EndNote®
Windows Version X3

Copyright © 2009 Thomson Reuters All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form by any means, without written permission from Thomson Reuters. Trademarks EndNote is a registered trademark of Thomson Reuters. Cite While You Write is a trademark of Thomson Reuters. Apple and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Finder is a trademark of Apple, Inc. Palm OS, Palm Powered, HotSync, and the HotSync logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of PalmSource, Inc. Palm, PalmOne, Treo, Tungsten, and Zire are trademarks or registered trademarks of Palm, Inc. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Mobile, Pocket PC, and ActiveSync are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. OpenOffice.org is a trademark of OpenOffice.org. All other product and service names cited in this manual may be trademarks or service marks of their respective companies. Notice regarding legal use of downloaded reference data EndNote gives you the capability to import references from online databases and store them in your personal EndNote libraries. Some producers of online reference databases expressly prohibit such use and storage of their data, others charge an extra fee for a license to use the data in this way. Before you download references from a database, be sure to carefully check the copyright and fair use notices for the database. Note that different databases from the same provider may have varying restrictions.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Welcome to EndNote
Introducing EndNote ....................................................................................... 10 About This Manual........................................................................................... 10 Customer Services ............................................................................................ 11 What’s New in EndNote X3 ............................................................................ 13

Chapter 2

Installing and Upgrading EndNote
Before You Install EndNote............................................................................. 16 EndNote Installation ........................................................................................ 18 Upgrading from an Earlier EndNote Version .............................................. 25 Checking Your Installation.............................................................................. 26 Automatically Updating Files......................................................................... 28 Uninstalling EndNote ...................................................................................... 29

Chapter 3

The EndNote Guided Tour
Introduction to the Guided Tour.................................................................... 33 Part I: Introduction to an EndNote Library .................................................. 35 Part II: Setting EndNote Preferences.............................................................. 46 Part III: Entering a Reference .......................................................................... 50 Part IV: Searching an Online Database.......................................................... 57 Part V: Importing Reference Data into EndNote ......................................... 67 Part VI: Searching an EndNote Library and Saving it as a Smart Group ...................................................................................................... 74 Part VII: Using EndNote While Writing a Paper With Microsoft Word ................................................................................................. 78

Chapter 4

The EndNote Library
About the EndNote Library ............................................................................ 89 The Library Window........................................................................................ 91 Creating Libraries ........................................................................................... 105 Opening, Closing, and Deleting Libraries .................................................. 110 Merging Libraries ........................................................................................... 113 Sharing EndNote Libraries Across Different Versions and Applications .................................................................................................... 115 Transferring Libraries Across Platforms ..................................................... 120 Data Visualization .......................................................................................... 122

Chapter 5

Entering and Editing References
Introduction..................................................................................................... 127 Opening, Closing, Saving, and Deleting References ................................. 133 Creating a New Reference ............................................................................. 137

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Entering References........................................................................................ 139 Entering Special Characters .......................................................................... 152 Inserting Figures ............................................................................................. 155 Linking References to Websites and Files ................................................... 160 Spell Checking................................................................................................. 168 Changing Text in Multiple References ........................................................ 169

Chapter 6

Searching Online Databases with EndNote
Introduction to Searching Online Databases .............................................. 178 Selecting a Connection File............................................................................ 183 Searching an Online Database ...................................................................... 187 Retrieving and Saving References................................................................ 193 Searching ISI Web of Knowledge ................................................................. 198 Finding Related Online References.............................................................. 200 Finding Full Text for a Reference ................................................................. 200

Chapter 7

Importing Reference Data into EndNote
Importing Reference Data into EndNote .................................................... 210 General Importing Instructions .................................................................... 211 Import Options................................................................................................ 213 Importing References Downloaded from Online Databases ................... 214 Output Formats with Corresponding Import Options/Direct Export ... 218 Creating Structured Text Files that EndNote Can Import........................ 219 Copying and Pasting References from a Document into EndNote......... 228 Importing References From Other Bibliographic Software Programs.... 229

Chapter 8

Searching and Sorting in EndNote
Showing and Hiding References .................................................................. 232 Searching for References................................................................................ 233 Finding Duplicate References ....................................................................... 248 Finding Text in a Single Reference............................................................... 250 Sorting the Library.......................................................................................... 250

Chapter 9

Using Groups
About Groups and Group Sets ..................................................................... 254 Group Sets........................................................................................................ 258 Automatic Groups .......................................................................................... 260 Custom Groups ............................................................................................... 262 Smart Groups .................................................................................................. 265 Managing Groups........................................................................................... 267

Chapter 10

Term Lists
Introduction to Term Lists............................................................................. 273 Adding Terms to a Term List........................................................................ 274 Using Term Lists for Data Entry and Searching ........................................ 281

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Editing Terms and Term Lists .......................................................................283 Defining Term Lists ........................................................................................283 Creating Term Lists.........................................................................................285 Exporting and Printing Term Lists ...............................................................288 Working with the Journals Term List...........................................................288

Chapter 11

Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word
Overview of the Cite While You Write Process..........................................295 Notes about Microsoft Word .........................................................................299 Using Predefined Manuscript Templates ....................................................305 Citing Sources As You Write .........................................................................311 Typing Citations into Your Paper.................................................................322 Changing Existing Citations ..........................................................................330 Generating Bibliographies .............................................................................334 Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables.............................................346 Setting Cite While You Write Preferences ...................................................356 Making Changes to the EndNote Library....................................................357 Sharing Your Word Documents....................................................................359

Chapter 12

Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.org Writer
Overview of the Cite While You Write Process..........................................367 Notes about OpenOffice.org Writer .............................................................369 Citing Sources As You Write .........................................................................371 Typing Citations into Your Paper.................................................................380 Changing Existing Citations ..........................................................................381 Generating Bibliographies .............................................................................385 Setting Cite While You Write Preferences ...................................................391 Making Changes to the EndNote Library....................................................391 Sharing Your OpenOffice.org Writer Documents ......................................393

Chapter 13

Scanning and Formatting Files
Scanning and Formatting Files......................................................................396 Tips on Citing Sources....................................................................................401 Formatting Citations and Creating Bibliographies ....................................405 Managing Your EndNote Library.................................................................411

Chapter 14

Creating an Independent Bibliography
Independent Bibliographies ..........................................................................416 Using Drag-and-Drop to Create an Instant Bibliography.........................417 Copy Formatted...............................................................................................418 Exporting References ......................................................................................419 Printing and Previewing References ............................................................422 Including Notes, Abstracts, and Other Information in a Reference List...................................................................................................424

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Chapter 15

Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists
Overview.......................................................................................................... 428 Printing a Subject Bibliography .................................................................... 428 Printing a Subject List .................................................................................... 431 Subject Bibliography Settings ....................................................................... 437 Examples of Subject Bibliographies ............................................................. 446

Chapter 16

Reference Types
Introduction..................................................................................................... 450 The Generic Reference Type ......................................................................... 453 Special Fields ................................................................................................... 453 Customizing the Reference Types................................................................ 456 Sharing Your Reference Type Table............................................................. 462 Table of Predefined Reference Types .......................................................... 463

Chapter 17

Bibliographic Styles
Introduction..................................................................................................... 467 Modifying Style Templates ........................................................................... 479 Additional Style Formatting Options .......................................................... 493 Figure and Table Placement and Captions ................................................. 519 Creating a New Style...................................................................................... 522

Chapter 18

Filters
Introduction to Filters .................................................................................... 527 The Basic Components of a Filter................................................................. 532 Working with Filter Templates..................................................................... 534 The Filter Options ........................................................................................... 542 Importing MARC Records ............................................................................ 557 Example: Modifying an Existing Filter........................................................ 560 Creating a New Filter ..................................................................................... 562

Chapter 19

Connection Files
Introduction to Connection Files.................................................................. 568 Basic Components of a Connection File ...................................................... 573 Creating Connection Files ............................................................................. 581 Using Z39.50 Command-Line Syntax .......................................................... 583

Chapter 20

Preferences, Toolbars, and Shortcuts
EndNote Preferences ...................................................................................... 588 Microsoft Word Cite While You Write Preferences................................... 616 OpenOffice.org Writer Cite While You Write Preferences....................... 622 Shortcuts to Make Using EndNote Easier................................................... 624

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Chapter 21

Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries
Overview of EndNote Web............................................................................630 Setting Up a New EndNote Web Account ..................................................630 Before You Begin .............................................................................................631 Transferring References..................................................................................632 Using Cite While You Write with EndNote Web .......................................636

Chapter 22

Using EndNote on a Palm OS Handheld
Overview of Using EndNote on Palm OS Handheld Devices...........................................................................640 Installing EndNote for Palm OS....................................................................640 Synchronizing Libraries .................................................................................644 Starting EndNote for Palm OS and Displaying References ......................645 Entering, Editing, and Deleting References ................................................647 Searching a Handheld Library ......................................................................649 Beaming References Between Handhelds ...................................................650 Viewing Library Statistics ..............................................................................650 EndNote Preferences ......................................................................................651

Chapter 23

Using EndNote on a Windows Mobile Device
Overview of Using EndNote on a Windows Mobile Device ....................654 Installing EndNote on a Windows Mobile Device.....................................654 Synchronizing Libraries .................................................................................657 Starting EndNote for Windows Mobile and Displaying References.......659 Entering, Editing, and Deleting References ................................................661 Searching a Handheld EndNote Library .....................................................663 Viewing Library Statistics ..............................................................................664 Setting EndNote Preferences .........................................................................664

Chapter 24

Networks and Volume Installations
Using EndNote on a Network.......................................................................668 Volume Installations .......................................................................................670 Unlocking the Volume/Site License Installer .............................................671 Mass Program Installations ...........................................................................672 Uninstalling EndNote.....................................................................................683

Appendix A Appendix B

Making Backup Copies of Your EndNote Files............................ 686 Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting EndNote .............................................................................692 Troubleshooting Cite While You Write .......................................................697 Troubleshooting Connections .......................................................................703

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Appendix C Appendix D

Reference Types and Fields............................................................. 713 Direct Export Formats and Import Formats
About Direct Export and Import Formats................................................... 742 Direct Export Formats.................................................................................... 743 Output Formats with Corresponding Import Options ............................. 751

Appendix E

Keyboard Commands
Menu Keyboard Commands......................................................................... 758 Editing Keyboard Commands ...................................................................... 760 CWYW Keyboard Commands for Word .................................................... 761

The EndNote Glossary .................................................................................................. 763 Index ................................................................................................................ 771

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Chapter 1 Welcome to EndNote

Contents
Introducing EndNote ........................................................... 10 About This Manual .............................................................. 10 Customer Services ................................................................ Online Help and Release Notes............................... Register Your Copy of EndNote.............................. Customer Service ...................................................... Technical Support ..................................................... International Customer and Technical Support .... The EndNote Website............................................... The EndNote Discussion Forum ............................. ADA VPAT ................................................................ 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13

What’s New in EndNote X3 ................................................ 13

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Introducing EndNote
Welcome to EndNote—the complete reference solution! EndNote is an online search tool—it provides a simple way to search online bibliographic databases and retrieve the references directly into EndNote. (EndNote can also import data files saved from a variety of online services and library databases.) EndNote is a reference and figure database—it specializes in storing, managing, and searching for bibliographic references in your private reference library. You can organize figures—including charts, tables, pictures, and equations—and have EndNote locate and store full text files. EndNote is a bibliography and manuscript maker—it formats citations, figures, and tables in Microsoft® Word with the Cite While You Write™ feature. Watch the reference, figure, and table lists grow as you insert citations in your manuscript. Microsoft Word templates guide you through the exacting manuscript requirements of publishers. Users can also use Cite While You Write for OpenOffice.org Writer to format citations and a bibliography. For other word processors, users can create bibliographies with Format Paper. EndNote and EndNote Web are collaborative tools to simplify working with colleagues. See “What’s New in EndNote X3” on page 13 for a list of the most recent features added to EndNote. For late-breaking news and updates, please go to: http://www.endnote.com/support.

About This Manual
This manual assumes that you know how to use Windows, your word processor, and the mouse. For help on these topics, consult your computer owner’s guide or your word processor manual. Often there is more than one way to select a command in EndNote. A single command may be available from one of the main menus, from a context-sensitive right click menu, from a toolbar icon, or with a keyboard command. In most cases, this manual gives instructions for selecting commands from the main menus. If a menu command has a keyboard equivalent, the keyboard command appears next to the menu item. You can also refer to the “Keyboard Commands” appendix on page 757.

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Chapter 1: Welcome to EndNote

The following representations for key combinations are used: Instruction CTRL+ESC CTRL+ALT+ENTER Explanation While holding down the CTRL key, press the ESC key. While holding down the CTRL and ALT keys, press the ENTER key.

Menu names, menu selections, and button names appear in italic text.

Customer Services
Online Help and Release Notes
Online Help: You can access all of the information found in the manual by consulting the online Help file. From EndNote’s Help menu, select Contents to view the various topics. For contextsensitive help, click the Help or ? button found on various windows and dialogs or press the F1 key on your keyboard. Release Notes: For documentation updates and correction notes for this release, refer to the Readme.txt file installed in the EndNote folder. Late Breaking News: For late-breaking news and updates, please go to: http://www.endnote.com/support.

Register Your Copy of EndNote

If you haven’t done so already, please mail, fax, or email your registration to Thomson Reuters (go to http://www.endnote.com/encontact.asp). You also have the opportunity to register during installation. Even if you purchased EndNote directly from Thomson Reuters, do not assume that you are registered. Registered users receive: free technical support special upgrade offers notification of new EndNote versions that are compatible with the latest version of your word processor

Chapter 1: Welcome to EndNote

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Customer Service

Contact Sales for general product information, pricing, quantity discounts, and referrals to dealers. Contact Customer Support to order new copies or upgrades of EndNote, to check billing/shipping status, and to register your software.

Sales Information
Phone: 760 438 5526 (country code is 01) Fax: 760 438 5573 (country code is 01) Web/Email: http://www.endnote.com/encontact.asp

Customer Support (Orders, Billing, and Shipping)
Phone: 800 336 4474 (country code is 01) Fax: 215 386 2911 (country code is 01) Web/Email: http://www.endnote.com/encontact.asp

Technical Support

Contact Technical Support at Thomson Reuters if you encounter problems while using EndNote. When you contact us, please have a clear description of the problem and know the version of your copy of Windows, EndNote, and your word processor. (To find the EndNote version, start EndNote and choose About EndNote from the Help menu.) Also have your EndNote serial number available. For web/email or phone contact, please see: http://www.endnote.com/encontact.asp For hours and holiday closures, please see: http://scientific.thomson.com/support/techsupport/hours/ Technical support tips are also available on the EndNote website and through the EndNote Discussion Forum (see below).

International Customer and Technical Support

For customer support or technical support outside of North America, please visit our website to check for a local distributor. Go to http://www.endnote.com, click on Contact Us, and then click on International Distributors to find a local distributor.

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Chapter 1: Welcome to EndNote

The EndNote Website

The EndNote website (http://www.endnote.com) contains technical support tips, utilities for data transfer, and information about the latest versions of EndNote. You can learn about the various training options. You can also find updated styles, filters, connection files, and other related documents at this site. Go to the website and look under Support and Services. To easily locate incremental updates available on the website, go to the Help menu in EndNote and select EndNote Program Updates.

The EndNote Discussion Forum

If you wish to join an ongoing forum of EndNote users like yourself, go to the EndNote website at http://www.endnote.com, click on Support and Services, and then scroll down and click on the link to go to the EndNote Discussion Forum. You can browse several EndNote message lists, easily search for topics, and join to add messages. Thomson Reuters is dedicated to developing software products that are usable for everyone, including those with physical challenges and disabilities. EndNote was designed to adhere to the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) Section 508 accessibility standards. Please visit our website at http://www.endnote.com, and click the Support & Services link to access the VPAT (Voluntary Product Accessibility Template) document that describes the accessibility features that address the Section 508 Standards. The VPAT is an informational tool developed by industry and government to help facilitate the understanding of compatibility issues under Section 508.

ADA VPAT

What’s New in EndNote X3
EndNote X3 adds these features: Use Group Sets to better organize your EndNote references. Save references in groups and then save sets of groups in Group Sets. You can collect both custom groups and smart groups within the same Group Set. See Chapter 9, “Using Groups.” Cite While You Write with the free OpenOffice.org Writer word processor. See Chapter 12, “Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.org Writer.”

Chapter 1: Welcome to EndNote

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Create a separate bibliography for each section in a single Microsoft Word document. See “Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document” on page 343 and “Sections (Microsoft Word Only)” on page 497. In Microsoft Word, multiple citations that are grouped under a single number can be differentiated with letters. See “Numbering Citations” on page 501. Find even more full text documents with Find Full Text. Use OpenURL Link resolvers and proxy systems to find, download, and automatically attach full text PDF files along with core bibliographic data. See “Finding Full Text for a Reference” on page 200. Easily save a copy of an attached file. See “Saving a Copy of an Attached File” on page 165. Use expanded and updated bibliographic output styles, import filters, and connection files. Use EndNote with full compatibility with 64 bit versions of Microsoft Windows.

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Chapter 1: Welcome to EndNote

Chapter 2 Installing and Upgrading EndNote

Contents
Before You Install EndNote ................................................ Program Requirements ............................................ Word Processor Compatibility ................................ EndNote for Handheld Devices .............................. EndNote Installation ............................................................ Installing EndNote.................................................... Installed Files ............................................................ Custom Installations/Adding Content Files.......... Upgrading from an Earlier EndNote Version ................. Backing Up or Replacing Files................................. Opening and Converting Old EndNote Libraries .............................................................. Using Old Style, Filter, and Connection Files ........ 16 16 16 18 18 18 20 23 25 25 26 26

Checking Your Installation................................................. 26 To Begin Using EndNote ......................................... 26 Checking Cite While You Write Support ............... 27 Automatically Updating Files ............................................ 28 Uninstalling EndNote .......................................................... 29 Uninstalling Palm OS Support and Word 2007 Settings ................................................................ 29 Uninstalling the EndNote Program ........................ 29

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StarOffice. you will also need your previous EndNote serial number. System Requirements: EndNote runs under the following operating systems: Windows XP. You will need a valid EndNote product key to install the program. contact the distributor. To use the Open Link command to access a website. Word Processor Compatibility As of June 2009.org Writer. or EndNote Web. EndNote for Windows is compatible with: Microsoft Office Word 2003 or 2007 for Windows Open Document Format (ODT) documents created with OpenOffice. you also need a Web browser installed. NOTE: Make sure that your computer meets the system and hardware requirements before continuing.org Writer RTF files created with most word processors.Before You Install EndNote Please read this section before you proceed with the installation. WordPerfect. with at least Service Pack 3 installed (32 or 64 bit versions) Windows Vista (32 or 64 bit versions) Hardware Requirements: A personal computer with a Pentium (or compatible) 450-MHz or faster processor A minimum of 256 MB of available RAM A hard drive with at least 180 MB of free space An Internet connection is required in order to use EndNote’s Online Search feature for searching online databases. If necessary. dealer. If you have a CD you need a CD-ROM drive to install the program. or store where you purchased EndNote to arrange for a full refund. You must do so within 30 days of purchase. If you are upgrading from a previous version. OpenOffice. contact Thomson Reuters directly. and WordPad 16 Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote . the Find Full Text feature. If you have any problem obtaining a refund. Program Requirements EndNote is available on CD or by downloading. including: Microsoft Word.

If a supported version of Microsoft Word is installed on your computer. In order for Cite While You Write to install properly. the appropriate Cite While You Write files are installed automatically for the current user when you run the EndNote installation. In order for Cite While You Write to install properly.org Writer.x. Word 2007 displays Cite While You Write commands on an EndNote tab. RTF and ODT Documents: For word processors other than Word 2003. make sure that the Word application is closed before attempting to install Cite While You Write.org version 3 Writer. Microsoft Word 2003 or 2007 must be correctly installed on your computer prior to installing EndNote. However. Cite While You Write allows EndNote to format citations and create a bibliography for the document that is open in OpenOffice. use EndNote’s Format Paper feature to format the citations and bibliography from your ODT or RTF file. including the OpenOffice. Word 2003 displays an EndNote submenu of commands on Word’s Tools menu. See Chapter 13 for details. unformat. Then. CWYW commands appear on an EndNote menu. You can format.org 3.Microsoft Word: EndNote installs Cite While You Write commands in Microsoft Word. OpenOffice.org ODT document. You must close all OpenOffice. Word 2007. first write your paper and insert in-text citations.org Writer: EndNote installs Cite While You Write commands in the OpenOffice. If the file format is anything other than an OpenOffice. Cite While You Write allows EndNote to format citations and create a bibliography for the document that is open in Word. You can format.org 3. unformat. Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote 17 . or OpenOffice. and reformat a document—without exiting your word processor.x suite must be correctly installed on your computer prior to installing EndNote.org applications before installing Cite While You Write. the OpenOffice. and reformat a document—without exiting your word processor. save as an RTF file. This feature can be used with a shared copy of Word or on a network.org Quickstarter.

you may want to install EndNote for your handheld device. Microsoft Word. Right click on the icon and choose Exit Quickstarter. The OpenOffice. Log in to the local machine with administrative rights or as a user with program installation privileges. type “d:\setup” (use the drive letter appropriate to the drive containing the installation CD) and press ENTER.org applications.EndNote for Handheld Devices If your computer has software installed to allow synchronizing with a Palm OS® handheld device or a Windows Mobile® device such as a Pocket PC®. EndNote Installation Follow these instructions to install the EndNote program. If you do not have Autoplay enabled. See “Using EndNote on a Windows Mobile Device” on page 653 for information about how to install and use EndNote on a Windows Mobile OS handheld device. See “Using EndNote on a Palm OS Handheld” on page 639 for information about how to install and use EndNote on a Palm OS handheld device. Use the Next button to move forward between through these installation dialogs: 18 Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote . licensing. please see “Upgrading from an Earlier EndNote Version” on page 25. Installing EndNote To install EndNote: 1. “Networks and Volume Installations” for for information about using EndNote in a network environment. Make sure no applications are running. choose Run from the Start menu.org Quickstarter may appear in your System tray. Follow the instructions on the screen to complete the installation. or any OpenOffice. The EndNote Setup program will start. If you are upgrading from a previous version of EndNote. 2. If you downloaded the EndNote installer: Double click the installer file to start the EndNote Setup program. 3. Please see Chapter 24. including virus protection software. and performing mass installations. If you received EndNote on a CD: Insert the EndNote CD into your CD-ROM drive. Start the EndNote installation program.

EndNote is installed in the button to change the folder selection if you wish. You can use the Browse Select Destination: By default. Select Installation Type: Typical installs the most popular 100 output styles. most popular 100 filters. enter your EndNote product key. If you back up files. Read Me Information: Read late-breaking news about this version of EndNote. or on the order confirmation of your digital product. If you are upgrading from a previous version. Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote 19 . and connection files. but when this item is selected the installer will suppress Word’s native Citations and Bibliography commands (the group normally found on the References tab in Word) in order to avoid confusion for the user. Limiting the number of files installed speeds up performance. End User License Agreement: You must select “I accept the license agreement” in order to continue with the installation. it asks whether to “Use EndNote as my default citation manager. User Information: Enter your name and organization. choose the appropriate button. If you are installing the Demo version. Advanced users can choose Custom to hand pick the file groups to install. you will be given the option to either back up or overwrite the older files. Select Default Citation Manager: (Microsoft Word 2007 only) If the installer detects Microsoft Word 2007. You must enter a valid product key to continue with installation of the full version of EndNote. Palm and Windows Mobile Read Me Information: Read late-breaking news about EndNote for the Palm OS and Windows Mobile OS. C:\Program Files\EndNote X3 folder. The product key can be found in the EndNote X3 CD packaging. and add additional styles. If a previous installation of EndNote is found in the same folder. filters. they are placed in a Backup folder in the installation folder. Select Components: (Custom installations only) If you selected a Custom installation. you must also enter your previous EndNote serial number. You do not need a product key or serial number to install the Demo version of EndNote. see “Selecting Features” on page 24.” Cite While You Write will be installed in Word 2007 in any case. and most popular 100 connection files.Welcome: Thank you for selecting EndNote! Registration Information: If you are installing the full version of EndNote.

exe application file EndNote.Ready to Install: You can still click Cancel to stop the installation. Once you click Next. This folder contains bibliographic styles for formatting citations and a bibliography. see “Checking Your Installation” on page 26.chm help file You can double-click the file to view it. Installed Files The full EndNote installation includes the following default folders and files. click Register to register your copy of EndNote. A Typical installation includes only the most popular 100 files. Connections folder This folder contains connection files to connect to and search online bibliographic databases. In the EndNote program.txt text file contains late-breaking news EndNote. the installation program will begin installing EndNote files. select EndNote X3 Help from the Help menu. you can choose from a full collection of over 3. A Typical installation includes only the most popular 100 styles. Styles folder 20 Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote . Readme. With a Custom installation. and click Finish to close the installation program. On the final “EndNote X3 is Successfully Installed” dialog. you can choose from a collection of thousands. and to experiment with while learning EndNote.700 bibliographic styles. To make sure the program installed correctly. 4. OR C:\Program Files (x86)\EndNote X3 (64-bit Windows versions) EndNote X3. Pressing the F1 key on your keyboard or clicking a Help or ? button in the program brings up a context-sensitive topic. With a Custom installation.pdf gives a tour of the program Examples shortcut folder This is a shortcut to an Examples folder that contains sample files to follow the guided tour found in Chapter 3 and the Getting Started Guide. Program Folder C:\Program Files\EndNote X3.pdf is the full electronic manual GettingStartedGuide.

Various additional folders and files are installed to support the EndNote program and to integrate EndNote with other software programs. Shared Folder Open the Shared Documents or Public Documents folder in Windows Explorer to find the EndNote folder located at: Windows XP: Documents and Settings\All Users\Shared Documents\EndNote Windows Vista: C:\Users\Public\Public Documents\EndNote Examples folder This folder contains a sample library and other sample documents and graphics to use while learning EndNote. Import a list into your library’s Journals term list to use the abbreviations in your bibliographies. A Typical installation includes only the most popular 100 files. you can choose from a collection of hundreds. Terms Lists folder This folder contains journal abbreviation term lists. so that they are available to all users on your computer. These lists contain thousands of journal names and standard abbreviations. Spell folder This folder contains spell check dictionaries for the EndNote spell checker. Templates folder This folder contains Microsoft Word templates to quickly set up your papers for electronic submission to publishers.Filters folder This folder contains import filters for importing text files downloaded from online bibliographic databases. Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote 21 . You may want to use the shared EndNote folder to store your libraries. Palm and Pocket PC folders These folders contain Read Me files and support files that allow you to keep an EndNote library on a Palm handheld device or a Windows Mobile device. With a Custom installation.

To change your personal folder locations. It contains the connect. Preferences Folder Depending on your settings. these folders may be hidden from view in Windows Explorer. your personal EndNote folder contains those files that you have created or modified. see “Folder Locations” on page 604.xml file that stores your reference type preferences. connection files. If a file of the same name appears in both locations. EndNote displays a single list of the files found in both locations.log file that records your latest online search. the RefTypeTable. It also allows you to make changes to files even though you may not have administrator access to modify files in the Program Files folder.Personal Folder Open the My Documents or Documents folder in Windows Explorer to find the EndNote folder located at: Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\My Documents\EndNote Windows Vista: C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote These folders are created when you create or modify a file: Styles folder contains new or modified bibliographic styles Connections folder contains new or modified connection files Filters folder contains new or modified import filters While the program folder contains the default styles. saved search strategies. This prevents changes to the original files. 22 Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote . and assures that you will not inadvertently delete a customized file when you remove or upgrade the EndNote program. and various other settings. Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\ Application Data\EndNote Windows Vista: C:\Users\[UserName]\App Data\Roaming\EndNote While many EndNote preferences are stored in the Windows registry. and filters. some are stored in your personal preferences folder. EndNote will display only the file found in your personal folder.

2. In the list. select the Modify option and click Next. or choose Settings and then Control Panel. On the dialog titled “Select Installation Type. 3. When doing a custom install. For example. click on EndNote X3 and then Change.Custom Installations/ Adding Content Files Although we recommend that you use the Typical installation option to install EndNote. import filters. Then. From the Windows Start menu. Follow the instructions for “EndNote Installation” on page 18. On the “Application Maintenance” dialog.” read the section below. 2. and/or connection files). only the older Anthropology styles are removed. the Custom installation option can be useful if you are low on disk space. Log in to the machine with administrative rights or as a user with program installation privileges. select Control Panel. Do one of these: Start the EndNote installation program as you would for a new installation. see these topics: “Installing Additional Output Styles” on page 471. of if you would like to add additional content files (output styles. it gives you options to either backup or remove older files during the installation. or if you need to reinstall only certain EndNote components.” select Custom. only selected components are affected. “Selecting Features” to determine what you would like to select/deselect for installation. 3. Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote 23 . For information specifically about installing additional content files after EndNote is installed. and you choose to remove older files. if you are installing only the Anthropology styles. choose Add or Remove Programs. no other part of the installation is affected. NOTE: If the installer detects another copy of EndNote in the destination folder. “Installing Additional Filters” on page 529 “Installing Additional Connection Files” on page 570 To do a new custom installation: 1. When you get to the dialog titled “Select Features. To install components after EndNote X3 is already installed: 1.

