JdI turnaround of pelmeable
reinlorced go-evet r;n:I native 11""'
2. vemal pool obMrvlIlian dade
3. coutll acce ..... Its .,.,
---
4. terminal bIoswale
5. IItgoon ob5eMItion dect
project nearby [hat would fund its res[Qrd-
[ion. So when [he need for mitigation arose
in Lagoon Park, fundi ng was available.
GREEN
TIlis project was unique because it was
an emergency. The university needed dor-
mitories builr as soon as possible because
of rapidly rising construction costs. Still ,
one potential problem was the aesthetics of
the proposed restoration. Uni\'ersity repre-
sentatives feared the landscape would ap-
pear scruffy.
"\'Ve had seen whar campus restoration
project s looked like," recalls Charles
Haines, resource planning coordinator for
the uniwrsity. He hoped for a space thar
looked as dlOUgh nature had created it, but
G "" I ,' .

'- -
.... _._-
--
with somewhat organized masses of
planes, The aesthetics of this project were
very important since it was ri ghr between
Manzanita Village and the lagoon and
coastal bluffs, so the universiry needed to
bring in a landscape architect.
Though Katherine Spitz Associates de-
signed the Manzanim Vi llage landscape, the
university brought Susan Van Atm, ASLA,
on board for dle Lagoon Park mitigation
project because of her experience with
restoration work Van Arm pursued a first
career in environmental impact assessment

.. ,. __ ..... ...,....,
N __
1.1.,.."" :::=== .......
46 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI

---_:
---.... _ ..
.,_ ..... _2"-<1'
/
/
a,
The boardwalk design, all
images this page, allows
water, wildlife, and air to
flow through the pathways
and di rects people along
their desired routes with·
out negatively affecting
sensitive habitats.
/
".
,
DESIGN
LANDSCAPE CONTAINERS
nutdule dlterrMllVl;'!:o for di!:otinguishetl rojelb
www.kornegaydesign.com
4s l lilndscape Architecture APRI L 20 DI
IMERIUM sotlllY Of 1l10mp[ "'UI'If""
6l61YE Slim IW. WISH116101. DC 1000l 'lll6!
101-090-1444 • fIX 101-898-1185
ECOLOGY
and coastal planning afrerearning her bach-
elor's degree in environmental studies in
1977. Her desire to have a more creative role
in environmental planning led her to land-
scape architecture- she earned her IISLA
frum Cal Poly San Luis ObislX> in L983 and
two years lattr opened her own firm. Van
Ana's background in environmental plan-
ning tpves her a unique perspective on
rescoraci on projects. She has both a deep
knowledge of native plams and plam com-
munities and an appreciation of the biolo-
gist's point of view.
The Glifornia Coastal Commission re-
quired thac a neurral third-parry biologist
be involved. That biologist was nervous
about trying to re-create habitat. Van Ana
One of the project goals
lVas to manage surface
lUnoff from the
adjacent dormitory
huildings and lawns.
understood this view because her first de-
gree had trained her to see what was
there-nor the potential of what could be.
"\'{1e were trained to think about why we
should leave things alone," she says. But as
a landscape architect, Van Atta saw that
this gravel parking lot could again become
a thriving native habitat. And, she says,
"\'{1hen J told them J would make it beau-
tiful, this was the best se!!ing (Xlint for the
Ul1lVerslty
One of Van Atta's primary observations
was the wetlands' location between the
dormitory buildings and t he beach. "As a
landscape architect J knew we could have
trails co guide ci rculation, because we
knew people would go through rhe area
anyway, and we needed to accommcx:late
t hem,'· Van Atta says.
Van Atta's team studied how students
moved through the space and where the
viewpoints were arranged along t he bluffs.
They planned t rails to follow the si te's nat-
ural "desire lines," the pathways students
were already [aking. \'\Iith a network of
boardwalks connecting the dorm i[Ories [0
the bluffs and the lagoon, Van Ana's con-
cept included res[Ored wetlands (which
stay We[ year-round), vernal marshes
(which Stay wet almost all year),and a ver-
nal pool (a small pool wet during a brief
pan of the year- an impor[ant and rare
California habitat), all surrounded with a
buffer of scratchy coastal sage scrub to help
keep people out. The Coastal Commission
approved the plan, Van A na says, "because
we came from a place of respecting rhe
habi[at.·' According [0 Ferren, the team
was permitted co grade nearly the entire
area and add ropsoil and native plams from
local seed banks [0 reestablish healthy
habitats. Van Atta said rhe drainage plan
was designed to follow the site's namral
flow patterns.
One of rhe establ ished projecr goals was
co manage the surface runoff from the 00-
jacentdormitory buildings and lawns. The
runoff from rhe dorm icory roofs is collect-
ed in bioswales through rhe counyard
lawns designed by Spiez. Runoff from 75
percenr of the Manzanita Vi llage sire is
rreated rhrough bioswales and rhe wer-
lands. At the time, managing stormwarer
wirh natural systems was not common.
Van Atta went to the beSt source she
could find for creative solurions (hat would
appeal to the project's civil engineer: a ei\'-
il engineering textbook. She found what
she was looking for. A ··dual conveyal1ce
system'· now directs the lower flows of
runoff down a naturalized waterway co the
lagoon, while higher runoff volumes are
directed belowground once the first flush
of pollution is treated by the network of
bioswales and wetlands.
This project required a conrinuous dia-
logue between the client, the biologist, the
civil engineer, and the landscape architect
co evolve a tiered rreatment system. Runoff
is directed through 1,300 feet of bios wales,
into bogs and in and out of 34 basins, all
wirh native plants taking up the nutrients.
\'\Ihere several bioswales came together
directing a large volume of runoff during
storm events to rhe lagoon, the engineer
had plans to take the water belowground
co prevent erosion. Van Aua was convi nced
they could manage the most polluted '·first
flush" of storm water during major rain
CIFtCLE IllS ON RE.ODER SERVICE CMlDOR GO TO
2an 149
RmUIliNG lANDSCAP[ ARCHIHCTUR[ PRDf[SSIDNAlS?
SO I lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
IMERIUN SOCIETY Of IINOSCAPf liCHIUCIS
636 m mm NW. WISHIN6ION. DC 200013736
101-898-1444 • fiX 101-898-1185 • WWWASllOK6
events and all smaller rain evenrs above-
ground. And according ro Van Ana, Fer-
ren really did not want it ro be concrete.
The selection of the plant palette was
also a highly collaborative process. Ferren
helped with the plant palette for the
bioswales in Spitz's dormitory courtyard
landscapes. Van Atta's team designed
everything around the wetl ands. Carol
Bornstein, a horticulturist with the Santa
Barbara Botanic Garden, was interning
with Van Ana Associates one summer and
collaborated on the planting plan during
construction documentation. The original
plaming plan was gardenlike, Van Atta
says, "but the biologists didn't follow the
plan .... {Ferren] mixed it up." This is the
one area where the biologist and landscape
architect diverged in approach. Van Ana
promised Haines thar the plaming design
would Ix: beautiful as well as environmen-
tally functional. She had designed rhe
plantings co be in slightly larger masses
than they would find themselves in nature,
and sh(" considered the ornamental value
of plants chosen for the area along the
edges. Ferren propagated native seedlings
The planting plan is
the one area where
the biologist and
landscape architect
diverged in approach.
from local seed banks and planted them in
a more varied manner.
While Ferren did nor follow Van Atta's
exact planting plan, he kept che areas
planted with palettes following her con-
cept. For instance, che site is divided into
plane communicies including coastal sage
scrub, coastal prairie, vernal marshes, and
a vernal pool, according co Van Acta's plan.
Racher chan large drifts of colorful sages,
monkey Rowers, and lupines, plants were
interspersed with each other co allow for a
Darwinian "survival of the finest" ap-
proach common co restoracion projects.
The effect is more homogenous than Van
Acca had planned.
Ferren's team harvested native plane
seeds from local seed banks and raised
80,000 native plants for installation. They
also colleered inoculant from nearby ver-
nal pools when it was time co establish la-
goon Park's vernal pool.
Lisa Stratton, director of ecosystem
management, and Janet Myers, restoration
CIFtCLE 71 ON REMlER SERVICE CMlDOR GO TO HTTPJIINFOHOTNS.COIN.1:J<9'·7'
AMIRICAN soclm Of lANOSCAPI ARCHIHClS
636 m SlR[[) NW. WASHIN6fON. DC 200013736
202·ago·2444 • lAX 202-090·2205 · IIIIII/SUUKIi
2an 151
-1':"; .
'-j
( \
) .. -.... /
.•.•... -"';-
!--
" .'
----
----
coordinawrar CCBER, manage rhe use and
maintenance of Lagoon Park. Myers has
the equivalent of one and a halffull.time
employees mainraining rhe site, which in-
cludes trimming rhe bioswales by hand
once a year.
52 1 lilndscape Archihcture APR IL 20 DI
, .
.•..
: . --
=
---
- --
-
8 e ;;:;:=-
". ==-
=--
fj:J =-=
- =-
Van Atta's planting plan featured gardenlike
arrangements of native plants along the path·
ways and smoothed out the edges of the biolo-
gist's delineated wetlaoos, abore and inset. Tern·
porary educational signs, be/ow, will be replaced
with pennanent guides to nati,e habitats.
_.
"The manpower in restoration," says
Stratton, "isgrowing plants, planting, and
weed control. Then every now and then
you have to weed a few things." Ir (ook
tWO years to plant rhe site, and once most
things established themselves, the spray
irrigation system used to establish the
green fence was shut off. The irrigat ion
was only necessary during the first one or
two growing seasons to establish the first
15 feet of planting off the pathways as a
way to protect the more sensitive habitats.
CCBER has been monitoring the storm-
water quality and the habitat quality. The
bioswales collect all of the rain from a one-
inch storm event and reduce the nutrient
levels. The major pollUtant sources are
seagull guana from the dormitory roofs and
ferrilizers from the courtyard lawns. Ferren
said that initial measurements showed a 90
percent reduction in nitrates and an 85 per·
cent reduct ion in phosphorusafrer 30 d'lys
in the wetlands. He noted, however, that
the bios wales nei'd regular maintenance
that involves cutting plants a few inches
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aboveground and preventing thatch
buildup so that the bioswale remains a nu-
trient sink and not a nutrient source. The
removed plants can then be composted and
used elsewhere on site as fertilizer.
Haines noted another project success-
a significanc increase in bird activity.
\'Vhen lagoon Park opened, the local bird-
ing blogs exploded with sightings of na-
tive birds new to the area. Stratton agreed,
saying CCBER has taken counts of rhe bird
population and noted a great increase in
native birds in the area.
"I love campus work because rhe land-
scape enhances the learning experience.
This is a living lab,"' Van Atta says.
TIle project is also successful in attaining
the dient's goals for a beautiful aesthetic
54 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
The pathways support pedestrians, runners, and cyclists,
abore, left, and below, from the unit-ersity and surrounding
communities. The distinctly beautiful and rare yemal pool
habitat, bottom, attracts both people and wildlife.
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5s l lilndscape Architecture APR I L 20 DI
AMERICAN SOCIETY Of lANDSCAPE ARCHIIECIS
636 EYE SIREEI NW. WASHIN610N. DC 20 0013736
202-898-2444 • FAX 202-B9B-22US • WWWASIA.OK§
ECOLOGY
and allowing access through the site. Ac-
cording to Haines, onc of UCSB"s goals was
to avoid fencing the site. Generally CCI3ER
works with landscape architects only on
grounds adjacem to a bui lding. This proj-
ect is unique fOf allowing acc("SS through a
restoration Site.
5rratwn says, "The landscape architect
perspective on human use of a site has been
reaJlyeffenivc here." And Hainesagrees. "I
think {the walkways and landings} were
'I. The landscape
architect
perspective on
human use of a site
has been really
effective here.))
one ching chac was really quite successful
about the project. Susan had a great feel for
how chac would cum oue."
A "green fence" planced wich /socoma
mfllziesii, or goldenbush, keeps scudents
ouc of che coastal sage scrub border wich
ics prickly cexture. The plant's aggressive
nature, however, is a challenge to the con-
cept design in places.
"\v/e had visions for a prairie grassland
in this area, but the /J(l((Jllld was so effective,
it kept invading, so we are cutting it back
to allow che grasses to come up," Scracton
says. "We do a combo of Aame weeding
<torching the young seedlings) and have ac-
tually cried dust bust ing t he seeds out of
there to remove che seed bank." Stratton
also manages an intern training program
for srudems, who learn about native plant
communicies and how tomaimain chern as
well as how co conduct research on the site.
With all of the project's successes, there
were some valuable lessons learned as well.
\'{1hen asked what they would do differ-
ently if they could start the project over
ah'1lin, each team member had come away
with a different perspective.
As the projecr landscape architect, Van
An a says, "I would have been more de-
manding about themed gardens in high-
visibility areas." She would have preferred
the garden qual ity that she had proposed
to draw people's attention to the lx"Uutyof
a plant community they do not und er-
stand. "What I am really trying toachieve
is getting more people to lov{' and appre-
ciate {the native habimt1,"
Haines usually finds plenty of things he
would do different ly, but with this project
there was not a lor he would have changed.
A couple of material elements did not
work as they hoped: The lagoon stai rway's
recycled lumber material is nor holding up
well in the salt air, and the mandated emer-
gency vehicle turnaround's plastic ring sys-
tem planted with yarrow did nor stay in
t he ground. Otherwise, he would have
liked more areas fOf demonstration.
'T he imerconnecti vicy improved (he
success of chis plan," Haines says. And (he
fact chat this different management strat-
egy for water made so much sense environ-
mentally, he says, "absolueely change<] our
perspective in housing." Their next resi-
dential project was even larger, and ehe de-
sign creOles 100 percent of the stormwater
runoff III wetlands.
Claire Latane practices umdicape architecture
wifh EPT Design ill Pa5ddClla, Cali/willa, and
ti'LlChes a sfIliwdi3igll sllldi(JtlICal Poly Pmll()fld.
PROJECT CREDITS PROJECT TEAM: Van Atta
Associates Inc., Santa Barbara, California
(Susan Van Atra, ASLA, principal; Gui ll er-
mo Gonzalez, senior associate; lane GocxI-
kind, ASLA; Bethany Clough, ASLA; Jack
Kiesel). Blackbird Architects, Santa Bar-
bara, California (Ken Radekey, principal;
Yianni DouEs). Santa Barbara Botanic
Garden (Carol Bornstein, horticulturist).
Plant propagation and planting: \X1ayne Ferren,
Museum of Systematics and Ecology (now
CCBER), Santa Barbara, California. ARCHI-
TECTS FOR THE ADJACENT MANZANITA VJUAGE RESI-
DENCE HALlS: Executive architect: DesignArc,
Santa Barbara, California (Steve Can er,
Paul Rupp). Design architect: Moore Ruble
Yudell, Santa Monica, California. Civitengi-
neer: Penfield and Smi t h, Santa Barbara,
California (Steve Wang). landscape conb'ac-
tor for pathways: ValleyCrest, Calabas.'lS, Cal-
ifornia (Joe Scholle).
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20 n Landscape Arcbitecture I S7
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!
5s l llndiuP. Archltechlr. APR IL laDl