The components you can select for installation include: EndNote Application EndNote Program Sample Files EndNote Help PDF Manual Word Templates/Add-ins: Templates for Microsoft Word Cite While You Write for Microsoft Word Additional Styles: These formats for creating bibliographies are grouped by type. Click the plus sign next to each category to display a detailed list of items. For each category or subcategory. Spelling Dictionaries: These are dictionaries available for the spelling checker. click the triangle next to the name to select from the available installation options. EndNote for Palm OS and Windows Mobile: These are files required for using EndNote for the Palm operating system or the Windows Mobile operating system. Additional Filters: These files for importing text files of reference data are grouped by information service provider. Selecting Features There are several major categories of components that can be installed with EndNote. To install a feature. “Selecting Features” to determine what you would like to select/deselect for installation. read the section below. Additional Connections: These files for directly retrieving references from online reference databases are grouped by information service provider. When you get to the “Select Features” dialog. 24 Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote .4. Entire feature will be installed on local hard drive. select one of these: Will be installed on local hard drive.

import filters. or connection files that you want to save. which is found in the EndNote X3 CD packaging or on the order confirmation for your digital product. Setup removes the older EndNote application and word processor support files. EndNote X3 is installed into the C:\Program Files\EndNote X3 folder. Setup replaces all of the styles. filters. filters. it alerts you and gives you two options. nor will any nonEndNote files in the EndNote folder.Upgrading from an Earlier EndNote Version Before you begin. updated sets of style. No matter which option you choose. you will need to enter both your new EndNote X3 product key. If they have the same names as any of the files to be installed. you should choose this option. You need to select what it should do with the styles. filters. Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote 25 . your libraries will not be deleted. (The Demo version of EndNote does not require these. See “Uninstalling EndNote” on page 29. back up any custom styles. Doing so has EndNote create a “Backup” folder in the EndNote folder and all of the styles. filters. Backup older files: EndNote X3 provides complete. After installing EndNote. and connection files from your existing EndNote installation with the new ones included with EndNote X3. filter. but if you want to keep any of your older modified files to use with EndNote X3. the installer will overwrite them with the new files. NOTE: During installation. or Connections folders installed with EndNote X3. Backing Up or Replacing Files If Setup detects an earlier copy of the EndNote program in the installation folder. and connection files from your older copy of EndNote. Filters. and connection files from your older installation are copied into that folder. Do not choose this option if you have custom styles. and your old EndNote serial number. you should move any of these files that you want to use into the Styles. and connection files that you do not want overwritten. If you continue with the installation to install EndNote X3 into your existing EndNote folder. By default. and connection files. Remove older files: If this option is selected. We strongly recommend that you uninstall any earlier version of EndNote before you install EndNote X3.) Install the upgrade just as you would a new installation. See “EndNote Installation” on page 18.

filters. First. 4.” Next. (A Sample Library is provided in an Examples folder to help you get 26 Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote . 3. and connection files that were created with EndNote versions 4. All of the styles. However. Using Old Style. “Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries. and then choose EndNote Program.0. It converts libraries created with even earlier versions of EndNote to the latest file format. Checking Your Installation To Begin Using EndNote To run EndNote. NOTE: Once you have opened and used a library with EndNote X3. click the Start button. Click OK to convert the library. For information about EndNote Web. Once you edit and save one of these files with EndNote X3. 2. The conversion makes a copy of the original library in the latest file format. select EndNote. From the File menu. To convert an old EndNote library (created before version 8): 1. and leaves the original library intact. Filter. a dialog may ask you to open a library file. locate and highlight the old library. On the file dialog.Opening and Converting Old EndNote Libraries EndNote X3 opens and uses libraries created with EndNote 8 and later. The new filter and connection files can be used by previous versions of EndNote. see Chapter 21. Name the new library and click Save. and connection files supplied with EndNote X3 have been updated to the latest format. filters. or choose Cancel or Close. a dialog may ask whether you want to open a new EndNote Web account or integrate with an existing EndNote Web account. EndNote will warn that the selected library was created with an older version. you should use the library only with version X or later. with new fields simply ignored. select Open and then Open Library. and will ask for permission to convert it. and click Open. You can create or open an EndNote library. choose All Programs.1-X3. which can be used with EndNote versions 8 to X3. it is converted to the latest format. Start EndNote. and Connection Files EndNote X3 can use custom styles. the updated styles cannot be used with versions of EndNote prior to version 8.

org Writer. In Word 2007. In Word 2003. If you have trouble accessing the program. repeat the installation steps to verify that the program was correctly installed.familiar with EndNote. Checking Cite While You Write Support To see whether Cite While You Write is correctly installed.org Writer. start Microsoft Word or the OpenOffice. you should see an EndNote tab.) To check the version number of EndNote. In OpenOffice. choose About EndNote from the Help menu. you should see EndNote commands on an EndNote X3 menu. click on the Tools menu and you should see EndNote commands on an EndNote X3 submenu. Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote 27 . Click the splash screen to clear it.

The OpenOffice. repair the EndNote installation: 1. NOTE: You also have the option to download the latest content files at any time from our website at http://www. 28 Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote . including any Quickstarter applications. From the Windows Start menu. Your entire EndNote installation is checked and repaired as needed. We continually update output styles.org Quickstarter may appear in your System tray. 2. select Control Panel. or choose Settings and then Control Panel. and connection files. lets you know whether an update is available. Select Repair and click Next.endnote. Make sure that all Microsoft Office and OpenOffice. Open a connection to the Internet. Log in to the machine with administrative rights or as a user with program installation privileges. For more information.Cite While You Write commands may not be available if you installed or upgraded your word processor after installing EndNote. Right click on the icon and choose Exit Quickstarter.com. 6. 5. Choose Add or Remove Programs. From EndNote’s Help menu. 4. see “No EndNote commands in Word or Writer” on page 697. 2. filters.org applications are closed.org Writer. If Cite While You Write commands do not appear in Microsoft Word or OpenOffice. The wizard checks for an update. Automatically Updating Files You can automatically update EndNote X3 when incremental program enhancements are available. 3. select EndNote Program Updates. To update your copy of the EndNote program: 1. Highlight EndNote X3 and click Change. and then downloads the file(s) and applies the update to your EndNote installation.

3. You do not have to be an administrator. For volume installations. Select Add or Remove Programs. Click the Remove button. 5. This uninstalls only Palm OS support and a single Word 2007 setting. 2. Uninstalling the EndNote Program To uninstall EndNote: 1. Go to the EndNote program folder and double-click "Configure EndNote. and in those cases they will also be uninstalled along with the program. 4. To uninstall Palm OS support and Word 2007 settings: 1. select Control Panel. Log on to the workstation as the current user. Log in to the machine with administrative rights or as a user with program installation privileges. Select Remove all EndNote components for me and click Next. You can do this in one of these ways: From the Windows Start menu. Launch the Configure EndNote utility. Continue through the uninstall process as instructed.” If you used the Configure EndNote utility for a specific user account. select EndNote X3. see “Uninstalling EndNote” on page 683. choose All Programs>EndNote>Configure EndNote. Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote 29 . Uninstalling Palm OS Support and Word 2007 Settings Palm OS files and Word 2007 settings are typically registered during installation of the EndNote program. “Uninstalling the EndNote Program. 4.Uninstalling EndNote Before you remove EndNote.exe. 2. In the list of currently installed programs. From the Windows Start menu. or choose Settings and then Control Panel. back up your libraries and any other files you have created or customized." 3. You can jump to the next section. and only for the current user. you should use that utility again to uninstall. to register Palm OS files and/or suppress the “Citations and Bibliography” group on the References tab in Word 2007.

Log in to the machine with administrative rights or as a user with program installation privileges. your EndNote program folder will be: C:\Program Files (x86)\EndNote X3. select Remove and click Next. You can manually delete these files with Windows Explorer.Or. Click Next again to begin removing EndNote. and icons installed by the EndNote installer the last time it was run. the Uninstall program removes only style files. 2. run Setup. 3. To remove any modified EndNote files that remain: We purposely do not remove any EndNote libraries or customized files. you can delete them: Windows XP C:\Program Files\EndNote X3 C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Shared Documents\EndNote C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\My Documents\EndNote C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\Application Data\EndNote Windows Vista C:\Program Files\EndNote X3 C:\Users\Public\Public Documents\EndNote C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote C:\Users\[UserName]\App Data\Roaming\EndNote NOTE: If you are using a 64-bit version of Windows. you can uninstall by using the EndNote installation program: 1. The uninstall procedure removes only files. 4. From your EndNote CD. 30 Chapter 2: Installing and Upgrading EndNote .exe. For example. if you used the installer’s Custom installation option to reinstall only style files. On the “Application Maintenance” dialog. groups. Once you are sure you do not want to save any of the files contained in the following folders.

......................... 33 Are You Ready? ...... Related Sections ............................................ Save References to a Custom Group ...... Connect to an Online Database .............................................................................. Find the Full Text for a Reference .................... Change the Library Display Font ............... Locate References That Contain Attached Files................................... Open the Sample Library .................................................................. Sort the References ................................................................................................... The Library Window ...................................... Access EndNote Preferences........................... Related Sections ........................................................................................... Delete Unwanted References ...... Part IV: Searching an Online Database........... Part II: Setting EndNote Preferences ...................................... Search the Database ...................... 35 35 37 38 39 41 43 43 45 46 46 46 46 47 48 50 50 50 55 56 57 58 58 59 60 63 64 65 66 31 ... Set a Favorite Library ..... Review the References.............................. Close the Reference ................ Select a Display Mode ................................................................................................. 34 Part I: Introduction to an EndNote Library ........................... Start EndNote............................... Part III: Entering a Reference .......................................................................................... Open the Sample Library ................. Related Sections ............................................................................. Related Sections .... Select and Open a Reference......................................................... Open the Sample Library .......................................................................................................... Create a New Reference ..... Preview References......................................................Chapter 3 The EndNote Guided Tour Contents Introduction to the Guided Tour ....................................

... Open the Sample Library ...... Edit a Citation ....... Choose the Correct Import Filter and Import into EndNote ....................................................................................................................................... Direct Export from Web Pages ................................................................... Create a Smart Group .............................................. Cite EndNote References................................. Open the Sample Library .......... Related Sections ...................................... 67 67 67 69 72 72 72 74 74 74 76 77 78 78 78 79 82 84 86 32 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour ........................................... Open a Microsoft Word Document ......... Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options ..................................................................................................... Open the Sample Library ........... Related Sections ................ Select a Bibliographic Style ..................................................................................................... Search for a Set of References ............. Search the Database and Save the References .................................................................Part V: Importing Reference Data into EndNote............................... Part VII: Using EndNote While Writing a Paper With Microsoft Word .............. Related Sections .......................................................... Part VI: Searching an EndNote Library and Saving it as a Smart Group........

“Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. and close a reference. open. Part II: Setting EndNote Preferences Learn how to set a favorite library to open automatically and how to change the display fonts. You will insert citations and have EndNote generate a bibliography for the paper. “Scanning and Formatting Files.” or Chapter 13. These skills prepare you for the rest of the Tour. and then use the search strategy to create a smart group. (If you use a word processor other than Word. sort the reference list. please see either Chapter 12. Part I: Introduction to an EndNote Library Learn how to start EndNote. Part VII: Using EndNote While Writing a Paper Learn how to cite EndNote references while writing a paper with Microsoft Word (2003 or 2007). The guided tour is not designed to show you everything about EndNote. Part VI: Searching EndNote Libraries and Creating Smart Groups Learn how to search for references in an EndNote library. Part V: Importing References Learn how to import references that have been downloaded from a database to a tagged text file. open a reference library. Part IV: Searching Online Databases Learn how to use EndNote to search online databases and library catalogs available online and save those references to an EndNote library. select. but it does provide a quick summary of some important features. This feature requires that you have a connection to the Internet.org Writer. and save references to a custom group.”) Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 33 . Part III: Entering a Reference Learn how to enter a reference and attach a file to it.Introduction to the Guided Tour This guided tour introduces you to the basics of using EndNote for storing references and writing papers.

The Examples folder is in your computer’s Shared Documents or Public Documents folder. 34 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . please follow the instructions in Chapter 2 before continuing. The example files include a sample EndNote reference library called Sample_Library_X3.Are You Ready? At this point we assume that both EndNote and Word are installed on your computer. The guided tour uses sample files that are installed in an Examples folder. If you have not installed EndNote. but you can also easily find it from a shortcut in the EndNote X3 program folder.

and continue with step 3. you will learn how to: Start EndNote and open a library. choose Programs. Select. Quit from the EndNote program. In particular. If this is the first time you have used the program. NOTE: If you have set a favorite library to open automatically. Sort the reference list. close the library. From the Start menu. that library will open instead of the dialog shown above. open. and then choose the EndNote Program. a dialog appears prompting you to open a reference library. If this happens. go to the File menu and choose Open>Open Library. select EndNote. Save references to custom groups. and close a reference in the EndNote library.Part I: Introduction to an EndNote Library This part of the guided tour covers the basics of working with EndNote. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 35 . Start EndNote To start the EndNote program and open the sample library: 1.

(The Examples folder is actually in your Shared Documents or Public Documents folder. Open the file Sample_Library_X3. 36 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . From the File menu. Click the file cabinet icon next to “Open an existing EndNote library. choose the “C:” drive and Open. If you have previously opened the compressed sample library. select Program Files and Open.2. 3.enl and Sample_Library_X3. Sample_Library_X3.” In the file dialog.enl and click Open the uncompressed library the compressed library NOTE: You can open a library from within EndNote.enlx. locate and open a reference library: Use the “Look in:” list to find the EndNote X3/Examples folder. choose Open >Open Library. and EndNote extracts the uncompressed library files (Sample_Library_X3. click the “Look in:” list. select Sample_Library_X3. and then select the Examples folder shortcut and Open.) The example library is shipped to you as a single compressed file. To get there.Data) and opens them for viewing. select the EndNote X3 folder and Open.enlx.

By default. the URL. The Groups pane at the left of the window lists various group sets that contain groups of references for easy retrieval. The Tab pane displays a Preview tab to view formatted references and a Search tab for searching either the current library or an online database.The Library Window When you open the sample library you see the Library window listing all of the references that the library contains: Move column dividers to adjust column widths The Library window includes three panes: The Reference List pane displays a multi-column list of references. the title. as well as the font used for the display. the first author’s last name. the year. the first column in the reference list shows a paper clip icon for references that include an attached file in the File Attachments field. and the Last Updated date are displayed for each reference. can be changed using the EndNote Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 37 . the reference type. Then. The information displayed in the reference list. the journal name or secondary title.

HOME. The format of the 38 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . Preview References You can easily see more detail about a reference by highlighting the reference and viewing the Preview tab at the bottom of the Library window. The styles determine how your references look when you print. First. To select a different output style to apply to the reference. only the active reference (surrounded by a dotted line) is displayed. behavior. go to the toolbar and select Numbered from the drop-down list of output styles. Only one reference is displayed on the Preview tab at a time.” The Preview tab uses the current output style to display the selected reference as it will be formatted for a bibliography. but you can choose Select Another Style to pick from other installed files. and then using the scroll bar. A Typical installation installs the 100 most popular output styles. You can browse through the reference list by first selecting a reference. Chapter 4 provides more information about customizing the Library window.700 output styles are available with EndNote. the scroll arrows. 3. To preview a reference: 1. or the PAGE DOWN. EndNote’s output styles (or just styles) represent the rules for creating bibliographies for a variety of journals and other publications. preview. For this example. NOTE: The style list displays your “favorite” output styles. click on the Show Tab Pane button at the bottom of the window and then click on the Preview tab. click on the reference titled “Bats: Biology. END. 2. if you do not have a Tab pane in the window. or create bibliographies. and folklore. PAGE UP. export.Preferences. If multiple references are selected. and ARROW keys. but more than 3.

Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 39 . Year. Sort the References References can easily be sorted by clicking on a column heading (such as Author.reference on the Preview tab can be changed at any time by choosing a different output style. a Hide Tab Pane button is available at the bottom of the window. You can click Hide Tab Pane to hide the Preview tab if you wish. The name of the button will toggle to Show Tab Pane. or Title). When the Tab pane is showing.

you may need to install special Windows Language Packs. click the Author column heading to return the sort order of the library to an alphabetical list sorted by the author names. “Part II: Setting EndNote Preferences. Now.To change the sort order: 1. Click the Author column heading to change the current Author sort from ascending order to descending order. NOTE: This example shows references that include Japanese characters. EndNote uses Unicode to encode special characters. you may need to change the EndNote display fonts to a Unicode font. Click the Year column heading again (a second time) to reverse the sort order and see the references sorted in descending order. 2. 3. You will learn how to do this in the next section. If boxes appear instead of characters. Consult your Windows documentation for more information about Language Packs. so that data is easily translated between platforms.” For some display elements. and languages. Click the Year column heading to see the references sorted in ascending order based on the year of publication. 4. programs. 40 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour .

copy. Now that the reference is selected. To quickly find and display a reference: 1. delete. When the library is sorted by author name (as it should be now). Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 41 . just open the reference to view the contents. such as clicking on the reference using the mouse. you can also select a reference by typing the first few letters of the author’s last name. For now. using the arrow keys. cut. or edit it. click once on any reference to select it. there are a number of things you can do with it. Select the first Argus reference in the list by clicking in the list and then typing “arg” without pausing between letters.Select and Open a Reference To work with specific references you must first select them in the Library window. If you have arrow keys on your keyboard. To see how this works. or typing the first few letters found in the field by which the library has been sorted. such as view its contents. There are different ways to select a reference. press the UP or DOWN ARROW to select the previous or next reference.

Press SHIFT+TAB to move backward through the fields. 42 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . Click the Show Empty Fields/Hide Empty Fields button to toggle between showing all fields in the reference and only those fields that contain data. year. To view the rest of the reference. The citation information is displayed at the top of the Reference window in the title bar. title bar Show or Hide empty fields in the reference. or press the TAB key to move forward from one field to the next. Open the selected Argus reference by pressing the ENTER key or by using the Edit References command on the References menu. This is where you enter or edit information for a reference. You can also open a reference by double-clicking on it in the reference list. and record number—is used by EndNote to match citations in a paper to references in a library. use the mouse to scroll down the Reference window. To reposition the window. Click and drag to resize the window.” This information— the first author’s last name. 1993 #15. “Argus.2. The window may also be resized by clicking and dragging the lower right window corner. The Reference window opens to display all of the information associated with the reference. click on the title bar and drag the window to the desired location.

Click on the group names under the Bats set in the left pane of the library window to view the references in each group. choose Close Reference. You can do this in one of these ways: Click the X close button in the upper corner of the Reference window (not the outer close button for the library). displays all of the references in the library. Unfiled contains references that are not part of a custom group. Group set name Custom groups Smart group Then. close the reference. click All References to display all of the references in the library again. Display one of the groups in the Paleontology set. 2. All References. EndNote automatically saves all changes to a reference when the Reference window is closed. To create a custom group and add references to it: 1. From the Groups menu. press CTRL+W. select Create Group. and Trash contains references that have been deleted from the library but not yet permanently eliminated. Below the permanent groups. The first three groups are permanent. From the File menu. you can create group sets to organize up to 500 custom and smart groups in the library.Close the Reference Next. A custom group is built by specifically adding individual references to the group. The sample library has several custom groups of references. you could right click under the Paleontology group in the Groups pane Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 43 . so that the new group will be created in that set. and is based on a search strategy. (Or. Note that many of the menu commands have a keyboard equivalent next to them. A smart group is compiled automatically. From the keyboard. Save References to a Custom Group The left pane of the library window lists groups of saved references.

you could go to the Groups menu and choose Add References To>Extinction. Click on All References to display all of the references in the library again. a group titled New Group is now highlighted for editing. 4. Type “Extinction” as the group name. highlight the first reference by Argus and the first reference by Billoski. (Or.to display a context-sensitive menu. 7. Drag the selected (highlighted) references to the new Extinction group and drop them on the title of the group. In the Author column. and then select Create Group.) In the Groups pane of the Library window.) Click on the Extinction group to display the two references now included in the group. 44 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . 5. 3. To select non-contiguous references. There are no references in the new Extinction group. hold down the CTRL key as you click on them. Click on the All References group to display all references in the library. and then press ENTER or click in the reference list area to save the change. 6.

To delete a custom group: 1. Otherwise. This concludes Part I of the guided tour. When you are asked to verify the deletion. “The EndNote Library. Click on the group title Extinction to display the group. 2.) 2. no references are deleted from your library.” Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 45 .To move the group to a different group set: 1. and select Delete Group. Click on the group title Extinction again. Many of the commands for managing groups are available both from the Groups menu and from the right click context-sensitive menu. Related Sections See these sections in the manual for information related to this portion of the tour: Learn how to change the display of the Library window in Chapter 4.” To learn more about sorting. see “Sorting the Library” in Chapter 8. you could click on the group name and then select Delete Group from the Groups menu. drag it to the Bats groups set. you can continue with the tour. Only the Group subset is deleted. “Using Groups. (Or. see Chapter 9. go to the File menu and choose Exit to close the program. and drop the group anywhere in the Bats set. If you do not plan to continue the tour. Right click on the Extinction group name to display a contextsensitive menu. To learn more about creating and managing groups. click Delete.

Many of these preferences are stored in your Windows registry.Part II: Setting EndNote Preferences In this part of the guided tour you will learn how to: Display EndNote preferences Set a favorite library to open each time you start EndNote. when you create your own library. If you haven’t already. Next to “When EndNote starts. To view or change the EndNote preferences: From the Edit menu. You will find it useful to set the sample library (Sample_Library_X3.enl) as shown under “Start EndNote” on page 35. you can set it as the favorite library. Change the display fonts. Open the Sample Library Access EndNote Preferences Set a Favorite Library If EndNote is not already running. start it and open the sample library (Sample_Library_X3. click Libraries. 3. To set a favorite library: 1. In the list on the left.enl) as your favorite library for now. 2. You can assign a library to open automatically every time you start EndNote. choose Preferences. although there are exceptions. go to the Edit menu and choose Preferences.” 46 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour .” use the drop-down list to select “Open the specified libraries. Later.

2. The General font is also used for most of the previews and information panels in EndNote. You should see the full path and filename of the sample library (Sample_Library_X3. While you could click OK to leave the Preferences dialog. The General font changes the font used to display most text that is typed into EndNote (such as in the Reference or Style windows). The Labels font determines the font and size used for the Reference window field labels. pick a different font to display text in the Library window and the Reference window. Click Add Open Libraries. 5.4. as well as for bibliographies that are printed or copied directly from EndNote. The Library font determines the font and size of the references listed in the Reference List pane of the Library window. In the list on the left. Click Apply to save this change. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 47 . we are going to change another preference first.enl) listed at the top of the box. go to the Edit menu and choose Preferences. To change the display fonts: 1. Change the Library Display Font Next. select Display Fonts. If you are not currently viewing the EndNote Preferences window.

For example. On the General tab. click the Change Font button. In the Font list. you can ignore articles when sorting. 5. EndNote uses Unicode to correctly handle extended characters. On the Library tab. 6. you may want to select Arial Unicode MS (or another Unicode font that supports Japanese characters). and then click Apply to save the change. “The EndNote Library. 4. you can view extended characters in the Library window. etc. In the Font list. click the Change Font button. such as the Japanese characters found in the sample library. click OK. 7. 48 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . and then click Apply to save the change. By selecting a Unicode font here.” The Preferences panels provide many ways to customize your version of EndNote. Related Sections See these sections in the manual for information related to this portion of the tour: Learn how to change the display of the Library window in Chapter 4.The Search font determines the font and size applied to user-entered text on the Search tab. set duplicate detection options. click OK. Click the red close button or OK to leave the Preferences dialog. you may want to select Arial Unicode MS (or another Unicode font that supports Japanese characters). 3.

See Chapter 20 for more information about setting preferences. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 49 .

Connect to an online bibliographic database and retrieve the references directly into EndNote. There are various ways to add references to an EndNote library: Type the reference information into the Reference window.enl). choose New Reference (CTRL+N). you can add a new reference to it: 1. Open the Sample Library Create a New Reference If EndNote is not already running.” Import text files of references that have been downloaded from online bibliographic databases. as demonstrated in part V of this tour and described in Chapter 7: “Importing Reference Data into EndNote. Click in the reference list and then. In this part of the tour. as demonstrated in part IV of this tour and described in Chapter 6: “Searching Online Databases with EndNote.” This example demonstrates how to type reference information into EndNote. An empty Reference 50 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . Attach a file to a reference. from the References menu. as shown in Part I of the guided tour. you are going to enter a journal article reference that includes an attached file. start it and open the sample library (Sample_Library_X3.Part III: Entering a Reference In this part of the guided tour you will learn how to: Enter a reference into a library. Once a library is open.

2. You are welcome to select other reference types from the list to see how the list of fields changes for each type of source. Click the Reference Type list and choose Book. Next. choose a reference type. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 51 . New references appear as journal articles (unless you change the default setting) but can be changed to any other type of reference using the Reference Type list at the top of the window.window opens with the words “New Reference” displayed at the top. Reference Type set to “Book” Notice that the field list changes to reflect the type of bibliographic information you would record for a book.

NOTE: The auto-complete feature can be turned on or off with EndNote Term List preferences. It is available for Author fields when you enter author names with the last name first. The name appears in red text to indicate that it is a new name in the Author term list for this library. b. 52 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . Enter author names for the reference. Nicole This author is already in the sample library. set the reference type back to the Journal Article reference type. so keep typing until you complete the name and then press the ENTER key. a. but with the surname first: Morre. You can read more about term lists (and how to turn these options on or off) in Chapter 10. beginning with the author names. Tiberius Rex. You are now ready to enter reference information. type: Tiberius Rex As you type. although you can add File Attachments. and Equation—are available specifically for cataloging picture files and object files. Enter the second author’s name. Individual author names must be entered one per line. Enter a personal author name with the first name first. Press ENTER to accept EndNote’s suggested author name. Figures and Captions to any reference type. EndNote suggests names similar to the one you are entering. 3.Three reference types—Figure. This is EndNote’s way of using term lists to facilitate the process of entering new references. When you close the reference. Chart or Table. so as you start typing the last name. it will be added to the Author term list and the red text will change to black. With the cursor in the Author field. is a new author in this library. When you are done looking at different reference types. you will see EndNote complete the name for you. The name you are entering.

4. The first comma separates the last and first name. For the third author. The first comma makes it clear that text up to that point should not be manipulated. the corporate author name has a comma within the name. and SHIFT+TAB to move to the previous field. enter: de Young. d. type: 2006 5. Berkeley Corporate author names are entered with a following comma. and the second comma indicates that there is no “first name. to make it clear that it is not part of the author’s name for manipulation of name order or stripping to initials. Continue entering the reference as shown below. using the TAB key to move to the next field.c. You can also use the mouse to click in the desired field.. Jr. Suffix text will always print after the other information for this author. We inserted two commas to allow for correct formatting. If information is not provided for a particular field. Press TAB to accept the author name and move to the Year field. which in this case is a corporate author: University of California. leave that field empty. In the Year field.” yet includes suffix text. if necessary. Enter the fourth author’s name. Press ENTER. John Robert. In this case. so they will not be manipulated like personal author names. The second comma is inserted before suffix text. Title: Journal: Volume: Issue: Pages: Date: The scale and the feather: A suggested evolution Paleontology 3 1 125-128 November 22 Keywords: Feathers Evolution Birds No extra punctuation (such as parentheses around the year) or text styles (such as bold or italic) are entered into the reference. EndNote adds the necessary punctuation and text Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 53 .

and from the References menu. On the file dialog: a. 7.PDF. Next. Navigate to the folder Program Files\EndNote X3. Click Open to insert the file into the File Attachments field. you could enter up to 64 K of text into each of these fields.style changes to the references when it creates a bibliography.” Make sure this box is selected so that EndNote will make a copy of the file to store with the library. Close the Reference window by clicking the close box (the X in the upper right corner of the Reference window). Scroll to the File Attachments field. even when you move the library. This is the full EndNote manual located in the EndNote program folder. That way. and you can double click a file icon to open the file with the default application. or by choosing Close Reference (CTRL+W) from the File menu. You can attach up to 45 different files to a single reference. A file icon will appear in the field. 54 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . Highlight the file titled EndNote. which amounts to 10-12 pages of text. While we are not entering any text into the Abstract or Notes fields. attach a PDF file to the reference. b. d. the attached file is always available to you. c. Notice the check box titled “Copy this file to the default file attachment folder and create a relative link. You can attach almost any type of file to the File Attachments field of a reference. 6. select File Attachments and then Attach File to display a file dialog.

References that include a paper clip have one or more attached files. To locate the references containing attached files: Click the paper clip icon in the first column heading twice to sort records containing attached files at the top of the list. Your new reference will appear in the Library window. You can double-click on an individual reference if you would like to view the complete reference. Locate References That Contain Attached Files You can easily locate those references that contain attached files. A paper clip icon appears next to the reference to indicate an attached file. click the close button to close it. click Yes. When prompted to save changes. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 55 .8. When you are done viewing a reference.

Part IV demonstrates how to search online databases and save your search results to an EndNote library. “Entering and Editing References. go to the File menu and choose Exit to close the EndNote program. “The EndNote Library. If you do not have an Internet connection.” 56 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . see Part IV of this tour and Chapter 6. “ Chapter 5. “Searching Online Databases with EndNote.Click the Author column heading to again order the list by author names in ascending (A to Z) order. This concludes Part III of the guided tour. skip Part IV and move on to “Part V: Importing Reference Data into EndNote” on page 67. see Chapter 4. Related Sections See these sections in the manual for information related to this portion of the tour: If you are eager to begin creating your own library. see Part V of this tour and Chapter 7.” If you will be importing references that have been downloaded from an online or CD-ROM database.” provides more detail about typing references into your library and inserting files and figures. For information about connecting directly to online bibliographic databases and retrieving references into EndNote. “Importing Reference Data into EndNote. If you are finished working with EndNote for now.

PubMed is the online database you will be searching. About the PubMed Database For this lesson. The results of your searches can be downloaded either into a temporary EndNote library or directly into your own EndNote library. the U. but will not disconnect your Internet connection at any point. Connecting: Most setups for dial-up connections are configured to automatically dial your information provider and connect to the Internet when you use an application that requests an online connection (as EndNote’s Online Search command does).S. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 57 . NOTE: In order to follow this exercise. However. the National Library of Medicine is the information provider. you must be at a computer with access to the Internet (either dial-up or a direct network connection). You need to shut down your connection when you have finished using EndNote’s Online Search feature. Disconnecting: EndNote disconnects from an online database as soon as a search is completed. National Library of Medicine’s online public access version of their MEDLINE database.Part IV: Searching an Online Database With the EndNote Online Search command. as opposed to a direct network connection. Find and attach the full text article for a reference. Search the database and download the references into an EndNote library. which locates full text articles for your existing EndNote references. For Users With “Dial-up” Internet Connections If you use a modem and a phone line to connect to the Internet. this section pertains to you. Another way to search online sources is with the Find Full Text command. you will connect to PubMed. you can search online bibliographic databases just as easily as you can search an EndNote library on your own computer. This section will guide you through these basic steps: Connect to an online database. some setups require that you establish an online connection (sign on) before choosing EndNote’s Online Search command.

You may want to always work in Integrated Mode. so that all groups and commands are available. Many library commands are not available in Online Search Mode. all groups and commands are available. In Local Library Mode. This allows you to download references from online databases and review them without affecting your local library. with Online Groups suppressed until you explicitly switch to Online Mode to download references into a temporary library. All local library commands are available. start it and open the sample library (Sample_Library_X3. click on the left icon to select Integrated Library & Online Search Mode.Open the Sample Library Select a Display Mode If EndNote is not already running. with all groups and commands available. as shown in Part I of the guided tour. the references are stored in a temporary library until you save them to a permanent EndNote library. and with online search results downloaded directly into your open library. or Online Search Mode. only the Online Search groups are available. When you close Online Search Mode. the Online Search groups are not available.enl). There are actually two different workflows. Integrated Library & Online Search Mode Online Search Mode (Temporary Library) Local Library Mode To continue the tour. Or. Try clicking on the three different mode buttons at the left of the toolbar to see how the Groups pane changes in the Library window. the display switches to Online Search Mode. 58 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . the display changes to Local Library Mode. In Integrated Library & Online Search Mode. You can choose from different display modes in the Library window by selecting one of these from the toolbar: Integrated Library & Online Search Mode. If you initiate an online search from the Tools menu. they are saved directly into the open library. When you download references from an online database. you may want to work primarily in Local Library Mode. When you download references from an online database. In Online Search Mode. Local Library Mode.

but more than 4. A Typical installation installs the 100 most popular connection files.Connect to an Online Database The first step in searching an online database is connecting to it. 2. and click Choose. Go to the Tools menu and select Online Search to see the available list of online databases. You could also look under Online Search in the Groups pane and click more. See page 185. You can also customize a list of favorite databases to search by using the Connection Manager.) Click to show more or less info about the selected connection file. (The Groups pane will remember databases you have connected to in the past for easy access under Online Search. NOTE: This window displays the connection files available in your Connections folders. Or. Select the PubMed connection file (you can start typing the file name to quickly jump to it in the list). type text into the Quick Search text box and press ENTER. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 59 . To connect to the PubMed Database: 1.100 connection files are available with EndNote. Use the Find by list to quickly view various categories of databases to help you locate the one that you need.

you have directed EndNote to connect to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed database.By selecting that connection file. with a few exceptions. Note that the search tab is titled. the search field lists display the fields you selected as your defaults. If one of these fields appears italicized in the Search tab lists. NOTE: If you previously set a default configuration for the Search tab. that indicates it is not a valid option for this particular online database. (See “Available Search Options” on page 189. When the connection has been established. Search the Database The next step is to enter the search term(s) to find the references you need. 60 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . If for any reason the connection cannot be established. EndNote displays a Search tab. EndNote alerts you with an error message and closes the connection.” The PubMed MEDLINE database is selected and EndNote is ready to search. “Online Search PubMed MEDLINE at PubMed (NLM). See “Troubleshooting Connections” on page 703.) Let’s say you are interested in finding more information about fossils for the sample library. Searching an online database is very similar to searching an EndNote library.

NOTE: PubMed is updated regularly. The comparison list for online searches is always set to Contains. Let’s refine this search by looking for just those references that include mention of a “trilobite. and gives you the option to retrieve them. and a summary of the search results is displayed: The dialog displays the number of references that were found to match your search request. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 61 . 3. and enter “fossil” into the search text field. Set the operator at the beginning of the second search line to And. field list comparison list search term Match Case and Match Words are not available for online searches logical operator lists 2.” a group of extinct marine animals that were abundant in the Paleozoic era. 4. If the result set seems too big. and you are returned to the Search tab. Click Cancel. you can refine the search to get closer to exactly those references you want. so you may find a different number of references than illustrated here. in this example). Click Search. EndNote sends the search request off to the online database (PubMed MEDLINE. Set the field list for the first line to MeSH Terms.To enter the search term(s) and perform the search: 1.

select All Fields from the field list and type “trilobite” as the search text. 7. For our purposes. The references are downloaded into your library and appear both in the All References group and in a temporary group for the PubMed database connection. 6. Click Search. In the second search line. Change the number in the second box to “10” to limit our download to the first 10 records. to verify which references you want to save. NOTE: If you would prefer to save references to a temporary library first. “Searching Online Databases with EndNote” for more information. See Chapter 6. This time only 14 references were found. you would have begun by selecting Online Search Mode. limit the download even further.5. 8. 62 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . Click OK to retrieve and save the matching references.

Click on a reference in the reference list. While you could open each reference individually to scan through the bibliographic data.You can halt a retrieval in progress by clicking the Cancel button on the Search tab. In the Tab pane. click on the Preview tab to display a reference preview. You may find that some of the references are not helpful for your research. 2. To quickly look at the new references: 1. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 63 . Records that have been processed up to that point already exist in the library. you can also use the Preview tab. The temporary PubMed (NLM) group will reset back to 0 references when you close the library. NOTE: You can click the plus or minus icon next to a group set heading in order to display or hide the list of groups under that heading. Review the References At this point you can peruse the retrieved references to make sure you want to keep all of them.

select the Show All Fields output style from the output style list. From the References menu. but represents all of the fields in your references. The Show All Fields style is not bibliographic. you can still drag references from the Trash group back to your active library. In the PubMed (NLM) group. Because you are sure that you want to delete the references.) To delete references: 1. Confirm the deletion by clicking OK. On the Preview tab. the references would be in a temporary library. they are not completely deleted until you go to the References menu and choose Empty Trash. Until you choose Empty Trash. select Move References to Trash. On the toolbar. references were downloaded directly into the open library. click on the Trash group and then go to the References menu to select Empty Trash. you can scroll through the data in the selected reference. While the references are officially no longer in your library (they will not appear in any other group or reference list. they are not included in your reference count. Any references you do not want must be deleted. 3. you would need to highlight the references you wanted to keep and copy them into a permanent EndNote library. (If you had downloaded references in Online Search Mode.) 2.3. The selected references are removed from the library and put in the Trash group. (Use SHIFT+click to select a range of references. select two of the displayed references by holding down the CTRL key and clicking on the individual references. Delete Unwanted References Because you are working in the Integrated Mode display. and they cannot be cited). 4. 64 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour .

you may see a combination of three different groups under the Find Full Text heading: Found PDF. so if you had many references selected. If you wanted to do another search of PubMed at this point. you could continue working in your library. When the Find Full Text search is completed. In this exercise. the Searching group is removed. Click the All References group to return to the full reference list. This search can work in the background. Under the Find Full Text group set heading. but the full text of the document you are referencing. “Clear currently displayed results before retrieving records?” This check box simply removes the previous downloaded references from the PubMed group. and click Search again. We will be searching public sources that do not require authentication for access. by the author Knell. choose Find Full Text and then Find Full Text. Depending on the results. you will see a Searching group. you could display the PubMed group. 2. Click in the list of All References and type “Kelly” to jump to the reference by the author Kelly. set your output style back to Numbered. From the References menu. and on the toolbar. 4. and attach the PDF file to the reference. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 65 . you will find the full text for a reference. Find the Full Text for a Reference Many online sources now supply not only bibliographic information. On the Confirm Online Search dialog. enter another search strategy. 3. To find the full text for a reference: 1. advising you to adhere to downloading and usage guidelines as required by your information provider. they still exist in the library. indicating that a search is in progress. Highlight the reference by Kelly as well as the next reference. you are asked.5. using the default EndNote settings. It is an easy way to see just those references downloaded with the current search strategy. and Not found. EndNote displays a copyright notice. Click OK to begin the Find Full Text search. Found URL.

go to the File menu and choose Exit to close the EndNote program. Read “Selecting a Connection File” on page 183 to learn about the connection files that are available with EndNote. If you are finished working with EndNote for now. In the reference list. The URL will take you to the provider’s website. where either the full text article is available. See “Troubleshooting Connections” on page 703 if you encountered any problems establishing a connection. you can see that the Knell reference now has a paper clip icon next to it. indicating an attached file. searching for references. Related Sections See these sections in the manual for information related to this portion of the tour: See Chapter 6. but only a URL for the other. or you will find information about how to obtain the full text article.” for details about establishing connections. You could open the Knell reference. “Connection Files” for information about creating and editing connection files. double click on the PDF icon in the File Attachments field. The Kelly reference has a URL added to the URL field. and read the entire article. This concludes the tutorial for using EndNote’s Online Search command and Find Full Text command. EndNote was able to locate a PDF file for one of the references.In this case. retrieving references. and finding the full text for a reference. See Chapter 19. “Searching Online Databases with EndNote. 66 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour .

about 50 million years ago. EndNote filters are configurable.enl). Science. show a few "primitive" characteristics such as a clawed index finger and a complete phalangeal formula. was found in southwest Wyoming. but not all information providers offer that option. with no clear indicator between each piece of bibliographic information. Jepsen GL. as shown in Part I of the guided tour. is an example. Early Eocene Bat from Wyoming. described in the previous section. It was apparently of a young male whose body was buried in varved marls of the Green River Formation. saved in a Citation format. A fossil skeleton of an early Eocene bat. In this part of the guided tour you will learn about: Downloading data in a tagged output format. you can probably use EndNote’s import filters to import text files saved or downloaded from these sources. on the bottom of Fossil Lake. The bat is assigned to the new species Icaronycteris index of the suborder Microchiroptera. There is no clear indicator for EndNote to be able to differentiate a title from an address or an abstract. Open the Sample Library Search the Database and Save the References If EndNote is not already running. Often when you search a database.154(3754):1333-1339. The PubMed reference below. 1966 Dec 9. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 67 .Part V: Importing Reference Data into EndNote Online searching. so they give you the flexibility to import the reference data you need and eliminate data you do not need. start it and open the sample library (Sample_Library_X3. is the easiest way to retrieve references from online databases. the matching references are displayed as text. some as slender as a human hair. Selecting an import filter and importing data into EndNote. the oldest known flying mammal. If you have access to an online bibliographic database or a university catalog. The bones.

For this tour. Harvard Medical School. Clifford J Tabin CJ eng F32 HD 052349/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States R37 HD 32443/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States Comment Journal Article Research Support. Boston.as supplied by publisher] To use this information effectively. Extramural United States Genes Dev Genes & development Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . Regardless of which system you are searching. 121-4 Department of Genetics. MA 02115. Database providers typically offer several different download formats. USA. N.I. each piece of bibliographic information must be consistently tagged so it can be directed to the correct EndNote field.. we will use a text file of PubMed references that were previously downloaded in the tagged MEDLINE format. Cooper. The file pubmed_result.H. Kimberly L Cooper KL Tabin. A single reference in the file appears like this: PMIDOWN STATDA DCOMLR IS VI IP DP TI PG AD FAU AU FAU AU LA GR GR PT PT PT PL TA JT 68 18198331 NLM MEDLINE 20080116 20080313 20081121 0890-9369 (Print) 22 2 2008 Jan 15 Understanding of bat wing evolution takes flight.but the bat was fully developed -an anatomically precocious contemporary of the dog-sized polydactylous horse. you need to save the references in a tagged format to a text file. PMID: 17770307 [PubMed .txt is provided in the EndNote Examples folder.

1101/gad. 2008 Jan 15. or poorly delimited. each one is designed to read a specific tagged format from a specific information provider. PMID: 18198333 Animals Chiroptera/*genetics *Evolution Forelimb/anatomy & histology Fossils *Genetic Variation Homeodomain Proteins/*genetics Wing/*growth & development 2008/01/17 09:00 2008/03/14 09:00 2008/01/17 09:00 22/2/121 [pii] 10.22(2):121-4. To import the sample PubMed text file into the sample library: 1.1639108 [doi] ppublish Genes Dev. View the Library window in EndNote. If data is inconsistently tagged. Each tag can be mapped to a corresponding EndNote field. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 69 . you need to identify the proper EndNote filter to import the data. There are hundreds of filters included with EndNote.JID RN SB CON - MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH EDATMHDACRDTAID AID PST SO - 8711660 0 (Homeodomain Proteins) IM Genes Dev. 2.22(2):141-51. choose Import. 2008 Jan 15. it may not be possible to import all of the data accurately. Choose the Correct Import Filter and Import into EndNote Once you have captured and saved your data file in a tagged format. From the File menu.

but there are hundreds available with EndNote. to get an idea of what filters are supplied. 8. You can create new filters or copy and edit existing filters. click it and notice that the Comments section at the bottom of the window gives tips for downloading references from the selected source. select Other Filters to display the list of filters supplied in the EndNote Filters folder. If the More Info button is available. 5. click Choose. Click the Choose File button to display a file dialog. From the Import Option list. 6. Begin typing “PubMed” to jump to that filter in the list. NOTE: A Typical installation installs the 100 most popular filters.3. Browse to the EndNote X3\Examples folder and then highlight and Open the pubmed_result. With the PubMed (NLM) filter highlighted. You may want to peruse the list.txt file. Leave the other two options at their default settings: Duplicates: Import All 70 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . 4. 7.

You can display the Preview tab to view the formatted references. Notice that the focus in the Groups pane has switched from the All References group to a new Imported References group.By default. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 71 . When the process is complete. You would typically contact your database provider for the appropriate setting. Title. Year. a reference is considered a duplicate if the Author. 9. You can change the duplicates criteria under EndNote Preferences. Click Import to import the file. We will import all references regardless of duplicates. and Reference Type match a reference already in the library. This is important when you import references in languages that include extended characters. This is a good time to peruse the new references to make sure they imported as expected. and you can easily edit or delete the new references. you can open individual references to make sure all information transferred to the correct fields. Text Translation: No Translation This option allows you to specify the text character encoding of the file you import. only newly imported references display in the reference list.

To return all of your references to the library display (including the newly imported references). You can also check our website at http://www. “Importing Reference Data into EndNote. so contact your information providers to find out whether they participate! This concludes the tutorial for using EndNote’s Import command. go to the File menu and choose Exit to close the EndNote program. This “direct export” or “direct download” method does away with the additional steps of saving the references to a text file.com for updated information and import filters. and start the import process automatically. see “Direct Export Formats” on page 743 of Appendix D.endnote. and then importing that file with the appropriate filter. Check this list for guidance in order to download in the appropriate tagged format and select the appropriate import filter. 10. Certain websites include a download button that will send your search results directly to EndNote. If you are finished working with EndNote for now.The Imported References group is a temporary group. pick the correct import option. choose Show All References from the References menu or click on the All References group. The references themselves remain in the library unless you specifically delete them. Direct Export from Web Pages Related Sections See these sections in the manual for information related to this portion of the tour: See Chapter 7. For a list of systems that provide a direct export of references into EndNote. Summary of Output Formats and Corresponding Import Options A subset of supported information providers are listed with their recommended output formats in Appendix D under “Output Formats with Corresponding Import Options” on page 751. This information was accurate at the time of publication. but you may need to contact your information provider if changes occur. All you need to do is choose the EndNote library into which the data should be imported.” for details about import options and about importing references from other bibliographic software programs. It is replaced each time you import a new set of references. The list keeps growing. and it is removed when you close the library. 72 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour .

“Filters.” for detailed tables of instruction for importing reference data from various online systems. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 73 . See Appendix D. You can enter tags and map them to specific EndNote fields. “Direct Export Formats and Import Formats.” to learn how to create or modify filters that map downloaded references to corresponding fields in EndNote.Read Chapter 18.

74 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . The Search tab remembers the last search you entered. b. start it and open the sample library (Sample_Library_X3. the Contains comparison operator means that EndNote will search for the string of text anywhere in the field. To clear it. In this part of the tour. 2. On the first search line: a. Make sure that the All References group is displayed.enl). the field list. Open the Sample Library Search for a Set of References If EndNote is not already running. Use a search strategy to create a smart group. Let us assume that you want to generate a list of all references found in the sample library that are about extinction and that were published from 2000 to 2008. This means that EndNote will search all fields. In the first drop-down list.Part VI: Searching an EndNote Library and Saving it as a Smart Group In this part of the guided tour you will learn how to: Search an EndNote library for a subset of references. To search for references: 1. select Any Field. you will search for a set of related references and then save the search strategy to create a smart group that is dynamically updated each time you enter or edit a reference. use the Options button to select Restore Default. 3. as shown in Part I of the guided tour. the comparison list. In the Tab pane. display the Search tab. In the next drop-down list. 4.

set up the search to find references dated from 2000 to 2008. From the field list in the third search line. Match Words: This option would limit matches to full words. it would not match the search. If you do not have a third search line available. If it were found capitalized at the beginning of a sentence. Your search tab should look like this: 6. from the comparison list. choose Year. with no truncation. or all uppercase. Notice that the following check boxes are not selected for this search: Match Case: This option would limit our search to “extinct” in lowercase. Next. From the field list in the second search line. choose Is greater than or equal to. You can also click and drag the top of the pane to view more of the Search tab. The word “extinction” would not match our search. choose Is less than or equal to. and type 2008 as the search term. This search will find all references containing the text “extinct” that also were published between 2000 and 2008. Notice the “And. Not” logical operator list at the beginning of each search line. 7. Type “extinct” as the first search term. Or. Select the “And” logical operator between the three search lines. 8.c. from the comparison list. 5. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 75 . and type 2000 as the search term for the second search line. choose Year. click the plus sign button next to the last search line to insert another line.

” Notice in the Groups pane that these search results are automatically retained in a Search Results group. Instead. In a moment. When you close the library. The status area at the bottom of the Library window should read. but as you entered new references into your library. but still go back and display your most recent search results. create a smart group that updates automatically. as described next.9. The Search tab should still display the search strategy to find “extinct” and the publication years 2000 to 2008. Create a Smart Group You could create a custom group and then drag your search results to the group. “Showing 4 of 4 references in Group. Click the Search button to begin the search. this group is removed. EndNote displays the search results. This makes it easy to display other sets of references. you may want to keep track of the references that meet this search criteria. This temporary Search Results group will be replaced the next time you run a search on the library. you would need to manually keep updating the custom group. 76 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . As you enter additional references into your library. An easy way to do this is with a smart group.

2. If you have already clicked away from the editable title. A Converted Search smart group is created under the first custom group set.” To learn more about creating and managing groups. Type a new name. Paleontology. If you are finished working with EndNote for now.To use the search strategy to create a smart group: 1.” for the Converted Search title. and press ENTER. you can right click on Converted Search and choose Rename Group. Click Options and select Convert to Smart Group. This concludes Part VI of the guided tour. click on the All References group. Part VII shows how to write a paper and cite references and figures in Microsoft Word. “Using Groups. “Extinct. To show all references again in the library window. go to the File menu and choose Exit to close the EndNote program.” Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 77 . see Chapter 9. Each time a reference is added to library or later edited. “Searching and Sorting in EndNote. Related Sections See these sections in the manual for information related to this portion of the tour: More information about searching the EndNote library and saving references in groups can be found in Chapter 8. the smart group will update as needed.

When you use one of these templates to start your paper. headings. EndNote’s Cite While You Write feature inserts EndNote commands into Word’s Tools menu in Word 2003. pagination. or if you have an older version of Word. line spacing. EndNote does include manuscript templates that make it easy to set up your paper for electronic submission to a publisher. While we are not using one for this tour.org Writer” or Chapter 13. “Scanning and Formatting Files” to learn how to cite EndNote references and create bibliographies in your papers. start it and open the sample library (Sample_Library_X3. For more information about using manuscript templates. start Microsoft Word and open a new document. you will learn how to: Insert EndNote bibliographic citations into your paper and create a bibliography. opening the library first assures you that you are citing references from the appropriate library. font type and size. “Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.Part VII: Using EndNote While Writing a Paper With Microsoft Word NOTE: Continue with this part of the tour only if you use Microsoft Word 2003 or 2007. EndNote will look for matching references in the currently open libraries. such as proper margins. as shown in Part I of the guided tour. Open a Microsoft Word Document 78 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . title page. see “Using Predefined Manuscript Templates” on page 305. Open the Sample Library If EndNote is not already running. If you use a different word processor. etc. For this tour. The Cite While You Write commands enable EndNote to do bibliographic formatting to the document that is currently open in Word.enl). In this part of the guided tour. many formatting issues are already set up for your target publication. or on an EndNote tab in Word 2007. Edit citations to suppress author names and add cited pages. While EndNote can start and open your favorite library when needed by Word. to give you direct access to your references while writing in Microsoft Word. see Chapter 12.

you are going to enter minimal information. Word 2003: From the Tools menu. Several years ago. For this tour. To start writing your paper and inserting citations: 1. click the Insert Citation icon. Now you are ready to insert a citation. however. The EndNote Find Citations dialog appears. Morehouse overturned this hypothesis with the discovery of yet another species.Cite EndNote References You are going to start entering text and citations. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and then Find Citation(s). Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Type the author name “Morehouse” in the text box and click Find. 2. 3. Enter text as though you were writing your paper: The fossil in question was generally regarded to be the 220 million year-old remains of tyrannosaurus. in the Citations group. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 79 .

Add more text to the paper: It is now the undisputed progeny of the species at hand. 80 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . Click Insert to insert the selected reference as a citation. 4. 5. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. a single reference matches the search. in the Citations group. 6. but Instant Formatting formats the citation in the currently selected style and adds it to a formatted bibliography at the end of the paper. EndNote not only inserts a citation.EndNote lists the matching references. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and then Find Citation(s). There may be a delay the first time Word communicates with EndNote for the document. Word 2003: From the Tools menu. In this case. click the Insert Citation icon.

M. 1987. Journal of Paleontology. and Cite While You Write technology formats it and adds it to the bibliography at the end of the paper. Morehouse. [1] It is now the undisputed progeny of the species at hand. 2.S. Turnhouse. 75(6): p. EndNote inserts the citation. Your document text should now look like this: The fossil in question was generally regarded to be the 220 million year-old remains of tyrannosaurus.B. Morehouse overturned this hypothesis with the discovery of yet another species. Statistical evidence for early extinction of reptiles due to the K/T event. 1993. 8. [2] 1. and click Insert. EndNote searches all fields and lists the matching references. Several years ago. Journal of Paleontology. 198-209. however. Type the date “1987” into the text box and click Find. Scroll down the list of matching references.7. Tung. 11-15. and R. 17(2): p. select the reference by the author Turnhouse.. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 81 . Role of 14C dating in paleontology. S.I.

You must select a style that formats footnotes. Assume that you have finished inserting citations in your paper. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and choose Format Bibliography. Chicago 15th A. Word 2007: Click the Office icon and select Save. and EndNote formats the citation based on the current style. for example. Word 2007: on the EndNote tab.9. Then. insert the EndNote citation in the footnote. in the Bibliography group. To select the bibliographic style used for formatting: 1. Select a Bibliographic Style You can format your citations and bibliography as many times as you like. NOTE: You can also insert citations in footnotes. use the appropriate Word command to create the footnote. First. choose Save to save your document. click the bottom corner arrow. Word 2003: From Word’s File menu. changing the output style and various other layout settings each time. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. Word controls the placement and numbering of the footnote. 82 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour .

For this example. Some styles sequentially number citations and then insert a numbered reference list at the end of the paper. EndNote automatically updates the existing citations and regenerates the bibliography in the APA style.A Format Bibliography dialog appears.” You can sort the list of styles by Name or by Category by clicking on a column header. (To locate the APA 5th style. where you can select a bibliographic style. Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 83 . 4. 2. As you can see. there are other formatting options available here. you can make changes that override the settings in the current output style.) Click OK to leave the Format Bibliography dialog. click the Browse button next to “With output style” to display the list of output styles supplied with EndNote. Other styles insert Author-Date citations. click in the list and type “APA. Styles contain instructions for how EndNote will format citations and the bibliography. Select the APA 5th style and click OK. 3.

We also want to add a page reference to this particular citation. choose the Format Bibliography command again. Journal of Paleontology. However. modify the output style. so we will remove the author’s name from the citation.B. Date” format. use the Edit Citation command as described below. 1987) Morehouse. M. 84 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . 75(6). To make and retain changes to all citations and/or the bibliography. 198-209. Morehouse overturned this hypothesis with the discovery of yet another species. just do the necessary updates in your paper. If you want to change the output style or bibliography layout settings. R. (Morehouse & Tung. Statistical evidence for early extinction of reptiles due to the K/T event. however. if you want to make a change to an individual citation.700 styles are available. 1993) It is now the undisputed progeny of the species at hand. For some bibliographic styles. 11-15. the majority of references are cited in an “Author. if you need to make changes to the paper such as adding or deleting citations or text. Several years ago.Your document text should now look like this: The fossil in question was generally regarded to be the 220 million year-old remains of tyrannosaurus. To see the list of styles currently installed. but if the author’s name is mentioned within the paragraph text. you can install entire categories of styles with the EndNote installation program. The Style Manager includes a Get More on the Web button to easily locate and download individual styles. S. (1993). (1987). we mention Morehouse within the text of the paper. EndNote will reformat the in-text citations and generate a new bibliography based on your changes. Journal of Paleontology. Or.S. choose Output Styles from the Edit menu in EndNote and select Open Style Manager. Turnhouse. NOTE: More than 3. (Turnhouse. the style dictates that the name not be repeated in the citation. Role of 14C dating in paleontology. 17(2). Edit a Citation If you directly edit a citation or the bibliography. the changes will be lost when you Format Bibliography again because EndNote reformats according to the rules of the selected output style.I. In our example. In the future. & Tung.

Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour 85 . Word 2003: From the Tools menu. 3. 4. Next to Pages. type “34-35”. select Edit Citations. 2. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and then Edit Citations. NOTE: Another way to select Edit Citation is to right click with your mouse and select Edit Citation from the context-sensitive menu. In the Formatted Citation section.To edit an individual citation: 1. NOTE: Typing cited page numbers in this box does not guarantee that they will appear in your citation. Click anywhere on the Morehouse citation. You can edit any style to include this special field. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. You must use an output style that lists the “Cited Pages” field in the Citation template. select the Exclude Author box. in the Citations group.

As you are working. Journal of Paleontology.I. see “Installing Additional Output Styles” on page 471. Morehouse overturned this hypothesis with the discovery of yet another species. Chapter 17. & Tung. (1993. To close the EndNote program. “Bibliographic Styles. 1987) Morehouse. (1993). B. 198-209. S. Turnhouse. Click OK to update the citation in your paper. More than 3. M. 34-35) It is now the undisputed progeny of the species at hand.700 styles are available. go to the File menu in EndNote and choose Exit. Related Sections See these sections in the manual for information related to this portion of the tour: The process of citing references and figures and creating bibliographies with Cite While You Write is covered in Chapter 11. remember to often Save your document. S. (Turnhouse. To install additional styles. The fossil in question was generally regarded to be the 220 million year-old remains of tyrannosaurus. 17(2). Several years ago. 11-15. R. Statistical evidence for early extinction of reptiles due to the K/T event. You can continue adding text and bibliographic citations to the paper. Journal of Paleontology. 75(6). This completes the guided tour. Word 2007: Click the Office icon and then Exit Word. 86 Chapter 3: The EndNote Guided Tour . however. You can close Microsoft Word: Word 2003: Exit Word by choosing Exit from the File menu. Role of 14C dating in paleontology. and EndNote will continue adding to the list of references. pp. although a typical EndNote installation includes only the 100 most popular styles in EndNote’s Styles folder.” includes instructions for editing output styles. (1987).5.

............................................................................................................................... Setting a Favorite Library ................................................ X.. Deleting a Library ................................................. 105 105 107 107 109 110 110 111 111 112 112 113 114 115 115 Sharing EndNote Libraries Across Different Versions and Applications......................... Closing a Library ............................... Merging Libraries ....... Creating a New Library ......... 115 Compatibility between EndNote 8... 91 The Library Window Display Modes ........................................................................ 102 Creating Libraries ................ X1.............. Opening a Library ... and Deleting Libraries ............ Importing EndNote Libraries ...... 94 The Groups Pane .................................... Opening................................................................................ 98 Group Sets ........................ Recovering a Damaged Library....................................................................... 98 The Tab Pane ......................... 91 About the Library Window ............... 9....................................................... 89 89 90 90 The Library Window................................... 92 The Reference List Pane ............... Using Drag and Drop ... X2..................................................................... Copying References in Libraries ......................Chapter 4 The EndNote Library Contents About the EndNote Library ........... Back Up Your Libraries ...................... Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library ............ Closing........... 115 Opening and Converting Old EndNote 87 .... Important Points About Libraries ........... Multiple People Opening One Library ....................................................................................... and X3 ........................................................................................ Saving a Copy of a Library .......................................................................... Library Summary.........

............................................................................................................................. Creating a Library from Reference Manager.... 120 From Windows to Macintosh............. Reference Manager.............Libraries ......... 122 88 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library .................................... 116 117 119 119 Transferring Libraries Across Platforms............ 121 Data Visualization ........ 121 From Macintosh to Windows.. Converting an EndNote X3 Library for ProCite........................................... or an Earlier Version of EndNote ............................... Creating a Library from ProCite......

DATA folder along with the main library file. copied.ENL. Groups. You can open more than one library at a time. assuming that you have the disk space to store them. Additional information such as keywords. Windows Explorer may not be displaying file extensions. copy. notes. or delete the associated . Detailed information about each of these items follows.About the EndNote Library An EndNote library is a collection of references. Move. the first column shows a paper clip icon for Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 89 .DATA folder which is in the same folder as your main library file. including instructions for opening and creating libraries. The Library window displays a multi-column reference list. and abstracts can also be stored in these references. rename.ENL extension. and other significant files are stored in a [library name]. There is no limit to the number of libraries you can create. so remember to move. You can select default libraries to open automatically when EndNote is started. rename or delete both the main .000 to maintain efficient performance managing the database. Important Points About Libraries Listed below are some important points about the EndNote library.DATA folder. and navigating within a library. By default. copy. This chapter provides an overview of the EndNote library.ENL file and the . Each library can be independently moved. each containing the information required to create a bibliography. This folder is an extension of the library. It is recommended that the number not exceed 100. The Library window can be resized and the display font can be changed to any font or size that you prefer. Libraries created with the Macintosh versions of EndNote can be used by the Windows version of EndNote. There is no limit to the number of references you can create in an EndNote library. If your library filename does not include an . renamed or deleted using the Windows Explorer (or by opening “My Computer”). and vice versa (see page 120 for more information on transferring libraries across platforms). You can change this setting in Windows Explorer if you wish. Library filenames include the extension . We recommend that you keep all the references you cite in your papers in one primary library. Figures.

the journal name or secondary title. For a list of statistics about a specific reference. 90 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . and the Last Updated date are displayed for each reference.DATA folder. If you wish to save and print this information. Always back up both the .references that include attached files in the File Attachments field.ENL file and the . Back Up Your Libraries Your EndNote library becomes increasingly valuable to you as you add references to it. see “Record Summary” on page 132.DATA folder. You can change the displayed fields with the Display Fields preference. Each library is made up of a file with the extension . the first author’s last name. along with any other important documents. go to the Tools menu and choose Library Summary. You can use the Save a Copy command or one of the Compressed Library commands to save a copy of your library to a removable disk (or elsewhere) for safe keeping. use the Copy text to clipboard button and then paste the text into a word processor document. it is imperative that you back up your libraries. Library Summary To see a list of statistics about the currently open library. the year. the reference type. the title. See Appendix A for more information about making backup copies of your files. Consequently. Then.ENL plus a corresponding . the URL.

See “The Groups Pane” on page 98 for information about Group Sets. Temporary groups. showing first a paper clip icon for references that have a file attached to the File Attachments field. Changing the Library Display Font Choose a different font and size for the text displayed in the Library window by using EndNote’s preferences. and then the first author’s last name. the URL. and Online Search favorites. You can click on a pane to make it active.The Library Window About the Library Window When you first open a library with EndNote. the journal name or secondary title. and finally the Last Updated date. The Tab pane includes several tabs to easily access common library tasks. The Reference List in the Library window uses the Library display font. the title. Smart Groups. The selection of groups and menu commands available changes depending on the display mode. the library appears with the same dimensions and in the same location as when you last closed it. The Groups pane allows you to display subsets of references from your library. See “The Library Window Display Modes” on page 92. Each EndNote library can have its own unique dimensions and screen location. you see a Library window made up of three different panes: a Reference List pane. Custom groups.) Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 91 . EndNote remembers the new size of the Library window as well as its location on the screen so the next time you open it. The Reference List pane displays individual references on a single line. or by clicking the maximize or minimize buttons in the upper right corner of the Library window. the year. (The Preview tab on the Tab pane uses the General display font. you can resize the Library window by clicking the window border or lower right window corner and dragging to the desired size. or press F6 to jump between the panes. a Groups pane. the reference type. Resizing the Library Window Like most windows in EndNote. See “The Tab Pane” on page 102 for a description of the Preview and Search tabs. and a Tab pane.

You may want to always work in Integrated Library & Online Search Mode. 4.Changes made to the display fonts apply to all EndNote libraries opened on that computer. From the Edit menu. 2. Changing the display fonts does not affect the font EndNote uses when it creates a bibliography. Click OK to save the changes and close the dialog. you are 92 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . click the Change Font button. Click OK to close the font selection dialog and return to the Display Fonts preferences panel. where all groups and commands are available. The other option is to work primarily in Local Library Mode and switch to Online Search Mode when you want to search and download references from an online database. 3. once you select the Online Search command from the Tools menu. The Library Window Display Modes You can choose from different display modes in the Library window. and select a different display font and/or size from the lists. choose Preferences. Click the Display Fonts option. To change the Library display font: 1. EndNote uses the font specified in the selected output style for the bibliography. On the Library tab. they are saved directly into your open library. In Local Library Mode. When you download references from an online database. the Online Search groups are not available.