(krafts'man), n, 1 One who performs with and de
In the manual arts and crafts,
01Or'9:n9 01 Landscape Ard1itecture
One Fountan at a 1Ir118
rorpan
fountains
AIIH.'I'i<:.tli' Founbin COOI(WIY' '''
t\i 7' 15
I/IMW )iTJa,...·,· ..Jnla"'8 Cf)fV'
"'/lrq;:' · 1\1:'1"''1
In Aroonm by An'Fic.m Cmftsroon •
Usinl model s, .bor., rigttt, and kID" kff,
Jason Hod,U, ASLA, perlormed s ~ t i a l design
studies of tree canopy, plant mllsing. and
serial vision targeted at engaging pedHtn..ns.
The simple material paleHe included water·
wise plants, local l tone, and drip irrigation.
below right and opposite.
Kirkland wanred rocreme"a SHong con-
ne([ion, both physical and symbolic. be-
twetn the two rnc-diOl.I school buildings:'
111e foundation of his work, a six-foot-wide
red granite path, funcrions as a canvas for
"an engraving [oOa parrem of [he DNA he-
lix," Additional engravings offl.ora and mu-
na form what Kirkland calls a "library of
life," with "images tlmr are local, regional,
continental, and glol:xU, connecring El Paso
with the greater world." A concrere border
frames the granire on each side, expanding
its width and setring ir off from surround-
ing shrubbery,
Kirkland describes the large sculptural
focal poinrs of EIIII/etrantbin as "four car\'ed
granite sculprures inhabir[ingJ the garden
rooms along the parh," The central ele-
ments, Porral and Mind, are closely related
archways made of yellow and red grani te.
60 I Llndacap. Archltechlr. APR I L laDl
l l le outer contour of Portal echoes the arch
of the medical school's main entmnceway,
and its inner comour fonns a "profile of a
human head." l l le shape refers to Spanish
Mission architecture as well as to the "jour-
ney from student to physician." Mind "is
also a portal," according to Kirkland. "1lle
form is the {XlSitive head cut out of Portal . . .
{and the negative space of the pass.'1geway
62 1 liIMdscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
The pathway, under construction abore,
traverses and subdivides an approxi-
mately two-acre central campus green
space. The sunken areas created by the
path on either side of the land bridge,
left, receiYe stormwater runoff from ad·
jacent buildings while doubling as out·
door open space for students, faculty,
and staff. During construction,
sculptures were hoisted, top
right, over the western basin
and into place by a crane.
Hodges, left, and artist Larry Kirk·
land, right, stand at the completed
EI fnterumbia, right.
is] the shape of a keyhole .. · Sited
on i:xxh ends of the pathway, "the
t hird and fourth sculptures are
black grani te keyholes " with
'·windows in the shape of keys"
thac symbolize "che search for the right di-
agnosis and treatment."
Mind is engraved with "a floral pattern,
recalling the colorful Hispanic culture of
the region," and it also depias ·'simple tools
from daily life: a trowel, toys, household
icems, and office supplies." The keyholes are
engraved wich "images from science" thac
underscore Kirkland's message: "Oust} as
the head suggests knowing pacients as
unique individuals, the keyholes suggest
thac understanding of science is the key to
medicine," The El Paso campus is current-
ly open to staff and visitors, and officials
pl an co open che facility co students in full
2009. Visitors, students, and researchers
will appreciate Ellllferwmbio as a reflection
of che medical practice, as well as a vibrant
artwork rooted in its surroundings.
Elizabeth LYlich is all editorial assistant with
Sculpture magazine.
Reprinted with permission from Smlp'flre
magazine, J anuary/February 2009.
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CAMPUS PROFIUE
C
ONTRARYTO PUBLIC PERCEPTION,
landscape architecture originated as
a city-building profession. Ie only
makes sense chat at least one land-
scape architecture program should
exf.X>Se students to the nat ion's largest and
most complex city. And what better place
to study Ameri can cities than at 140[h
Street and Broadway, just a couple of
blocks from the subway?
"nle City College of New York (CCNY) is
possibly the most diverse inst itution of
higher educat ion in t he country and also its
most urban. In this immense city and re-
gion of more than 1') million people, CCNY
offers the only professional landscape archi-
tecture degree program.
Founded as the "Urban Landscape Ar-
chi tecture" program in 1972 by M. Paul
Friedberg, CCNY recently shifted from Ull-
6 4 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
New York's CC\il
l
opens doors to
Ul'ban life and ecology.
By Frank Edgerton Martin
Photography by Bruce Katz
dergmduare accreditation roan MLA as its
professional degree. Now in its third year
as a graduate program, CCNY is one of the
most stimulating sen ings in whi ch to
study urban design in the world.
Because most landscape archi tecture
programs grew up at land gram colleges in
small towns such as College Stat ion, Texas;
Ames, Iowa; and Davis, Cali fornia, the
profession tends to reach with rural and
suburban casestudies. Yet landscape archi-
tecture's seminal practitioners, including
\'{farren Mann ing, the Olmsteds, and John
Nolen, often designed urban parks, neigh-
borhoods, watersysrems, and public spaces
in their prncrices. Only later did "urban
design" become a field of its own.
h 's surprising, t hen, dlat New York City
did not have a landscape architecture pro-
gram until 1972 when Friedberg began
teaching. Those were idealistic years with
Mayor Lindsey's efforts to bring parks to
more neighborhocxls and the growing em-
phasis on community-based governance
and design. \Vi th his work on adventure
playgrounds at such projectS as the Jacob
Riis Houses in Manhanan's l ower East
Side, Friedberg had become widely pub-
lished and, like Lnvrence Halprin, FASLA,
1-800-609-6066
www.shadesystemsinc.com

on rhe \'{fest Coase, celebrarecl as a
new kind of city landscape archi-
cect. As he tells the scory, the idea
of a program at CCNY grew out
of an ASLA initiative in rhe lace
1 %Os co diversify the chen large-
ly white and male profession. 111e
national organization held a con-
ference our of which social activist
members such as the lace psychol-
ogist and landscape architect Karl
Linn advocated significant ourreach to the
peXH and to minority groups. Friedberg
claims that Linn was so progressive that his
radicalism frightened some of the leader-
ship. They tumed to Friedberg for ideas. He
pointed out the obvious fact that chere were
virtUally no landscape architecture pro-
grams in cities. Soon, hecalled a friend who
was a dean at CCNY to pitch [he idea, and
the program was born.
Len Hopper, FASLA, was a second-year
architectUre student when Friedberg came
to [he school to show slides of his work and
introduce the new urban landscape pro-
gram. "Sitting in on the presentation and
seeing the work he was doing in the urban
environment, with hundreds of people en-
joying major outdoor spaces, I knew right
66 1 lilndscape Architecture APR I L 20 DI
Discussion guides iI class at the City College
Architectural Center, left, iI public: outreach
center that brings studenb to real-world
projects. Participants include Peter Gisolfi,
ASLA, chair of the school and iI senior professor
in the program, abolle, ilnd Lee Weintraub,
U.SLA, senior professor in the program ilnd
fonner director of the undergraduate program,
below left. Model making at all scales is
emphasized for urban design projects, bottom.
away rhar rhis was whar I wanted to do,"'
Hopper 5.'lys.
Over 30 years Hopper rose to become
chief!andscapearchirect for the New York
City Housing Authority. Like many of his
fellow graduates, Hopper has worked ex-
tensively in the publi c realm on issues con-
cerning recreation and security. Indeed,
much of dle history of landscape architec-
ture in New York over rhe pase 35 years
has its roors ae CCNY. Hopper notes rhar
"there are very few firms that do not have
I /
<au PUN))
, .. ,., ...... , ...
• • • ,,,,,' • • •
eve