Integrated Library & Online Search Mode Online Search Mode (Temporary Library) Local Library Mode Integrated Library & Online Search Mode When you first create a library. only the Online Search groups are available. Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 93 . This allows you to download references from online databases without affecting your local library. All groups and menu commands are available. Integrated Library & Online Search Mode is in effect. EndNote switches into Online Search Mode. only local library groups are available. NOTE: You can still use Find Full Text. the found references are downloaded directly into the currently open library. when you open the library again. that setting is retained. or click on the Online Search Mode icon on the toolbar.automatically switched to Online Search Mode. use the Import command. When you close a library with Integrated mode in effect. It displays automatic groups. all groups are available. When you perform an online search. Only an Online Search command switches to Online Search Mode. Local Library Mode Local Library Mode does not display Online Groups. Smart groups. Custom groups. and EndNote Web groups. When you close a library with Local Library Mode in effect. When you go to the Tools menu and choose Online Search. To switch between these modes. click on the appropriate toolbar button. that setting is retained. when you open the library again. It keeps you from inadvertently searching an online database and downloading references into your currently open library. and references are downloaded into a temporary library. In Online Search Mode. Many library commands are not available in Online Search Mode. or direct download references into your local library.

the references are downloaded into a temporary library. If you want to save the references you have downloaded. 94 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . that setting is not retained.Online Search Mode Select Online Search Mode if you do not want to automatically download found references directly into your open library. When Online Search Mode is in effect. You cannot save changes to an individual reference or make global changes to references. with only local groups available. When Online Search Mode is in effect. the only groups available in the Library window are Online Searches. when you open the library again. You may prefer to peruse the downloaded references and then copy only specific references into your permanent EndNote library. When you close a library with Online Search Mode in effect. showing first a paper clip icon for references that have a file attached to the File Attachments field. The Reference List Pane The Reference List pane in the main Library window displays individual references on a single line. as well as the automatic groups “Online References” and “Online Trash. the year. many menu items are disabled. you must copy them to an existing EndNote library. Local Library Mode is in effect. and then the first author’s last name.” When you retrieve references from an online database in Online Search Mode.

maximize.the title. and finally the Last Updated date. respectively. minimize. Click column headings to sort. Typing a letter selects the first matching reference. Scroll through the list of references in the Library window by clicking in the vertical scroll bar with the mouse. A second click will change the order of the sort from ascending to descending. Click and drag column dividers to resize columns. For example. the reference type. Click and drag window corner to re-size. and close buttons Double-click a reference to open it. or if nothing is selected they select the last or first reference in the library. The matching depends on the order in which the library is sorted. Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 95 . The ↑ and ↓ keys move up or down from the currently selected reference. the URL. the journal name or secondary title. Navigating in the Reference List There are a number of ways to browse through your references. You can quickly sort the references by clicking on a column heading. click Year to sort by year. Click a group name to display the references in that group.

EndNote defaults to showing first a paper clip icon if a file is attached to the File Attachments field. and Last Updated date for each reference. Letter matching starts over after a half-second pause. Click the Display Fields option in the list. reference type. The HOME and END keys go to the first or last reference respectively. These settings apply to all libraries. change the order of the fields displayed. To customize the Library window display: 1. PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN move up or down a screen of references. typing a letter selects the first reference in which the author’s last name begins with that letter. 96 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . You may display other fields. 2. Year. Title. Journal Name or Secondary Title.” Type several letters and the selection jumps to the first name that begins with those typed letters. From the Edit menu.) Changing Display Fields In the Library window. or change the names used for the column headings in the Library window. (See Chapter 8 for more information. typing the letter “Z” selects the Zartman reference in our sample library since Zartman is the first author’s name to begin with a “Z. and then the Author. choose Preferences. choose Search Library from the Tools menu. To find specific references. URL.If the library is sorted by the Author field. For example.

If you would like to change the name for the Library window display. the column heading in the Library window will be the same as the Generic name of the field (the Figure field is indicated by Fig. you may do so by entering a new name in the Heading section next to the chosen field. By default. and the File Attachments field is indicated by a paper clip icon). When you sort the library. You must select at least one field for display in order to save your changes. Choose the desired field from the Field list. This behavior greatly enhances the speed of these two functions. EndNote displays the results of a search in the order in which they were found. 6. This sort order can be changed by choosing Sort Library from the Tools menu (see “Sorting the Library” on page 250) or by clicking the column headings. If you would like to display all author names under the Author heading in the library reference list. Click OK to save the changes and close the dialog. after importing references. When you sort a library. See “Sorting” on page 597 for information about having EndNote ignore certain words or names when sorting references. rather than just the first author.3. 5. select the check box next to Display all authors in the Author field. all alphabetical sorting is carried out according to the language and locale settings of your operating system—unless you specify a different language in the Sort Options dialog. that sort order is retained even after you close and reopen a library. “Sort Order: Bibliographies and Multiple Citations” on page 514 describes how to set the sort order for a bibliographic style. Choosing Show All References from the References menu returns all of the references to the Library window and lists them according to the last sort order specified. Similarly. and the order in which they were entered (the record number). The Reference List Sort Order The references listed in the Library window are automatically sorted by the first author’s last name and first initial. You may select up to eight fields to be displayed in the Library window. Select [Do not display] instead of a field name if you want to show fewer than eight fields. Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 97 . The library sort order is not remembered for all groups.. 4. the year. EndNote displays the newly imported references in the order in which they were imported.

Smart Groups. as described below. EndNote Web groups. A new library may display only the permanent All References. click on the group name. Some group sets are permanent. Unfiled. see “The Library Window Display Modes” on page 92. 98 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . and Trash groups. and Find Full Text. Custom group sets can contain any combination of custom groups and smart groups. and Find Full Text groups. which are described below. Custom Groups. EndNote Web. Each is described below. and cannot be removed. Group Sets Groups sets are indicated by group set headings in the Groups pane. To display a group of references in the Reference List pane. The left pane of the library window lists several Group Sets that include various types of groups: Automatic groups. GRAPHIC NOTE: If you find that not all groups are available. These include Online Search. Online Search groups.The Groups Pane Groups are subsets of references saved for easy retrieval. A new library begins with one custom group set: My Groups. You can also create any number of additional custom group sets. You can rename it at any time.

see “Group Sets” on page 258. and they cannot be searched or cited). The permanent groups are: All References: This displays all of the references in the current library. and cannot be changed. If you highlight a subset of references in this group and then display only those selected references. they are not included in your reference count. While the references are officially no longer in your library (they will not appear in any other group or reference list. Automatic Groups The automatic groups include both permanent and temporary groups. Click and drag a group set heading to move the group set to a new location. the name of the group changes to Showing References. For more information about group sets. Until you choose Empty Trash. are listed at the top of the Groups pane in the Library window. they are not completely deleted until you go to the Groups menu and choose Empty Trash. you can still drag references from the Trash group back to your active library. Trash: This group contains the references you have removed from the library by highlighting references and selecting Move References to Trash from the References menu. The status line along the bottom of the window will always tell you how may references you are viewing plus the total number of references in the library. Unfiled: This group contains those references that are not part of a custom group (and optionally not part of a smart group). Right click on Unfiled to display a context sensitive menu and toggle the setting Exclude Smart Groups in Unfiled/Include Smart Groups in Unfiled.Expand or collapse the list under a group set heading by clicking the plus (+) or minus (-) icon. Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 99 .

NOTE: When you close a library. this group is replaced. You can create up to 500 user defined groups and save them in custom Group Sets. Search Results: This temporary group displays the most recent search results. all temporary groups are deleted. Smart Groups are dynamically updated by applying search criteria to each reference as it is added or updated. described later. Custom Groups are updated only when you specifically add or remove references. You can run duplicate detection with the References>Detect Duplicates command. the references are still in the library! Custom Groups and Smart Groups Custom Groups and Smart Groups are user defined. Only the groups are deleted. You can easily drag and drop individual references or lists of selected references to and from Custom Groups. but they appear under a Find Full Text group set. Each time you run another search on the library. Imported References: This temporary group displays the last set of references imported into the library with the File>Import command. Duplicate References: This temporary group displays the results of duplicate detection in your library.The temporary groups are: temporary groups Copied References: This temporary group displays the last group of references that were retrieved in Online Search Mode and then copied into your permanent library with the References>Copy References to command. 100 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . Find Full Text groups are also automatic and temporary.

When you click on one of these connection file names. When the full text search is completed. and saving those groups in custom group sets. Those references to which full text or a URL was added are displayed in a Found PDF group or a Found URL group. EndNote Web The EndNote Web group set in the Groups pane lists your online EndNote Web folders. see Chapter 6. this group is deleted. see Chapter 9.” If the Online Groups section is not available in the Groups pane. Searching: This group displays the current set of references for which EndNote is attempting to find either the full text file of each referenced work or at least a URL to the referenced work. See “The Library Window Display Modes” on page 92. The groups remain for the current session. “Using Groups. “Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries.” Find Full Text The Find Full Text group set lists temporary groups that appear when you select Find Full Text from the References menu. See Chapter 21.” Online Search The Online Search group set in the Groups pane lists your "favorite" connection files for online searching. Found PDF: This group displays the set of references for which EndNote inserted the PDF file of the referenced work as an Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 101 .For more detailed information about saving references in groups. You can copy references between your EndNote desktop library and your EndNote Web folders. For more information about online searching. you may be displaying the Library window in Local Library Mode. the Search tab in the Tab pane becomes active and you are connected to the selected online service in order to begin searching. but disappear when you close the library. “Searching Online Databases with EndNote.

the command changes to Show Tab Pane. To change the height of the Tab pane. For more information about Find Full Text. These references will display a paper clip icon in the first column of the reference list. and drag up or down. clicking that option restores the Tab pane. When the Tab pane is displayed.) The Preview Tab To view a formatted preview of the currently selected reference.attachment. The Tab Pane The Tab pane in the main Library window includes two tabs. You can hide or display the Tab pane. click the Hide Tab Pane option at the bottom of the Library window to hide the pane. (When the cursor is over this area. click on the Preview tab or press ALT+P.  You could also select Hide Tab Pane/Show Tab Pane from the Tools menu. it displays just the last one in 102 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . The preview displays the selected reference in your current style. Found URL: This group displays the set of references for which EndNote inserted a URL to the referenced work. If multiple references are selected. see “Finding Full Text for a Reference” on page 200. Not Found: This group displays the set of references for which EndNote could not identify a full text file or a URL. it changes to indicate that you are in the right place to resize the pane. click on the bar that separates the pane from the reference list. which give easy access to common library tasks: a Preview tab. and a Search tab. These are only from the set of references searched with the Find Full Text command during this session of the EndNote library. Once the Tab pane is hidden.

choose Output Styles. see “The Style Manager” on page 468. it’s important to know how to set that style. Go to the Edit menu. from the Edit menu. do not worry.the selection. If you do not see the style that you want on the toolbar or in the Output Styles menu. any italics will display as plain text. Choosing the Current Style Since the preview uses the current style. and then Open Style Manager. The preview is not editable. mark the style or styles that you would like to be available in your Output Styles menu. (For more information about using the Style Manager. You should now be able to choose the style that you need from the Output Styles menu. Over 3.) Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 103 . Select an output style. Or. The check mark next to a style name indicates that it is the current style. to edit the reference. To select your current style: On the Main toolbar. choose Output Styles and select a style in the list. NOTE: If the font specified in the selected output style does not support italics. Then. double-click it in the reference list.700 styles are provided with EndNote and are available via the Style Manager. use the Output Styles list to select a new style.

Simply choose Select Another Style. From the Edit menu. See “Searching for References” on page 233 for more information about searching EndNote libraries. you will need to create a custom style to include just those fields (see “Printing Only the Notes” on page 425). To begin a search of an online database. Using the Preview to Display Notes or Abstracts You may find it useful to configure the Library window so that the reference list displays bibliographic data (such as author. or Paste the formatted references into a word processor document. formatted according to the current style. 3. 2. To preview multiple references: 1. and journal). That would allow you to browse through your references in the Library window without having to open individual references to see more about them. The Search Tab To begin a search of your EndNote library. Previewing Multiple References The preview tab displays a preview for only one reference at a time. click on the database name in the Groups pane under Online Search or go to the Tools menu and choose Online Search. See “Searching Online Databases with EndNote” on page 177. Select (highlight) the references in the Library window. choose Copy Formatted to copy the formatted references to the Windows Clipboard. You can use the Show All Fields style to display all reference fields on the preview tab. and the preview tab displays just notes or abstracts. display the group of references you want to search and then choose Search Library (CTRL+F) from the Tools menu or click the Search tab on the Tab pane. displaying several empty search lines (you can add more if necessary). 104 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . select the style. The Search tab appears. title. and click Choose. To get the preview to display just the notes or the abstract. Use the Windows Clipboard Viewer to view the contents of the Clipboard.You can also add styles to the menus using the Select Another Style option from the style list on the Main toolbar. year.

EndNote presents a dialog prompting you to name and save the new library: 2. Instead of making different “specialty” libraries. If you do not include an extension. Using the “Save in” list.Creating Libraries Although you can create as many libraries as you like. Having all of the references you need in one place avoids unnecessary complexity when you are writing papers. you will find it more useful to create one library and use Groups to help you organize and categorize your references. choose New. You can also use the Keyword and Label fields to assign terms to references. we strongly recommend that you keep all of your references together in one main EndNote library. or moving files between computers. 3.ENL” which stands for “EndNote Library”. use the extension “. From EndNote’s File menu. EndNote will add “. creating bibliographies. Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 105 . and easily assign them to a Smart Group or find them with EndNote’s Search and Sort References commands. Enter a name for your new library. Creating a New Library To create a library: 1. If you include an extension.ENL” automatically. choose the location where you would like to save the library.

“Searching Online Databases with EndNote. showing “0 out of 0 references.ENL file and a . Click Save and the new library appears as an empty EndNote library. Chapter 7.” shows you how to import references that you have previously downloaded from online bibliographic databases. you can set it to open automatically every time you start EndNote by setting it to be your “favorite library” (see page 109).” discusses how to enter individual references manually. “Entering and Editing References. ““Importing Reference Data into EndNote”.DATA folder. 106 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . The following chapters illustrate the different ways to add references to an EndNote library: Chapter 5. you can begin entering references into it.” NOTE: On disk. Now that you have created a new library.4. If you have just created a library that will be the main library that you use.” describes how to connect directly to online databases and retrieve references from them. Chapter 6. each EndNote library is made up of both an .

choose Save a Copy from the File menu.ENL file as well as its associated . NOTE: EndNote libraries larger than 4 gigabytes (GB) or 65. Click Save and EndNote creates a copy of the library. Name the new library and choose where to save it. Later. NOTE: The Save a Copy command creates a [library name]. Open the library in EndNote. use the Save a Copy command to create an exact copy of your library. you can easily restore (unzip) the compressed library with EndNote. Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 107 . To save to a compressed library file: 1. With a library open. It is simply saved to disk. however. 2.535 files (64 K) cannot be compressed with EndNote’s Compressed Library commands. EndNote leaves your original library open as it was before the command was chosen. where you can then open it with EndNote.ENLX file in order to easily back up your library or send a copy to a colleague.DATA folder for the new library. and copies all necessary files and figures to it. so there is no Save or Save As command for the library.DATA folder and all of its contents) to a single compressed filename. The new library does not open.Saving a Copy of a Library EndNote automatically saves changes to your library as you work with it.ENL file as well as a [library name]. To create a copy of your library: 1. Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library You can save your complete library (the filename. You can. 3.

Use the file dialog to save to an EndNote Compressed Library (filename. specify whether to save file attachments with the library or not. or to Create & Email it. c) In the bottom half of the dialog. 3.2. These characters are replaced with an underscore \ / : * ? " < > | back slash forward slash colon asterisk question mark quotation mark less than greater than vertical bar 108 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . select Compressed Library (.ENLX). specify whether to just Create the compressed library. 4. Any of the following characters in the original library filename will be replaced with an underscore in the compressed library filename. From the File menu. or only the selected (highlighted) references. b) In the top right side of the dialog. d) Click Next to display a file dialog.enlx) to display a Compressed Library dialog. specify whether to save all references to the compressed library. or only the references in a specific group. Use the radio buttons to determine these options: a) In the top left side of the dialog.

To restore a compressed library file: 1.5. choose Preferences and select Libraries.ENLX file is located. create a new email.enl file as you normally would to use the library. subject.enlx file. Use EndNote to open the filename. and Send. and attach the compressed library file to the email. which will extract the .DATA folder to the same folder where the . choose “Open the specified libraries. If you selected the option to Create & Email the library. 3. 2. You do not need to select a favorite library. such as a recipient.) From the Edit menu. By default. 2. Enter additional information to the email. EndNote will launch your default email system.” Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 109 . (You must have a library open in order to set it as your favorite library. Open the library (or libraries) that you would like to set as your favorite. and message. In the drop-down list at the top of the window.ENL file and the . We call these your “favorite” libraries. To assign or change a favorite library: 1. Setting a Favorite Library EndNote allows you to specify the libraries that you want to open automatically when EndNote starts up. EndNote will open the last used library. Use EndNote (version X or later) to open the filename.

Closing. (If you have previously opened a library. EndNote will list that library below the Open Library command. and Deleting Libraries Opening a Library To open a library when the EndNote program is already running. you can simply choose the library to open it directly. Removing Favorite Libraries To remove a library from the list of favorite libraries: 1. EndNote displays a dialog similar to this: “Look in” list the uncompressed library the compressed library 110 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library .) When you choose the Open Library command. Click OK to save your changes and close the Preferences dialog. 2.4. 5. choose Preferences and select Libraries from the list of options. Click OK to save your changes and close the Preferences dialog. choose Open from EndNote’s File menu and select Open Library. Opening. Select the library that you would like to remove from the list of favorite libraries and click Remove Library. and skip the dialog shown below. From the Edit menu. 3. Click Add Open Libraries and all of the currently open libraries will be added to the list of favorite libraries that should open every time EndNote starts.

The simplest way to set up an EndNote library for shared network access is to use the network’s system of file permissions to control the type of access allowed for users and groups. and format their papers. Click the close button in the top right corner of the Library window. then it is probably saved in a different place on your hard drive or removable disk. If your library is listed in the dialog.ENLX).) When you open a compressed library (with the extension . Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 111 . multiple users can access one EndNote library simultaneously as long as the library is restricted to read-only or locked status. Except for the person who posts the database.ENL). Type CTRL+W or CTRL+F4 when the Library window is active. Closing a Library To close a library. periodically post the updated library on the network for all other users. select the Read-Only attribute for the . (If your library is within several folders. EndNote uncompressed the files and opens the uncompressed version (with the extension . One person should be assigned the responsibility for maintaining and updating the library at a separate location. copy information to their documents. ENLX.Use Windows Explorer to change the Properties of your EndNote library. To locate a library: 1. with read-only access. do one of the following: Choose Close Library from the File menu. you should change the “Files of Type:” option to All files (*. If your library is not listed there. 2. Then. grant all users read-only access. However. Select the folder that contains your library and click Open. Multiple People Opening One Library EndNote does not perform record locking functions that would allow multiple users to edit one library at the same time.DATA folder.By default. this user should be granted full access to the file. continue to open each folder until you locate the library. select it and click Open. this dialog displays all files with the extension ENL. If your library name has a different extension.ENL file and the .*). Click the “Look in” list and select the letter of the drive on which your library is stored. or LIB. This will allow users to perform searches.

2. if you were 3. To repair a damaged EndNote library: 1. select Open and then Open Library. 112 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . As a result. the Library window simply disappears. If an EndNote library gets damaged.DATA folder. right click your mouse. as all changes have already been saved. you can use the Recover Library command to repair the damaged file. Recovering a Damaged Library Occasionally computer files get damaged. you may get an error message when trying to open it or work with the references. locate and select the library that needs to be repaired. 3. closing the library does not invoke the familiar “Save changes?” question. From the Tools menu. For example. 5. Instead. If you want to quit from EndNote. and click OK. 2.Type CTRL+SHIFT+W to close all open libraries. choose Recover Library. Closing a library does not quit the EndNote program. Close the library if it is currently open. simply choose Exit from the File menu and any open libraries are saved and closed automatically. In the file dialog. and click Open. To delete a library from within EndNote: 1. Deleting a Library You can delete an EndNote library in one of two ways. and click Delete. and click Delete. 4. EndNote creates a copy of the library with the suffix “-Saved” added to the name. In the dialog that appears. Next. highlight the libraryname. highlight the libraryname. EndNote automatically saves the information in your library when you close each reference.enl file. One option is to exit EndNote and delete the library file and its associated . From the File menu.DATA folder by dragging the icons to the Recycle Bin on the Windows desktop. 4. right click your mouse. Read the information about the Recover Library command. but keep EndNote open. Close the library. The best way to protect yourself from damaged files is to make regular backup copies of your important documents (see Appendix A). Click Cancel to close the file dialog. If you do not have a backup copy of a damaged EndNote library.

DATA folder. the newly added references are assigned new record numbers in the order that they are added to the library. As a result. Figures cannot be repaired. it means that EndNote was able to reconstruct references that had recently been deleted. Any time you add references to a library.DATA folder. Differences Between a Saved Library & the Original The purpose of the Recover Library command is to recover as many references from the original library as possible. you will need to rebuild each term list by choosing Define Term Lists from the Tools menu. but are simply copied from the original library’s . These references must be deleted again. If you rename the recovered library to the original library name.DATA folder to match. This means that it may also recover references that had previously been deleted from the library. repaired library called “References . merged library to format papers that have citations with the older record numbers. it is a good idea to make a backup copy of the library into which you are transferring references. Consequently. you should be able to open it and use it in place of the damaged library. Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 113 . or copy and paste references between open libraries. Term lists are not recovered with the library. remember to also rename the . highlighting the list. NOTE: Before merging libraries. but not yet purged from the file itself. drag-and-drop references between open libraries. you cannot use the larger. This means that a reference that was #23 in a smaller library. NOTE: The Recover Library command also creates a new . If there are more references recovered in the saved library than existed at the time the original library was damaged. could become #600 in a larger library.Saved” would be created in the same location.DATA folder to the new . Merging Libraries There are three ways to merge libraries: import one library into another.repairing a library called “References” the original library would remain untouched and a new. and then clicking Update List to fill the term list with the terms used in your library. Once the new library has been saved.

Importing EndNote Libraries The advantage of using the Import command to combine libraries is its ability to filter out duplicate references during the import operation. By default. including duplicates. choose Import. (Optional) If you want to import only a subset of references from a library. except duplicates. all references are imported regardless of what is currently showing. 3. Title. where “File” is the name of the library into which you are importing. Click the Choose File button to locate and open the library you want to import. For example. From the File menu. first open that library and show only the references you wish to copy. “Showing 10 out of 200 references. Year. Choose a Text Translation option. if the library says. To import an EndNote library into an EndNote library: 1. 8. 6. From the Import Options list. 5. select EndNote Library. and Reference Type match a reference already in the library.enl. Refer to the progress indicator to determine when EndNote has completed the task. so that extended characters transfer correctly. NOTE: The time required to import an EndNote library is proportionate to the size of the library. Click Import to import the file. Discard Duplicates: Imports the references. You can use No Translation for text files that do not contain any extended characters. 7. 4. Import into Duplicates Library: Duplicate references are imported into a library called File-Dupl. 2.” EndNote imports only 10 references. See “Duplicates” on page 603 if you would like to change the duplicates criteria. If the library you are importing is locked or in “Read-Only” mode. This option allows you to specify the text character encoding of the file you import. Open the library into which you want to import the references. Select the file and click OK. a reference is considered a duplicate when the Author. Select an option from the Duplicates list: Import All: Imports the references. 114 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library .

EndNote X3 can open and use EndNote 8 and EndNote 9 libraries with no conversion. please note that: The DATA folder is a critical part of your library. Once you have opened and used an EndNote 8 or 9 library with EndNote X3. you should only use the library with EndNote X or later. Select the references that you want to copy and choose Copy (CTRL+C) from the Edit menu. 9. only newly imported references display in the Library window. simply select them in one library (hold down the C TRL key to select nonconsecutive references. you risk loss of data. Because EndNote X3 does include enhancements. X2. New features in EndNote X3 are simply ignored by the earlier versions. click on any part of the selection and use the mouse to drag the selection to another library. Technically. X1. Whenever you copy or move a library. X. or to peruse the imported data to make sure it imported as expected. You can share your libraries between these versions with no conversion. and X3 are fully compatible. EndNote 8 and EndNote 9 can open libraries created with EndNote X3. This is a perfect time to add a keyword to each imported reference with the Change Field command. use the SHIFT key to select a range). X1.enl Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 115 . X2. and X3 EndNote X. Open the library to which you want to add the references and choose Paste Copying References in Libraries Sharing EndNote Libraries Across Different Versions and Applications Compatibility between EndNote 8. Make sure to check references that contain extended characters. include not only the filename. choose Show All References from the References menu. Using Drag and Drop To copy specific references from one library to another. The selected references are copied to the library where they were “dropped.When the import is complete. but we do not recommend it. To return all of your references to the library display (including the newly imported ones).” You can also use the Copy and Paste commands in the Edit menu to transfer references.

EndNote X2 included new reference types. If an earlier version of EndNote does not recognize the reference type. but also its associated . you will need to replace the characters below if they are used in the filenames of existing attached files and graphics—and then reinsert the files. However. you cannot view groups. See “Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library” on page 107. No conversion is necessary. or share it with another EndNote X or later user. EndNote X. X1. 116 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . X. there is an easy way to compress your EndNote library and include all of the associated files and folders. If you open an EndNote X3 library with an earlier version of EndNote. X.DATA folder and all of its contents. and X1. One option is to replace these characters with an underscore. you can regularly share your libraries between these versions NOTE: Once you have opened and used an EndNote 8 or 9 library with EndNote X3. 9. you should only use the library with EndNote X or later. groups are remembered when you open the library again with EndNote X3. 9. In order to allow cross-version and cross-platform compatibility of attached files. NOTE: If you want to back up your library. it will display and print the Generic reference type for those references entered into the new reference types.file. and EndNote X2 added Smart Groups. Replace these characters in attached filenames \ / : * ? " < > | back slash forward slash colon asterisk question mark quotation mark less than greater than vertical bar EndNote X1 included a new grouping feature. and X1 Libraries EndNote X3 can easily open and use libraries created with EndNote 8. Opening and Converting Old EndNote Libraries EndNote 8. X2 and X3 are fully compatible.

the same process will work for libraries created in EndNote 4 and earlier. EndNote will warn that the selected library was created with an older version. references are copied and converted. and leaves the original library intact. 2.EndNote Libraries Prior to Version 8 EndNote X3 can automatically convert libraries created with earlier versions of Endnote (versions 5. Click OK to convert the library. NOTE: The time required to convert an EndNote library is proportionate to the size of the library. 3. or X2 to access the converted library. select Open and then Open Library. text from these fields will transfer into the Notes field. X1. NOTE: You must use EndNote X. On the file dialog. Name the new library and click Save. Refer to the progress indicator to determine when EndNote has completed the task. Start EndNote. Creating a Library from ProCite EndNote can easily convert ProCite databases to EndNote libraries. 6. As you go through the conversion process. To convert an old EndNote library: 1. and will ask for permission to convert it. From the File menu. that do not have an equivalent EndNote field. While every effort has been made to map ProCite workforms to corresponding EndNote reference types. such as Connective Phrase and Author Role. For a matrix Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 117 . 4. The conversion makes a copy of the original library in the latest X2 file format. In most cases. locate and highlight the old library. or 7) to the latest file format. and click Open Library. There are some ProCite fields. The original ProCite database is left intact. you are given the option to Customize the workform and field mapping. and ProCite fields to corresponding EndNote fields. you may wish to make some adjustments.

you can change the field 118 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . 4. go to the File menu and choose Open>Open Library to display a file dialog. To convert a ProCite database to an EndNote library: 1. or b) Click Customize if you wish to modify the mapping of ProCite workforms to EndNote reference types and ProCite fields to EndNote fields for each document type.” use the drop-down list to select “ProCite database (*pdt). and are displayed as a generic EndNote reference. 2.” Use the file dialog to navigate to the folder that contains the ProCite database. In EndNote. during conversion. or. highlight the database name.showing the default mapping of workforms to reference types. When you highlight a setting in the top half of the dialog. click the Customize button to map custom workforms to EndNote reference types. You should either globally change the workform assignment in ProCite before conversion. NOTE: Custom ProCite workforms do not convert to specific EndNote reference types. 3. and click Open. next to “Files of type. You can either: a) Click Convert to proceed with the conversion. At the bottom of the dialog. Use the top half of the dialog to map each workform to a corresponding EndNote reference type. A message will let you know that the database must be converted for use. see the EndNote Help file (press F1 to bring up the Help file).

b. From the File menu. 4. d. the library will open in EndNote. or an Earlier Version of EndNote Converting an EndNote X3 library for use with EndNote versions 5-7. Click Choose File and select the text file you created. select the RefMan (RIS) import filter. Export your Reference Manager references to a text file: a. for Reference Manager. Next to Import Option. it exports text as UTF-8 Unicode. Export to a text file. 2. and not as traditional ANSI text. Reference Manager. If your references contain diacritics. ProCite. Start EndNote and open or create the library to contain the imported references. you must first export the references to a text file and then import from the text file into an EndNote library. When the conversion is complete.mapping for that reference type in the bottom half of the dialog. and then importing from the text file into the other program. 5. you must do this carefully so that your diacritics transfer correctly. EndNote will convert the library. select Import. so they need the document converted to ANSI text. and choose All References. Converting an EndNote X3 Library for ProCite. Creating a Library from Reference Manager To use a Reference Manager database with EndNote. give the new EndNote library a name (the default is the same as the old ProCite name). select a folder. and click Save. To convert a Reference Manager database to an EndNote library: 1. Select the RIS export format. Click OK to save changes to the mapping. Reference Manager. Click Import. and earlier versions of EndNote are not Unicode compatible. If you attempt to import Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 119 . Open Reference Manager and the database you want to convert. On the “Save Converted Library as” file dialog. 5. From the File menu. choose Export. Because EndNote X3 is Unicode compliant. 3. 6. or for ProCite requires exporting the references from your EndNote library to a text file. c.