Faculty and students take part in a
second-year studio presentation,
.bo.-e. The topic is the Hastings Wa-
terfront (Brownfield I Restoration, a
project seeking to improve the water-
front of a Hudson Valley town north of
New York City. Achva Benzinberg
Stein, FASLA, head of the landscape
architecture program, listens and
reads t he background and design ma-
terials under re,iew. A second-year
student, right, presents her solut ion
for the Hastings waterfront.
ae least one CCNY graduate work-
ing in their office, and many are
in higher (X>Sitions." Hopper still
serves as an adjunct professor at
CC/\'Y, teaching some of the tech-
nology sequence.
Lee \'V'eintmub, FASLA, was also
an architecture student who
joined the landscape program's
first class. He recalls his first im-
pression of Friedberg and how his work
had "a social edge."
"Growing up in the Bronx," he recalls,
"my contact with landscape architecture
was my schoolyard and my stoop. So you
can imagine how compelling Friedberg's
new ideas were." A former head of the pro-
gram, Weintraub remains a full- time fac-
ulty member with an active outside prac-
tice(sre "The Park IKEA Built," Landi[djJe
Architectllre, November).
6 s l liindSClIpe Arcbitecture HRl L 20 DI
W
leh ehe eransieion to graduate-level
teaching and a population shife back
lntocities and older suburbs, CCNY's
landscape architecture program is, in
many ways, being reborn with the ideal-
ism of its early years. "It's really a profound
moment," observes George Ranalli , dean
of archi tecture, urban design, and land-
scape architecture. '" \Y/e feel strongly that
we are an urban school and New York Ci ty
is the laboratory of our research."
In the Faculty's Words
C
urrently, City College's graduate pro-
gram in landscape architecture has four
full-time faculty members. Here are thoughts
from some of them on their program and
learning in Hew York:
"Students learn not only to carry ideas they
haYe been tallght into practice bllt how to
evolve new ideas through practice."
-Denise Hoffman Brandt, ASLA
"I have followed the old Hebrew sage who
said about 2,000 years ago that when one
is involved in teaching and learning, one is
rewarded in this world by haYing a rich life
and contentment in the afterlife."
- Ach.-a Benlinberg Stein, FASLA
"We've always focllsed on community en-
gagement, treating Ollr constituents with
dignity, and training our students to do
thaL This is a taproot that goes back to
Paul Friedberg. Now with the MLA program,
we are adding a layer of en,ironmental sen-
siti,ily to community projects that makes
them even richer.
- Lee Weintraub, FASLA
One unmistakable force in ehe pro-
gram's rebirth and renewed outreach is
Achva Benzinberg Seein, I'ASLA, head of
CCNY's landscape archieecture program
and its Architectural Center. A native of
Israel, Stein studied landscape architecture
ae the Universiey of California, Berkeley,
during the rise of the free speech move-
ment and stayed in ehe Bay Area CO work
in some of the earliest community design
ceneers in the country. lacer, Stein accend-
ed Harvard for an MLA, where she studied
wi th Lewis Mumford and Kevin Lynch.
Over the pase 20 years, she taught ae ehe
Universi ey of Southern California and
North Carolina Staee.
As the focus of out reach ac t ivi t ies,
CCNY's Architectural Center, Stein claims,
is one of the few places in New York where
urban designers, architects, and landscape
architects work together on projects rang-
ing from small community gardens to
large-scale planning. Their clients are of-
ten communi ty redevelopment organiza-
The Hastings Studio examined the hy-
drology, soils, geologic history, and to-
pogrilphy of the bluff landscape of the
Hudson Valley surrounding the town.
In this photo, a student presents with a
Iilrge-scale relief model. In the back-
ground, anillysis drawings of the entire
town inform the design recommenda-
tions for the waterfront.
(ions and neighborhood improve-
ment districts. Faculty and students
work on projects such as agreenway
in Queens and the revitalization of
the storefronts along Amsterdam
Avenue in their own Harlem neigh-
borhood. Some projectS are broad-
scale neighborhood site analysis re-
porrs while others are more purely
design-based efforts that lead to
const ruction drawings for a plaza or
the renovation of a public space such as
Montefiori Park near the campus. One re-
cent projen, "l ibrary Lane," will create a
new urban plaza as parr of t he develop-
ment of a new city library in Harlem.
The idea of ··service learning" has been
fashionable for the past 10 years for both
high school and college students. Yet,
there is also a kind of elite assumption (hac
small communities and cicy neighbor-
hoods actually want one's design help, ad-
vice, or service.
Every landscape architecture program in
the country that brings student volunteers
into community projects should ask,
·'Who really benefits?·· Are faculty and stu-
dents JUSt providing simplistic solutions
without market-based realities? "At Berke-
ley,'· Stein S<'Iys jokingly, '·we used to say,
'the helping hand strikes again!'" She adds
that "when you do someone a favor, it·s a
mess. \'Vhen you t ruly participate, it
works." By "parricipating," she means not
posing in the role of arrogant consultant or
noble community service worker who has
all the answers. It means truly I isrening and
talking with di ents, whether they are pay-
ing a fee Of not.
C
CNY now has abouc 35 graduate stu-
dentS spread over three years. TIlt goa.llS
to grow to about 70 students. As wich
many programs, the graduate students tend
to have a range of professional experience.
When asked about the careers they left, chey
provide some interesti ng responses. For
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A ~ . l L 2 0 n Landscape Arcbitecture 169
example, during my visir, J met students
who left careers as a Broadway actor, a pro-
ducer for CBS News, a professional musi -
cian, a director of planr propagation for a
70 I liIPdscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
major botanic garden, a designer for New
York's Museum of Jewish Heritage, and
even a derecrive for New York's Police De-
parrment with a background in philosophy.
Reflecting the diversity and special-
ization of New York City, the
students come from alt walks of life
and fields such as entertainment
and museum design.
Where else bue In New York
might you find such a group?
Kelli Rudnick, Student ASLA,
a third-year student from Califor-
nia, explains that she was drawn
{O landscape arcllltecture and
New York because of their broad
possibilities and questions. "1
smdied film and worked in film
and in rheater ... {and] became
dissatisfied with the self-centered
aspects of the entertainment
field." Like many of the studenrs,
she PUt a loe of rhought into her
career change and acted from a
desire to shape space. '"' made a
commitment to take a walk every day. Af-
tef a whde I noticed that 1 was moving
trees, pathways, and even buildings in my
mind. , starred to study landscape design
C: onzalo Cruz, oULA, adjultCl . "islanl professor,
works with a student in t he second-year studiu· ... ,..-
entry for t he Bromr Concuurse Cum pet ition.
and quickly realized J was interested in
publ ic landscapes."
Adrian Hayes, Student ASLA, is a native
of Texas who worked in the Austin music
scene and inrerned at the lady Bi rd J ohn-
son \'7ildflower Center before moving to
New York for school. Hayes and his wife (a
law srudeln)are both homesick for Texas-
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iced rea, barbecue, and rhe open sky. "Bur
I'm srarring ro be able co see rhe ciry differ-
ently now, " he says of dw concrete street
canyons rhar he's lIved with for more than
rwo years. "\'lhat I love abom rhar is the
rich canvas it presents for a person trying co
consider the existence of urban ecologies."
"I can'c think of a city chac has more co
offer for desIgn education," says Peter
Gisolfi, who manages to reach full-time
and run his own architect ure and landsGlpe
archirectureoffice in Hastings-on-Hudson,
JUSt upriver from the ciry. Gisolfi talks of
rhe remarkable geolog ical location of New
York Ciry at t he convergence of glacial ad-
vances and retreats. This large-scale think-
ing encourages students to think of New
York not JUSt as aciry buras a region of in-
terconnecred moraines, rivers, and aque-
ducts extend ing well into upsrate. It also
explains why many of rhe ciry's parks and
reservoirs lie where they do.
At most design programs, Gisolfi ob-
serves, "School is the center of life. Not
here." Indeed, most of the graduate stu-
denrs have lives and families all over the
1f"1A1J<S • DRNEWAYS • CURBS · PATIOS · STREETS· MfDIAt\IS • TENNIS COURTS· SAND TRAPS
FOUNDATlONS • RETAINING WALLS • SWlMVJNG POOlS • PlANTlNG BEDS
20 n 171
CAMPUS PROFILE
cicy, from Inwood at the northern tip of
Manhattan to Forest Hills in Queens.
There is virtually no on-campus housing.
The subway is the main commuting mode.
The downside of this is that there is less of
the all-nighter studio culture that YOli find
at many programs whereonc's dorm is JUSt
a few minuets away. 13m it's also clear that
by the third year, the students know one
another- their personalities, families,
problems, and backgrounds-very well. [n
a program of roughly 12 students per year,
such fumilylike intimacy is inevitable.
Yet some students candidly pointour chat
chere is [00 little collaboration and shared
wisdom with students in architecture and
urban design. Even though several faculty
[each in overlapping degree cracks, their
students have few shared studios. One rea-
son given is that archircnure students have
a rigorous lise of course requirements (har
precludes many elecrives. 11le fuculey recog-
••• •
AT A GLANCE
The Cil Y CoUege of \ ew York
School of Architecture, Urban
Design, and Landscape
Architecture
Number of students: 35 (projected to grow
to 70 with tw(ntlldio grollps of 10-12 stlldents
for etHh of three yCdrs of the MtA track)
Full-time facutty: 4
Part·time faculty: 4--8 (wries by semester)
Degree offered: MIA
Tuition: $3,750 per selllester (New York state
residellt) • $9,990 (Ollt of state resident)
Accredited: Yo
nize that there is a need for greater discipli-
nary collabomrion, as is already happening
ac rhe school's Archirecruml Center.
M
osrOfCCNYS 11M students plan [0 live
and work in ciries for rhe rese of eheir
careers. Some of them, such as Texan
Adrian Hayes, see New York as an inspira·
cion for work elsewhere. \Xlhen asked whac
lessons New York mighr have for Texas,
Hayes says he hopes chat he can rerum ehere
one day with new tools for growth manage·
ment and regional planning. "" J rhink one
of rhe big lessons is co value rhe land you
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• Handrail and pathway guidance strips
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VISIBLY BETTER
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72 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
have ... before ir becomes serious. The
chings I've seen done in ciny lictle spaces in
New York City, where space is at such a pre-
mium, serve as examples of how space can
and should be used more responsibly."
Thirty-five years afrer he srarced ceach-
ing ar CCNY, Friedberg mighc be glad to
hear a non- New Yorker and future land-
scapearchircct makerhis claim. In 1972, ic
was an almost radical idea for a landscape
Project s designed t o last a lifetime
require products tested by time.
A third-year student works on the
Community Assistance Project in
Harlem, opposite, Claire Napawan,
adiunct assistant professor, talks
with a student about the Bronx
Concoul"$e Competition in the
SHond-year spriug studio, left.
architect to design durable and
dense social places in streets and
pocket parks. In brick adventure
playgrounds, where was the pastoral
ideal of lawns and flowers? In hard-
surface plazas, where was the "real
Anwrica" of Main Streets and rolling
farms? For Friedberg and rhe gener-
ations of students who followed him
at CCNY, their America is New York
City. Thus, as Friedberg says, ir
makes far more sense to shape "space
that accepts the city and the people
who live rhere on rheirown terms.·'
Frank Edgertoll /liartill is a lalldscape historl-
all, call/pllS plal/ller, a I/d reglllar rollfriblltor t(l
Landscape Archicecture.
20 n 173
I
T l\.IAY BE HARD TO BELIEVE ic's been
more than 20 years since the great wIld-
fires in Yellowstone National Park chac
caprured che arcencion of (he nacion.
From rhe 1880s to 1972, Yellowstone
National Park had a managemenc policy
commonly referred [Q as "no burn." These
were che heydays of Smokey che Bear and
"Only you can prewnt forest fires!" when
all wildfires, regardless of ignition source,
were considered bad and had to be sup-
pressed. But [he "no bum" policy had re-
sulted in a buildup of fuels in the park, es-
pec ially on the forest floor. The change
from a lOU-year policy of "no burn" to 16
yearsof"!et bum" set the smge. That sum-
mer chere was essentially no rain in July
and August, d-.e relative humidity hovered
around 6 percent, [he winds gusted to 70
7 4 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
Documentin
u
chanue in a visually dramatic
/:) /:) .'
landscape. By John C. Ellsworth, FASlA
miles per hour,and many lightning strikes
scarted fires outside park boundaries.
By August 20, 1988, now infamous in
wildfire management history as '"Black Sat-
urday," more than 1 50,{)(X) acres burned in
one day, whipped by the fierce winds. By the
end of the fire season almosc 795,{)(X) acres,
or 36 percent of Yellowstone·s 2.2 million
acres, had burned to one degree or an()(her.
Well, ir does seem like 20 years ago to
me. My research interesr in visual resources,
or "scenic beauty,"' on public lands cakes
me back co Yellowstone every summer to
conduct repeat photOgraphy from many
"phoro points'" around the park, so I have
been couminS down each and every year.
The decision to undertake this research
projecc came about in an unexpected fash-
ion. r was in Yellowstone in October 1988,
JUSt after the wildfires had been extin-
guished (by the early fall rain and snow,
nor by the 9,500 firefighters, che $141
million, rhe 800 n1l1es of fire line, or the
one mi ll ion gallons of fire retardant
dropped from 1 I 7 aircraft). I was there on
a faculry retreat. W/e were tOuring the
park, and I was raking photographs lefe
and righe as we drove around ehe weseern
half of rhe park. I had no thought ar the
rime of undertaking a research projecr and
WlSIAlIESOURCES
cenainly not a 20-plus-year one. However, I
returned to Yellowswne the next summer and
nmiced how vegetation and animals WCfe
starring to come back in some areas yCt not in
ochers. [ soon recognized I had the makings of
a long-term research proje""Cr based on my orig-
inal photographs. Real izing that observation
of an interesting phenomenon is rhe first step
in classic scientific method research, [ drove
back [0 my home In Logan, Utah, gathered
up and organized all my slide photographs
from chat first year, chen immediately drove
right back co Yellowstone and Started to seek
our my locations for as many of those 1988
phoros as possible.
Of course, this \Vasa major challenge because
when ' took rhe first photographs [ wasn't
chinking about research. J had no noces indicat-
ing [he locations, and chere was no GPS (gloool
positioning system) at that time. , persevered
and was able ro reestablish more rhan 50 of
rhose points. I have continued this sysrematic
repeat phorography every year since. TIle result ?
From rhe viewpoint of a professional landscape
archirect and academic researcher, more rhan
1,000 repeac phorographi c images document-
ing the recovery of the scenic resources of Yel-
lowstone National Park.
Through {he years, I have pared down t he
number of repeat photos ro abouc 2S chat I use
on a consisrent basis, because rhey are the best
ones to illustrate rhe variety of landscapes and
conditions that represent che recovery of the
park's diverse scenic resources. I made careful
and derailed handwritten notes, later tran-
scribed to digital text, aoouc che location of each
photo point. A cypical directive from my notes
reads, "Drive into Yellowstone from rhe \'ifest
Entrance; proceed 14.3 miles to che overlook
on che left. Park in the middle of che lot; walk
along che edge to che trash can. Turn toward
rhe river and walk chree paces, kneel down, lo-
cate the correct view by referencing the print of
the original photograph taken in 1988, frame
rhe shoe, and click." Of course, chose directions
worked very well until 2003, when the Park
Service decided to relocate the crash can. T hat
was the year I decided to record the GPS loca-
t ions of my photo points, but in practice I've
never used the GPS because after 15 years of go-
ing back to the same places, I could return to
them blindfolded now.
76 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
klred had collapsed. re.eali., the landscape's to-
JIOpaplly and new kldcepo_ pine trefl start-
is rela-
Why Scenery After Wildfire Matter.
Somecimes, you'll he-arpeople refer co an ex-
censively bumed area as a "scorched wasce-
land. '" I tend nO[ co use those kinds of terms
anymore. A reasonable understanding of fire
ecology tells us thac when a forest burns
there are benefits as well as some negative
impaccs,shorrand long eerm. For example,
locIgeJXlle pine, che dominant foresc species
in Yellowstone, re<:Juires rhe heat of fire co
open ies serocinouscones, releasing che seeds.
The images selected for the ongoing
repeat-photography research have distinct
foreground, middle g round, and back-
ground. Generally, in che foreground you
wil l see river, stream, or meadow. In the
middle g round are ridges, ofeen low
mountain ranges and forescs. The back-
ground is composed of the more distant
mountain ranges and the overarching sky.
Buildi ngs, roads, and other human-
built features elicit special reactions, so
chose are absent from the images as much
as possible. Photographs were selected
based on those basic criteria along with
others so that there would be some consis-
tency among them.
I display the images to people, taking
incoconsideration respondents' differences
in demographics, education, knowledge
and understanding of fire ecology, and fa-
miliarity with the Yellowstone landscape.
Preference evaluations afe correlated with
these variabl es, and from this we can starr
to understand more abollC how these
faCtors affeer whether people "like'" a par-
cicular percentage of burned area over an-
other, whether their knowledge and un-
derstanding of fire ecology influences their
preference, or how much cime muse pass
after a wil dfire for people to accept the
change in various landscapes.
'nle scenery in Yel lowscone and oeller na-
cional parks is, co various degrees, managed.
2 0 n 177
VISUAL RESOURCES
Every visitor sees this in the
eaRfu! alignment of roads; the
location and desi gn of visirors'
cemers, campgrounds, view-
points, and rest areas; and the
delicate balance of pristine ver-
sus developed landscapes. From
almost a half century of research
by landscape architects, natural
scientists, and environmental
psychologists, we know chac
scenery is subject co abuse,
deg radation, or enhancement
and has its own carrying capac-
icy. Knowledge about [he rela-
tionship of fire and scenery can
lead to g()(X\ management.
Our research suggestS chat for most peo-
ple, ehe immediate visual effecrsof wildfi re
are overwhelming, and even if they under-
srand chac wildfire is parr of the regenera-
tion and [he natural cycle of landscape, ie's
scil l very difficult to accepr. Moreover,
"ecosystem recovery" afcer fire is not the
same as "scenery recovery:' Natural process-
es may require many years for steep, south-
facing slopes to reesrablish mature forest.
However, for the typical visitor to Yellow-
stone (who travels the park for less than one
day and sometimes leaves the comfort of the
automobile only fora restroom break), with
or wit hout an understanding of fire ecology,
the visual consequences of that long process
may be disapJXlinting. It's often not until
much of the vegetation has started to recov-
er that people begin to realize, "OK, it's be-
coming a forest again. Yellowstone is back."
Fire, and especially wildfire, in the land-
scape seldom elicits a JXlsitive reaction. We
educate vi sitors about grizzlies and dle
dangers inherent in travers i ng geyser
basins, bur it is not yet esrablished if sim-
ilar no'Sults can be achieved for understand-
ing the relationship of wildfire and scenery.
\'qe're addressing other questions, such
as how much burned area within a view-
shed is acceptable. Migll[ some amount of
burned viewshed be preferable to com-
pletely unburned? Using Photoshop, we
can manipulate the images to show various
amounts of the viewshed burned, then sur-
vey people's preferences. In one 1992 study,
78 1 lilndscape Architecture APR I L 20 DI
In 1988 the deViistation of the wildfires is
brought into close focus in the foreground
view, abore, along with the smell and feel of
recently burned timber. 8y 1998 the forest
was reborn, abore right, with the promise of
renewal on every visitor's mind. In 2003,
opposite, the visual evidence of the wildfires
of 15 years ago is almost all gone. The ,isitor
perceives a 'enlant landscape full of life
and growth, with limited visual access to
the landscape spatial structure beyond.
graduate student Robert King prepared
images showing four conditions of the vis-
ible forest: no burn, 10,60, and 100 per-
cenrof the visible area burned. By asignifi -
cant margin, people preferred to see 10
percent of the visible area burned, even
when compared to no burn. \'{1e believe
t here is some visual interest and variety,
some intrigue and curiosiry piqued in pe0-
ple by small areas of burn. It 's as if they're
saying, " Hmm, something's happened
here. It's not threatening ordisturbing yet.
Ic looks like the landscape is still healthy
and intact, and che visible burn is interest-
ing." However, 60 percent or more of the
visible area burned was noc well received.
111ere are implications here for fire man-
agement in nat ional parks. \'{1e know chat
some burn is necessary for the ecosystem.
Perhaps we should manage most areas for
moderate to extreme burn but all ow only
minimal burn in highly scenic areas at any
one t ime. Should the National Park Service
proactively burn areas slightly to achieve
scenery goals in concert with ecosystem
goals? Should scenery enhancemenc rake
precedence in some areas and direct fire
management? Should we undertake long-
cerm research to cest this idea?
\'qe also want to understand people's re-
anions as an area recovers over cime. In five
years afcer a significant fire, is che vegeta-
cion recovery sufficient that most people ac-
cept the visual conSC<juences, or will it take
10,20, or more years? That may vary if the
area is mosc1y meadow or primarily forest,
or jf it's a geyser basin. Meadows recover
quickly, usually in the first year. Porests re-
quire more time, especially on sceep slopes
wit h chin soils and exposed rock, and on
south-facing slopes that receive more sun
and heac and retain less soil moisture. In the
first decade after che wildfires many people
were surprised to see utility poles and lines,
maintenance roods, and other Park Service
feacures chat were invisible before the fires.
Many people think, "Well, a geyser
basin is already very scenic, so no one wanes
burned area destroying che scenic beauty."
However, sometimes che visual power of
the geyser basin itselfis so strong that peo-
ple don'c pay much actention co the sur-
roundings. \'qhen you are one of the hun-
dreds or sometimes thousands of people
wacching Old Paithful go off, you can see
theforesced ridge behind. Does ic marcer co
you if the forest has burned recently?
Professional analysis is a big parr of my
research. Over the past 20 years, I have dis-
played the images and discussed the impli-
cations with dozens of groups, from the lo-
cal Rotary Cl ub ro international conferences
of landscape architects. As my professional
colleagues know, landscape architects often
look at the world differenc1y. \Ve recognize
and consider spacial definicion, legibility,
and depth, as well as mystery, complexity,
prospect, and refuge. In the ongoing re-
search analysis, I try to understand the rela-
tionshipof these professional insights to the
preference responses of everyday people.
People often ask me, "Any surprises for
you through the years?" TIle biggest sur-
prise was in the first few years after the wild-
fires. Many people wefe very concerned that
Yellowstone had burned toacrisp, it would
never recover, and they would nevef want to
visi t it. They would say, "Well, I Wish I had
gone om there before it al l burned up."
Now, more than 20 years later, it's t heoPIX>-
site. People are talking about Yellowstone's
amazing recovery, especially those who have
visited the park several times since the fires.
I was hiking in Yellowstone with King a
few years after the 1988 wildfires. Most of
the trees in the area were standing dead, in-
tact but with scorched and blackened bark.
\Ve stopped to gather a litc1e anecdotal ev-
idence from anO(her hiker, asking how he
felt about the aftermath of the wildfires. His
response was immediate and ro thepoine "I
prefer trees." \Ve were standing in crees, all
burned, all still standing, but fOf him they
were no longer trees, nO( a forese
As I write t his, it's very early spring in
Yellowstone, the snow stil l lying heavy on
the landscape. The people will arrive soon
with their cars and RVs, along with plen-
ty of seasonal park rangers to guide and di-
rect them. The wildfires will come again,
too. And I'll be there, taking another series
of repeat photographs on the 21st anniver-
sary of the great wildfires of 1988.
Johll C. EIIJ"IIxffth, "i\SLA, lJ" a proft.r5or in the
dCpartfllCIif oflal/dscape architectllre alld envi-
rollmellfal plalll/illg at Utah Stale U II/versily,
as /all as presidellt alld seni(ff landscape archi-
lecl U/ith EllsU/lJI1h alld Associates. He 1M; re-
cend mpport for his research m
from lhe Natiollal Park Senllcc.
RESOURCES
• "Preference and Fire Mosaics in Yellow-
srone National Park," Master's Thesis, by
Robert A. King, DeparrmemofLandscape
Architecture and Environmencal Plan-
ning, Utah State University, ! 992.
2 0 n 179
L
ANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, in part-
nership with the web-based news-
lener and daily blog Research Design
COIlIlert;ollS, uses this column to rtJXlIT
currene research of interest to land-
scape architects from a wide array of disci-
plines. We welcome your comments, sug-
gestions abom future topics, and studies
you have encountered in your own practice.
Using Stories to Educate Botanical
Garden V i s ~ o r s
R
ESEARCt-i ERS Li-Shin Chang, Ri chard
Bisgrove, and Ming-Yi Liao recently
fOllnd that landscape narratives-that is,
srories chat lead visitors through landscapes
in bomnical gardens- increase learning
among children in bocanica! gardens. One
important outcome of rhe research is chac
botanical gardens with narratives can be
even more effective cools "[0 support conser-
vation ofbiodiversicy," [he auchors write.
Elemenmry schoolchildren from Taiwan,
nine to 10 years old, participated in the
scudy, which evaluated how much they re-
membered about each of five themes asso-
ciated wit h potencial narrative landscapes
in che Heng-Chun Tropical Botanic Gar-
den. A narrative landscape, the authors ex-
plain, ·'is".composed of explicit or implic-
it elemems or settings that can help che
narration of specific stories or information.
ft mayor may flOr have a particular theme."
'nle authors ci te the example of che Eden
Project in the United Kingdom: ·' In che
Humid Tropics Biome at Eden there are
narrative e1emems such as the huge bow of
a cargo ship standing on the roUte to Crop
and Cultivation Display, indicating the
prosperous trade for economically impor-
tant plancs and products."
In this study, sometimes the pocential
narrative displays included props or art-
work, and in other cases the narrative incor-
poraced nacural elements. After viewing
videotapes of each narrative, the children
answered multiple-choice questions that
tested what they remembered about che
landscape. The children learned more when
they were eXIX>Sed ro images of the areas
80 I lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
RESEARCH DESIGN CONNECTIONS
Btlldi es examine landscapes that tell clleir own
stori es, designing safer rotaries, and mapping
ATV trails with CTS. By Sally Augustin
Jean Marie Cackowski·Campbell, ASLA
with narratives. The children also found
botanical garden areas with narracives more
desirable and attractive.
Source
• ··fmproving Educational Functions in
Botanic Gardens by Employing Landscape
Narratives," by Li -Shin Chang, Ri chard
Bisgrove, and Ming-Yi Liao; L:mdscLlpeand
Urban Planning, vol. 86, 2008.
Making Rotaries Safer for Bicyclists
And Pedestrians
R
ESEARCH HAS CLEARLY SHOWN
that rotaries (also known as round-
abouts) increase driver s.1fety but are flot as
advantageous for bicyclists or pedestrians.
After a review of the literature on this rop-
ic, Essam Dabbourand Said Easa present a
design alternative [Q conventional ways of
routing riders and pedestrians chrough r0-
taries, as well as a related model and a con-
ceptual application ro support it. Planners
can use this model [Q analyze the COStS and
benefits of rotary redesign projects.
Modern rotaries- that is, those built
since the 195()s- are distinguished from
older ones by three characteristics:
- Entering vehicles must yield [Q traffic
already in the rotary.
- Vehicles must travel in a circular path.
- It is noc possible for vehicles to shoot in
a straight line from one side of the rotary
to the other.
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111ese m(Xjern rotaries
help move more vehicles
more efficiently through
an area without compro-
mising safety. Research
has shown chat chey
·Ti}mprove the 5.'lfety of
motorized vehicles by
dramatically reducing
che number of conflict
points and therefore re-
ducing the high-speed
angle collisions, which
resulted in an overall de-
Bi cyclists and
pedestri ans
interact di fferentl y
of the roeary itself, which
alTers little protection for
bicyclists, and many car-
bicycle collisions ensue.
As a result, some planners
elect to end bicycle lanes
before a roeary begins,
which confuses bicycl ists
and has predictable nega-
tive repercusSions.
with rotari es than
cars do and their ,
experiences are far
less positive than
those of Ill otor
Dabbour and Easa
propose an aleernative
solucion, which is tocre-
ate what they call ··bicy-
cle bypass lanes.·· These
lanes form a ring around
crease 111 seTlOUS II1Junes
and fatalit ies."
vehi cle dri vers.
Bicyclists and pedestrians interact dif-
ferently with rotaries t han cars do, and
eheir experiences are Far less JX>Sieive than
chose of motor vehi cle drivers, due to both
design and traffic rules. In fact, more acci-
dents involving bicycles and pedest rians
occur ae rotaries ehan ae oeher kinds of
street intersections. For pedestrians with
visual impairments, in particular, rotaries
pose a navigational nightmare.
The researchers have found, however,
chat removing bicycle lanes from rotary
traffic and adding pedestrian craffic signals
make rotaries safe for all modes of travel.
Currently, planners deal with bicycle lanes
near rotaries in a couple of ways. Some
build bicycle lanes directly along the edge
the rotary, much as a ribbon of gases sur-
rounds Sarurn, and are dedicated to bicy-
cle and pedestrian traveL An expanse of
land separaces the bicycle bypass lanes
from the roeary. This in-becween space
mighe be developed for any number of
uses, from parkland co reeail Stores, and
can take any shape based on the land
available. The important concepts are to
create cravel-ways exclusi\'ely for bicycles
and pedestrians and to distance t hem
from rotary traffic.
\'Vhen bicyclists and pedestrians in the
ring lanes need to cross roods leading into
the rotary, the aut hors suggest installing
conventional street-crossing signals t hac
··can be manually activated by pedestrians
(especially those with vision impai rmems)
or by cyclists approaching the intersection."
The crossing signal can also be act ivated
electronically by devices that detect cycl ists
approaching the intersection.
Planners must plot enough distance be-
tween where the cars exit the rotary and the
crossing signal so that the queuing lane
into the rotary is long enough to prevent
traffic from backing up into the rotary. The
researchers recommend instal ling traffic
signals ro independently regulate vehicles
entering and exiting the rotary at any point
and physical barriers to prevent pedestrians
from crossing the street along the strecch
of rood where cars queue up co wait for
bikes and walkers to cross.
Dabbour and Easa present a detai led moo-
el thac planners can use rodetermine whether
the COSt of such proposed design changes can
be JlIstified at a panindar rotary. Th(yaddan
imporrantcave"at: Although this design will
reduce bicycle-pedestrian-car col lisions in
the rotary, accidents are bound to increase
where the bicycle lanes cross traffic approach-
ing the rotary uncil riders, walkers, and driv-
ers get used to these new street crossings.
The researchers also discuss ways co cal-
culate the annual s.'wings from bike bypass
lanes based on che average COSt of a colli-
sion and including initial construction and
ongoing operation. They describe a simu-
lacion that indicates the value of the pro-
posed bicycle bypass lanes.
In addition to directly increasing safety
ac rotaries, the researchers stace, U{alnother
advantage of the new treatment is that it
provides continuity for bicycle lanes when
approaching roundabouts, and therefore
prevents possible confusion by cyclists. The
proposed treatment might be most suitable
for multi lane roundabouts where the safety
of cyclists has been found to deteriorate sub-
stantially. 111e impact of the treatment on
traffic flow was found co be negligible for
typical bicycle volumes on Noreh Ameri -
can roods .... Ideally, the proposed treatment
would be desirable in areas where the over-
all traffic volume is low to mcxlerate with a
high proportion of bicycle \'oIOOle (e.g., near
educational institutions)."
Source
• "Evaluation of Safety and Operational
Impacts of Bicycle BypassLmes at Mcxlern
Roundabouts," by Essam Dabbour and
A
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RESEARCH
Said Easa; Cal/adial/jollrnal oIeivil f llgi -
liM /liS: vol. 35 , 2008.
GIS Can locate Optimal Rollles
For ATV Trails
S
TEPHANIE SNYDER AND her col -
leagues show chac geographic infor-
mation systems (GIS) can be used to
streamline [he design of recreational
trails for all -rennin vehicles (ATVs). De-
signing trails that ATV riders favor is im-
portant, because if they enjoy panicular
trails , they are more likely co Stay on
them, potent ially reducing damage CO
the environment and conflicts with oth-
er people out enjoying nature. The au-
thors also note that appropriate (and sep-
arate) trails provide ··interest, challenge,
experience, and safety" for ATV riders.
1111' researchers demonstrate how to in-
corporate environmental factors and rider
preferences into the trail-design process
using the Least-Cost-Path algorithm. 111is
tool calculates the route by factoring in
'·trail impacts and benefits associated with
water l:xxlits, slope, land ownership, noise,
trail separation, views, and rider prefer-
ences for vegetation types and loop trails."
Although recreation planners have used
GIS to design recreat ion tmils before, the
authors note that ··GIS tools have not been
widel y used to assist in trail layout and
planning for ATVs, ormocorized recreation
in general, but offer significant potential
co do so through their ability co analyze
complicated setS of spat ial dara and crite-
ria and co generate optimal paths ..
In a case srudy, the researchers used GIS
co plot ATV trails in a Minnesorastate for-
est. This process generated new informa-
tion, which, when combined with gener-
ally accepted t rail-design practices, yields
the following criteria for ATV trails:
Soil s: Well-drained, fine-textured
loom or clay loam, or rocky soil
Slopes: benveen 5 percent and IS percent
Wate r: IS co 30 meters from water
l:xxlies, minimizing the number of stream
and wetland crossings
Private land: minimize travel on pri-
vately owned land
Focusgroups with ATV riders in Min-
nesOta revealed that they prefer trails
with (a) scenic overlooks and vistas; (b)
travel through forestland, then meadows,
then agri cultural land, in that order; (c)
more deciduous or hardwood trees as op-
IXlsed to conifers; and (d) loops.
The researchers found that "{tJhe use
of a GIS and least-Cost-Path algorithm
offers a struct ured but flexible approach
to ATV trail location .. that allows design-
Designing trails that ATV
riders fa\"Or is important,
because if they enjoy
parti cular trails, they are
more Likely to stay on them,
potentially reducing damage
to the enrironmcnt and
conflicts with other people.
ers to automate rhe usual trial-and-error
process of choosing a route. "The method
allows for [he incorporation and consider-
ation of all of the standard ATV trail design
criteria, as well as the ability to incorpo-
Tace new, rider-specified atcribuces," chey
nore. Finally, chese cools enable designers
to incoflXJrate preferences and priorities for
che kinds of data rhey are seeking and to as-
sign relative weighes to each.
Source
• "Ecological Criteria, Participant Prefer-
ences, and Location Models: A GIS Ap-
proach Toward ATV Trail Planning," by
Seephanie Snyder, Jay \'qhicmore, Ingrid
Schneider, and Dennis Becker; Applied Ge-
ography, vol. 28, 2008.
Sally AlIglISfill, ROC's smior alitor, is an mvi-
ronmental ps}'chologist.JwlI Marie CacklJWJki-
Campbell, ASLA, is the publisher oJRDC al/d
ha.r an !lILA degree 1m", Ohio State UIlIt't'r.fity.
RESEARCH DESIGN CONNECTfONS is a
Sllbscription-based newsletter, blog, and web
site (11'11'11'. ResearcbDe5ignConnedion5.coml
providing urrent information on pe-ople and
place research, ROCe.plores the ways physical
uvironments can be designed to reduce stress,
increase creati¥ity, impron hea"", increase
SlIfeiy, and SlIpport pe-ople's welfare. To emp ..... -
size the link between cllrrent research and de·
sign solutions, ROC gathB information from
hanl·ta-accHs academic saureH and presents
it in slraig"Horwani prost, tables, and photos.
ROC is published in print and online fOllr times
a year. MembeB of ASUI can subscribe at a 20
pereent SlIvings. For more infoonation orto sub-
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SKETCH DIARIES Four landscape architects tell how they sketch and why.
W
IIAT IS TilE PLACE OF on-the-spot sketching in today's
digitally driven practice? LanmwjIe Architectllre put out a
call for landscape architects who still carry sketchbooks
with them and selected the four on t hese pages. We asked
them to tell us about their self-motivated sketching (as
86 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
opposed to concept sketches done for cliems). \'{tho were their
main teachers or inspiration for outdoor drawing? \'{t hen and how
often do they typically sketch the landscape? How long does a
typical sketch take? \X1hat materials do they use and what is their
technique? Finally, how do their sketches affect their design work?