In EndNote X3. remember to send not only the . choose File>Save As and save the document with a new name. as plain text. or 7: Select the Refer style. When Word asks you to select an encoding option. You can then send the single.references that have not been saved as ANSI text. Highlight and Choose the appropriate output style: For EndNote 5.” In Word. and they can restore the filename. To convert your EndNote X3 library for other applications: 1. Go to the File menu and use Export to export your library to a plain text file. For an easy way to compress all of your library files and folders into a single file. 3. 6.enl file and its associated . 4. 120 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . To import the saved file: With EndNote: Use the Refer/BibIX import filter. 6. Use Microsoft Word to open the text file you exported from EndNote. See “Sharing EndNote Libraries Across Different Versions and Applications” on page 115 for more information.DATA folder. go to the drop-down output style list on the Main toolbar. Transferring Libraries Across Platforms EndNote X3 can read libraries created in versions 5 or later of EndNote for Windows or Macintosh. choose “Other Encoding” and “Unicode (UTF-8). but all of the files found in your library’s . diacritics will appear scrambled in the new database or library format. For Reference Manager or ProCite: Select the RefMan (RIS) style.DATA folder. which are not supported by EndNote versions earlier than version 8. 5. Extended Latin and double-byte characters will not transfer to earlier version file formats. 2.ENL file. If you plan to send or email an EndNote library to someone. compressed file to the other user. NOTE: EndNote X3 allows the use of Extended Latin and double-byte character sets. and choose Select Another Style. see “Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library” on page 107. With Reference Manager or ProCite: Use the RIS import filter. and with Windows-default as the encoding option.

it maintains the EndNote Macintosh icon and can be opened just like any other library created by EndNote on the Macintosh.ENL” extension.ENL” extension as part of the file name. No conversion is necessary.) From the File menu. Medicine.ENL” extension (for example.ENL” extension (for example.DATA folder. however you should make sure the name of the library includes the “. Once the library has been opened in EndNote on a Macintosh. simply copy the files from the Macintosh to the PC.DATA folder. there is an easy way to compress all of your library files and folders into a single file. use Windows Explorer to copy the library to a removable storage disk. If you are on a network. See “Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library” on page 107. Start the EndNote program on the Macintosh. or X2 for the Macintosh. 1. EndNote can display it. Use your Macintosh to copy the library from the removable storage disk to the Macintosh. X1. EndNote will not recognize it. Medicine. Make sure you also copy the . choose Open Library. No conversion is necessary. NOTE: If you plan to send an EndNote X3 library to another EndNote X or later user. simply copy the library from the PC to the Macintosh. From Macintosh to Windows Any library created or updated by EndNote X3 on a Macintosh can be used by EndNote X. see “Using EndNote on a Palm OS Handheld” on page 639. From Windows to Macintosh Any library created or updated by EndNote X3 under Windows can be used by EndNote X.To copy a library to your handheld device.DATA folder found in the same folder as the library. or X2 for Windows. 1. Select the library and click Open. X1. As long as the library has the “. 3. Otherwise. If the library does not have the “. Navigate to the library you want to open. If you are on a network. however you must make sure the name of the library includes the “. use a file transfer utility to move the library from the Macintosh to a removable storage Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 121 . 2. 4. choose Cancel.enl) and include the associated .enl) and include the associated . Or. (If you see a dialog prompting you for a reference library file.

categorical and sequence data from a variety of sources. start the CONFIGURE DATAVIZ application. Users with access to data visual analysis software. Data visualization tools. such as RefViz. etc. voice. To turn on the Data Visualization feature: 1. Make sure you have a Data Visualization software application installed on your computer (such as OmniViz. Make sure you copy the . Data visual analysis software provides tools to interact with data that has been visualized.disk and then to the PC. Use the “Look in” list to navigate to the library you want to open. In the EndNote folder. sound.). there is an easy way to compress all of your library files and folders into a single file. and you should be able to see your library. video. Select your library and click Open. or numerical data. 3.ENL library. 2.LIB” it will not appear in the dialog. 4. If that is the case. Data Visualization Data Visualization (or Information Visualization) is the direct visual representation of selected features or elements of complex multi-dimensional text. Start the EndNote program in Windows.ENL” or “*.DATA folder found in the same folder as the . which allow for direct importing of EndNote files. select All Files *. 122 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library . text. RefViz. 2. can use EndNote’s Tools>Data Visualization command to access EndNote data in a new way. See “Saving a Compressed Copy of a Library” on page 107. NOTE: If you plan to send an EndNote X3 library to another EndNote X or later user. (If you see a dialog prompting you for a reference library file. image.) Select Open from the File menu. choose Cancel. 4. and choose Open Library. give you the capability to combine and analyze numeric. Click Finish.* from the file type list at the bottom of the dialog. Follow the prompts to select the location of your Data Visualization program. 3. Tools for clustering collections of text documents and combined data sets are also included. If your library does not have the extension “.

NOTE: If you are running Windows Vista. 3. Select all references. To export data from your EndNote library to Data Visualization software: 1. 2. you must have administrative access in order to use this utility and see your references with a data visualization tool. select Data Visualization. Select the RefMan (RIS) Export output style. 4. Depending on the size of your library. NOTE: Data Visualization is most useful when most of your records contain information in the Abstract field.The Data Visualization command should now be active on the Tools menu in EndNote. Open an EndNote library. This launches your Data Visualization software to run a visualization of the text included in your library. From the Tools menu. a visualization may take several minutes. Chapter 4: The EndNote Library 123 .

124 Chapter 4: The EndNote Library .

..................... Creating a New Reference...... Changing the Default Reference Type ............................ Year .................................... Short Title ....... Selecting References ................................. Record Summary .. Closing.................................................................................................. Titles...... 127 127 128 129 129 130 132 132 133 133 134 135 135 135 137 137 137 138 138 139 139 140 142 142 142 143 143 143 144 144 145 145 125 ..................................... Pages ......................................................................... and Deleting References ......................................... Reviewed Item ........... Tips for Choosing the Right Reference Type ........................................................ Using Term Lists with Data Entry .................................................................. Opening References ................... Reprint Edition............... Author and Editor Names .................................. The Reference Window ........................................................................................ Date and Auto Date Stamp ......................................... The Window Menu .................... Deleting References ...................................................... Original Publication .................. Previous and Next Reference Commands ..................................................................................... Opening.................................................................................... Choosing a Reference Type ................................................... Edition .................................................................. Closing References............................. Saving References .................................................... Journal Names...................................... Saving......................................................................................................................................................... Entering References .................... Overview . Important Points About References .............................................. Reverting References ........... Changing the Display Fonts ..........................Chapter 5 Entering and Editing References Contents Introduction ......

.. Figure and Caption .............................. Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments .............................................................. Editing Figure Files..................... 126 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 169 169 170 172 174 ..... and Move Field .......... Inserting Graphics and Files .................................................................. Copy.......................................... Cut.............. 168 Spell Check Options and Dictionaries .................................................................... Saving a Copy of an Attached File .......................................... Entering Articles from the Same Source ...................... Common Uses for Change Text......... and Style .. 152 Entering Characters with Diacritical Marks . Change Text ....................................... Using “Drag-and-Drop” Within a Reference .............................................................................. Notes and Abstract ..................... Linking a File to an EndNote Reference .......................... Change Field............................................... Label .. File Attachments ............ Entering a Caption ......... Opening the Figure File..................................................................... Storing and Sharing Figure Files ........................ 145 145 146 146 146 146 147 149 149 150 150 150 151 152 Entering Special Characters .........................ISBN/ISSN......... Plain Text ................................................ URL (Uniform Resource Locator) ................... Selecting the Appropriate Reference Type ........................................................................... Size................................ Converting from Figures to File Attachments........................... 168 Starting Spell Check........ Copying and Pasting Complete References ...... Deleting or Replacing Figure Files ......................... Move Fields ............................... Linking References to Websites and Files ..................................... Font............. DOI/Call Number.......................... Removing a Linked File from File Attachments ...................................................................... Opening a Linked File or URL .......................................................... 153 Using Character Map ............................................................ Paste Text in the References ................ 155 155 156 158 158 159 159 159 160 160 160 161 163 165 166 166 Spell Checking ........................................ Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference................................................................................................................................. Change Fields .......... 153 Inserting Figures ..................... 169 Changing Text in Multiple References ........................... Keywords ......................

There is no limit to the number of references you can create in an EndNote library. Year. size. abstracts. You can insert one graphic or file into the Figure field of a record. Keywords. EndNote uses these numbers to format papers.). Important Points About References Here is an overview of important aspects of EndNote references: Each EndNote reference stores the information required to cite it in a bibliography. etc. You cannot change these record numbers. however. URLs and other information can be stored in a reference as well. Three additional Unused reference types are available so you can define your own. edit EndNote references. The fields (Author. The text of the references should remain as “plain text” unless a special font. Chapter 7 describes how to import references from a variety of sources using EndNote’s Import command. Book. however we recommend that the number not exceed 100. Each reference added to a library is automatically assigned a unique record number that never changes for that reference in that particular library. Title. you can insert multiple files into the File Attachments field. up to a total of 52 fields per reference. and the figure can be cited in Microsoft Word. References are automatically saved when they are closed. etc. and insert graphics and files. This chapter explains how to type information into EndNote. you may save a reference while editing the reference using the Save command on the File menu. However. New fields can also be added. or style of text is required for a specific term or character. including the reference type name. notes. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 127 . Conference Proceedings.000 to maintain efficient performance managing the database. See Chapter 6 for information about connecting to online bibliographic databases and retrieving references directly into EndNote. Forty-five reference types are already defined (such as Journal Article. The font used to display the text in the references can be changed using the General Display Font preference.Introduction There are various ways to add references to an EndNote library.) displayed for each reference type can be modified or deleted.

Click the close button to close the reference. Each part of the reference is stored in its own field. 128 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . All changes to the open reference are saved when you click these buttons. Reference Type list Minimize. and the type of reference is displayed below the title bar. and Close buttons Previous and Next Reference buttons Title field { Drag to resize The Reference Type list displays the type of reference that you are viewing. or type CTRL+W (or CTRL+SHIFT+W to close all references at once). Maximize. Click the Hide Empty Fields to view only those fields that contain data. All changes are saved automatically when a reference is closed. This setting is remembered until you click the icon again. so the next time you open a reference it will appear with the same dimensions and in the same location.The Reference Window title bar The Reference window displays the contents of the reference. Resize the Reference window by clicking on the lower right window corner and dragging the window to the desired size. Click the double triangle icon to toggle between Hide Empty Fields and Show Empty Fields. such as a journal article or a book. EndNote displays all fields in a reference. Initially. Click the left arrow (Previous Reference) or right arrow (Next Reference) buttons to close the current reference and open either the previous or next reference (based on the order the references appear in the Library window). EndNote remembers the size and location of the last reference that you closed.

The Window Menu Any open library or reference is listed in EndNote’s Window menu.Click in the scroll bar with the mouse to scroll through the information in the Reference window. When a Reference window is open. the content of the References window changes to display the information for the previous or next reference listed in the Library window. This command has the same effect as closing the reference that is currently displayed and opening another reference. use the Previous Reference and Next Reference commands in the References menu to quickly browse through your references. The title of each open Reference window (that is. Press the TAB key to move to the next field and select its contents. the author. and it can be selected to bring that reference forward on the screen. Click the restore button to restore the window to its original size. This is the same information that is used for the temporary citations in word processing documents. Previous and Next Reference Commands When you choose one of these commands (or click the buttons). and record number of a reference) appears in the Window menu. year. the year. so any changes to the currently opened reference will be saved before EndNote switches to display another reference. The first author’s last name. and the EndNote record number appear at the top of the Reference window in the title bar. Click the maximize or minimize buttons in the top corner to expand or minimize a Reference window. The Reference window also includes arrow buttons to move to the previous or next reference. SHIFT+TAB selects the previous field. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 129 .

However. Changing the General display font simply changes the font that EndNote uses for its “Plain Font” and “Plain Size” settings. You can change this to another font and/ or size using the Display Fonts option in EndNote’s preferences. Changes made to the display fonts apply to all EndNote libraries opened on that computer. you can switch the display font to a Unicode font. exported. If some characters do not display correctly in your EndNote library. EndNote uses Unicode to encode special characters. The normal font of the document is used for that. 130 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . Or. The General display font is also used for most of the previews and information panels in EndNote. as well as for bibliographies that are printed. you may need to install a language pack (see “Changing Language Settings” on page 693).Changing the Display Fonts By default. such as Arial Unicode MS. programs. or copied directly from EndNote. and languages. Deliberate font changes that you have made in your references are not affected by the display font. any text that you type or edit in EndNote is displayed in 12 point Arial font. They do not affect the font used when you are formatting bibliographies in a word processing document. so that data can be easily translated between platforms. some fonts do not include certain Unicode characters. The General display font changes the font used to display most text that is typed into EndNote (such as in the Reference or Style windows).

then select a different font and/or size from the lists in the font dialog. Library: The Library setting determines the font and size of the references listed in the Library window. click Change Font. Click OK to save these changes and close the Preferences dialog. The General display font is also used for most of the previews and information panels in EndNote. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 131 . Search: The Search setting determines the font and size applied to user-entered text on the Search tab. choose Preferences and click the Display Fonts option. Labels: The Labels setting determines the font and size used for the Reference window field labels. On each tab. To see your changes in any EndNote windows that are currently open.To change the display fonts: 1. 2. From the Edit menu. 3. General: The General setting changes the font and size used to display most text that is typed into EndNote (such as in the Reference or Style windows). click Apply. Click OK to close the font dialog and see the example text displayed in the chosen font and size. as well as for bibliographies that are printed or copied directly from EndNote.

” and “the” are skipped. The simplest way is to click on a reference in a reference list. Press the CTRL key and click on a selected 132 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . if the library is sorted by the author field. If the library is sorted based on title. For example. type the first few letters of the title of the reference that you want to select.Record Summary To see a list of statistics about a reference. highlight the reference in the Library window. open. export or edit them). That reference is then highlighted to indicate it is selected. use the Copy text to clipboard button and then paste the text into a word processor document. see “Library Summary” on page 90.) To select multiple references: Hold down the CTRL key while clicking on individual references. then go to the References menu and choose Record Summary. type the first few letters of an author’s last name to select the first reference by that author. articles such as “a. You can also select a reference by typing the first few letters found in the field by which the library is currently sorted.” “an. (When typing the letters to match a title. Selecting References To work with individual references (for example to copy. first select them in the Library window. For a list of statistics about the library. If you wish to save and print this information.

or temporarily hide the selected references from view. Press Enter. Opening. the Select All command changes to Unselect All. See “Showing and Hiding References” on page 232 in Chapter 8 to learn how to display only the selected references. Select a range of references by clicking on the first reference.reference to deselect that reference and retain the rest of the selection. then press the SHIFT key and click on the last reference of the range. You can also select a range of references by holding down the mouse button and dragging the mouse vertically across a range of references. and Deleting References Opening References Once you have the references selected. Saving. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 133 . When all the references are selected. Choose Select All from the Edit menu (CTRL+A) to select all of the references showing in the current reference list. Closing. any of the following actions opens them (a maximum of 10 references at a time): Double-click the selected reference(s).

Important information about entering reference data follows. You can stop a series of selected references that are in the process of opening by pressing the Escape key (ESC). Closing References To close a currently open reference. 134 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . use the Next Reference and Previous Reference commands in the References menu (or the buttons in the Reference window). NOTE: All data in a reference is automatically saved when you close the Reference window. To close one reference and view the next or previous reference in the library. The Reference window that opens for each of the references is where you enter and edit the reference data. See page 129 for details. choose Close Reference (CTRL+W).Choose Edit References (CTRL+E) from the References menu. Modify this text just like you would edit a word processing document: select the incorrect text and retype it. do any of the following: Click the close button on the Reference window. From the File menu. or delete and add text as necessary. Close all open references by holding down the SHIFT key while pressing CTRL+W.

choose Clear. Deleting References To delete references: 1. If you exit from EndNote while Reference windows are open. 4. so be sure you want to delete reference(s) in Trash before dismissing the EndNote warning. Do one of these. From the Edit menu. NOTE: You cannot undo the Empty Trash command. which moves the selected references to the Trash group: Drag the selected references and drop them on the Trash group. From the Edit menu. which also stores the references temporarily on the Clipboard.Saving References To save a reference that you have just created. 3. Select (highlight) those references you want to delete. or From the File menu. use the Undo CTRL+Z command in the Edit menu before closing or saving a reference. You must confirm that you want to remove the references from the library. 5. the references are closed and saved automatically. Display All References again to continue working in your library. 2. choose Save (CTRL+S). choose Cut. From the References menu. Reverting References The Revert Reference command on the File menu discards all changes made to a reference since it was last opened or saved. When you are absolutely certain that you want to delete the references in the Trash. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 135 . or to save any changes made to an existing reference: Close the reference(s) as described above. choose Move References to Trash. go to the References menu and choose Empty Trash. To remove the very last change made to a reference. Revert Reference is not available after you close the reference.

you delete its record number in that library forever. and they cannot be searched or cited).About the Trash group: The Trash group contains references you have removed from the library by using any of the methods mentioned above. you will be prompted when you close the EndNote library. If you do not actively choose the Empty Trash command. Until you choose Empty Trash. NOTE: When you delete a reference. Even if you paste the reference back into the same library. We strongly recommend that you do not delete references that have been used in papers that you might want to reformat later. they are not included in your reference count. and keep backups of your libraries! 136 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . and choose Restore to Library. you can still drag references from the Trash group back to the All References group of your active library. they are not completely deleted until you go to the References menu and choose Empty Trash. unique record number. Or. right click on the reference. This may cause incompatibilities with older papers that have citations that use old record numbers. highlight a reference in the Trash group. While the references are officially no longer in your library (they will not appear in any other group or reference list. it is assigned a new.

Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 137 . Choose a reference type from the Reference Type list at the top of the window. You may change this using the Default Reference Type option in the Preferences panel. 2. 1. From the Edit menu. Click the Reference Types option in the list. 3. click the Default Reference Type list and choose the reference type that new references should use. Enter the bibliographic data into each of the fields in the reference according to the rules outlined later in this chapter. choose Preferences. When you are finished. The rest of this chapter goes into more detail about how to enter references into EndNote. 3.Creating a New Reference Overview To add a new reference to an open library: 1. choose New Reference (CTRL+N). From the References menu. This opens an empty Reference window: Reference Type list 2. new references appear as Journal Article references. At the top of that Reference Types preferences panel. Changing the Default Reference Type By default. close the reference to save it and add it to the library.

you should select the reference type before entering information in the reference. If you are citing a journal article that appears both online and in print. For example. the reference type determines which fields appear in the Reference window. click the Reference Type list at the top of the Reference window.Choosing a Reference Type When you create a new reference. Tips for Choosing the Right Reference Type Use Book for books written by one or more authors. Use the Electronic Article. See Chapter 16 for instructions on removing. or modifying fields for each reference type. However. or one article in a published conference proceedings). and use Edited Book for books edited by one or more editors (whether they are books in a series or not). that reference is assigned the default reference type. and the information you have entered is retained and transferred to the corresponding field for the new reference type. most style guides prefer that you use the print information and cite it as a regular journal article. Use Book Section for references to parts of edited or non-edited books (a chapter. Email discussions should be cited as Personal Communications. Customizing Fields and Reference Types Fields can be removed. Normally. You can also rename reference types. a Journal Article reference would have fields for Journal. In addition to determining how the reference is formatted in the bibliography. and Issue. Figures in all other reference types will insert into Word as figures. for example. Articles that are published as part of the comprehensive conference proceedings should be entered as Conference Proceedings references. whereas a Book would have fields for Editor and Publisher. If you want to add a different type of reference. added. just like any other correspondence. Volume. 138 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . or Web Page reference type for citing material from a Web page or FTP site. or renamed. Use the Chart or Table reference type if you want to include a figure and later insert that image as a table in Microsoft Word. adding. which are listed and numbered separately from tables. and select the reference type that you need. you can change the reference type at any time. The Conference Paper reference type is best used for unpublished papers. Electronic Book.

Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 139 . or Keyword term list) appear in red text. By storing the pieces of bibliographic data in different fields. These lists are updated automatically as you enter new terms into these fields. Editor. NOTE: Both the “Auto-Update” and “Auto-Complete” term list features may be turned off with the Term Lists panel in the EndNote preferences. or include the abbreviation “Vol. you do not need to put quotes around titles. TAB. Read on for details. notably in the Author. Terms that are new (that is. “Keyboard Commands” for a list of commands available to you. Using Term Lists with Data Entry EndNote uses term lists for the Author and Editor names. EndNote can later rearrange the elements to conform to various bibliographic formats (such as APA or MLA).Entering References Bibliographic information (as well as keywords. or click in the next field. See Appendix E. and leave the formatting to EndNote. See Chapter 10 for more information about EndNote’s term lists. italicize journal names. A full set of key commands is available so that you can enter references without using the mouse. journal or keyword that you have used before in that library. or approximately 16 pages of plain text. Enter only the raw data. The benefit of this is that the term lists also help with data entry. notes. If you begin to enter a name. EndNote will complete the term for you to speed up data entry: To accept a term that EndNote has suggested. For example. and Edition fields. Journals. Special bibliographic formatting and punctuation should not be included when you enter reference data into EndNote. Each field can contain up to 64 KB. and other relevant information) is entered into separate fields in each EndNote reference. NOTE: There are a few exceptions to this punctuation rule. simply press ENTER. those that do not already appear in the corresponding Author. Term lists can also be created for other fields.” along with volume numbers. and Keywords. Journals.

be sure to type a period or a space between initials. Secondary Author. otherwise EndNote interprets the initials as a single name: “Jo. J. (for example “Fisher. let it wrap to the next line as you type it. Using “et al.O. EndNote suggests author names based on the assumption that the names are being entered with the last name first. so for maximum flexibility enter whole names whenever possible.” or “J O Fisher”). and Subsidiary Author. or the first name followed by the last name. note that if you have the “Suggest Terms as You Type” feature of the term lists turned on. EndNote will truncate the list of authors with “et al. Author names are entered one per line. see Chapter 10. Tertiary Author.Author and Editor Names The following information about Author and Editor fields applies to the following “Generic” field names: Author. If you are entering initials instead of full names. Author names can be entered either with the last name followed by a comma and the first name. Always enter author and editor names one name per line.” or “and others” as 140 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References .” See “Author List (Bibliography and Footnotes)” on page 507 for information about how EndNote can format author names in bibliographies. However. For more information about term lists. EndNote can abbreviate first and middle names. Both are correct. If an author’s name is too long to fit on a single line.” or Similar Abbreviations Enter all author names for a particular reference.

Alfred. such as “Jr. most style guides request that “Anonymous” be entered as though it were the author name. Enter authors with titles. Charles Entering a name this way ensures that both words “de” and “Gaulle” will format as the last name. like Charles de Gaulle. Irvine EndNote treats this as a last name followed by a blank first name. then the last author should be “et al. “Alfred Smith Jr. use two commas in place of the first comma: University of California.” or “III”. If your corporate author name includes a comma in the name itself. Jr. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 141 . Apple Computer Inc.required by the bibliographic style. Title. Then. The formatted result is the corporate name with the comma in place. enter the name with the last name first.” or “and others” followed by a comma. including a second comma in the name..” The style that you use to format the bibliography determines how anonymous references are treated. For example. everything after the (blank) first name is appended. Complex Author Names For multiple-word last names. Do not enter “Anonymous. as Last. Anonymous Works If a reference has no author. This ensures that the entire name is treated as a first name.” must be entered as: Smith. Corporate Authors When entering corporate authors. Note that if a work is published with “Anonymous” printed on the title page. put a comma after the name: U.. If you do not know all of the authors’ names. you should leave the Author field blank. First. so no name manipulation will be applied. Department of Agriculture. such as: de Gaulle.S.

etc. If you would like to use these lists. Secondary Title. and Alternate Title. only valid dates are parsed and transferred. it is best to capitalize the title in the same way you would like it to be capitalized in your bibliographies. Text such as “submitted” or “in print” is ignored. When appropriate. allow long titles to just wrap to the next line. you should enter the four numbers of the year of publication. See Chapter 10 for more information about term lists and turning these options off. you should import 142 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . Year Normally. van. or in preparation. Do not press the ENTER key while typing titles into EndNote. all it takes to change the format of your journal names in a bibliography is one change in the style used (see “Journal Names” on page 495). NOTE: See the Sorting section of the EndNote preferences if you do not want EndNote to include prefixes (such as de. When the different forms of the journal name are entered into the Journals term list. However. or some other notation.) when it alphabetizes references in a bibliography (page 597). This means that the Journals list is updated as you add new journal names to your references. you can manually type this information into the field. as in 2002. Although the EndNote styles can change the capitalization of titles.The text after the second comma will print exactly as entered. Journal Names The Journal field is automatically set up to work with the Journals term list. Enter titles without a period or any other punctuation at the end. The Journal field (in the Journal Article reference type) can be used with the Journals term list to allow for multiple formats of a journal name to be used in your bibliographies. EndNote includes several predefined journal lists in the Terms folder. depending on the format required (see page 291 for details). Tertiary Title. All of the appropriate substitutions are made when the bibliography is created. and EndNote will use this list to facilitate data entry by suggesting journal names as you enter them into the Journal field. you may enter in press. NOTE: When you transfer references from an outside source into EndNote. Titles The following information about Title fields applies to the “Generic” fields Title. von.

” and so on for this field if that is what you need in your bibliography. Do not use commas in the Pages field for page numbers in the thousands. Edition The text of the Edition field is not modified by EndNote for your bibliographies. or show just the first page (see the “Page Numbers” section in Chapter 17). enter dates as you would like them to appear in your formatted list or bibliography. The Auto Date Stamp Fields Two Auto Date Stamp fields appear in the footer of each EndNote reference. you can easily update the Journals term list and use the correct form of the name without having to enter it yourself (see page 289). you can manually type this information into the field. By importing both.them into your Journals list as described in “Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations” on page 290. The Added to Library and Last Updated Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 143 . The output style determines which date field prints in your bibliographic references.” “2nd. this field is probably not necessary for you to have in your Journal Article references. You can remove it by editing the Reference Types preference (see page 458). Date and Auto Date Stamp The Date Field In the Date field of your references. EndNote does not reformat dates. The style used to create the bibliography can change the page numbers to be either full or abbreviated page ranges. If you do not import from sources that include an alternate journal name. However. NOTE: When you transfer references from an outside source into EndNote. The Alternate Journal Field The Alternate Journal field is most useful when importing or retrieving references from an online source that provides two forms of each journal name (full and abbreviated). Text such as “submitted” or “in print” is ignored. so be sure to enter “1st. Pages Page ranges can be entered as complete (1442-1449) or abbreviated (1442-9) ranges. only valid dates are parsed and transferred.

MLA requires that the title. as well as any other supplementary information about the original publication (such as place published and publisher). the normal Title field is used instead. Enter this information just as you would want it to appear in your formatted bibliography reference (including text styles and punctuation). and that field is empty for a particular reference.” adheres to your default operating system settings. or a shortened form of it be added to the citation. Short Title Use the Short Title field to enter abbreviated versions of the regular title which should be used as part of an in-text citation or a footnote citation. If the full title of the reference is fairly long. MLA typically lists just the author name and the specifically cited pages in the in-text citation: (Perin 141) But if there are multiple works by that author. For example. The date format of the Auto Date Stamp fields. the “Added to Library” field is left blank and the “Last Updated” field displays the date of conversion to EndNote X2 or later. or export these fields just as you would any other EndNote field. sort. However. when citing a republished book you might want to include the original publication date. For example.” you should enter an easily recognizable form of the title that starts with the first word on which the normal title would be sorted. For example: (Perin. Original Publication Use the Original Publication field to enter any information about the original publication that you need to be included in the cited reference. This is a common request for many of the humanities styles which use a shortened form of the title in the citation to help identify which reference is being cited. Burning 141) If an EndNote style is configured to use the Short Title field. print. and then the Last Updated date is reset each time you save changes to a reference. such as “4/16/2008. 144 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . you can display. For references entered with EndNote version X1 or earlier.dates are inserted when you save a new reference. such as “Burning the Midnight Oil: Tales from Working the Night Shift. You cannot edit either of the Auto Date Stamp fields. search.

These numbers help to identify a specific publication if you needed to order it or locate it. Call Number Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 145 . or figure. When available. but typically you should enter the title of the reviewed work and the primary person responsible for it (author. NOTE: This field is not intended to be used to indicate whether or not you have a reprint of the article on file.Reprint Edition Use the Reprint Edition field for references that were originally published under a different title. PDF. Additional information about a production or performance may also be included. These are the codes that help you to locate a particular publication on the shelves in your library. etc. art. the EndNote connection files import the call number information into this field. If you do not plan to use this feature. and an ISBN would refer to a particular book. performer. ISBN/ISSN DOI A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique ID for locating a digital version of a document. cinema. The field should include the original title and year to indicate that this reference is a reprint of an earlier publication. Reviewed Item Use the Reviewed Item field for articles or chapters that are critical reviews of books. You may use one of the custom fields for that. It is most useful if you are importing reference data or retrieving references directly from an online source. An ISSN number would refer to an entire journal (such as the Journal of Virology). The contents of the Reviewed Item field varies depending on the type of review that you are citing. or other works. The Call Number field is used to store library call numbers. artist. you may remove the field (see page 458). Enter the information exactly as you want it to appear in the formatted references (including punctuation and text styles). Enter this information exactly as you would want it to appear in your formatted reference (including text styles and punctuation). ISSN (International Standard Serial Number) and ISBN (International Standard Book Number) are codes used to identify a particular publication.). This field is also used for Report Number and Patent Number.

EndNote will insert the Label field into the citation.) Keywords Use the Keywords field to store keywords that you want to associate with the reference. Use the Notes field to store personal reminders. such as the location of a quotation in a book or the quotation itself. If you do not need the Label field for citation purposes. it can be used as an additional field for categorizing references or storing reprint numbers. EndNote cannot create this citation for you. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the term for the address used to locate a specific page of information with your Web browser. To link a URL to a reference in your EndNote library: 1. which is equivalent to about 16 pages of plain text.). and returns as the delimiters that separate individual keywords. Notes and Abstract The Notes. EndNote’s record numbers cannot be assigned or changed by the user. but if you type “SMIT 90” into the Label field and use the Label field in your style’s citation template. Use the Abstract field for a brief description of the contents of the work. If you would prefer to use other punctuation to separate your keywords. Research Notes.Label The Label field can be used for many purposes. The Keywords term list (which maintains a list of terms used in the Keywords field) can be set up to recognize semicolons (. You can restrict a search to just the Keywords field. Some citation styles require that citations include only part of the author’s name. slashes (/). URL (Uniform Resource Locator) 146 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . See Chapter 10 for details. you may change these settings using the Define Term Lists command from the Tools menu. so the terms you enter into this field can be used to later retrieve the references when using EndNote’s Search command. backslashes (\). Put your cursor in the URL field. and Abstract fields can each hold up to 64 KB. such as special in-text citations or reprint numbers. such as [SMIT 90]. (Do not use EndNote’s record numbers to number reprints because these numbers change when references are moved to different libraries. Select a reference in the Library window and open the reference.

the URL>Open URL command in the References menu can be used to launch a Web browser and take you to that site or file. see “Linking References to Websites and Files” on page 160. When importing or retrieving references directly from these sources. 2. the URLs can import directly into this field to take advantage of the Open URL command. EndNote automatically recognizes URLs if they are entered with the correct prefix (such as “http://” or “ftp://”) in any field. File Attachments Use the File Attachments field to store the path to PDF files (and other file types) on your hard drive. If you need to enter multiple links into the URL field. For more information. When a correctly formatted URL is entered into the URL field. they become clickable Web links and appear as blue and underlined text. Type or paste a valid URL into the field. To link a file to a reference in your EndNote library: 1. NOTE: Use the Figure field to attach a graphic or file that you want to insert into a Word document with Cite While You Write.com or ftp://ftp. Adding any other information along with the link may keep the Open URL command from successfully finding the desired site. choose File Attachments>Attach File.cuteftp. Simply clicking on one of these links will open your Web browser and go to the address given. You can also store a URL to related information on the Web or other relevant material. or open the reference. For example: http://www.2.endnote. enter them one per line. From the References menu. This feature is not specific to the URL field. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 147 . Select a reference in the Library window. When recognized.com The URL becomes a hyperlink (blue and underlined). Some online reference databases include a URL for the full text of an article online.

4. EndNote will display an icon indicating the type of file inserted. Whether the file is saved with the database or is linked with an absolute path is determined by the default file attachment setting. On the file dialog. Deselect the check box to always have EndNote look in the original folder for the inserted file. 5. In order to maintain cross-platform compatibility. "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link. These characters are replaced with an underscore \ / : * ? " < > | back slash forward slash colon asterisk question mark quotation mark less than greater than vertical bar 148 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References ." This gives you the option to: Select the check box to copy the original file and place the copy in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote library. NOTE: Another way to link a file to the File Attachments field is to drag and drop the file onto the reference in either the Library window or the Reference window. You can insert additional files into the same File Attachments field. Note the check box along the bottom titled.3. see. any of the following characters in a filename will be replaced by an underscore when EndNote saves a copy of the file in the DATA\PDF folder with a relative path. Click Open. For more information about this option. select a file to link to the selected (or open) reference. See “URLs & Links” on page 611. “Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments” on page 163.

when you type text into an EndNote reference. add a superscripted number. To automatically search online to locate and attach the full text of a referenced document. use the Chart or Table reference type if you want to include an image and later insert that image as a table in Microsoft Word. Normally. the text will appear that way in your bibliography regardless of the font of your paper. it is entered in a default font. The figure itself is copied to the [library name]. and Style EndNote is designed to produce bibliographies that automatically use the font and size of the text in your word processing documents. which means that your references follow the font settings in your paper. Font. For information about entering figures. Figures in most reference types will insert into Word as figures. See “Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables” on page 346. and style. A related Caption field appears directly under the Figure field in a reference. If any fonts. Tables are listed and numbered separately from figures in Word. Size. The Figure field is included by default for all reference types. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 149 . The only exception is the Chart or Table reference type.For more information. Use this field for a short description of the image or file. For example. see “Inserting Figures” on page 155. but you can remove it from any reference type or rename it in any reference type. size. see “Linking a File to an EndNote Reference” on page 161 and “Opening a Linked File or URL” on page 166. DATA folder found in the same folder as the library file. Cite While You Write allows you to insert the figure and its caption into a word processing document. see “Finding Full Text for a Reference” on page 200. NOTE: Each reference can contain only one graphic or file attachment. or enter Greek characters such as β. you can italicize species names. Figure and Caption The Figure field can contain a graphic or an object (file attachment). sizes. or styles other than the default are entered into your library.

text sizes. use the Paste with Text Styles command in the Edit menu. select the text to be changed and then choose the desired font. size. or Plain Size from the Edit menu or the toolbar. you can Copy text from a word processing document and Paste it into a reference. When text is moved this way within a reference. Plain Font. Copy. Plain Font. or style from the Edit menu or the toolbar. To use these commands. The default font used to display EndNote’s “Plain Text” is the default font for your operating system. You can also Copy and Paste text from a field in an EndNote reference to your word processor. When it is dragged from one reference to another reference or to another program (such as your word processor). Avoid pasting unwanted fonts and text styles into EndNote references because those fonts and text styles will carry through into future bibliographies. or text style information when pasting into EndNote from another program.To apply font or text styles. If it is important to paste the text along with the fonts and text styles. first select the text you want to change. size. The regular Paste command does not include font. and then choose Plain Text. Copy. but it can be changed using the General font option in the Display Fonts section of the EndNote preferences. Paste Text in the References The Cut. text in Plain Font and Plain Size uses the font and size of your paper. and Paste commands in the Edit menu can be used to move text from one field in a reference to another field by selecting and copying or cutting the text and then pasting it in the desired location. Text may also be moved around within a reference by selecting the text and then dragging and dropping it in a new location. and Plain Size commands on the Edit menu or on the toolbar remove overriding fonts. Plain Text The Plain Text. When EndNote creates a bibliography.) The General font setting changes the font in which the references are displayed but does not affect the font of a bibliography created for a word processing document. Cut. it is copied and therefore not removed from the reference. Using “Dragand-Drop” Within a Reference 150 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . it is moved from one location to another. (Choose Preferences from the Edit menu and click the Display Fonts option. or text styles from the selected text in a reference or a Style window. Similarly.

Choose Copy (CTRL+C) from the Edit menu and those references are copied to the Clipboard. click on any part of the selection. The references you copied are pasted into the library and sorted correctly with the existing references. and use the mouse to drag them to another open library. Open another EndNote library and choose Paste (CTRL+V) from the Edit menu to paste directly to the Library window. 3. To use the Copy and Paste commands: 1. 2. Select one or more references in the Library window (hold down the CTRL key to select multiple references or the SHIFT key to select a range of references). EndNote can Copy and Paste entire references between libraries. release the mouse button to “drop” the text there. Release the mouse button when the cursor is over the destination library. and keep the mouse button pressed while you drag the text to another location. Copying and Pasting Complete References In addition to copying and pasting text between fields. Copying references using drag-and-drop: An easy way to copy references between libraries is to use the drag-and-drop functionality. When the cursor is positioned in the right place. and all of the selected references will be copied into the library. Do not open the references. Then click on the selection. Simply select the references you want to copy. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 151 .To drag-and-drop text: First select the text of interest.

book title. or type CTRL+E to open up to 10 selected references at one time). Enter all of the bibliographic information that the references have in common (such as the year. or a number of papers presented at the same conference). To create a reference template: 1. and typographical symbols.If you need to copy all of the references in one library to another library. and city for different sections from one book). Entering Several Articles from the Same Source Use a reference “template” to facilitate entering a series of references that have some information in common (such as various sections from one book. while most symbols can be entered in the Symbol font. 6. Entering Special Characters EndNote references can include special characters. to create as many partially-filled references as you need. choose New Reference. Select all of the partially-filled references that you just created and edit them (double-click them. mathematical. You should paste directly to the Library window—do not open a new reference and choose Paste. publisher. Use the Paste (CTRL+V) command to paste the reference several times. or import a reference into another library. 5. Choose Copy (CTRL+C) from the Edit menu to copy it. you can also use the Import command to directly import one library into the other (see Chapter 7). From the References menu. Close and save them by pressing CTRL+W. including characters with diacritics. the reference is assigned a new record number in the destination library. It remains selected in the Library window. 2. The template you create is an incomplete EndNote reference with just the common information entered into it. NOTE: Any time you copy a reference and paste it into another library. and Greek. 152 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . Close the reference when you are finished. Complete each of the individual references.Diacritical characters are a part of standard Windows fonts. press ENTER. 4. 3.

see “Displaying Extended/Special Characters” on page 693. “Term Lists. see “Displaying Extended/Special Characters” on page 693. For more information about term lists.If the characters you wish to use require installing a different language pack. programs. you can store them in a term list and then choose them from the list when entering references. EndNote uses the default language setting set by your operating system. see Chapter 10. so that data can be easily translated between platforms. and languages. or words that include diacritical characters.EndNote uses Unicode to encode special characters. and paste it into your EndNote library.EXE) is supplied with all versions of Windows. Diacritical characters can be entered into EndNote references and into EndNote term lists. If you frequently use certain diacritical characters. Using Character Map The Character Map program (CHARMAP. Character Map is described in the next section. Entering Characters with Diacritical Marks Special characters can be entered into EndNote using any of these text-entry methods: Type the character on the keyboard (if the character is part of the language supported by the keyboard).” NOTE: If characters do not appear as they should in EndNote. Copy the character from another program. Use the Character Map program supplied with Windows for this purpose. Both diacritical characters and symbols can be entered using the Character Map: Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 153 .

2. then Character Map.To use the Character Map program: 1. position the cursor in a reference. 154 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . NOTE: The Character Map may include some Unicode characters that will not work in your selected font. with both your EndNote reference open and Character Map open. 5. Select the Symbol font. Click the Copy button to copy the characters to the Clipboard. you can click on a character in Character Map and then drag-and-drop it into your EndNote reference. 4. Or. Return to EndNote. choose Accessories. then System Tools.) Double-click the character(s) you need. if necessary. From the Windows Start >Programs menu. 3. If you insert a character that is not recognized. (Other fonts will revert to the Typing Display Font when pasted in EndNote. it will appear in EndNote as a box. then select Paste from the Edit menu to paste the characters.

you can remove them at any time if you do not intend to use them and they are just taking up space. and Renaming Fields” on page 458. choose Preferences. you can also include an illustration that appeared with the journal article. go to the Edit menu. By default. See “Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables” on page 346 for more information about using figures with Cite While You Write. Deleting. and Equation reference types can be used specifically to catalog graphics and files. NOTE: While the Figure and Caption fields are included by default for all reference types. and are labeled and numbered separately from the figures found in all other reference types. NOTE: Figures in the Chart or Table reference type are inserted into Word as tables. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 155 . Selecting the Appropriate Reference Type You can insert a graphic or file into the Figure field of an EndNote reference. and select Reference Types. See “Adding. see “Adding. Depending on the reference type. Deleting. and may contain minimal reference information. For more information about modifying reference types. Chart or Table. To add or remove the Figure and Caption fields from a reference type. while a reference to a journal may contain primarily bibliographic information. You can insert a single graphic or file into the Figure field of any EndNote reference.Inserting Figures EndNote extends the organization of reference information by including the ability to embed graphics and files in an EndNote library and link them to a paper. the field may be labeled Figure or have a custom label assigned by you. So. Cite While You Write allows you to insert the figure and its caption into a word processing document. and Renaming Fields” on page 458. The Figure. the Figure and Caption fields are included in all reference types. Once you have a figure in your EndNote reference.

Each EndNote reference can contain only one graphic or file attachment in the Figure field.DATA folder.Inserting Graphics and Files Notes about inserting graphics and files into the Figure field: Always use the Figure>Attach Figure command from the References menu to insert graphics and other files into the Figure field. you should always type Caption text into the Caption field. any of the following characters in a filename will be replaced by an underscore when EndNote saves a copy of the file in the DATA folder. The Caption also helps you search for the figure. particularly if you intend to later insert the figure into a Word document. it will replace the first one. The previous figure is deleted from the . If you simply use Copy and Paste.DATA folder. After inserting a graphic or file. See “Storing and Sharing Figure Files” on page 159 for more information about the . use the Reference Types preferences panel as described on page 593. These characters are replaced with an underscore \ / : * ? " < > | back slash forward slash colon asterisk question mark quotation mark less than greater than vertical bar 156 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . If you insert a second graphic or file. You can insert a figure only into a reference that contains the Figure field. System settings are used and you could ultimately lose colors and other attributes from the original file. In order to maintain cross-platform compatibility. The Caption will label the image in the figure list at the end of the Word document. If you need to add the Figure field to a reference type.

Locate the figure file and Insert it.TIFF Valid picture files are those that Microsoft Word recognizes as pictures.GIF JPEG File Interchange Format .PNG Tag Image File Format . With the reference open for editing. go to the References menu and choose Figure>Attach Figure.To insert a graphic (picture) or other file into the Figure field: 1. HTML) On the Attach Figure dialog. EndNote also recognizes at least these other file formats: Audio files (WAV. RTF.) 2. click OK to copy the file to your EndNote record. QuickTime) Technical drawing files Text files (TXT. 4. 3. Click Choose File to display a file dialog. MP3) Microsoft Access files Microsoft Excel files Microsoft Power Point files Microsoft Project files Microsoft Visio files Microsoft Word files Multimedia files (MOV. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 157 .JPEG Portable Network Graphics .BMP Graphics Interchange Format . (The Attach Figure command is also available on the toolbar. EndNote recognizes at least these types of picture and object files: Windows Bitmap .

The Caption field allows you to easily search for figures. When you double click on a figure file such as a GIF file. the icon simply gives generic Windows file information.) Double-clicking on the thumbnail or file icon will launch an associated application to open the file. Use this field for a short description of the image or file. with the program icon and filename. It is the same as if you had double clicked on the figure file on your computer desktop. Opening the Figure File Double-clicking on a graphic or attachment icon in the Figure field of a reference will launch an associated application (determined by the file type and your operating system) and open the file for viewing or editing. If you insert an EndNote figure into a Word document with Cite While You Write. Any changes to the file are saved for this EndNote reference. Other types of files will appear as an attachment. Entering a Caption A related Caption field appears directly under the Figure field in a reference.A graphic appears as a thumbnail within the reference. Windows will look for an image viewer like Paint or Photo 158 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . (If the application used to create the document is not available on your system. with the same effect as if you had double clicked the file on your computer desktop. the corresponding caption appears either above or below the figure in your paper (the placement is determined by the current output style).

open the reference and double click on the figure icon. NOTE: If you insert the same figure in two different references. The copied figure file is specifically linked to a single EndNote reference.DATA folder for this reference. 2. remember to always copy the . EndNote stores two copies of the figure in the . Press the Delete key or use your mouse to right click and select Clear. Editing changes are made to the file stored in the library’s . EndNote copies the file and places the copy in a [library name].DATA folder does not link it into a reference.Viewer to preview the figure. NOTE: Never rename figure files within the . Deleting or Replacing Figure Files To delete a figure from an EndNote reference: 1. and select the figure icon.DATA folder along with the library. or if you want to share your library with someone. which is found in the same folder as the main library file. If you move your library to a different computer. This launches an associated application to open the file for editing. scroll to the Figure field. Deleting the figure from one of the references will not affect the other reference. and not to the original figure file that was inserted.DATA folder.DATA folder. EndNote assigns each figure a unique name that helps link it to a specific reference. You must use the Figure>Attach Figure command. Open the EndNote reference. Editing Figure Files To edit a figure stored in an EndNote reference. The program used to create the file may not open. Storing and Sharing Figure Files When you insert a figure. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 159 . See “Opening the Figure File” on page 158. NOTE: Simply putting a figure file into the .DATA folder. Deleting a figure from the reference also deletes it from the .DATA folder.

To convert file links from the Figures field to the File Attachments field: 1. To link a URL to a reference in your EndNote library: 1. Keep in mind that only figures stored in the Figures field can be cited in Microsoft Word with Cite While You Write. such as this example from the EndNote website: http://www. Earlier versions of EndNote did not include a File Attachments field. and later decided that you really wanted to link the file to the File Attachments field. Or. From the References menu. Delete the old figure from the reference.com URLs can also be used to identify the location of FTP (File Transfer Protocol) sites. Put your cursor in the URL field. and then Attach the new figure.endnote. 2. The existing figure is deleted from the . 160 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References .DATA folder and is replaced with the new figure. Converting from Figures to File Attachments You can move a linked file from the Figures field to the File Attachments field in a reference. Linking References to Websites and Files EndNote includes a URL field and a File Attachments field that you can use to link URLs and disk files to EndNote references. You may have linked a file to the Figures field. In a reference list. choose Figure and then Convert Figures to File Attachments.To replace a figure in an EndNote reference. highlight the reference(s) you wish to change. Select a reference in the Library window and open the reference. you can do one of these: Open the EndNote reference and Attach the new figure. Most often. URLs refer to Web pages. Linking a URL to an EndNote Reference What is a URL? “URL” stands for “Uniform Resource Locator” and is a common term for the “address” used to identify the location of an item online. open a specific reference for editing.

For more information about linking to a URL. On the file dialog. see." This gives you the option to: Select the check box to copy the original file and place the copy in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote library. Click Open. choose File Attachments>Attach File. 3. Note the check box along the bottom titled. 4.com The URL becomes a hyperlink (blue and underlined).endnote.cuteftp. a spreadsheet.com ftp://ftp. Two examples: http://www. or when you are editing a reference. or open the reference. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 161 . 5. 2. Deselect the check box to always have EndNote look in the original folder for the inserted file. To link a file to the File Attachments field in a reference: 1. see “URL (Uniform Resource Locator)” on page 146. Select a reference in the Library window. For more information about this option. From the References menu. Type or paste a valid URL into the field. “Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments” on page 163. The File Attachments options are available only when a single reference is selected in the Library window. or a PDF file—to an EndNote reference.2. "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link. select a file to link to the selected (or open) reference. a word processing document. NOTE: The URL and File Attachments commands are available both from the References menu and from the right click context-sensitive menu. Linking a File to an EndNote Reference You can link a file on your computer—such as a graphic.

EndNote will display an icon indicating the type of file inserted. For example: file:///C:/Documents/Word%20Tips. 2. The path and filename become hyperlinked— blue.” 162 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . any of the following characters in a filename will be replaced by an underscore when EndNote saves a copy of the file in the DATA\PDF folder with a relative path. These characters are replaced with an underscore \ / : * ? " < > | back slash forward slash colon asterisk question mark quotation mark less than greater than vertical bar To link a file to any field in an EndNote reference: 1. See “URLs & Links” on page 611. NOTE: Another way to link a file to the File Attachments field is to drag and drop the file onto the reference in either the Library window or the Reference window.pdf EndNote will display the full path to the file. Open the reference. into any text field. In order to maintain cross-platform compatibility. the path and filename you wish to link. underlined text—which you can click to open the file. You can insert up to 45 files into the same File Attachments field. Note that spaces in local folder and file names are indicated with “%20. Type or paste. Whether the file is saved with the database or is linked with an absolute path is determined by the default file attachment setting.

If you send your library to a colleague. This saves the file as a “portable link” that can move as part of the library.Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments When you link a file to the File Attachments field in a reference. you have the option of saving a relative path to the file. and hold your mouse pointer over the file icon in the File Attachments field. You would need to clear the file from your EndNote reference and reinsert the file. the file will not be available. EndNote will not be able to access it unless you clear the file from your EndNote reference and reinsert it from the new folder location. if you edit the original file on your computer. "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link. even when you share your library with a colleague (always include the complete DATA folder along with the . those changes will not be reflected in EndNote. the file dialog includes a check box titled. This can be helpful if you plan to edit the original file. or an absolute path to the file. How Can I Tell Which Type of Path Was Used? Open a reference that contains a linked file in the File Attachments field. What is a Relative Path versus an Absolute Path? When you insert a link to a file with the File Attachments>Attach File command from the References menu. However. EndNote will use the complete path and filename to look in the original folder for the inserted file. However.ENL file). EndNote will always be able to access the file. EndNote will display a tooltip with the full path and filename of the linked file. if you ever move the file from the original folder." Relative Path (check box selected) When the check box is selected. and you want those changes reflected when you access the file from within EndNote. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 163 . Absolute Path (check box blank) When the check box is blank. EndNote makes a copy of the original file and places it in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote library.

3. EndNote locates each file linked into the File Attachments field. you can select a default setting for the check box titled "Copy this file to the default file attachments folder and create a relative link. This change cannot be reversed. 164 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . From the References menu.PDF Relative Path: internal-pdf://Filename-3869284362/Filename. Before you begin. In the Library window. For each selected reference.If the file was linked with a relative path. You can easily change your absolute paths to relative paths. See “URLs & Links” on page 611. with colleagues. which will allow you to easily share your library. In the preview." You can change the default setting from the Preferences panel. as a copy of the file is stored in the library’s DATA\PDF folder. highlight the references you wish to modify.PDF Selecting a Default Setting for the Path Since you likely will want all of your linked files treated the same way. You can also determine which type of path was used by previewing the File Attachments field. and copies those files into the DATA\PDF folder for the library. file attachments appear as: Absolute Path: file://C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\EndNote\ Filename. Use an output style such as Show All Fields. along with linked files. please back up your library. Converting Absolute Paths to Relative Paths If you are working with a library that was created with a version of EndNote prior to version X. To convert absolute paths to relative paths: 1. You still have the option to override the default setting each time you insert a file into the File Attachments field. only the filename will appear. all of your existing linked files are saved with absolute paths. 2. which includes the File Attachments field. select File Attachments>Convert to Relative Links.

select File Attachments and then Save As. the tooltip will display the full path and filename.Inserting the Same File Again If you try to insert a link to the same filename again in the same reference. it is possible to link to the same filename numerous times. NOTE: From a reference list. enter a file name. (Or use the right-click menu to select File Attachments and then Save As. (Or use the right-click menu to select File Attachments and then Save As. enter a file name. if more than one file is attached to the reference. or with an absolute path to a specific location. and Save the file. You have the option to either replace the current link or give the newly linked file a new name. only the first one is saved to disk. Scroll to the File Attachments field and highlight the file icon for the file you want to copy. and Save the file. a message will warn you that you cannot insert the same file again with the same name. When you hold your mouse pointer over each file icon in the File Attachments field. Absolute Path: Because you could have several absolute paths pointing to the same filename in different folders. 3.) Use the file dialog to choose a folder. your results are different depending on whether you are inserting files with a relative path or an absolute path. 3. From the References menu. you can save a copy of the attached file to any location. Saving a Copy of an Attached File Whether an attached file is saved with a relative path in a library’s DATA\PDF folder. 2.) Use the file dialog to choose a folder. select File Attachments and then Save As. 2. To save a copy of an attached file from an open reference: 1. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 165 . Open and view the reference. 4. Relative Path: Because the relative path always points to the library’s DATA\PDF folder. To save a copy of an attached file from a reference list: 1. Highlight the reference in the list. From the References menu.

To remove a linked file from the File Attachments field: 1. Opening a Linked File or URL Once a valid. EndNote does not include a Web browser. use the URL>Open URL or File Attachments>Open File command to look specifically in the URL field or File Attachments field to open the Internet site or linked file. you will need to install one before using this feature to open a link to a website. If the file was linked with an absolute path. Using the Open URL and Open File commands The URL>Open URL (CTRL+G) and File Attachments>Open File (CTRL+ALT+P) commands on the References menu can be used to launch a URL or open a linked file entered into an EndNote reference under the following conditions: 166 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . Scroll to the File Attachments field and highlight the file icon you wish to remove. you must have Adobe Acrobat.Removing a Linked File from File Attachments Before you remove a linked file. and the File Attachments field no longer points to it. from the References menu. The original file remains intact. From the Edit menu. 3. hyperlinked URL or path and filename appear in a reference. to open a PDF file. If you do not already have a browser installed. For example. or another program that can read PDF files installed on your computer. Adobe Acrobat Reader. that file is deleted from the library’s DATA/PDF folder. If the file was linked with a relative path. This process cannot be undone. Similarly. Or. the File Attachments field no longer points to the file. Open the reference for editing. 2. select Clear. you can open the reference and click the hyperlinked text or icon to open the linked URL or file. please make sure you have a backup of the original file. NOTE: You can hold your mouse pointer over the file icon in the File Attachments field to display the path and filename of the linked file. You will not be able to reinsert the link unless you have the original file stored elsewhere on your computer. You must have the necessary program installed on your computer in order for EndNote to open a file created by another program.

Select or open a reference in the Library window. If you need to enter multiple links into the URL field of one reference. separated by semicolons. From the References menu. enter them one per line. you can click on any one of them to activate the link. choose File Attachments>Open File (CTRL+ALT+P). Or. The Open URL command opens the linked URL with your default browser. EndNote looks in the library's DATA\PDF folder to find the file. (We recommend that you enter multiple URLs on separate lines. 1. and opens the first link it finds. If the file was linked with an absolute path. When multiple references are selected. The Open File command opens the linked file with the appropriate program. if more than one URL is entered on a single line. The Open File command opens the first linked file that is listed in that reference’s File Attachments field. If you have multiple links. From the References menu. 2.When just one reference is selected in the Library window. If the file was linked with a relative path. or opens the linked file with the appropriate program. EndNote will open the first link in the field when you choose Open URL or Open File. Select or open a reference in the Library window. NOTE: Please see “Selecting a Relative Path or an Absolute Path for File Attachments” on page 163 for information about the difference between a file linked with a relative path and a file linked with an absolute path. the Open URL command opens the first URL that is listed in that reference’s URL field.) To display an Internet site from the URL field: You could open the reference and click on the hyperlink found in the URL field. choose URL>Open URL (CTRL+G). However. EndNote looks for the file in the original folder from which it was inserted. Or. 1. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 167 . To open a linked file from the File Attachments field: You could open the reference and click on the file icon found in the File Attachments field. 2. EndNote checks the URL or File Attachments field in each of the selected references (in the order listed). hold down the Alt key while you click on the URL you wish to open.

4. it displays a Check Spelling dialog. 2. Starting Spell Check To start spell checking: 1. highlight only that text. If there are other open records. or click the Spell Check toolbar button. you must have an open record as the active window. If text is highlighted in the active record. Secondary Author. Figure. the spell check command is disabled. that selection is checked first. NOTE: These are other ways to start spell checking: Right click the mouse and select Spell Check from the contextual menu. 3. From the Tools menu. Subsidiary Author.Spell Checking EndNote X3EndNote X3EndNote X3To begin using EndNote’s spell checker. select Spell Check. 168 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . EndNote’s spell checker can check spelling accuracy in all fields except the Author fields (Author. and File Attachments fields. Open the record(s) you wish to check. and then you are prompted to check the rest of the record. The Check Spelling dialog works just like a spell checker in a word processor. If the active window does not display an open record. click the Help button. If EndNote finds a word that is not found in the selected dictionaries. (optional) If you want to check only a portion of the text. For a complete description of each button on the Check Spelling dialog. Tertiary Author. you are then prompted to check those records. and Translated Author) and the URL.

click on Spell Check. At the bottom of the left column. Cool. “Joe A. Start Spell Check. For example. Marking the result of a search for easy retrieval. The Move Field command moves the entire contents of a field to a different field. and Move Field Correcting consistently misspelled words or names. or deleting the contents of the field. “J. A. When EndNote detects a misspelled word. select Preferences.Spell Check Options and Dictionaries You can access Spell Check Options and Dictionaries in two ways: From the Edit menu. see “Spell Check” on page 607. An Options button and a Dictionaries button are available on the dialog. these operations cannot be undone with the Undo command. NOTE: Be sure that you have a current backup of your library. etc.”. Change Field. and either deletes that text or replaces it with other text that you specify. it is best to update names to full names and leave the work of abbreviating to the EndNote styles. For information about the Spell Check Options and Dictionaries preferences. Updating author’s names. the Spell Check dialog appears. Cool”. The Change Field command modifies any field in your library by either inserting text at the beginning or end of the field. Use Change Text to search for the misspelled term and replace it with the correct spelling. replacing all contents of the field with different text. There may be variations of an author’s name in your data. use Change Fields to add a unique keyword to those Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 169 . while Change and Move Fields is available from the Tools menu. Changing Text in Multiple References Global editing commands make it easy to keep your reference data consistent: Change Text is available from the Edit menu. including a list of dictionaries supplied with EndNote. If you have developed a complex search to locate a set of references. Since some styles prefer whole names and others abbreviated first and middle names. An Options button and a Dictionaries button appear. The Change Text command searches for text in your library. Common Uses for Change Text. “Joe Cool”.

Moving fields of information in a set of imported references. If there is a keyword that you no longer want in your references. Make sure you have a backup before making changes. (Don’t forget to update your filter or connection file so it directs information to the correct field next time!) Change Text Use the Change Text command to find text in your references and replace it with other text. choose Change Text. type the text to be changed. select the field to be searched. and you can also apply “Match Case” and “Match Words” restrictions. use Change Fields to add a word or phrase to any field in just those references. 2. Only the imported references are “showing” in the Library window after importing. or Search Library commands to control which references are showing). Use Change Text to replace a term with a new one. Dating or labeling a set of imported references. From the Edit menu. 3. At this point. You can add a keyword to a group of references using Change Fields. 170 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . Show Selected References. NOTE: The Undo command cannot be used to undo the results of the Change Text command. Cleaning up your keywords. so that the next time you want to retrieve that set. Use Move Fields to cut all information from the Abstract field and move it into the Note field. you can just search for the keyword. To change any text in your references: 1. In the “Search for:” box. use Change Text to search for that text and replace it with nothing. Changes can be restricted to a particular field in your references. 4. thereby deleting it (you might also want to open your term list and delete it from there so that you do not use that term again).references. Maybe your import filter or connection file consistently sent Note information to the Abstract field. Decide which references you want EndNote to scan when it looks for text to change. Make sure only those references are showing in the Library window (use Show All References. From the In field list. Hide Selected References. It can be useful to add the date or source of data to a batch of newly imported references.

use the Insert Special button (ALT+S). pay close attention to whether or not the term you are changing could appear as part of another word or in a different context depending on the capitalization. By default. This operation cannot be undone. EndNote has you verify the change. but may also appear in all lowercase in other places. For example. Select the “Retain Capitalization” option to maintain the same capitalization as the text being replaced. type the text that should replace the original text. Click Change to search the showing references for the specified text and replace it with the new text. Change the “Match Case” or “Match Words” settings if necessary (see page 235 for details). In the “Change the text to:” box. The dialog EndNote presents provides this information: Which references were searched What text will be replaced Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 171 .To enter a Tab or Carriage Return in the text box. Before replacing any text. 8. “Retain Capitalization” should be selected if replacing a term that might appear with different capitalizations. If you change this setting. This set up changes all occurrences of “US” to “United States” in the Keywords field. use the Insert Special button (ALT+S). 6. the “Match Words” option is always selected. Do not choose “Retain Capitalization” if you are replacing an acronym with its unabbreviated version. To enter a Tab or Carriage Return in the text box. 7. any word may have its first letter capitalized if it is the first word in a title. 5.

From the Tools menu. Determine which references you want to modify. If only the first term that you are replacing is italicized. use the Insert Special button. From the In field list. To change the contents of a field: 1. the replacement text will be capitalized exactly as it was entered in the dialog. Make sure only those references are showing in the Library window. the new text adopts the text style of the first character of the text being replaced. the new text will also be italicized. NOTE: This operation cannot be undone. Click OK if all of those items are correct.” If the first letter of the text to be replaced is lowercase. so make sure you have backups before making changes. simply leave the “Change the text to” box empty. choose the field that you want to modify. 4. as in “Thecideid genus” then all of the replacement text will be italicized: “Thecideid Varigata genus. Change Fields The Change Fields tab can change the contents of a field for the references that are “showing” in the Library window. Important Points About the Change Text Command The Change Text command applies only to the references showing in the Library window.How many references were found to include the text in the specified field What text will replace it 9. 2. EndNote replaces the text and displays the number of references that were changed.” If you need to search for text and then delete it. It will not recognize “Headline Style. 3. choose Change and Move Fields to display the Change Fields tab. if you replace an italicized word. For example. EndNote maintains ALL CAPITAL LETTERS and “Sentence style” capitalization. When using the Retain Capitalization option. Select one of the following options: 172 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . When using Change Text. To enter a Tab or Carriage Return in the text box.

use the Insert Special button. Replace whole field with: Replaces the entire contents of the field with the text entered in the text box. It is not necessary to put any text into the text box. By default. The dialog EndNote presents provides this information: How many references will be changed The library in which the changes will be made The type of change that will be made Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 173 . Click Change. It does not modify the text already in the field. To enter a Tab or Carriage Return in the text box. Clear field: Deletes the entire contents of the chosen field. EndNote will ask you to confirm the changes. Insert before field’s text: Inserts the text at the beginning of the chosen field. the Include a space before the new text check box is selected at the bottom of the dialog. It does not modify text that is already in the field. to insert a space between the existing text and the new text. By default. In the text box.Insert after field’s text appends text at the end of the chosen field. 6. 5. type the text that should be added to the field. to insert a space between the new text and the existing text. the Include a space after the new text check box is selected at the bottom of the dialog.

so make sure you have a backup copy of your library before making changes. you have the additional option of whether or not to move empty fields. Click OK to continue with the changes.7. or click Cancel to cancel this operation. 5. The command applies to all of the references that are “showing” in the Library window. Click the Move Fields tab. In the dialog that appears. use the “Move from” list to select the field you want to move the data from. To move the contents of one field to another: 1. In the latter case. Use the “Move to” list to select the field where you want that data to end up. Click OK to move the data from one field to the other within each reference that is currently showing in the Library window. You have the option of inserting the moved text before or after the data in the destination field. The example below shows the Move Field options set up to move the contents of the Notes field into the Custom 1 field. From the Tools menu. Make sure only those references are showing in the Library window. Move Fields Use the Move Fields tab to move the entire contents of one field to another field within a reference. 4. the contents of the destination field will not be deleted if the originating field is empty. NOTE: This operation cannot be undone. choose Change and Move Fields. If you uncheck the option “Don’t move empty fields. or replacing the entire contents of the destination field. If this option is turned on.” then any reference with an empty originating field deletes the contents of the corresponding destination field (and thereby making it empty as well). If the 174 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References . 2. Determine which references you want to modify. 3. 6.