Hardscapes are the most specified P(Odl

type among Landscape Architecture Reach thiS
important audience in the ASLA Hardscape Directory:
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ARCHITECTS

...., 1

arelli eeture,.
y
Duane
Phoenix

RellenO$ Cafe,
M
AIN TEACHERS/INSPIRATION for landscape drawing: my
dad, who was accomplished in oil painting; Dave Hollman, who
taught visual design at the Harvard Graduate School of Design; and
sketches by Laurie Olin, FASLA. Olin·s book Act"(1fs theOjJel1 Fieldhad
a profound effect on my drawing/sketching style. T"m still looking
to invent ways to suggest plant/foliage texture and tree forms.
/ _.
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When and where I draw: I
most every time T"m offfrom work (va-
cations, trips, family reunions). Next
week I"m off to 1:105, New Mexico, for
a week of sketching and reading. I try to
draw at least once a month; if nooppor-
runity is present to '"get away,·· I will
take a lunch hourand sketch at the desk.
I also keep a pad by the phone to dexxlle
(anything-textures, patterns, forms).
I try to capture what conveys
"sense of place" and human scale
in the landscape or, put,
"genius loci."
Subjcct matter: I oy co caprure whae con-
veys "senseof place" and human scale in (lie
landscape or, simply put, "genius loci,"
Technique: J use pen and ink, sometimes
adding colored pencil. r rake some artistic
license to simplifY the subject and articu-
late distinguishing fcamres. A typical
sketch takes from 20 co 30 minutes (in the
winter sometimes less depending on the
outdoor temperature),
Favorite materi al s: I have a favorite pen
or two, both extra-fine and fine-nib Pelikan
pens with black ink; a bound 8\t2-by- l l-
inch journal; and sometimes a smaller five-
by-eight-inch leather-bound journal.
Sketching as a discipline helps me co
prioritize the order of what is being seen.
In capturing the essence of a subjen, the
problem is usually trying to capture too
much. Sketching has helped me a great
deal in presentation and design drawings
for projects by emphasizing the important
elements and conveying the design intenL
In a sense it'sabout edi t ing what you see--
what you really see.
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20 n 189
EDITOR'S CHOICE
Dean Abbott
University of Minnesota
I
SEE DRAWING AS an integral
part of my creative process. A
quote by Carlo Scarpa sums it
up nicely for me: "1 draw so
that 1 may see." Hand drawing
allows one to see places/subjects
more deeply, more completely,
more wholly.
Venetian towers, Italy
Main teacher: BillJohnson, FASLA
Subject matter: T he drawings
shown here are not oftypicalland-
scape archi tectural subjens. They
reflect my longt ime interest in the
social aspects of what we do as de-
signers. People and their interaction
with their physical environment, as
well as with other people, have always
interested me more as a way to gain in-
sight into placemaki ng.
90 I lilndscape Architecture APR I L 20 DI
Technique: I fuvorquick gesture drawings, ]ex>se and expressive.
Sometimes I do an "idealized" place based on what I've seen on
agiven day or days. Drawing times vary from 10 seconds to 15
minutes. I haven't the patience fOf anything longer anymore.
Materials:
- graphite media: soft pencils (9-8), grease pencil,
charcoal, crayon
- liquid media: marker, pen
- drawing surface: tracing paper, newsprint, various
ocher papers
- pads: loose papers in a portfolio (don"r like journals)
A marker on (hmp tracing paper prOOuces watercolor-
like quality and subtle colors. [ heat mount a tracing
pa]X:f drawing original to foam core.
1
,
,
, Woman on a
Venetian canal
;,
1
!
A Venetian street
City of Angles:
A residential
neighborhood
in Venice
.' . Il 20 GI landscape Archihcture I 91
EDITOR'S CHOICE
Shawn T. ASLA
University of Wisconsin
M
YSKETCHBOOKSSTARTEDingrad-
uare school at rhe University of Ari -
zona, at the direction of Bill Havens,
FASLA. Bill encournged all his swdents [Q
keep a sketchlx>ok and develop [he way of
chinking and seeing chat translates from
your head through your hand onto paper.
He was a gende guide into what has be-
come a passion for me. At times this has
been my prime relaxation, which is like a
working holiday, I suppose.
My travel sketches are made when J am
on vacation or at a place I want to
remember. \'{1hen viewed later
on, chey remind me of rhe
place or time when they
were drawn. Often these
drawings are just hints of a
detail or perhaps an emire
92 1 lilndscape Architecture APR IL 20 DI
Clendaloug!t, Ireland
. -
panorama. This loose category of drawings
may include sketches done while sranding
in a long linear those made from the win-
dow seat of a bus or airplane. These draw-
ings reappear, at least in part, in future de-
rails or in the illustrations that accompany
a concepmal plan.
ings for mccals, wood, srone,
or concrete elements.
J do nor impose deadlines
or rime limits on sketches .
The elements themselves or
those around me impose
those limits. If! am sketching
on a bus, then the length of
the bus stop becomes the pa-
rameter of the sketch, and the
lesson learned IS to qUIckly f
analyze the content In a mage
(oem" you m",e "" ,h, a,
crmeal elements to form and set those
down on the page, then the second most I ..,, 'i::
Critical, and so on Before you know It the J
bus IS movmg and the sketch IS what It IS j
AndthatsokayThesketchesmyourbook ....
are rur your eyes. They do not need to be
perfect or complete (just see t he ones [ have
included, reluctantly, for your review- far
from perfect, but adequate for my inten-
tions in the field). Sometimes the limitof a
sketch is determined by my patient family.
I was sketching on a rare trip to Ireland
when I became aware that I had tested the
patience of my family and needed to end
the drawings. TIlat, tOO, is okay.
I suggest sketching with what you have
available. It does not need to be an invest-
ment. If you like the process, the materials
will evolve. I sketch on a bound book with
pages that have tooth adequate to hold ink.
I will move between sizes of book regular-
As a landscape architect, I am constant-
ly seeing things that interest me-how
people stand in lines, how elements in the
landscape work (or do not), and the forms
of cities, woods, prairies, and sky. I am cu-
rious about things thar surround us, or
should surround us, and they find their
way into my sketches. Some-
rimes I become frustrated that
certain elements are unavailable for proj-
ects or could evolve into a better form, so I
will sketch prototypes thar are patterns fur
later developmem. If nmhing else, these
sketches become a record of thought , cap-
tured in lines and notes. Sometimes they
become the format for pnxluction draw-
j
Bridge, Central Park,
New York
Iy, from pocker size to brief-
case size. Most Important,
you wama book chac you will
cake with you. r typically use
a fountain pen with permanent ink. I am
noc sure if it is being sustainable or cheap,
but J like [he abiliey to refill my pens so I
don't have to dispose of chern. J have cried
felt-tip pens and like them, but the trick is
finding a pen chac will not bleed through
che pages of your book and effectively
dl(' number of sketches in it. Some of my
scudents like to work wit h pencil, but they
need a fixative ro keep [he sketches from
wearing off rhe sheet. Anything is okay to
sketch with, because it is really all about
what you like. I(sketching is fun coda, chen
you wi ll find time to do more sketching. If
you enjoy the materials you use to draw
with, chen rhe experience will be better.
I typically fill a sketchbook every three
to six months. Lately, I write presentations
in them along with sketches and random
dx)Ughts. Everything is legal in your book,
since it is yours only. These books become
a visual diary, and they can reveal your evo-
lution as a designer. As long as you remem-
ber that these books are for your use, there
is no bad sketch.
I believe {hat sketching is critical for de-
signers. The need will always be there for
those who want to capture, analyze, and
refine what they see. Photos are flat, even
when done well , and that dimensionali ty
reads in sketches. Layers of content are
available for later distillation when a sketch
is done by a designer. And it·s fun!
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, an 193
EDITOR'S CHOICE
Calle Aldama,
Sail Miguel de Allende,
Nick DeLorenzo, ASLA
San Diego
I
WAS RAISED in a large Italian family
of artists. My father, a shoe designer,
and my grandfather, a master plastererl
sculptor on many of the cathedrals in
southern Italy and Sicily, gave me a keen
interest in the art of drawing and design.
I stumbled into landscape archi tecture
through my art background and was im-
94 1 lilndscape Architecture APR I L 20 DI
mediately attracted to this professlOn
studying rhe outdoor environment. As a
small child I was always interested in both
pencil and ink sketching and watercolor
painting. While working my way through
college I was able to make money by doing
renderings and sketches and colored con-
cept plans, which gave me a head stan in
getting a job in the profession when I
graduated. As a professional landscape ar-
chitect, I've taken the Mike Linn work-
shop. I've also taken professional an class-
es at the Watercolor Society in San Diego
and workshops in landscape sketching and
painting from Rex Brandt and his wife,
Joan Irving, in laguna Beach.
When and where I sketch: \Xlhde
every year I YOW to do more sketching and
painting, it seems thar throughout the past
20 to 25 years it has primarily been during
vacations or weekJong bicycle trips that I
rake rhe time to wind down by skerching
alongside rhe road or in a ciry cafe. Actual-
ly, it gi ves me an excuse to slow down.
Many rimes while on vacat ion, r will Stop
and sketch for 10, 15,20 minutes. Ar (he
most, I'lJ spend twO hours on a sketch, bur
very few take more than a couple of hours.
I don't try for studio quality. r JUSt want to
get ir down on paper. I can always rake it
home and improve on it. I guess you could
call it my way of joumaling. I always PUt
the name of the pl ace and (he date on (he
sketch, no matter how insignificant rhe
subject. And it's often t hose rhat bring up
rhe most memories.
For example, when dle light is right in a
beauriful hill cown north of Rome, it's hard
co bear a little outdoor cafe with a glass of
wine after your lunch to sit and sketch. In
fact, r have talked my wife into staying
Many times while on vacation, I will
stop and sketch for 10, 15, 20 minutes.
Orcas Island,
Pacific: Northwest
there with me by giving her lessons in
sketching. We end up spending the afcer-
noon just sicting and sketching cogether,
Materials: Because my sketches and
watercolors are usually done when I trov-
e! , I' ve tried over the years to make my
materials as convenienc as possible rather
than having them slow me down, I usual-
ly carry a small co medium-size sketch-
book, usually 5 by 7 or 8 by 10 inches,
and a good quality paper meant for pen
and ink or penci l sketching. They have to
fit either in my briefcase, in my bicycle
panniers, or in a backpack. The most im-
portant thing is to have them with me
when the inspiration hits, or when I have
the extra 15 or 20 minutes and happen co
encounter a scene that sti rs my creative
juices. I seek convenience rather than qual-
ity, even if it means the rendering is loos- D
er or rougher. :f)
I tend to use mostly a fine-point, per-
manent ink pen. Sometimes I have actual-
ly used quill pens and India ink, which I
like the best, but they are a linledumsy to
carry around, so most of the time I use one
of the regular permanent ink pens with a
fine tip. I will sometimes use a soft pencil
such as an HB; however, I' ve found over
the years that the smearing of the graphite
doesn't age as well as using a dark l)frma-
nem ink pen or an India ink qlldl-tYI)f
l)fn. I also carry a smal l travel pack ofwa-
tercolors, and sometimes I will add color
to the sketches, either as a full watercol-
or with no line work or using the water-
color to enhance the color elements of a
pen and ink sketch.
TakIng t he time to study an object
while trying to draw it has improved my
design ability significantly, and because I
often draw architectural dements in de-
tail, it tends to show in my work.
Middle Bridge,
H . ll 20 GI llndscape Archihcture 195
LO\\'-impact desigll/build projects take ad vall tage
of discarded lumber alld halld Jabor.
96 l llndiuP. Archltechlr. APR IL laDl
By Jimena Martignoni
Photography by
Cristobal Palma
T
ilE CENTRAL VAUEY OF 0 litE
ties between rhe Andes and (he
Coastal Cordillera moum:ain ranges.
This valley, mosdy known for i[S
rural sening and an economy
based on agriculture, especially wine
produaion, also encompasses the Likes
Disu ict, a spectacular (Ourist area. For
the past 10 years the Universidad de
Taka's architecture fuculty has been in-
terested in understanding this region
and in making the landscape ime,gral to
the process of making architecture.
One expression of this interest is
that students must design and
build their tinal projects within
the region. Two of those projectS
stand out because of the manner in
whICh t hey were conceived and
built and, especially, how they
were placed on the landscape: one,
a lookout for tourists in the area of
the Villarrica volcano, and the och-
er, a series of landmarks on a hik-
ing trail across the central valley.
From the Heights
Finished early in 2007, chis project
near the small town ofPinohllacho
is situated on one of the hills that
face, in one direct ion, the spectac-
ular Villarrica volcano, and in the
opposite direct ion, two lakes and
native woods of araucarias and
The design in Pinohullcho is made of two pieces. One, this page,
is a platform that overlooks lakes and woods, and the other,
opposite, is II box that fac:es the Villarriu volcano. The box
is used as a refuge for wild pig hunting in the summer
and to store wood in the winter.
southern beech. These great views of the
local landscape inspired the construction
of (WO lookouts t hat are connected by an
orthogonal path marked wi th logs.
1111' site belongs to a local fumily who
had been involved with the loca1logging
industry fordecades and who sought to find
a different use for partof their land. Tired of
indiscriminate logging practices and fucing
a devastated area, rhey were looking for an
activity that would attract tourisrs. They
created a place for ziplining in rhe (reI'
ClIlopy and, at the top of the site, decided to
install a lookout and rest area for hikers. Ro-
drigo Sheward, the srudent, knew t his fum-
ily, rhe wonderful sire, and their needs, so he
made the proposal. No r.,\culty members
acred as intermediaries. The university asks
rhe students to be in charge nor JUSt of de-
sign bur alsooffunding and conS[I1.laion.
9s l l lndiuP. Arc hltechlr. APR IL laDl
Funding came from a foundation es-
tablished between the European
Union and rhe govern ment of
eh i Ie for development pro;ecr.s in
smal l towns. 1111' protect was built
with an eye to sustainabi lity in
met hods and materials. Shew-
ard proposed to bui ld the proj-
ect wi th wood chat would be rut
and modeled our of the aban-
doned tree trunks on site. He
built the project with the furher
and sons of the family, with
some help from local workers.
They dragged the robuSt pieces of
wood, some weighing up to 880
pounds, up the mountain with oxen.
The resulting design includes a
rough-hewn 280-square-foor plac-
form wich a bench on its far edge.
The site pilln, center,
shofl the position of
the pieces, "A" bein,
the box lind "8" the
pilltfonn; the field thllt
extends between them
iSlI crop lIrell. Vis itors
lowe to climb tlte box,
tOl', to enjoy the ,relit
wisus from the root.
The photos left Ind right
show the construction
process.

!
1
Hikers rest on the wooden deck or sit on
the bench while enjoying rhe breathtak-
ing vistas. The otherelemenc of the design
is positione<1 at a 9O-degree angle /Tom lhe
platform and is reached via a 265-foot-
long pach made oflogs. This second piece
is a boxlike 17 -foot-high construction [hac
frames che view of the volcano. The box
has cwo wooden walls, one of which is per-
forated with five narrow vertical windows
thac were added once con-
struction was finished be-
cause che box creates an
ideal blind for hunting wild
pigs. A series of steps, simple
woOOen pieces of differenc sizes,
leads co che roof. People love co
hike up {here co have a broad-
er perspective of {he land and
the discant mountains.
Six Landmarks Across Mountains
And Fields
A series of sculptural landmarks located along an 85-
mile-long hiking route across the Coastal Cordillera
was completed in September 2008. The student
designers-Osvaldo Veliz Navarro, Marcelo Valdes
Munoz, and Ronald Hernandez Ramos- used estab-
lished pedestrian routes that cross the rural landscape
of Chile as a conceptual base. To find the best pedes-
trian route that connected the coastal mountains with
the pacific Ocean, following the east- west direction of
natural watersheds in Chi le and their consequent hu-
man settlement, the students did many survey expe-
ditions before choosing the location of the landmarks
they would build.
H . ll 20 GI llndscape Archihcture 199
TIle rhree srudenrs began by contacting
seven municipalities; in the end rhey
worked with three. They made all the con-
tacts by themselves; this "graduating proj-
ecc" is a one-year process, pare of which is
rhat they have to deal with all these im-
plementation issues, including funding.
One factor that made connections easier:
Veliz lives in this area and knew the local
people quite well, his father being a local
agricultural producer. Some of the munic-
ipalit ies became troublesome because
some of the local authorities in charge
100 I lilnd&ClpeArchitecture A'. 'L IOn
wanted to use this project for political
ends, but in rhe end the studencs brought
all three around to the same objecrive.
Like Sheward, the three students would
build their landmarks using scrap rimber.
They used wood CUts wirh the permission
oflocallogging companies, which regular-
ly discard pieces of wocxl under 20 inches
long. The size of the scraps defined the
three-dimensional structure of the land-
marks, generating a basic triangular moo-
ule that repeats up to six times, in difTerenr
positions, to create larger modules. This
light structure allows (he surrounding
landscapes and vistas to "penetrate" che
constructions that, ar the same time, ap-
pear as markers along rhe hiker's itinerary.
Each landmark includes a curvilinear
figure that provides an ergonomic surface
for siuing or lying down. This kidney-
shaped elemem establishes a marked con-
{fast with (he geometrical pare of the de-
sign and varies subtly with each landmark.
"\'{le tried to get deep into the thought of
how a person moves and behaves and how
they occupy the space when relaxing,"'
"\'{Ie wanted to think the way a
chair designer thinks, and we decided t hat
an 'enveloping curve' would be the best
option inside this stntcmre."
111e spotS where the six landmarks were
placed were chosen for differen t reasons, ei-
ther aesthetic-such as the presence of high
viewpoints from where views are more spec-
tacularora water reservoir where people ,get
together during the weekends-or func-
tional ones such as road intersections or
towns. Only one of the landmarks is locat-
ed in a suburban area, in a small plaza where
locals llsually gather; for this reason, the
sUldem designers added a number
of wooden benches around
the piece.
Getting all the necessary permits
and collaboration from local author-
ities for the six landmarks involved
three different municipalities locat-
ed in two different regions of Chile.
These municipalities took care of
material transportation COSts. 11lt'
students built every piece with
t he help of only a few workers
whom the municipalities provid-
ed. They bUIlt a small temporary
workshop where they construct-
ed tile six frameworks and carried
them in trucks to every one of the
sites. They spent almost one
day in situ pouring rhe supporting
bases in concrete and bolting rhe
pieces in place. They directed the
construction process because the
workers wefe not speCIalized
crafrsmen.
The students built and carried
the structures to the sites with
help the,. obtained from the
three invol,ed municipali-
ties. The only curvilinear
element of e'ery land·
m."
a ItIace to lit allCll rest.
The landscape between the si x land-
marks and the design of the landmarks
[hemselvesdon't vary much, so [he circuit
can sometimes be perceived asa little mo-
nO[Qnous if one drives from one S[QP to the
next. However, if one is hiking along rhe
route at a slow pace and discovering the
landmarks while moving across the vast
landscape of arid mountains and green val-
leys, [hey appear as human-scaled ele-
ments on which [Q rest , climb, or day-
dream in the middle of nowhere.
};lJIena Mart;gnon;;s an ;,ulependmt land-
scape architect and refl'Llrcher ;,/ Buenos A;res,
Argent;lla.
Resources
• The students' blogs: http://proytxto-Ialld
fIlark.blogspot.cofll and hItP:!!P;'lOhlidCho.
blogspot.colJI.
A'RIL 20n LilnllscapeArchihclure 1 101
By MARK HINSHAW PHOTOGRAPHY BY BRUCE DAMONTE
FTER DECADES OF DEVELQPME, T,
San Francisco's Verba Buena disrria
is finally all but complete. Dozens
of blocks south of Market Street
have been transformed from
parking lots and dreary apart-
menr blocks, decrepit
warehouses, and mwdry taverns into a virtual city
with gl istening arts venues, a vast underground
convencion cencer, movie theaters, gardens, ter-
races, and child-friendly play spaces. For all the
past horrors of urban renewal in other cities, this
long-term public project has yielded generally
good results.
1103
'.
'.
San Francisco's Yerba Buena cliS11'ict is finall y all but complete.
In recent years the change of pace
has seemed exponential with whole
new commercial, residential, harel,
and public buildinss popping up as
high-profile architectural icons. Bur
one area has been snail-paced slow-
the redevelopment of properties be-
tween Mission Streer and Market
Street that would serve ro visually and
symboli cally connect Verba Buena
widl the core of the downtown. Tooof-
ren, segments would be left not quire
The public pin. creates II crisp, tailored
fo!'Koun, with low terraces that
define space. and pe-destrian circulation.
In the photo .t right, the Contemporary
Jewish Museum (AI.nehor'S the north edge;
Verba Buena Garden. 181 is located across
Mission Street to tne south; and I future
museum of Medean culture leI will com·
plete the of buildingslnII spaces.
."
"
. "