Custom 1 field already has data in it. Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References 175 . the contents of the Notes field will be added after the existing text.

176 Chapter 5: Entering and Editing References .

............ Picking Your Favorite Connection Files ................................. Online Indexes ............ Retrieving and Saving References .......................................................... How to Find and Retrieve Full Text ......... Boolean Searches...... The Find Full Text Groups ............................. Searching EndNote Fields vs.... Searching an Online Database....................................... The Log File ............................................................. Online Database Search Limitations .................................. What EndNote’s Searching Offers ......... The Connection Status Window ................ Online Database Searching (Overview)..... How to Search on Online Database .............................. 200 201 204 206 207 208 177 ............................ What if Your Database Isn’t Listed? ...................................................................................... 200 Finding Full Text for a Reference ......................................... Access-Restricted Databases .. Discarding Duplicate References ..................................................Chapter 6 Searching Online Databases with EndNote Contents Introduction to Searching Online Databases.. How Does It Work? ..................... Available Search Options........... 178 178 178 179 183 183 184 185 186 187 187 189 189 190 190 192 192 193 194 196 196 Searching ISI Web of Knowledge ............................ Selecting a Connection File ...................................................... 198 Finding Related Online References .............. Adding Access to Your Institution’s Library ........................ Establishing the Connection .......................................................................... Free Databases ........................................... Changing the Focus of the Search ...... Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text............. Improving the Search for Full Text .........................

But once you know the terms that you want to use in your searches. Pre-configured connection files are provided for a number of these sources. EndNote will not be able to connect directly to it. The same Search tab is used for both purposes.” Z39. EndNote stores the information necessary to connect to and search these online databases in individual connection files. There may be times when you want to use the information provider’s search interface (for example.50 compatibility to your librarian or the institution that provides access to the database. NOTE: If the online database that you access is not available on a Z39. What EndNote’s Searching Offers EndNote’s search interface provides a simple way to do basic searches on EndNote libraries and remote online databases. You can still import references downloaded from non-Z39. This is still an option using EndNote’s Import command (see Chapter 7). We suggest that you submit a request for Z39. 178 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . The results of your searches can be downloaded either to a temporary EndNote library or directly into your own EndNote library.50 server.Introduction to Searching Online Databases Using EndNote’s Online Search commands. If necessary. being able to retrieve the necessary references directly from EndNote is a very fast and efficient approach.50. This removes the need to learn a separate program to access the online databases or go through the extra steps of saving the references to a text file and importing them into EndNote. you can also customize or configure your own connections to Z39.50 databases. to take advantage of a thesaurus of search terms) and then import those references into EndNote. See Chapter 7 for instructions. This search interface is not intended to replace the advanced search options that may be available using the search interface offered by your information provider. you can search online bibliographic databases just as easily as you can search an EndNote library on your own computer. How Does It Work? EndNote is able to provide access to these remote sources using an information retrieval protocol called “Z39.50-compliant databases (see Chapter 19).50 is widely supported by libraries and information providers around the world as a convenient method to access their library catalogs and reference databases.

You can retrieve batches of references without affecting your permanent library. First. At the far left of the toolbar. make sure Integrated Library & Online Search Mode is selected. you must use either the References>Copy References to command to copy selected references to a new or existing library or the Copy to Local Library icon from the toolbar. Choose Integrated or Online Search Mode You can download found references directly into an existing EndNote library (with Integrated Mode) or into a temporary library (with Online Search Mode). and then copy only selected references into your permanent library. Integrated Library & Online Search Mode When you download references from the online database. Using a temporary library is helpful if you want to experiment with potential search strategies. If you download references that you find you do not want. they will be saved to the open library (the library name appears at the top of the window). so that only Online Search groups and commands are available. so that all commands and groups are available. more detailed descriptions of these steps are provided throughout this chapter. or refine a search strategy. 2. the top of the window indicates “Online Mode”). In order to save references permanently. select Online Search Mode. This section shows the basic steps involved. Also see page 57 (in the guided tour chapter) for a detailed demonstration of how to use this feature. Create a new EndNote library or open any existing library. To save references directly into your library: 1. you must delete them from the library. they will be stored in a temporary library (rather than a library name. Open the EndNote library that will receive the downloaded references.How to Search on Online Database The process of searching an online database is very similar to searching an EndNote library. To store references in a temporary library: 1. 2. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 179 . On the toolbar. Online Search Mode (Temporary Library) When you download references from the online database.

NOTE: If you initiate an online search while in Local Library Mode. Initiate the online search in one of these two ways: From the Tools menu. 2. EndNote connects to the online database and displays the Search tab.) Select the online database that you would like to search. Click OK to retrieve the references. it appears in an Online Search list in the Groups pane of the Library window. (See “Picking Your Favorite Connection Files” on page 185. 3. (Or click more under the Online Search groups. EndNote searches the database and displays the number of references that were found to match your search criteria. choose Online Search to display the full collection of connection files. 180 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote .) In the Online Search list. Then. (See “Selecting a Connection File” on page 183) When the connection has been established. and click Search. Once you have searched an online database. ready for you to enter a search. Enter your search request into the Search tab. Search and Download References To search and retrieve references from a online database: 1.When you close the temporary library. or marked the database as a favorite with the Connection Manager. and click Choose. EndNote’s Search tab appears in the Tab pane. all references in it will be lost. the display will automatically switch to Online Search Mode. click on the database you wish to search.

and then go to the References menu and select Move References to Trash.If you would like to pause during record retrieval. and are displayed in a group under Online Search. Each time you initiate another search. You can also highlight individual references and choose References>Move References to Trash. (You can use CTRL+click to select non-contiguous references in the list. or use SHIFT+click to select a range of references. click Options and choose Resume. you are automatically disconnected. display the group of references and click in the list. when the references are downloaded. EndNote reconnects. go to the Edit menu and Select All. Determine Which References to Keep If you are working in Integrated Library & Online Search Mode: All references are already saved to the current EndNote library. click Options and choose Pause. NOTE: The connection to the online database is maintained only until the search is completed and the matching references are retrieved. If you decide you do not want to keep any of the retrieved references.) Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 181 . When you are ready to continue. Next.

” To save all of the retrieved references.) The references are copied to the selected library and are displayed in a Copied References group.If you are working in Online Search Mode: The retrieved references are stored in a temporary library. EndNote displays “Online Mode. Each time you copy references into an EndNote library. (Use CTRL+click to select non-contiguous references in the list. and then do one of these: Go to the References menu and select Copy References to in order to select a new or existing library and copy the highlighted references to that selected library Or. click the Copy to Local Library icon on the toolbar to quickly copy the highlighted references to the currently active library You could also highlight only individual references before copying them to an EndNote library. Rather than a library name at the top of the window. Previously copied 182 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . go to the Edit menu and Select All. the Copied References group is replaced with the new set of references. or use S HIFT+click to select a range of references. click in the list of references.

DIMDI.references remain in the library. they are just no longer part of the latest Copied References group. you must first connect to it by selecting the corresponding connection file. however. either by clicking on Integrated Mode or by clicking the corner close button. you are returned to Local Library Mode. When you click the corner close button. The connection file tells EndNote which online database you want to search. numerous databases that are Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 183 . OCLC. When you close the temporary Online Search library. and what search options are available for it. where to find it online. etc. SilverPlatter.) require an account for access. Most of the databases offered by the commercial information providers (Ovid. Another way to save references downloaded in Online Search Mode is to use the Copy and Paste commands from the Edit menu to copy individual references from Online Search Mode and then paste them into Local Library Mode. AccessRestricted Databases EndNote comes with pre-configured connection files to free reference databases and library catalogs as well as databases that require payment and/or authentication for access. all references in it are discarded. Selecting a Connection File Before an online source may be searched. There are.

select it. Thomson Reuters does not control access to any of the sources. you may need to edit the connection file so that it does not prompt you for a user ID and/or password. your computer is on your university campus or company network and has an IP address that is recognized as authenticated by the data provider’s server) or through a proxy server. simply enter the necessary information. NOTE: To gain access to a restricted database. select Edit>Connection Files>Open Connection Manager. Locate the connection file for the database you wish to access. the passwords and IDs may be casesensitive. because EndNote uses these settings.available at no cost to you. If you have access to a restricted database via a proxy server. When you attempt to connect to a restricted database. Free Databases Two major databases that do not require passwords are the PubMed database from the U. but instead have authenticated access to a database either by IP address recognition (for example. and click Edit.S. and no account is required (see “Free Databases” on page 184). and click OK to log on. it may be possible to configure the connection file and your Network Preferences so that you do not need to enter a user ID and password. you must make sure that your Internet settings are properly configured. and then close the connection file. you will need to contact the information provider directly to set up an account. Additional connections may be available at 184 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . If you have a user ID and/or password supplied by the data provider that hosts the restricted database. by default EndNote prompts you to enter your user ID and/or password. If you have access to a restricted database by IP address recognition.) If you do not have a user ID and/or password. See “Firewalls and Proxy Servers” on page 705 for information about proxy servers. National Library of Medicine. Click on Connection Settings and clear the User ID and Password boxes under “Login Information Required.” Select Save from the File menu to save your changes. and the Library of Congress. In EndNote. (Depending on the database you are accessing. You will need the address and port number of your proxy server. Many of the general library catalogs are also unrestricted.

The list includes the original connection files installed in the EndNote program folder (Program Files\EndNote X3\Connections) as well as any user created or edited files stored in your personal Connections folder (see “Folder Locations” on page 604). and select Open Connection Manager. When you have found a connection file that you’ll want to use in the future.the EndNote website (http://www. click the check box to the left of it to mark it as a favorite. Databases Not Requiring an Account Description PubMed (MEDLINE and pre-MEDLINE) NLM references from the National Library of Medicine Most university library catalogs Books at the Library of Congress Library Catalogs Library of Congress Information Provider/Category Picking Your Favorite Connection Files EndNote provides hundreds of connection files for a variety of sources.com/support/ enconnections. All marked files (up to 500) appear under the Online Search section in the Groups pane of the Library window. To peruse the list of available connection files.endnote. giving you easy access to those files you use most often.asp). This step is not required. Click to search for files. Click to display more or less information about the selected file. or Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 185 . Click column headings to sort the list. choose Connection Files from the Edit menu. you can always choose the Online Search command.

Clicking the same column heading a second time will change the sort order from ascending to descending.the more item under Online Search in the Groups pane. you should request the information required to set up a 186 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . Click the column headings to sort the connection files by name or by information provider. EndNote installs only the 100 most popular connection files. you may start typing it and the first file that matches what you type will be selected. contact your librarian or information provider to see if their database is available on a Z39. see “Installing Additional Connection Files” on page 570.50 server. Click again to set it back to ascending order. or choose Mark All to mark up to 500 connection files in the subset. Click Find by and EndNote displays the list of information providers (categories) used for all of the connection files. Choose one to restrict the list to show just that set of files. If a connection file hasn’t been provided for the database that you want to search. For information about locating and installing additional files. If it is. What if Your Database Isn’t Listed? By default. Use the following features in the Connection Manager window to locate the connection file(s) that you want to use: Type a database name into the Quick Search text box and press ENTER to search for a connection file by the name of the database. NOTE: For information about editing connection files or creating new ones. Click the More Info triangle button at the bottom of the dialog to display additional information about the selected connection file. If you know the name of the connection file that you want to use. see Chapter 19. That will help you to find the one you want. to pick a connection file that is not listed in the Groups pane.

Z39. select the online database you want to search. Searching an Online Database The first step to searching an online database is to connect to it. NOTE: New and updated connection files are posted on the EndNote website (http://www.com) as they become available. 4. or if you have selected a database as one of your “favorites” (see page 185) it will appear in the Groups pane under Online Search. and select the Folder Locations option. click Select Folder and select the folder that contains the connection files that you want to use.50 client for that database. Open the folder and then click Select. To connect to an online database. Adding Connection Files The Connection Manager displays all of the connection files in the EndNote program folder as well as in your personal Connections folder. under Online Search.endnote. Choose Preferences from the Edit menu. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 187 . See “Steps to Create a New Connection File” on page 581 for more information. do one of these: On the Groups pane. copy it into your personal Connections folder and it will appear in the Connection Manager. Click OK. 2. If you have received a connection file from a colleague or librarian or downloaded one from the Web. Keeping the file in your personal Connections folder ensures that it will not be deleted or overwritten with future updates to the EndNote program. That initiates the online connection. 3. In the “Connection Folder” section. or to designate a different Connections folder: 1. Once the connection has been made. This saves you a few steps in the process of using the Online Search command. To locate your personal Connections folder. Establishing the Connection If you have connected to a particular database before. you’re able to use EndNote’s Search tab to search the online database.

but it does not provide the options to edit connection files or mark them as favorites.If the database you want to search is not listed under Online Search in the Groups pane. Click column headings to sort the list. You are now ready to begin searching the database. Enter text and press Enter to search by name. select the desired database. see “Troubleshooting Connections” on page 703. Each time you initiate another search. the Search tab is automatically opened with the online database selected for searching. you are automatically disconnected. NOTE: If you have difficulty establishing a connection. when the references are downloaded. 188 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . Click to look for files by category. EndNote reconnects. (This Connection dialog is very similar to the Connection Manager described on page 185. Click to display more or less information about the selected file.) When a successful connection has been made. choose Tools>Online Search. The connection to the online database is maintained only until the search is completed and the matching references are retrieved. and click Choose to initiate the connection.

See “Searching for References” on page 233 for general information about using the Search tab. and they are not the same as searching the fields in an EndNote library (see “Searching EndNote Fields vs. After establishing a connection: 1. Online Database Indexes” on page 190). Title. Available Search Options Once you are connected to an online database and that database is selected for searching. Enter your search term(s) into EndNote’s Search tab. You can search either the remote database or the list of references already retrieved and saved from the remote source. The comparison list for each search line is always set to Contains. or Keywords) vary with each database.Online Database Searching (Overview) Searching an online database is essentially the same as searching your own EndNote library. The search set list changes when searching an online source. Click Search to send the search request to the online database. The Match Case and Match Words options are not available for online database searches. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 189 . 2. certain elements on the Search tab change from the settings that are available for EndNote library searches. The options available in the search menus (such as Author. A few significant differences between searching an online database and an EndNote library are described in this section. Choose the appropriate search options. 3.

then combining that result set with the third search line. Click “+” to add additional search lines to the list. finding the search results of the first two items. that field name will appear in italics. the search shown above could be written as: (((fossil AND dinosaur) NOT avian) OR Balanoff) First EndNote looks for references about fossils and dinosaurs. and so on. “AND” narrows the focus of the search by looking for the intersection of references found. Click and drag the separator between the Reference List and the Tab pane to increase the height of the Tab pane and view more search lines. “NOT” also narrows the search by omitting the results for one term from the current result set. and Not. Online Database Indexes When searching an online database. If you try to execute a search. Searching EndNote Fields vs. If the current search strategy is set up to search an EndNote field that does not exist as an online database search index. you are not searching the specific fields in each record. EndNote will advise you that the field is not valid. The search menus on EndNote’s Search tab list only available indexes for the online database. EndNote constructs a search from the top to the bottom of the search tab. and finally all references by “Balanoff” would be added. Or.Boolean Searches Multiple search terms can be combined using the boolean operators And. See Chapter 8 for more information about the Search command. then any reference to avian would be omitted from that set. For example. so you won’t see all of the generic EndNote field names listed as you do when searching an EndNote library. Keep in mind that “OR” broadens your search by adding together two result sets. Change the 190 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . but rather the available search indexes for that database.

See “Search Attributes” on page 578 if you are interested in changing the pre-configured options. NOT “Charles Dickens” in Keywords. the search menus display a list of available search indexes supported at the remote site. Sometimes you can restrict the searches to books by that particular author by setting up a search to find (for example) “Charles Dickens” in Author. For example. a search of the Library of Congress for “Charles Dickens” in the Author index displays books about Dickens as well as those written by him. Understanding Search Results When searching an online database.” It is also not uncommon for some of these databases to index personal names that appear in the titles or keywords along with the author names. For example. The connection file for a particular database stores the names and settings for the search options listed in the search menus. you might search for “heart attack” in the Title index of a medical database and find references that do not include “heart attack” in the Title field but. they use the term “myocardial infarction. but rather sets of search terms and synonyms designed to facilitate your searches. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 191 . NOTE: Comparison operators other than “Contains” cannot be used when searching online databases.search field selection to a valid index for the selected online database. This form of indexing is most commonly seen with library book catalogs and not with the scientific reference databases. These search indexes are maintained by the providers of the databases and are not controlled by EndNote. It is not uncommon to search for a term in an index and notice that the exact term appears nowhere in the retrieved reference(s). These are not fields in the online database. instead.” This apparent discrepancy can be attributed to the search index of the online database. which has mapped the common term “heart attack” to its scientific equivalent “myocardial infarction.

not EndNote. an error message will describe the source of the problem as specifically as possible. In such a case. would be allowed. When you change the target of a search. When switching the focus of your search from one group to another and back again. the original search setup is retained as long as you haven’t changed any settings on the Search tab and the field selections are available in both databases.) To change the focus of a search. you will need to do so before you can search it. but when you select a different online database. (If you haven’t yet connected to the online database or opened a library. You could set up a Keywords search for a particular online database.) Keep in mind that these restrictions are set by the information provider. the field selection changes because Keywords is not an option for the new database selection. The year can be specified only to limit a search (these are called “limit fields”). 192 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . a search for 1997 as the year would be denied.Online Database Search Limitations Some of the search options have additional limitations that you wouldn’t encounter when searching an EndNote library. The available search options differ among the various online databases. For example. the field options on the Search tab change automatically. click on a different library group or online database in the Groups pane. If you have set up a search that is not accepted by the online database. as well as between online databases and EndNote libraries. some databases prohibit searching for a year alone. Documentation from the information provider may help to clarify what search options are available. but searching for Smith as an author AND 1997 as the year (thereby limiting the results of the author search). Changing the Focus of the Search The target of the search is the online database (represented by the database name on the Search tab) or the current EndNote library group that is displayed when the Search command is chosen. (See “Troubleshooting Connections” on page 703.

Retrieving and Saving References After a successful search. You can also pause during record retrieval. To continue downloading. on the Search tab. You have the option of retrieving all of the references or a specific range of references. they are still available in the library. Choosing OK allows EndNote to begin retrieving references. (The order of the retrieved references reflects the way they were returned from the server—this is not necessarily alphabetical. submit the search again. you may want to select the check box to “Clear currently displayed results before retrieving records. you may want to retrieve only references 1-10. if your search found 200 references. EndNote alerts you to the number of references that were found. Click Resume when you want to continue. then check those references. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 193 . How references are saved is determined by the current display mode.) Change one or both of these numbers to specify the range of references to be downloaded. chronological. For example. or in order of relevance. click Options and select Pause.” This simply removes the previously downloaded references from the Online Search group. Changing the range of references to be retrieved is useful if you want to check the results of your search before downloading the entire set of references. If you discovered that you should refine your search to get better results. and either continue downloading or change your search criteria. it’s helpful to look at the keywords of the references you have downloaded to see if there are terms there to help you refine your search strategy. If you have previously downloaded references from an online database since opening the library (whether a permanent library or a temporary library). then request only references 11 through 200.

references are downloaded into a temporary library. or use SHIFT+click to select a range of references) and choose Move References to Trash from the References menu. select them (click in the list and use Select All from the Edit menu to select all references in the current list. Click the close button to discard the temporary Online Mode library and return to Local Library Mode. Discarding Duplicate References 194 If you use the same search strategy to search multiple online sources. NOTE: You can switch between Local Library Mode and Online Search Mode without losing retrieved references. If you decide you don't want to keep the retrieved references. highlight them (click in the list and use Select All from the Edit menu to select all references in the current list. or use SHIFT+click to select a range of references) and then: Go to the References menu and select Copy References to in order to select a new or existing library and copy the highlighted references to that selected library Or. you may introduce duplicate references into your EndNote library. Online Search Mode If you are working in Online Search Mode. The top of the window indicates “Online Mode. references are downloaded and saved into the current library and displayed in a Online Search group.Integrated Library & Online Search Mode If you are working in Integrated Library & Online Search Mode. either click the close button or switch to Integrated Library & Online Search Mode.” To save references. The library name appears at the top of the window. To close the temporary Online Mode library. use CTRL+click to select noncontiguous references in the list. click the Copy to Local Library icon on the toolbar to quickly copy the highlighted references to the currently active library Another way to save references downloaded in Online Search Mode is to use the Copy and Paste commands from the Edit menu to copy individual references from Online Search Mode and then paste them into Local Library Mode. use CTRL+click to select non-contiguous references. There are two methods to identify and remove duplicates: Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote .

and are not inserted into the library. If you are using Online Search Mode. 2.You can identify and delete duplicates in your EndNote library after downloading is completed. Future online searches will automatically use the duplicate detection criteria on this panel to identify and discard duplicate references. it applies only to the temporary library. you may still need to search for duplicate references in your permanent library. This process allows you to view each duplicate before deleting it. The duplicates never appear. as described below. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 195 . Under Online Search Results. If you are using Integrated Library & Online Search Mode. This means that the number of references saved to your library could be fewer than the number reported found on the Confirm Online Search dialog. See “Finding Duplicate References” on page 248. it applies to the permanent library. To automatically discard duplicates: 1. NOTE: Discarding duplicates applies only to the library that is current during downloading. You can discard duplicates during the downloading process. select the “Automatically discard duplicates” box. From the Edit menu. choose Preferences.

you can open the Connect. This window is useful to help you or to help EndNote Technical Support assist you in tracking down the source of a problem with an online database. the log file is called Connect. The Status window displays information for the latest connection. which closes the Status window. By default. If you need to see more than that. The data shown here is in MARC format. To 196 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . A menu at the top of the Status window lets you view either the record data for each reference or the status messages returned from the server of the online database. When that window is open. Click to change the view between Record Data and Status Messages. The Log File All messages and retrieved references for a given EndNote session are recorded in a log file. This format is described on page 557 NOTE: The Connection Status window displays the last 32K of text written to the log file.The Connection Status Window The Connection Status window provides detailed information about a connection and EndNote’s interactions with the online database and server.log file in a word processor after closing the Retrieved Reference window(s). You can choose a different name and/or location for the log file using the URLs & Links settings in the Preferences window.log and is saved in the folder: Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\Application Data\EndNote Windows Vista: C:\Users\[UserName]\App Data\Roaming\EndNote\ An existing log file is overwritten the first time EndNote establishes a connection after being started. View the connection status information by choosing Show Connection Status from the Window menu to display the Status window. this command changes to Hide Connection Status.

You can verify that EndNote retrieved the reference data correctly by browsing through the log file in your word processor and comparing the unmodified data to what appears in your EndNote references. You may also choose not to create a log file by clearing the “Use Log File” option. In this sense. NOTE: You cannot import from a Connect. You must do a regular online search or a direct export. However. the log file is a back up for the references retrieved in a particular EndNote session. if necessary.log file saved from Web of Science/Web of Knowledge. Importing a Log File The log file is a regular text file. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 197 .do so. using the connection file. choose Preferences from the Edit menu and select the URLs & Links option from the list. Click Choose in the “Connection Log” section to name the new log file and choose where to save it. you can change the settings in your connection file and re-import the references (without reconnecting to the online database). If necessary. This will slightly speed up the retrieval process. It can be viewed using a word processor and imported. without a log file you will not be able to scroll back through the record data or status messages after you change the View setting in the Connection Status window.

198 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . which means it brings together many different types of content for searching. a connection file is set up for MARC data. Click Import. patents.) Choose Use Connection File from the Import Options list in the Import dialog Select the desired connection file and click Choose. you can click on an EndNote record’s URL to jump back to the original ISI Web of Knowledge online record.To import a log file using the filter options of a connection file: 1. Because the output formats are so different. 6. using a variety of powerful search and analysis tools. Normally. Searching ISI Web of Knowledge ISI Web of Knowledge is a comprehensive research platform. you should not use a filter file (*. such as viewing a list of related references. Various options are available to you online. choose No Translation. whereas a filter is set up for tagged data. choose the connection file (*.log. websites. Now you should be back in the Import dialog with both the file and the import option set. Next to Text Translation. 3. NOTE: The connection file and filter file for a database are likely configured to import very different reference formats. 2. Open Access material—all can be accessed through one interface. Search the ISI Web of Knowledge just as you would search any other online database. Open a library into which you want to import the log file. 7. Once the records are in EndNote. Click Choose File and select Connect.ENZ) as the import option. Your search results are copied directly to the EndNote library of your choice. 4. (Substitute the name of your log file if you have changed the default name. conference proceedings. Journal articles.ENF) to import a log file from the same database— instead. 5. Choose Import from the File menu.

or you may have access to a local ISI Web of Knowledge server.5 software. you may need to update the Base URL. To search a locally mounted ISI Web of Knowledge server. at least the following ISI Web of Knowledge databases are available for direct online searching with EndNote. and update the Server Address and Custom fields with your local server address and ISI Gateway software path. Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews CAB Abstracts Current Contents FSTA Medline Full Record Charges ISI Web of Knowledge requires a paid subscription. From the Edit menu. Then select Online. To link back to ISI Web of Knowledge records once they are in EndNote. Then select Online. you must change the Base URL to your local server address. open the appropriate ISI Web of Knowledge connection file. select Preferences. first contact your network administrator for the server address (URL) plus the path to your institution’s copy of the ISI Gateway V2. select Preferences. click on Connection Settings. Locally Mounted ISI Web of Knowledge Servers You must use ISI Web of Knowledge version 4. Web Citation Index Web of Science Web of Science AHCI Web of Science SCI Web of Science SSCI Zoological Records Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 199 . if you want the ability to link back to ISI Web of Knowledge records.Available ISI Web of Knowledge Databases As of this release. From the Edit menu. many of your preferences were saved when you upgraded to EndNote X3. and click the EndNote Defaults button to update to the latest Base URL.3. To access your local ISI Web of Knowledge server. You may have an online subscription with username and password. However. Users of Previous Versions of EndNote If you used a previous version of EndNote. and enter your local server address as the Base URL.2 or later.

You may be able to enter an OpenURL path to your institution’s library. Finding Full Text for a Reference EndNote X3 can attempt to locate full text files on the Web by using data stored in your references. and find out what preferences are available. OpenURL Link connects to an OpenURL standard syntax server and uses EndNote’s OpenURL preferences along with data in your EndNote record to find related online references. Once found. ACS American Geophysical Union (AGU) American Meteorological Society (AMS) Cambridge Journals Cell Press journals Elsevier’s locator pages EZproxy-based CSHL Press journals (subset of HighWire) 200 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . NOTE: This command has no relation to the URL field found in EndNote references or to the URL>Open Link command on the References menu (which opens the specific URL found in the URL field). EndNote can use these methods when searching for full text publications: ISI Web of Knowledge Full Text Links EndNote Web Services DOI (Digital Object Identifier) PubMed LinkOut OpenURL EndNote will try to use all of these methods to optimize the likelihood of finding full text files associated with your bibliographic records. To enable this feature. EndNote downloads and attaches the files to the references. EndNote may attempt to find full text from the sources below. see “URLs & Links” on page 611.Finding Related Online References Highlight a reference in EndNote and use the URL>OpenURL Link command on the References menu to start your default web browser and display the full text article (if available) plus a list of links to similar articles.

enter these URLs as Find Full Text preferences. Once you enter the Authentication URL (if required). Adding Access to Your Institution’s Library Many libraries are accessible with an OpenURL Path. In cases where full text PDF files require a subscription.EZproxy-based Highwire journals EZproxy-based Science journals Gale Cengage HighWire IEEE Xplore Ingenta John Libbey Eurotext KoreaMed Synapse Journals MetaPress OVID PubMed SFX-based OpenURL XML Wiley Interscience The ISI Web of Knowledge free journal set is checked for all users. you may need to authenticate access by entering your personal user ID and password. Then. Authentication URL: This is the web address to the page where you enter subscription details to access the online library. It is where EndNote will be directed to search for matching references. Proxy Server: Your institution may use a proxy server to control access. you must determine the appropriate OpenURL path. EndNote will attempt to authenticate and automatically download the appropriate files. which usually means a user ID and password. If Internet Explorer is Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 201 . EndNote can access the full text of the matching references from the online library’s OpenURL Path. If EndNote cannot find the full text file. it will often be able to attach the URL of the provider's Web page for the article for easier future access. subscribers may have full IP-based access to all resources. Subscription libraries also require valid authentication. These definitions may be helpful to you: OpenURL Path: This is the OpenURL web address to the online library. Next. and you or your institution have the appropriate access. The settings for a proxy server are not addressed with the Find Full Text settings in EndNote. If the library requires authentication. First. It is typically the page where you enter a username and password. you must also determine the authentication URL.

configured for use with a proxy server. Highlight a reference -. a. Right click on the reference and choose URL>OpenURL Link. though.worldcat. 2. d. If you do not use Internet Explorer. Select the Find Full Text panel. EndNote will automatically handle the proxy server when accessing httpbased connections. From the Edit menu. If you are not automatically directed to the full text article. Try one of these Follow the URL Path: a.org/registry/Institutions/. It may start with 202 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . EndNote uses an authentication URL to automatically direct you to your institution’s log-in web page. and enter the OpenURL Path. To act as your own detective. c. b. b. your institution likely requires that you log in to access full text. Browse to the URL: Use a browser to go to your library’s website and try to access a subscription resource. copy the root of that URL. You could also check http://www. the easiest way to determine the authentication URL is to work with your librarian. Enter the OpenURL path as an EndNote preference. Again. so look for a URL that begins with http://sfx. use your browser to continue to try to get to the full text PDF file.library or a similar URL that contains sfx in the path. configure proxy settings with the Internet Options in the Windows Control Panel. Determining the OpenURL Path The easiest way to determine your institution’s OpenURL address is to ask your librarian. Click OK to save the setting. Once you reach a page where you are prompted to enter credentials.one where you believe the full text article is available from your institution. To determine the authentication URL: 1. select Preferences. Determining the Authentication URL In order to use the OpenURL path to find full text articles. Select the OpenURL box. you can try the suggestion below. 3. SFX link resolvers work best.

and enter your institution’s OpenURL Path. enter an Authentication URL (the address of the site’s login page). and OpenURL are selected. Enter the path as an authentication preference as described next under Setting Full Text Preferences. Select the Find Full Text panel. From the Edit menu. PubMed LinkOut is also available. ISI Web of Knowledge Full Text Links. To enter Find Full Text preferences: 1. 3. This panel determines which methods are used when searching for full text articles. 5. but may slow performance. For more information about these preferences. 4. select Preferences. To search your institution’s library. If authentication is required.https://login. make sure OpenURL is selected. you must enter them as preferences in EndNote. 2. Copy everything through “/ login?url=%@”. Test the URL by logging in to your institution’s site.ezproxy. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 203 . see “Find Full Text” on page 615. See “Logging in to Your Library” on page 204. DOI. Setting Full Text Preferences Once you have determined the appropriate OpenURL path and authentication URL for your institution. By default.