"

"
."
"
P"
SI. Patrick's
Church
.--
Cotttemporary Jewish Museum
-
-
. .
--
-
--
--
-- --
-
--
--
.--
MISSION STREET
complete, with plywood and chain-link fenc-
ing still keeping connections severed.
Patterns and surfaces delineate
a gradual sloping path that climbs
to the museum eight feet abowe
the grade of Mission Street.
Cliff Lowe worked with adwocates
for accessibility to ensure a route
that seems natural to ali users.
-
-
b
I
Medcan
Heritage
Museum
....
exceptions, these have since been cleared away,
revealing a real gem. Coming upon its ordered,
masonry facade is akin to discovering a treasure
in an archaeological dig.111e sense of wonder is
heightened by both the angular addition as well
as the space surrounding it, giving the new/old,
staid/quirky composition a chance to breathe.
Bur now, with the completion of several
public spaces and buildings, it's almost as if the
best was saved until last. Only one parcel- for
a future Mexican Heritage Museum that has
been slow to get funding- remains incom-
plete. But just recently dle spectacular Con-
temporary Jewish Museum opened. Designed by Daniel Libes-
kind,a twisted blue sculptural form literally smashes into an old,
Beaux-Arts-style former power substation.
Designed by San Francisco architect Willis Polk and built in
1907, the Jessie Sm""t' t Power Substation had been hidden behind
a slew of largely nondescript buildings for decades. With a few
The ensemble of new and old buildings,
which includes the modest but distinctive Sf. Patrick's Church, is
perhaps the best part of the Yerba Buena redevelopment area. Over
time, so many highly differentiated buildings and spaces have been
jammed imo the district that it's almost a cacophony of forms.
Jessie Square and, to a lesser extem, Yerba Buena Lme, which
flanks it, create a low-profile tabula that binds the various pieces
1105
lOgerher. 111e \'ery lasr piea is yet lO come-a Mexican museum
that will fonn the('3Sr edh't! of the SJXlceand complete the compo--
sition. \'Vhen rhe Mexican museum was fiT$tconcei,·ed, there was
anOlhcr, verydifferem design for rhe square. lr drew from more tra-
ditional sources, was formal in arrangement, and included a col-
lection of large palm rrees. The owner--rhe $.1n Francisco Rede-
velopment Agency--decided a more contemporary and regionally
106 1
sui table approach lO rhe space was appropriate lO serve as a shared
from door for rhe collection of differem venues. nl(' agency want-
ed the space meally reconsidered.
The new design is more open and employs simple planes, sur-
mees, and a geometry dmr relies upon o\'erlapping parrems and
textures. It also displays a remarkable resrraim with subtle moves
and arrangements of primarily horizontal elements. With deft
The plaza caps a multistory underground parking garage.
simplicity, rhe space is bothquiec-
Iy dignified and sociable.
Handel Architects, along with
Cliff l owe, ASlA- boch of San
Francisco----were responsible for
rhe underS[ated design of rhe
square. Lowe worked collabora-
tively with the architects toensure
accessibility, to weave planting ar-
eas with hardscape, and [Q work
with the adjacent church to ensure
that its concerns were addressed.
The design ream wanted to
keep things simple, clean, and low
so as nor [Q compete with the bold
existing and new structures. A se-
ries of platfOrms gradually step up
from dle street to the door of the Contemporary
Jewish Museum. According to Glenn Rescalvo of
Handel Archicfns, one of the challenges was how
[Q create a gradual transition up a grade difference
of eiglu feet be£\veen the sidewalk on Mission
Street and the Contemporary Jewish Museum.
The design team wanted toavoid having a separate
ramp lOr handicapped access bur
w create gemle slopes [hat would
be usable by all. TIle roureoftrav-
el from rhe street zigzags around
low waterfalls, pools, and planes
of grass. Backless wood benches
allow people w choose {() view [he
museum or to look toward the
parklike Verba Buena Gardens,
site of rhe 2007 ASLA Annual
Meeting, Aanked by its own set of
major public venues across Mis-
sion Street w the south. Cafe seat-
ing ar rhe top level offers an over-
look of [he space.
The first objective was to cre-
ate a pleasant forecourt that did
not compete with the visually
prominent facades framing it.
T he second involved the fact
that the plaza caps the top of a
multiswry underground parking
garage, presenting limi tations on
any plant ing that would require
asignificant depth of soil. Lowe was brought into
the project partly because of his experience with
planting on roof decks. Another issue, of course,
was t he risky presence of water over a garage,
creating the potential for leaks. Special waterproof
membmnes, drains, and flashing details were care-
fully coordinated with the structural system of the
.garage to ensure that water would not penet rate
Jessie Square is part of a network
of pathways and public SPilces
that link the downtown core
around Union Square in the dis-
tance with Ihe many public desti-
nations in Verba Buena, such as
Ihe MOKone Convention Cenler.
so cighcthata fmaionofan inch madeadifference
in what could be accomplished.
111e space interacts visually with the Mart in
Luther King Memorial on the opposi te si de of
Mission. The memorial's crashing waterfalls and
pools are a countefJXIint to the relative serenity of
Jessie Square. Unfortunately, the connection be-
tween the two spaces has nor been enhanced; a
the sumce. One of the challenges for Lowe was that he had to work
with ah>arage st ructure that had bet>n previously intended for a dif-
ferent plaza design on top of it. Sometimes the available space was
narrow, midblock crosswalk offers rhe most minimal route of di-
rect travel. Two destinations of such cultural import deserve more
to link them than a pair of painted lines. Despite the massive in-
"81
vestment over time in the redevelopment area with all its various
building types and public spaces, little has been done to create a
sense of a coherent district through the streetscape.
According to Lowe, issues of disabled accessibility continue to
shape the space, resulting in modificat ions even after construc-
tion. A series of terraced pads paved in stone allowed nondisabled
people to step directly up to the main entrance of the museum,
bypassing the meandering route. 11lis was seen as potentially dis-
criminatory, and the lowest pad next to the sidewalk was re-
moved, creating an awkward route that dead-ends in a newly
planted lawn area.
Moreover, the terraces stepped up only a few inches each, lead-
ing officials [Q require diagonal, yeUow and black warning strips to
be affixed to the leading edge. These modifications, while not £'\tal
to the integrity of the design, present a visually awkward condition.
Cafe tables spill Ollt from the museum and
overlook the stair· stepped pool lined with
small stones, left. The combination of grassy
terraces, seating, and moviug water, below,
attracts people both day aud night.
A few ()(her detai Is detr.ICt &om the otherwise
relined design. A series of slender, matchstick-
like rorcheres are grouped in several rows. nlei r
oddly random heights COntrast with the serene-
ly ordered com{XlSirion. Bur worse, the installa-
tion of stone insets inro the walkway was of ex-
ceedingly poor quality, with groUt sloppily
squished into tile joints. Such a restrained design
requires derails that are tailored and precise.
Jessie Square does appear to be a popular
place, with people lingering both on the
benches and at the tables of the cafe, which
spills OUt from the museum. Lovers can beob-
served embracing. People take In thedramat-
ic juxtaposition of the contemporary and rhe
classic, the austere and rheornamenced. Old and new sing to one
another with humor, delight, and dignity.
Mark HillShaw is director of urban deiign for !...tUN Architects ill Smt-
tie alld is a frequent contributor to Landscape Architecture.
PROJECT CREDITS Client: San Francisco Redevelopment Agency
(SFRA). Desigu team: Handel Architects LLP, San Francisco. land·
scape architects: Cliff Lowe and Associates , San Francisco (jeanene
Hill; Cliff Lowe, principal). Structural engiueers: upping Mar and
Associates, Berkeley, California. Plumbing eugineer: ~ Engineers, San
Francisco. Lightiugengineer: Silverman & Light, Emeryville, Cali-
fornia. Water feature consultant: Goepp Associates, Novato, Califor-
nia. Waterpl'OOfingconsultaut: Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc., San
Francisco. General contractor: Plant Construction, San Francisco.
,ul
This seaside garden in SOl/thern California offers lessons/or Somhern
Cali/ornians looking to lower water lISe in their gardens.
PHOTOGRAPHY BY JACK COYIER
S WE DRIVE aOSER to the Lunada Bay residence, the
scenery is nothing short ofbrcathtaking. The ciry
of Palos Verdes Estates, a bedroom community
30 miles south of Los Angeles, features long
stretches of road where you can look our over the Pacific Ocean. These
views are an enduring legacy of the Ol msted Brothers firm, which
planned this city in the 19LOs. Today, 28 percent of its land remains
dedicated as public open space, including four m Ill'S of shoreline.
We turn off the main drug, and the ocean suddenly disappears from
view. \Xlithin momems, we have arrived at the residence. At first glance,
it seems that we could be in any suburban neighborhood in Southern Gl-
ifornia. TIle street is flanked by Mediterranean-style houses-most built
in the 1950s and 1960s-with lush plamings and large from lawns.
But {he bland suburban fucade is deceiving. Some of these houses are sit-
ting on the edge of a 200-fOOt bluff, and juSt beyond their fences, hedges,
and walls there are magnificent views of the ocean below.
TIle Lunada Bay residence is one of the newer homes in the neighoor-
hood. Designed by Studio 9-0ne-2 Architects, it was built in 2002 on
the footprint of an earlier residence. By the time ARTECHO Architec-
ture and Lmdscape Archicecture was called in to design che landscape,
the plans for the new house were already under way and there was not
much left of the original landscape to work with. It was basically a
blank slace, explains Pamela Palmer, che
lead designer for che projecc.
ARTECHO, based in Venice, California,
has worked on a variety of projeccs includ-
ing schools and commercial develop-
ments, but the backbone of che business is
high-end residemial work. The firm prac-
{ices chroughouc California-as fur north
as Mendocino and as far souch as Rancho
Santa Fe. Much of thac work is right on
A line of glass, underlaid with
fiber-optic lighting, mimics a
ronnel. It pierces through two
sets of boxy shrubs in the
backyard of the Lunada Bay
residence, opposite. The land-
scape architects at ARTECHO
designed a barrier rail with
transparent glass panels,
below, to preserve the
magnificent ocean view.
1111
the coast, like the Lunada Bay
residence.
Palmer worked closely with
the owners and the architects to
develop a landscape that showcas-
es the si te·s ocean views. 11,e own-
ers of the property had a number of
f"t(juests. 111ey wanted places to sit,
eat, and barbecue outside. 11ley want-
ed a spa and a place they could have a
nre. And due to their busy work sched-
ules, it was important that they could
make the most of the garden when they
are free-even when it is sunbaked or
foggy, or there's a cool wind off the ocean.
Secondary
driveway
111e owners also had some ideas about
plantings. They wanted some red and
white flowers- the colors of thei r favorite
soccer team-and generally they warned the
garden to look "green and lush," says Palmer.
They showed hera photograph of plantings in
Beverly Hills dominated by lawn and ferns.
For years, this SOrt of irrigation-intensive planc-
ing has been common in Southern Glirurnia,
despite the fact that many communities here, in-
cluding Palos Verdes Estates, pull a largeporrion
Small amounts of water and limited planting areas
are used to great effect at the Lunada Bay residence,
right. The gates opening onto the courtyard, below,
glow like lanterns when the space is lit at night.
Lounging area
__ I!J:L Driveway
and parking
court
Entry sites
with light line
r Reflecting pool
C""yo",
H gates
Fireplace with
water feature
Water
channel
Front door
Spa/water
Ocean terrace
lbll1t- feature

light line
Sunset
seating
area
of their water from the Colorado River- the same drought-
stricken watershed that suppl ies Las Vegas and other cities in the
Southwest. Additionally, using irrigation-intensive planes near
the edge of the bluff could encoumge erosion-a significanr con-
cern on a site like this. Sensitive to these issues, ARTEel tO worked
with the owners to cut down the number of water-intensive plants
and co select plantS that require less irrigation while still having
that lush, green character they craved.
\"'{f hile the Lunada Bay residence is not exacrly a xeriscape, it re-
quires less water than most of its nei ghbors and is a step in the
right direction. Small amounts of water and limited planrings
are used to great effect. The design is both functional and poetic.
Fire, water, and light are used to create a garden that has subtl y
different moods and, despite its small size, can be experienced in
many differenr ways and in many different conditions.
Water Featured
As you walk through the entry gate and up the driveway toward
the courtyard, small water features and a line of wavy blue glass,
underlaid with fiber-optic lighting, create a sort of procession
from the driveway into the courtyard and co the front doors,
through which you first glimpse the ocean.
In the rear yard, the strong visual connection to the ocean is pre-
served using [ow p[antingsand a barrier rail with transparent glass
panels. Bur while the visual connection ro the ocean is strong, there
is no physical connection- no way to get down to the shore-so
ARTECHOsprinkled waterelemenrs throughom the garden ropro-
The low-flow water&![s, positioned on either side of the fire-
place, provide subtle whi te noise, and t he water particles they
shear remove dirt and dust particles from the air. 'T here is a very
small amount of water, bur it's doing a lot of work," says Palmer,
as we look at these features.
ARTECHO located the spa the clients had requested in the rtar
yard, JUSt outside the master bedroom. "Most spas are kind of
vide this experience.
"I've looked a [or at the gar-
dens of Spain, Imq, Imn, and In-
dia," says Palmer, studying "the
idea of the paradise garden-
where shadow, light, and small
amounrsofwaterareused roen-
[iven a space." And the i nl1uffice
is evident at the l unada Bay
residence. The water fearures
used here, with perhaps one ex-
ception, are designed to maxi-
m ire one's abi! i ty ro experience
the water while minimizing the
amount of wacer used.
nlrl:e water elemenrsare in checourcyard: tWO
small waterfalls near theemry gates and a runnel
along its cencm[ axis. The runnel, used ffequenc-
[y in Islamicgardens, isa narrow reflecting pool.
Here, ic reflects the leaves of che palms on eicher
side, fires set in the fireplace nearby, and the sky.
n le runnel is only able to reflect a small parr of
each object, and chis adds a sense of myscery that
mosc cradicional reflecting pools don't provide.
ARTECHO designed the spa to double
as a fountain, alHJt'e, and a reflecting
pool, below. Most of the water
features, like the runnel in the
courtyard, opposite top, are designed
to maximize the experience while
limiting the amount of water
consumed. The reflecting pool
at the entrance to the courtyard,
_______________________ ....,; "c,"" :;,;; site bottom right, is the
U"ceptlon. That retleding pool and
the spa can Ite lit up in interesting
wars, I1ppt1site IHJttqm left and abot'e.
eyesores," assertS Palmer. "W/e
try ro make them into a beau-
tifu[ object- a centerpiece."'
The spa is a cube with a ci rcu-
lar opening, covered with icy
blue tile. It has a number of
differem modes; when it's nor
being used as a spa, it doubles
as a reflecting pool or a foun-
tain with water spilling over
its sides. It can even function
as a seacing wall when the spa
is in reflection jXXJ[ mode.
If the runnel is the water-
efficient version of a reflecting
pool, chen a spa mighc be che wacer-efficienc
version of a swimming pool. So many people
build large swimming pools and chen never
use them for swimming- chey JUSt use them
to cake a dip. A pool che size of a spa would
seem ro suit thei r needs. The thermostac could
be adjusted based on the season.
\'(lhile mosc of che wacer used at the luna-
da Bay residence seems co serve a strong pur-
pose, bringing an experience that only wa-
ter can bring, the one exception to that rule
is the water feature with the largest surface
area. A reAecting pool juSt outside the
courtyard- facing the driveway- is beau-
tifully designed, bur it is hard to believe
that it is experienced very often by the pe0-
ple who own the landscape. (They were
unavailable to be interviewed for this ani-
ele.) It is not in an area designed for sit-
ting; it is merely a place to pass by as you
enter the house-and that·s assuming you
enter through the front door. Like the large
fountains that are sometimes used at the
entrances to subdivisions, it is merely de-
signed ro impress visitors.
Wh ile the !"eAecting pool's size and loca-
tion may not be desirable from a water con-
servation standpoint, its derailing is actual-
ly quite impressive. At night, the pool glows with hundreds of
small points oflight. These "stars'· within the rt"Aecting pool were
the inspiration of John Gannon, the electrician and lighting de-
signer for the project. He created this effect by using end-emiccing
fiber-optic lighting inserted into small holes drilled in
che limestone base of (he pool.
Artistic lighting is found throughout the
site. On the spa, the base of the cube and the wa-
ter glow. But it is the wavy glass light l ines
that create the most dramatic effea. In (he
rear yard, the light line slices through cwo
groups of shrubs, trimmed as boxes; it is not
merely a light source but pan of a
larger land sculpture.
Plantings
Convincing property owners to use a
more water-wise planting palette can
be difficult, especially in places like
Southern California where there is a
long tradition of lush, green plant-
ing. '· Initially, when people ralked
about drought-tolerant gardens,
they had a certain Image of those
gardens that scared people,·' explains
Palmer. Few were wi ll ing to sacrifice
their lawns for cactuS, pri ckly gray
shrubs, and gravel. But there is a lot
of middle ground between the plant-
ings in Beverly Hills and the waste-
lands of the Mojaye Desert, and there
art" many strategies for lowering water use in the landscape.
The most obvious strategy is curting down on the amount of
lawn in the landscape----only using it when no other ground cover
wil l ser\'e the same function. At the l unada Bay residence, only one
small area is planted with lawn, an overAow parking space
thar provides access to (he utility area.
(or Another strategy used by ARTECHQ is se-
lecting plants that satisfy their
PLANT LIST
TREES
Butia capitata I Jelly palm/pindo palm
Howea fqrestiaoil Kentia palm
Chamaera s bumilis [uro ean fan palm
Erflhrina I sIkes;; Coral tree
SHRUBS
Baccharis pilU/aris I Dwarf coyote brush
'Pigeon Point'
Carissa matratarpa 1 Nalal plum
Dod/mati! riscosa'Saraloga' j Purple hopbush
P"d,lcarpus gracih'or 1 Fern pine
Westringia (rulima I Coast rosemary
'WynJabbie Cern'
Camellia sasanqua'Yuletide' I Camelia
CameJ/iasas3nqua'Mine-No-Yuki' 1 Carnelia
Gardenia 8ugl1sta'Wbite Gem' J Gardenia
HJmenflcallis (esulis I Spider lily
lorlJpetalum cbineflSe I Chinese fringe flower
'Sizzling Pink'
BAMBOOS AND GRASSES
Bambusa muftiplex I Hedge bamboo
'Alfonse Kart'
Dlalea acuminata I Mexican weeping bamboo
subsp. aneclfum
Semiarundinaria fastuosa I Narihira bamboo
FERNS
C,albea tllIJPeri I Australian treefern
C,peros pap1f1JS I Pawus
Dicks/mia antarctica Tasmanian treefem
Num"hra adiantff"rmis Leatherleaf fern
CYCADS
C,cas rer/1luta 1 Sago palm
EncephaJart/1s altensleinii I Prickly cycad
SUCCULENTS
Agare attenuata 'Nova' I Agave
Seneci" mandraliscae I Blue finger
VINES
g"ugainrillea 'San Diego Red' I BougaillYillea
g"ugainriHea 'Crimson Jewel' I BougaillYiliea
GROUND COVERS
Tracilemspermum jasmin"ides Star jasmine
Dym"Rdia margareue Dymondia
Imperata c,h"ndrica'Rubra' I Japanese blood grass
PERENNIALS
Saffia leucantha I Compact Mexican
'Sanla Barbara' bush sage
Artemisia s&hmidtiana 1 Angel's hair
'Silver Mound'
Salria cJmlaJIdii Clmland sage
Sabia meJlifera 'Terra Seca' Black sage
OphkJp"gon japonieus I Mondo grass
Iris'Supetslilioll' I Bearded iris
Heuchera briz"ides 'Firefly' I Scarlel coralbells
dients' desi res while consuming less water. \X1hen the owners of the Lunada Bay
residence showed up with phOfos of plants, ARTECI-I O countered
with phOfographs of plants that would use less water than their original choices,
yet would sti ll satisfy their desire fur green, lush plantings. ' nstead of using birch
(Betllla spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.), they suggested a coral tree (Erythrilld x Jyke-
Jii), which requires only occasional sookings and has the red flowers the owners
asked for. Rather than using a wCf-ping fig (FiClIJ benjafllfl ld) for screening walls,
they used Mexican weeping bamboo (Olatfd aClITIl/lldta), and na-
tal plums (CariJJa flldl"nXarpa) and agaves replace azaleas as accent plants.
\X1here there was no substitution that satisfied the dient, ARTECI-I O used
small amounts of plantings to high effect. A row of papyrus
(C)'{ier1lJ pafr)'rfIJ) is used as an accent against a blank wall at the front entrance
An outdoor dining room, tucked away on the east side of the house where it is protected
from the wi nd and the afternoon sun, also has a small water feature. A small massing of
ferns satisfied the clients' desire for these water· intensi¥e plants.
116 1
co the courtyard, and a small massing of
ferns is locared in a shady, prorected bed
next to the dining area- a place rhat re-
ceives regular use. These water-intensive
plants are placed on a different irrigarion
zone than the moredrought-tolemnt plants.
Firm members from ARTECHO demonstrate a U)ll'It!palosverdes.((if/l! hOlllfsassociatioll!
histmy.htm sunken fire pit in the rear yard where you
can sit and watch the sunset. The glass
barrier rail shields thi s area from the wind,
SO it is a good pl ace to sit on a cool breeZ)'
• F iberOprics in A rchitecl1lral Lighting: Aleth-
ods, Design. and Applicatio1l.f, by Gersil New-
mark Kay; New York: McGraw-Hill Pro-
fessional, 1998.
ARTECHQ also cur down on rhe area of
night. Playing on t he idea of a runnel,
ARTECHO created a gas-fed fi re line. • Fiber Optic Lighting: A Gllide for 5P«ijim
(2nd Edieion), by Russell L. Deveau; Lil- planting beds, maximizing rhe amount of
usable space and minimizing the number of plants t hat will need
co be irrigated. In rhe coureyard, ehe narrow beds of Mexican
weeping bamboo effectively screen ehe walls and green ehespace.
On bmh sides of dle driveway, feathery fern pines (Pod«arplls gra-
rilior) play this role, creating a space that is act ually quite attrac-
eive and could easily be used for entertaining irsel(
The Lunada Bay residence uses a subsurface, drip irrigat ion
system. Flags show when the system is on. Toward the edge of the
bluff, no irrigation is used at all. Native salvia t hriveon the mois-
cure in the air and small amounts of water wicked t hrough the soil
from the adjacent landscape.
These plantings remind us that the Lunada Bay residence isn't
ehe lase word in water-wise design. However, ir seems co be a step
forward. The gardener, Andrew Mercado, who visits for three
hours each week, assures me that the water use is quite low com-
pared to many of the mher sites he works on. Imagine if every res-
idence in Los Angeles County took a few steps in t his direction.
lake Mead might be a li trle higher.
Resources
• \'{fater Educat ion Foundation, IllWW.water-ed.org!waterJources!
de/all/t.asp
• History of the Palos Verdes Home Owners Assoc iat ion,
burn, Georgia: Fairmont Press, 2000.
PROJECT CREDITS Landscape architecture: ARTECHQ Architecture
and landscape Architecture, Venice, California (Pamela Palmer,
ASLA, principal in charge/leaddesigner; Miriam Rainvil le; Daniel
Lopez; Pascale Vaquetee; Andrew O. \'{filcox, ASLA; Perl a Arqui-
eta, ASLA; Valeria Markowicz, intern; Tavi Peretula, ASLA, promo-
tion; Marisol Metcalfe, promotion). Architect: Studio 9-0ne-2 Ar-
chi tects, Hermosa Beach, California (Pat Killen). General
CGntractor/landscape hardscape: Zigrang Construction, Rol ling Hill s
Estates, California (lim Zigrang). Concrete: Dave Shaw Concrete
and Block, Palos Verdes Estates, California (Dave Shaw). Mason:
Ruggeri Marble and Granite, \'qilmingcon, California (Robert
Ruggeri). Water features: J. Quinn Construction Ine., Harbor City,
California( J ohn Quinn). Uglrting: Gannon Electric Light, San Pe-
dro, C11ifornia (John Gannon). Steel fabrication: Art Metal i ne.,
Gardena, California (J im GrLesek). lITigation design: J R Irrigat ion,
Los Angeles <Jesse RCKJue). landscape contractor (planting and iniga-
lion): H&H L1ndscaping (Thomas Huerta), Nursel}ttrees: Instant
J ungle International, Santa Ana, C1li fornia (Andy Blanton). Gap-
graded soils (palms in courtyard): Earthworks Soil Amendments Inc.,
Riverside, Cal ifornia. Maintenance: A Plus Lmdscape, Culver City,
California (Andrew Mercado) .
1117
BOOKS
Materials for Sustainable Sites, by t\1eg Calkim, ASLllj Hobo-
ken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2009; 452 pages, $64.
Reyiewed by Virginia Russell, FASlA
T
I-IIS BOOK IS II SERIOUS REFERENCE MANUAL, comparable
in scope, depth, and indispensability co Time Stll'tr Stalldards
for ulIIdscape Architecfllre (Harris and Dines, 1998). It is divid-
ed inco twO sensible parts: The first part is an in-depth scrutiny in
four chapters of [he cools and methods for determining sustainable
metrics, sourcing, and sIX"Cifying; the
second part is a series of chapters for
each of nine material genera.
The majority of rhe book's photos
are black and white-and rhel'('aren'r
many of chern, with only an eighc-
page colleccion of color photos of se-
len installations- but readers can
ream Calkins's book with Lit'illg 5YJ-
te1w: Im/(JIult/1t ,\ f dferidls and Twno/(i-
gieJ lor Landscape A rchd«tllrt (Margol is
and Robinson, 2007) for full-color
inspiration. Nearly every page has
diagrams, cables of definitions and
comparisons, and lists of guidelines.
TIle appendixes are cables of the ma-
terials' embodied energy, embodied
carbon, and health and environmen-
cal impacts.
In the first chapter, key principles
of sustainable materials are ouc1ined,
as defined by Calkins. TIle boundaries of her definicion of U sus_
tainable" are permeable; she includes convenrional materials such
as asphalt when used in the most efficient and innovative methods
and mixtures, unril the day when a comparable renewable mater-
ial becomes available, TIlis pragmacism in her approoch- w be
smart about using what we haw at hand- is a relieffrom extrem-
ism. Calkins does n(){ neglect the third leg of the stool; when eco-
nomic and environmental implications are discussed, social equity,
usually in terms of human health, is given integrated coverage.
Another chapter describes the impact of construction materials,
not just in the materials themselves, but also in their extract ion,
prcxluccion, distribution, and so on, so that the reader fully appre-
ciates the magnitude of an impact spectrum. The breadth of this
chapter's citations from international reports and fields like indus-
trial design is impressive, current, and, fur some readers, an unnec-
essary or perhaps unpleasant expedition into just how bad off we are
on this planet. Calkins tilts the evidence in a productiw way, wward
alternative policies, principles, ideologies, and practices.
This review of alternative approaches is followed in the next
chapter by descriptions of the methcxls for evaluating environ-
mental and health impacts, specifically life cycle assessment (LCA),
sustainabili ty assessment, embcxlied energy analysis, and em-
lIS 1 LandsClpeArehiteehlre A'RIL 20 01
bodied carbon. C1.lkins describes the strengths and weaknesses of
each methcxl. This chapter goes deeper into LeA, citing two tools:
BUilding for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES),
and the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute's Environmental
Impact Estimarorand EcoCakulatorfor Assemblies. I would have
liked to see a walk-rhrough that used one of the tools to evaluate
at least one of the sustainable materials in the book, like a more
sustainable recipe fOf asphalt versus the traditional recipe taken
through BEES. Knowing that these tools eXist IS useful, but
demonstrating the i r application
would be enlightening.
There is a chapcer for designers.
Calkins COntrastS the process for de-
sign and sIX"Cification of new materi-
als against the process for reclaimed
materials and addresses the processes
for each life cycle phase of materials,
including designing for disassembly
and other approaches co reuse. T he
second part of the book, with separate
chapters for nine materials (concrete,
earthen materials, brick masonry, as-
phalt pavement, aggregates and
scone, wood and wood products, mec-
a!s, plastics and rubber, and biobased
materials), includes photos of the ma-
terials in various scages of manufac-
ture or installation, conscruccion
derails, and an overview of che impact
spectrum for each material. Calkins
makes no pretense that this book is exhaustive. This said, perhaps
vegecated roof materials can be included in the next edition.
Calkins's background in both architecture and landscapearchi-
tecture may explain why these chapters include extensive coverage
of building architecture materials, which one might regret fur dis-
tmcting from landscape architecture materials. For example, in a
chapter on earthen materials, rammed earth, adobe bricks, and
cob are discussecl at length in the context of their use fur structures.
Their use in landscape applications is limited, although Calkins
assures us that leftover rammed earth material can be used as soil
cement for paving, and there is a lengthy treatment of the con-
siderations for using adobe bricks in site walls. TIl is coverage Strad-
dles professional boundaries and will appeal co readers outside the
communityoflandscapearchitects. The integmted design process
required of sustainable design obliges professionals to be aware of
the materials and methcxls as well as the expertise of varied disci-
plines. A case study of this integrated design approach, blending
professions and materials, could be used ro conclude this book, ef-
fect ively putting all of the essentials into one carry-on bag.
The timing of this book's publication is ideal, being aligned
with the launch of the Sustainable Si tes Initiative, to which
Calkins has contributed expertise. Materials lor SlIStdiflab/e Sites
will be the constant companion oflandscape architects and related professionals
who want both inspiration and credibJe information about the susminable palette
of our an.
Virginia RIIHdl, FASLA, is an aJIistant profmor at the s[h()()1 of architectllre and
/illig at the U lIiversily of New Mexico,
Computer Graphics for landscape Arehitecb: An Int roducUon, byj oJe
go, ASLt\, alld Ashley Calabria, ASLt\; Florence, Kentucky: Delmar Cengage
Learning, 2009; 272 pages, S86,95,
Reviewed by Madis Pihlak
L
ANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS NEED more digimJ media books like this.
CAD undergoes a major revision every 12 months. Google's SketchUp Pro
adds major ft:amres on a similar time scale. Landscape architects who aren't
itally enabled full fimher beh ind every year wirh the continuing transition [0
iral media. They need dearly written books demystifying drafting and image
editing software so they can learn the most graphic software programs.
This book is a simple introduction [0 the four most
mon computer graphi c programs used by the majoriry of landscape archirects.
Still, one book thar gets you srarted with AumCAD, Phoroshop, InDesign, and
SketchUp is a tall order. The way this book copes
with the complexity is to use simple case study
projectS, which continue throughout rhe book.
Each chapter begins wirh a simple learning ob-
jective. TIle end of each chapter has a shorr
tion of terms, but not all of the deflnitions are as
dear as rhey should be for the novice software user.
DWG is nO( just an "abbreviation of drawing" but
is also rhe native AuroCAD file
mac. Knowing what DWG means is important to
be able to move dle AutoCAD files into Phocoshop.
AutoCAD, Sketch Up, and InDesign all have
one chapter devoted to chern. Photoshop has cwo
chapters, one about importing an AuroCAD file into Photoshop and the next
aboUt Phocoshop image manipulation issues. The Photoshop chapters are perhaps
the greatest weakness of rhe ix>ok. TIle \'ersion of Photos hop covered is tWO \'ersions
out of date. Software change is the perennial problem with sonware-oriented ix>oks,
but most software books are only one version out of date, not two.
The Jast chapter summarizes file exchange among the selected programs. Ex-
amples of scudent work are also provided in this last chapter. Unfortunately,
some of the student work is not up to publication standards. A more select ive
group of student work would have been more convincing for landscape architects
skepcical about digiral media possibilities.
One distraction is the frequent use of the title of professor for both authors. In
future editions of the book the text should focus on gening the reader co under-
stand the complex software commands, noton the authors' academic titles. This
book addresses a very imponant topic in a straightforward manner that will not
confuse even the most computer-phobic landscape architect. The simple ap-
proach of the book is the greatest reason for landscape architects to buy it and
ply these new skills to their practice.
Madis Pihlak is all aJwaafe professor of landscape arrhitf£tllre, architatuN, and the
ferdiJ[iplinary digital studio program at Penn State.
J'WJ£\'JU lIJ)JY
... GOODBYE EARTH, HELLO MOON,
by Gabri el Mell and Emily Rylander; Portland,
Maine; Warren Machine Company, 2008;
32 pages, $16.95.
SAN FRANCISCO"OASEO LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS
Gabriel Mell and Emily Rylander wrote and
Il l ustrated this charming
chlldren's book
chroni c ling a mass
migration, led by a group
01 di sgruntled pengUins,
01 animals from the
despoiled Earth to the
more pri stine moon,
The detailed, whimsical drawings and lald·back
theme 01 conservation with a dash 01 adventure
will appeal to adults as well as their kids.
... PLANNING THE URBAN FOREST;
ECOLOGY, ECONOMY, AND COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT,
edited by James C. Schwab; Chicago: American
Plannln, Association, 2009; 154 pales, 560.
THIS REPORT BY THE American Plannln,
Association provides case studies 0' urban
.. I ,I_I •• ",

- .. ;,I>' • "
_---,. 1
./j,

forestry programs In cities and
towns across the United
States. It Is heavy on policy
Issues and aimed at landscape
architects, arborlsts, and
bureaucrats working In the
public sector to manage or
expand the urban forest.
However, It could have been Improved by
providing examples of dla,rams that cities and
counties can use to make their laws clearer.
... ORNAMENTAL GRASSES; WOLFGANG
OEHM E AND THE N EW AMERICAN GARDEN,
by Stelen Leppert; London: Frances Lincoln
limited, 2009; 144 pages , $45,
THE TITLE OF THIS BOOK Is mis leading, It' s not
primarily about ornamental grasses but Is rather
a flattering (to put It mildly)
biography of Wolfgang Oehme,
FASLA, who uses such
grasses, among other plants,
In his garden des igns,
Readers who are not put off
by the portrayal of
Oehme may glean some useful Information about
the American Gardens " designed by
Oehme, Van Sweden & Associates.
A.Rll 2 0 0t LandsupeArehlteehre 1119
To obtain information about our
advertisers' products/services:
Circle a reader service number
on the postage paid Reader's
Service card (see list at right for
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Circle the four-digit number of the
desired category (upper-right corner
of the reader service card). Then
detach the card and drop it in the mail
or fax it to 1..aoo-571-7730. Your infor·
mation will anive in four to six weeks.
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Hanover ArchilOClural Producis. Inc .. ... ... ..... . hanoverpavers.com ............................... 95 .. .. ... ... 12. 49
Hauser l nduslrias .. ..... .. ...... .. . .. ........ .. ........ ... hauser.ca .... ......... .. . .......... .. ........ ... .. ... 179 ................ 53
HLH Walls ... ... ...... .... ... .......... ...... .... ... ...... .... hlhwalis.com ........ ............. .......... ... ..... 323 ...... ... ... .... 19
Structures. Inc ........................... invisiblestructures.com ___________________ 108 _____________ 18
KeyslOrnl Ridgo Oosigns. Inc .. ...... ....... ... ... ... keyslonoridgedesigns.com ....... ...... ..... 116 .. .... ... ... .. 135
Kingsley 8 al o. Ltd ........................................ kirlgsleybalo.com ................................ 303 ... .... .. ... .... 2 1
Kornegay Design .......................................... komagaydesign.com .. .. ... ... ..... .. .... .. .. . .. 118 ............... .48
Landscape Forms . ... .... ...... .......... ... .... ...... ... Iandscapeforms.com ...... .......... ... .... .... 126 .......... ... ..... 9
Landscape Structures. Inc ______________________ playlsLcom _____________________________________ 127 ____________ 27
Leatzow Insurance ... .. .. ...... .......... ... .... ...... ... Iaatzow.com ...... ... .. .. ...... ..... ........ .. . .. ... 129 .. . .. ........ .. ... 5
LONGSHAOOW®
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Lumac Inc ... .... ...... .... ... ...... ... .......... .......... .. .Iumoc.com .......................................... 135 ................ 16
Mi racte Recreation Equipment ________________ miracle· recreation_com ___________________ 140 _____________ 10
Most Dependable Fountains ... ...... ... .... ......... ..... ............. ........ 143 ... .... . 14, 135
Garoon ...... ... .... ...... .......... ... .......... ... .... ...... .... ......... ... ..... 151 ......... 83. 125
Pavestone Company .. .. ...... .. ........ ... .. .. ...... ... pavestone.com .. ... .. .. ...... ..... ........ .. . .. ... 188 . .. .. ... 128. C4
Pormaloc Aluminum Edging .......... ............. ... pOrmaloc.com ..................................... 157 ...... ...... .... 73
Pine Hall 8 rick Coo. Inc ____________________________ americaspremierpaver_com 159 _______ 85, 129
Playworld Sysl ems. Inc . ...... .......... ... .... ...... ... playworl dsyslems.com ... .. ........... .. ...... 164 ................ 39
PolyPavement Company .............................. polypavemon1.com ... ...... .... ......... ... ..... 167 .. ... .... .... . 134
Prisma Architectural Ughting ___________________ prismalighting_com _________________________ 153 ____________ 13
Roman Fountains .. ... .... ...... ... .......... .......... ... romanloonlains.com . ...... ... .......... ........ 242 ... ... ... ... .... 59
Corporation _________________________________ _____________________________________ 186 ______________ 8
Shade Systams, Inc ...................................... shadesystamsinc.com ........................... 59 ................ 65
ShadofX Canopies ...................................... sI1adebcanopios.com ..... ... .......... ........ 248 .. .... ... ..... 134
Sitecraft _____________________________________________ sitecraft .com ____________________________________ 287 11
SPfirlg Cily Electrical Mig. Co . ...... ... .... ...... ... springcily.com ...... .......... ... .......... ... ..... 193 ... ... ... ... .... 33
Slepslono. Inc .............................................. stepsloneinc.com ................................ 197 ... .... .. ... .... 24
Stona Forasl ................................................ sloneloresl.com ... .. .. ...... ..... ........ .. . .. ... 259 ................ 93
SlrossCrole GroupIKing Luminaire, The .. ...... strosscrote.com . ... .... ...... ... .......... ... ..... 246 ... .... .. ... .... 25
Tournesol S<teworkslPlamer Technology ______ planterlechnology_com ___________________ 161 _____________ 70
Trilary Inc/Thomas .... ...... ... ... ...... ... . 235 .... ... . 47, 12£
Vorsa-Lok Rela;nlng Wal l System ................. vorsa-Iok.com .... ... .... ...... .... ......... ... ..... 221 .... .... .. ... .... 29
Viclor Stanlay, Inc ......... ...... .......... ... .... ...... ... vi<;torstanlay.com ................................. 222 ..... ... 126. C3
Vortox Aqualics Siruciures Inlemalional .. ...... vortox-inti.com ... ... .... ...... ... .......... ... ..... 226 ... ... ... ....... 43
Walpole Woodworkers. Inc _____________________ walpolewoodworkers.com ________________ 229 _____________ 84
Wausau Tole .. .. ...... .. . .. .. ...... .. . .. ........ .. ........ ... wausautila.com ................................... 310 ................ 57
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CRITIC AT LARGE
(COlllllllled [rom Page 136)
couns ... even public an- are
crammed together as visual
shonhand for endless leisure.
They are landscape as signage,
a placeholder for the jX>ssibili-
ties of a park.
But could we then imagine
that Korea's urban landscape
subcontractors have been ap-
plying the lessons of graphic
design [Q eheir creations, as if
toa poster or magazine spread?
The spaces between ornamental planters
are carefully kemed, the edges of flower
beds masterfully shaped through ragging
to create an "organic" appearance-each
element ordered and constrained by a
Tschicholdian grid. Or perhaps chese parks
are the work of one visionary landscape de-
signer, a passionate disciple of Edward
Tufte. His goal is the uleimate park info-
ShadeFY
g raphic, and he diligently recombines
ponds, benches, and pagodas co achieve
ever greater data density that allows fOf
ever more sophisticated landscape analy-
ses, TIle published results will become ehe
canonical park design text for a generaeion,
changing public policy as effectively as
John Snow's landmark cholera outbreak
map of London once did.
Finally, I' m reminded of the Royal Hor-
cicultural Society's model gardens at \'\fis-
ley. Wisley, an otherwise unremarkable
village in Surrey, is home toan education-
al garden, meam to fulfill the Society's re-
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Aowers, vegetables, and fruit for "garden or
ornamemal use." Teams of horticulcurists
parrner with botanists, entomologists, and
pathologists to determine the correct de-
tails, cultivation, and advice for each group
of plams, with high-performing plams
winning an Award of Garden Merit
(AGM)- the gardening equivalent of a
Good Housekeeping Seal.
AGM-winning plants are then arranged
in model gardens at \'\fisley, co which the
publ ic is invited co learn the ideal varietals,
patterns, and conditions for a garden on
chalky soil, say, or a poorly drained lor.
TIlese model gardens are not accually in-
tended co be the private backyards they re-
semble; instead they are parr instruction
manual, parr shop window, parr proCOtype
offurure, unrealized landscapes
elsewhere. Like Park's parks,
they are primarily designed to
be read rather than sensed or
experienced, and they are de-
liberately exhaustive in their
approach, with each rather
small plot designed to show all
appropriate elements of, for in-
stance, a sub-alpine rock gar-
den. Which leads me to wonder
if Park's photos have inadver-
temly documemed an experi-
mental array of urban tCSt gar-
dens, new spatial formats for
high-density leisure in their
beta phase.
Nicola Twilley (hctp:lltwiccer. com/nicola
twilley) is a writer based in San Francisco,
with rearlt publicattom 111 Volume aI/dOwell
magazines, as well as the Journal of Space
and Cui cure.
Reprinted with permission from BLDG
BLOC (bldgblog.blogspot.com).
/2
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210S landsnpeArcbitecture 1 135
K
OREAN PHOT(x:;RAPI-IER Hosang
Park's series, A Square, consists of
bird's-eye views of [he small , over-
landscaped parks that seem to ac-
company modern apartment cowers
all over [he world. As Park explains, these
"parks" are coo small to serve their osten-
sible pUfJXlse: as open space for recreation
and places "co make discussions or take a
Test." In the United Kingdom and [he
United Scates, they are included in new
construction projects to fulfill che leerer of
136 l lilnd&ClpeArchitecture A'. 'L 20 01
A photographer uses his photographs to make
a point about smaJJ parks. By Nicola Twilley
Photography by Hosang Park
planning regulations (if not [he spirir}-a
coken Band-Aid of "narure" applied to
high-densitydevelopmenr. As Park points
out , their presence in Korea is both a reas-
surance and an investmem: the trees, paths,
and water features , no matter how arrifi -
cial, push up properry prices by providing
an implicit guarantee of "rhe environmen-
tal benefits of a place where they belong."
Park's parks are photographed from
above- which seems, in fact , to be the
view for which they were designed. As
two-dimensional compositions of curved
paths, colored paving, and rhythmically
spaced rocks or rrees, they resemble pleas-
ing, if sterile, designs for wrapping paper or
IKEA rugs. It is telling that they are also
completely empty. Park explains that he
took these photos while he was living on
the 13th floor of Jugong Apartment in
Chang-dong, Seoul. He and his hundreds
of neighbors experienced t heir park as a
patch of eye candy- visual respite from the
concrete and tarmac of their surroundings.
Its cornucopia of ameni t ies---c limbing
frames, foumains, seesaws and swing sets,
pagooas, grass, ornamental rocks, meander-
ing paths, trees and flower beds, benches,
ponds, basketball (Con/;'Illed 011 Page 134)
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