You may be directed to a home page or a list of resources. If you have an OpenURL path and authentication URL entered under Find Full Text preferences. you can log into your institution’s library. which means you are logged in. This method allows you to try connecting without starting a Find Full Text search. You should be directed to your institution’s login web page. select Find Full Text and then Authenticate. The file is saved in its native format. You are authenticated for this session of EndNote or until your institution times out the connection. Just selecting Find Full Text again during this EndNote session will not restore authentication. there is no indication when that happens.DATA folder). When a full text file is downloaded and attached to a reference. and then click Continue to begin the search for full text articles for the selected references. You are authenticated for this session of EndNote or until your institution times out the connection. it is saved to the File Attachments field as a relative link (the file itself it stored in the current library’s . You still need to specifically select the References>Find Full Text>Find Full Text command to begin searching for full text articles. a file attachment icon appears in the File Attachment field for the 204 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . Authenticate and Search From the References menu. select Find Full Text and then Authenticate to restore access to the site. Log in as indicated on the web page. EndNote will direct you to your institution’s login web page. Log in as indicated on the web page. How to Find and Retrieve Full Text When you retrieve the full text file of a referenced work. select Find Full Text and then Find Full Text. You will need to go to the References menu. Unfortunately.Logging in to Your Library Once you have entered the appropriate URLs as Find Full Text preferences. Click Done. Do this in one of two ways: Authenticate Only From the References menu. NOTE: Your institution may sever your connection after a certain amount of idle time. which in most cases is a PDF file.

select Find Full Text>Find Full Text. a paper clip icon appears in the File Attachments column for that reference. The Find Full Text command is available only in Integrated Library and Online Search Mode or Local Library Mode. To find and retrieve full text: 1. which may affect the performance of other operations. you must run the Find Full Text operation more than once. From the References menu. you may be directed to a login web page for your institution’s library. such as entering the appropriate User ID and password. EndNote begins searching for and downloading full text for the selected references. Once you are logged in. click Continue. or use Edit>Select All to select an entire Group of displayed references. you can select a single reference. (Optional) If you have entered an OpenURL address and authentication URL under Find Full Text preferences. NOTE: In order to find full text. In the Library window. If you want to find the full text for more than 1000 EndNote references. cookies must be turned on in Internet Explorer. Select the reference(s) to which you want to add full text. The Find Full Text command can attempt to find full text documents for up to 1000 records at a time.reference. If you have a reference open. 2. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 205 . you can use the right-click contextual menu to select Find Full Text. For example. Follow the instructions to log in. It is not available in Online mode. highlight up to 1000 references. Or. Highlight up to 1000 references each time. In the Library window. Full text downloading happens in the background. 3. this total includes all full text searches run concurrently in open databases. open an individual reference for editing. or hold down the CTRL key to highlight individual references.

You will need to go to the References menu. the Find Full Text group set is added below all other group sets. These references will display a paper clip icon in the first column of the reference list. results are constantly updated under a Find Full Text group set. the additional references are added to the references already found in the Find Full Text groups. Those references to which full text or a URL was added are displayed in a Found PDF group or a Found URL group. Found PDF This group displays the set of references for which EndNote inserted the PDF file of the referenced work as an attachment. However. remain for the current session. Found PDF. If you run the Find Full Text operation more than once during a single library session. this group is deleted.References appear in groups under a Find Full Text group set as described next. The Find Full Text Groups During the Find Full Text searching and downloading process. EndNote will maintain that new position across sessions. NOTE: Your institution may sever your connection after a certain amount of time. Just selecting Find Full Text again during this EndNote session will not restore authentication. Searching. select Find Full Text and then Authenticate to restore access to the site. This group displays the current set of references for which EndNote is attempting to find either the full text file of each referenced work or at least a URL to the referenced work. Searching. it is added to the 206 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote .. there is no indication when that happens. Found URL. The Find Full Text temporary groups described below. you can click and drag the Find Full Text group set to any position. and Not Found.. Unfortunately. Initially. When the full text search is completed. but disappear when you close the library. If a URL is also found.

you must first delete the existing file attachment. right click on the Searching group and select Cancel finding full text. If you do want to look for a full text article for the reference. and the Searching group will disappear. If a Find Full text operation has already attached a file to a selected reference. Not Found This group displays the set of references for which EndNote could not identify a full text file or a URL. These are only from the set of references searched with the Find Full Text command during this session of the EndNote library. right click on the Searching group to display a context-sensitive menu. Found URL This group displays the set of references for which EndNote inserted a URL to the referenced work. To stop a Find Full Text operation.reference. the Found PDF and Found URL groups will still exist. EndNote will skip that reference when searching for full text. right click on the Searching group and select Resume finding full text. Full text that has been retrieved until that point is already saved in the library. Pausing or Canceling Find Full Text To pause a Find Full Text operation. but the reference is not included in the Found URL group. If any files or URLs have already been found. Find Full Text will stop. the search is paused To resume a paused Find Full Text operation. Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote 207 . and select Pause finding full text. but did not find a full text document to attach.

create a free personalized Web of Knowledge account and log in. 208 Chapter 6: Searching Online Databases with EndNote . Review your EndNote references to confirm that the DOI information is in the DOI field. If your institution does not have custom journal links set up for ISI Web of Knowledge. ask your librarian to set it up (it is easy and free). Ask your librarian whether your institution is set up with ISI Web of Knowledge custom journal links. Enable Web browser cookies. Create a free EndNote Web account and log in. If so. Make sure your EndNote Web account information is complete under EndNote Preferences (Edit>Preferences>EndNote Web). EndNote Web is included with EndNote X3. Data can be moved between fields with the Change and Move Fields command from the Tools menu.Improving the Search for Full Text These are suggestions for improving the accuracy of the Find Full Text feature: Make sure you are IP authenticated to access any premium full text resources to which you would like EndNote to attempt connecting.

. 218 Direct Export from Web Pages ........................................ 229 209 ......................... 215 Output Formats with Corresponding Import Options/Direct Export.................................................................................. Creating a Tab-Delimited Format ................................ 214 Getting Data in the Right Format .......................................................... Creating a Tagged “EndNote Import” File ..................................................... 215 Choosing the Correct Import Filter.................... 213 Importing References Downloaded from Online Databases...................................... 211 Import Options... Creating a Custom “Tagged” Format .............................................. 218 Creating Structured Text Files that EndNote Can Import....... 219 219 222 225 Copying and Pasting References from a Document into EndNote......................................... 218 Importing from Online Databases ......................................................Chapter 7 Importing Reference Data into EndNote Contents Importing Reference Data into EndNote ........................................................... 228 Importing References From Other Bibliographic Software Programs .................................. 210 General Importing Instructions ..............................................

you can use EndNote as a tool to search and retrieve references directly from that database into EndNote. Ovid. we do not claim that EndNote can import data from all sources. we have provided several means by which you can get references into EndNote: Import references saved or downloaded from online data services (for example. This chapter covers the basic import instructions first. we recommend that you import into a temporary new library. In some cases. There are many sources of bibliographic data that can be used to help you create your EndNote library. or Thomson Reuters) Import text files that conform to a particular format (such as the Tab-delimited or EndNote Import format). and then goes into detail about how to get your data files in the right format and choose the correct import option. SilverPlatter. you may have to write your own import filter (see Chapter 18). use the Online Search command instead. If none of these tools helps you to import your data.Importing Reference Data into EndNote Retrieving References Directly from Online Databases If you have access to a library catalog or bibliographic database that supports the Z39. See Chapter 6 for information. These files can be created by you or generated from other databases. You do not need to use EndNote’s Import command at all.50 protocol. NOTE: Although we try to provide many flexible ways to get data from other sources into EndNote. To avoid re-typing this data into EndNote. 210 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . or you may need to manipulate the data in a word processor before it can be imported. tips on how to quickly copy and paste data into EndNote are described on page 228. The direct retrieval of references is not covered in this chapter. NOTE: When importing records. This is by far the easiest way to get data into EndNote because it involves no intermediate steps. Import text files exported from other bibliographic software programs Once you have a file in the proper format and you know which import option or filter to use. determine which ones you want to keep. and then move those records into your permanent library. the import instructions are the same for all of these types of data.

enl. 5. choose Import. Select an option from the Duplicates list: Import All Imports all references. except for EndNote libraries. This option allows you to specify the text character encoding of the file you import. 2. You should verify the setting with your database Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 211 . Open the library into which you want to import the references. Import into Duplicates Library Duplicate references are imported into a library called File-Dupl. Year. and Reference Type match a reference already in the library. See page 603 if you would like to change the duplicates criteria. Select the file and click OK. Choose a Text Translation option. must be plain text files. From the File menu. Import options are described on page 213. To import a text file or an EndNote library into an EndNote library: 1. where “File” is the name of the library into which you are importing. Discard Duplicates Imports all references except duplicates. so that extended characters transfer correctly. including duplicates. 4. Click the Choose File button to locate and open the file you want to import. Title. All files. Select the appropriate import option from the Import Option list.General Importing Instructions NOTE: See “Importing EndNote Libraries” on page 114 for specific instructions about merging two EndNote libraries. 6. a reference is considered a duplicate when the Author. 3. By default.

Refer to the progress indicator to determine when EndNote has completed the task. or to peruse the imported data to make sure it imported as expected. MARC format files may require ANSEL translation. 7. Make sure to check references that contain extended characters. The Imported References group is a temporary group that is replaced each time you import another set of references. To return all of your references to the library display (including the newly imported ones). NOTE: The time required to import a file. Click Import to import the file.S. including an EndNote library. It is removed when you exit EndNote (although the references remain in the library). You might be able to use No Translation for text files that do not contain any extended characters. When the import is complete. is proportionate to the size of the library and the number of references being imported.provider. 212 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . This is a perfect time to add a keyword to each imported reference with the Change Field command (page 172). Some U. the newly imported references are displayed in an Imported References group. choose Show All References from the References menu or click on the All References group. databases that contain extended characters require ANSI-Latin1 or UTF8.

all references are imported. Refer/BibIX Used to import text files exported from the Refer or BibIX programs. see “Creating a Library from ProCite” on page 117. the showing references are imported. If the library you are importing from is closed or locked. with read/write access. EndNote Generated XML Used to import EndNote’s proprietary XML format. For ProCite and Reference Manager. Reference Web Poster. Reference Manager (RIS) Used to import text files exported from Reference Manager.Import Options EndNote’s import options include: EndNote Library Used to import references from one EndNote library into another. Tab-Delimited Used to import text files in which the fields within a single reference are separated by tabs. or any other source that uses the RIS format. For details see page 219. Reference Update. See page 225 for more information. Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 213 . ISI-CE Used to import text files downloaded from the Web of Science and other Thomson Reuters sources. The EndNote Import format is based on the Refer/BibIX format. EndNote Import Used to import text files that have been downloaded from online databases or exported from EndNote using the EndNote format. If you the library you are importing from is open. NOTE: See “Searching ISI Web of Knowledge” on page 198 for information about directly retrieving Web of Science records. Multi-Filter (Special) A special option for importing files that include references from multiple sources (see “Identifiers” on page 549).

you won’t see the import filter that you need in this list. and eliminate data you do not need. Importing References Downloaded from Online Databases If you have access to an online bibliographic database or a university catalog. See Chapter 6 for more information. The table on page 751 summarizes a number of common sources of bibliographic data. Choose Other Filters from the Import Option list to find the filter that matches the source of the data you want to import. 214 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . Which import filter to use to import the data into EndNote. This is useful if you need to import the Connect. EndNote filters are configurable so they give you the flexibility to import the reference data you need. Import filters that you have recently used or chosen as your favorites will be listed in the Import Option list in the Import dialog. the first time you import a file.Other Filters EndNote includes hundreds of import filters configured to import data from a variety of online databases. Use Connection File EndNote provides the option of using a connection file as an import filter. See page 215 for information about how to choose the filters to appear in the Import Option list. and the EndNote import option to use to import the references into EndNote. This section describes these two items.log file generated by using EndNote’s Online Search command to search an online database. the instructions for downloading tagged files. The Connect. you can probably use EndNote’s import filters to import text files saved or downloaded from these sources. There are two main things you need to know in order to correctly import downloaded references into EndNote: How to download the data in the right output format. NOTE: See Chapter 18 for information about creating and modifying import filters. The table on page 751 provides more information about the download formats that work with these filters. Most likely.log file should include all of the references from your previous session. All of the import filters (except Tab Delimited and EndNote Generated XML) can be modified.

You will import the text file.54-79 LAKES. ACIDIFICATION. it may not be possible to import all the data accurately. ZO Aquatic macrophytes and lake acidification 1993 Environmental Air Pollution.Getting Data in the Right Format To import text with any of the EndNote filters. save the email to a plain text file. There are hundreds of filters included with EndNote. the data must be consistently “tagged. Choosing the Correct Import Filter Once you have captured and saved your data file in the appropriate format.” with each tag starting on a new line. VOL. and the file saved as text. 2. Vol. PG. 5. each designed to read a specific tagged format from a specific information provider. See page 527. NO. Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 215 . MACROPHYTES. or poorly delimited. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS. 5(2) pp.O. you should identify the proper EndNote filter to import the data. AQUATIC MACROPHYTES AND LAKE ACIDIFICATION 1993 ENVIRONMENTAL-POLLUTION. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Author: Title: Year: Source: Cramer. -Z. ECOLOGY.54-79 Keywords: lakes--acidification--environmental effects--macrophytes--ecology--plant physiology NOTE: If data is inconsistently tagged. Here are two examples: AUTIPYSODECRAMER. If references have been emailed to you.

To see a complete list of available filters. mark them as your favorites by clicking the check box to the left of the filter name. so in some cases you may need to write your own filter or modify one of ours. The Comments section may give critical information about how to appropriately download information from the source database. See Chapter 18 for information about creating and modifying filters. choose Import Filters from the Edit menu. select a filter in the 216 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . use the Quick Search text box on the EndNote toolbar. You can also check our website periodically for new and updated filters (http://www. To search by name. When you have located the filters that you want to use. You can click the More Info button to display additional information about the filter. You can also mark all of the filters currently showing after using the Find option by clicking Mark All. it will appear in the Import Options list in the import dialog. and select Open Filter Manager. NOTE: There are many more databases and services that provide data than there are filters included with EndNote.com). Once a filter is marked as a favorite. you can compare the format from your downloaded data file to a filter.endnote. Comparing a Filter to a Data File If you are uncertain whether a filter matches a data file that you have downloaded. To do so. Use the Find by button in the middle of the Filter Manager window to find all filters for a particular information provider.

These are the filters displayed when you open the Filter Manager. and click the Edit button. The tags and templates in the filter should match the data in the file you want to import. all filters provided with EndNote are stored in the Filters folder found in the EndNote X3 program folder. and information about how to change the location of your personal folders. select the Templates option in the list at the left of the window to display the tags recognized by that filter. For more information about your personal folders. it is saved to your personal Filters folder. When the Filter window opens. See Chapter 18 for information about editing filters. When you attempt to save changes to an existing filter. Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 217 . EndNote also displays filters found in your personal Filters folder. When you create a new filter. you must use Save As to save a copy to your personal Filters folder. see “Folder Locations” on page 604.Filter Manager. Changing the Filter Folder By default.

please check the documentation from your information provider or contact us. A list of systems in Appendix D provide a direct export of references into EndNote. If you find that these formats have changed. Importing from Online Databases A subset of supported services are listed in Appendix D with their recommended output formats and EndNote import filters. Some producers of online reference databases expressly prohibit such use and storage of their data. Before you download references from a database. these were the current format options for each information provider listed in the table. please consider copyright issues. and start the import process automatically. Copyright Issues and Fair Use of Downloaded Data EndNote gives you the capability to import references downloaded from online databases into its libraries. pick the correct import option.Output Formats with Corresponding Import Options/Direct Export Before you download references from an online source. and then importing that file with the appropriate filter. and the number of providers keeps growing. This “direct export” or “direct download” method does away with the additional steps of saving the references to a text file. At the time this manual was printed. so check with your information providers to find out whether they participate! Direct Export from Web Pages 218 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . be sure to carefully check the copyright and fair use notices for the database. This is not a complete list. Note that different databases may have varying restrictions. others charge an extra fee for a license to use the data in this way. Certain websites contain a download button that will send your search results directly to EndNote. All you need to do is choose the EndNote library into which the data should be imported. even from the same information provider (such as DIALOG or Ovid).

//Harrison. Enter the data manually by typing it into EndNote as described in Chapter 5. as described on page 228. Most databases or spreadsheets can export a tab-delimited text file. Even if the imported data does not come through perfectly. it might be faster and easier to retype them or copy and paste the references than to try to put them into a format that EndNote can import. and copy and paste. if you have many references to import. If you only have a few references to import (less than 30 or 40). However. and then import the references into EndNote and clean up the references there. such as: McCartney. J. Creating a file that EndNote can import can be a lot of work if your data is in an arbitrary or inconsistent format. If you cannot Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 219 . P.//Lennon. G. it can be rearranged with EndNote’s various commands. Copy and paste each piece of data from its source into the proper fields in EndNote. drag-and-drop. it might save time to first manipulate the data in a word processor as best you can.Creating Structured Text Files that EndNote Can Import What do you do if your data is not in a format that EndNote can automatically import? You can do one of several things (or even a combination these options): Rearrange the reference data using your word processor so that it is in a format that EndNote can import (as described in this section). and the fields within a reference are separated by tabs.) or two forward slashes “//”. This section describes two different formats that you can put your data into such that it can be imported into EndNote: A tab-delimited format (best if your data is in a database or spreadsheet that can export to a tab-delimited file) A tagged format (best for when your data is in a word processor document and looks like a bibliography) Creating a Tab-Delimited Format The Tab-delimited import option can import text files in which each reference is separated by a paragraph mark (¶). Preparing the Data Before Exporting Author Names: Before you export data from a database or spreadsheet into a text file. we recommend that you separate multiple author names with a semicolon (.

C//Luis. you can do it after exporting. This makes it easy to preserve the original reference types of the references when importing the data files into EndNote. you can specify each reference type individually within one file. and how the data should be interpreted. The format for the first line is an asterisk immediately followed by a valid EndNote reference type.easily do this in your database. starting with a field for “Reference Type. W //Lee. followed by a paragraph mark (¶). you should export your data into separate files based on reference type. First Line: The Default Reference Type The first line of the file must define the default reference type for the entire file. you should make sure that each of your references includes a field indicating the reference type. S Woo. Use EndNote’s Reference Type names so that EndNote is able to recognize the formats. or manually edit the data after it is in EndNote. *Journal Article <¶> A file of journal articles might look like this: *Journal Article<¶> Author Jones. of Animals <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Volume <¶> 1 <¶> 2 <¶> 3 <¶> If you could not make separate files based on reference type. your first line must be the list of field names found in the Generic reference type. If you cannot label each reference with the appropriate Reference Type name. L <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Year 1994 1995 1991 <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Title Easy Food Rain Hats Cat Talk <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Journal J. it is not necessary to do this—the import settings can indicate that all references should be imported as journals by default. of Clothing J. you must open each file in a text editor or word processor and add two lines to it. For example. If you have only one type of reference (such as Journal Articles). J// Shoe. Reference Types: If possible.) Then you can 220 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote .” (See page 716 for the Generic field names. Preparing the Data File for Import Once the tab-delimited file(s) are generated. L Carlos. of Eating J. In this case. These lines tell EndNote what the default reference type is for the data.

The order of the fields names does not matter. the literal text “<tab>” and “<¶>” should not be typed. For example. selecting Reference Types. of Animals <¶> <¶> <¶> <¶> NOTE: The “<tab>” and “<¶>” characters are used to indicate where an actual tab and paragraph mark should be entered. S Woo. and a paragraph mark must follow the last field name. J// Smith. Additional Considerations ANSI. Second Line: EndNote Field Names The second line of the tab-delimited file must contain the actual field names used by EndNote into which you want the data imported. W //Lee.<tab> 1994 Woo. If you have custom reference types. ASCII. R. of Eating J. and clicking the Modify Reference Types button. Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 221 . or UTF-8 formatted text files can be imported. W. no font styles or text styles can be preserved during import.) or by two forward slashes (//). //Lee. <tab> 1995 Carlos. C//Luis. Fields cannot contain tabs or paragraph marks. <tab> 1991 <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Title Easy Pie Rain Hats Cat Talk <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Secondary Title J. L Carlos.use the additional “Reference Type” column to define the actual EndNote reference type names. of Clothing J.” then the field names in the second line of your file will be those of the Journal Article reference type: *Journal Article<¶> Author Jones. Multiple author names should be separated by semicolons (. L. as long as they correspond to the order of the data in the rows beneath them and correspond to the names of the default reference type. C. you may check them by choosing Preferences from the Edit menu. L <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Year 1994 1995 1991 <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Title Easy Food Rain Hats Cat Talk <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Journal J. typically. This means that. of Eating J. of Clothing J. See Appendix C for a listing of all of the reference types and field names. S. Let the lines of data “wrap” to the next line. J// Shoe. All field names and reference type names in the file must be identical to those in EndNote.//Luis. if your default reference type is “*Journal Article. For example: Reference Type Journal Article Book Section Report <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Author <tab> Year Jones. of Animals <tab> <tab> <tab> <tab> Volume <¶> 1 <¶> 2 <¶> 3 <¶> NOTE: The field names must be separated by tabs.

There are three basic alerts: Bad Default Reference Type — The default reference type that you specified in the first line of the file is not a valid EndNote reference type name. A reserved field name called “Unused” may be used for data that you do not want imported into EndNote.Leading and trailing spaces are removed during importing. (See page 225 for information about using a predefined EndNote Import format if you would rather not create your own filter. If you get one of these error messages during the import process. No upper/lower case conversion is made during importing. save the file as a text file. Save a Copy of Your File Open your bibliography in a word processor and save a copy of the file with a new name (this is your backup). and select Tab-Delimited as your import option. Step I. If EndNote cannot import a record or a field within a record. 222 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . See “General Importing Instructions” on page 211 for detailed instructions on importing. you also need to make a filter to read your tags. it will alert you to the error. Errors While Importing Tab-delimited Files When you are ready to import this file into EndNote. Remove everything but the reference data from the file. it may be possible to use your word processor’s Find and Replace commands to insert descriptive tags in front of some of the fields of data so that EndNote can accurately import the references. Missing Reference Type Information — There is no default reference type specified for the file and there is no reference type field defined for the references. choose Import from the File menu.) Bad Field Name — A field name that you entered in line 2 of the file is not a valid EndNote field name. Creating a Custom “Tagged” Format If you have a large bibliography that you would like to import into EndNote. correct the problem. (The problem can be as simple as extra spaces after the reference type name in your text file. In addition to adding tags.) This section outlines the basic steps to convert a bibliography into a tagged text file. open the import file in your word processor. and try again.

Billoski. etc. pp. The more tags you add to your data. The process of converting this bibliographic format to a tagged format would be something like this: Search for 2 paragraph marks (since the references are separated by 1 blank line). year. and replace with two paragraph marks and a tag “XX-” followed by a space. Suppose your references look like this: Jones. Vol. (1990) “Greenhouse hypothesis” Extinction. T. (1990) “Greenhouse hypothesis” Extinction. 3 no. Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 223 . Vol 2 no. you may have better results making additional replacements in the text file before importing. M.Step II. The result is a tagged data file that looks like this: XX. Vol. This works well for reference lists that have clear delimiters separating the individual components of the reference (author.Jones. title. C. G. C. 1.). 4. Add Descriptive Field Tags Use your word processor’s Find and Replace commands to search for unique delimiters between fields. and insert paragraph marks and descriptive field tags in front of specific fields.V. Vol. G. (1990) “Planet X” Icarus.V. 3 no. pp. and the filter does the rest of the work. For this example. 12-18. save the file (as a plain text file). 11-23. Once you have made all the changes to tag as much of the data as necessary. 12-18. 11-23. (1990) “Planet X” Icarus. Billoski. and Harrison. and Harrison. M. 4. In some cases. we will show a very simple case where only the start of each reference is tagged. and create an import filter to match the tags and formats of the references. pp. 1. T. pp. XX. the greater degree of accuracy you can get with the import filter. 2 no.

If you can’t get the filter to import everything exactly as you want. transfer these references to your real library with drag-and-drop. Once your filter is working as you would like it. you can use it to import the data file into your real EndNote library. Step IV: Clean Up the Data After you set up your file with tags and create a filter to import it. then use the Change and Move Fields commands in EndNote’s References menu and the Change Text command in EndNote’s Edit menu to clean up the data. the entire reference will not be imported into your EndNote library. Then. you should test and refine the filter by importing into a new library. create a new filter to read your data file (see Chapter 18 for instructions on how to create a filter). 224 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . You might find it useful to import into a test library. copy and paste. The template of a filter for the above data file would look like this: NOTE: Each field listed for the Tag must appear in each of your references. or the Import command.Step III: Create a Filter Using EndNote. you may have to do some manual editing to correct this either before or after importing the data into EndNote. If a reference is missing any of the fields.

Elena Permian strata in South-East Asia 1990 University of California. each field of data (i. Robinson Houghton Boston 2nd Journal Article Herbert H. Entire references are separated by one blank line: %0 %A %D %T %E %I %C %N %0 %A %D %T %B %V %P %0 %A %T %D %I %9 Book Geoffrey Chaucer 1957 The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer F. Volume. Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 225 . with the names listed one per line: %A Jones.e. Journal. N. Jeff Author names can appear either as: Geoffrey Chaucer or Cohen. or Title) is preceded by an identifying tag: a percent sign (%) followed by a single capital letter. Sarah Either initials or full names are accepted. Clark 1982 Hearers and Speech Acts Language 58 332-373 Thesis Cantucci. Mary %A Simon.. This tag should repeat for each author. In this format.Creating a Tagged “EndNote Import” File The EndNote Import format is a tagged format based on the rules of Refer/BibIX format. Berkeley Dissertation Author Names in the EndNote Import Format Author names use the %A tag.

Defining Reference Types Set the reference type for each of the imported references by using %0 (zero) and the reference type name. If you have modified a reference type. %0 Generic %0 Aggregated Database %0 Ancient Text %0 Artwork %0 Audiovisual Material %0 Bill %0 Blog %0 Book %0 Book Section %0 Case %0 Catalog %0 Chart or Table %0 Classical Work %0 Computer Program %0 Conference Paper %0 Dictionary %0 Edited Book %0 Electronic Article %0 Electronic Book %0 Encyclopedia %0 Equation %0 Figure %0 Film or Broadcast %0 Government Document %0 Grant %0 Hearing %0 Journal Article %0 Legal Rule or Regulation %0 Magazine Article %0 Manuscript %0 Map %0 Newspaper Article %0 Online Database %0 Online Multimedia %0 Pamphlet %0 Patent %0 Personal Communication %0 Report %0 Standard %0 Statute %0 Thesis %0 Unpublished Work %0 Web Page %0 Unused 1 %0 Unused 2 %0 Unused 3 %0 Conference Proceedings %0 Serial 226 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . The default reference types are listed below. your EndNote data files should use the new name instead.

Tag %A %B %C %D %E %F %G %H %I %J %K %L %M %N %P %Q %R %S %T %U %V %W %X %Y %Z %0 %1 %2 %3 %4 %6 %7 EndNote Generic Field Name Author Secondary Title (of a Book or Conference Name) Place Published Year Editor /Secondary Author Label Language Translated Author Publisher Secondary Title (Journal Name) Keywords Call Number Accession Number Number (Issue) Pages Translated Title DOI Tertiary Title Title URL Volume Database Provider Abstract Tertiary Author Notes Reference Type Custom 1 Custom 2 Custom 3 Custom 4 Number of Volumes Edition Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 227 . The Figure field is not included for importing. many fields may be mapped to the Notes field (since a limited number of fields are included in each reference type). and the corresponding EndNote field into which each tagged item is imported for the Generic reference type.EndNote Tags and Corresponding Fields The table below shows the tags recognized in the EndNote Import format. For other reference types.

3.) Open your EndNote library. Open the list of references in a word processor. 2. E. you can use the Copy and Paste commands as an alternative method for getting your data into EndNote and still avoid a lot of re-typing. C. and choose New Reference (CTRL+N) from the References menu to create a new reference. (Some word processors allow you to triple-click a paragraph to select the whole thing at once. let’s say you have a paper with a bibliography entry such as: Blocker. Select a reference and copy it using the Copy command in your word processor’s Edit menu. That might be a useful shortcut for quickly selecting a reference. H.Tag %8 %9 %? %@ %! %# %$ %] %& %( %) %* %+ %^ %> %< %[ %= %~ EndNote Generic Field Name Date Type of Work Subsidiary Author ISBN/ISSN Short Title Custom 5 Custom 6 Custom 7 Section Original Publication Reprint Edition Reviewed Item Author Address Caption File Attachments Research Notes Access Date Custom 8 Name of Database Copying and Pasting References from a Document into EndNote If you have a bibliography that is too inconsistent or difficult to parse using your word processor (as suggested in “Creating a Custom “Tagged” Format” on page 222). 228 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote . To transfer the references into EndNote: 1. 1965. R. Richardson. The Two Year College: A Social Synthesis. For example.. Plummer and Richard C.

Be sure to remove extraneous punctuation. From here. See page 452 for information about setting a default reference type for new references.4.endnote. Unsupported Databases If your program is not on the chart. consult the chart below for instructions. If you do not have Internet access. Follow the guidelines for entering references in Chapter 5. you can drag-and-drop (or cut and paste) the individual pieces of data into their proper fields. Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote 229 . This will paste the entire reference into the Title field of the Reference window. Put the cursor in the Title field of the new reference and choose Paste from the Edit menu. contact technical support for other suggestions. Importing References From Other Bibliographic Software Programs If you wish to convert references from another bibliographic program into EndNote. see page 219 for instructions on setting up a tab-delimited file for importing into EndNote. Under “Downloads. and make sure author names are each on a separate line. Some conversion utilities are available only for a specific platform (Windows or Macintosh). Conversion Utilities at the EndNote Website In some cases. contact EndNote technical support for assistance. If your database does not offer a tab-delimited export option.com Follow the “Support and Services” link from the home page to display the EndNote Technical Support page.” follow the “Database conversion utilities” link. you may be directed to download a conversion utility or instructions from the EndNote website at: http://www.

and then Open Library. Conversion utilities are available from the EndNote website.endnote.com/support/enconversion. Conversion utilities are available from the EndNote website.asp. Citation 6 and 7 EndNote Library NoteBook II Plus and NoteBuilder Papyrus 6 and 7 ProCite Publish or Perish Ref-11 Reference Manager Refer/BibIX RefWorks 230 Chapter 7: Importing Reference Data into EndNote .asp.com/support/enconversion.endnote. Go to http://www. See “Creating a Library from Reference Manager” on page 119. Locate and Open the old EndNote library.asp.endnote.com.” and click More to browse the FTP site.com/support/enconversion. Use the Refer/BibIX import option to import a Refer or BibIX text file.endnote. Go to http://www.asp. Go to the File menu in EndNote. Conversion utilities are available from the EndNote website.endnote. Under “Downloads. See “Creating a Library from ProCite” on page 117. See a description under Frequently Asked Questions at http://www.com/support/ensupport.com/support/enconversion. BibTex User-contributed utilities and instructions for converting BibTex files are available from the EndNote website at: http://www. A conversion utility is available from the EndNote website. Go to the “Support and Services” section. The references will be copied into a new EndNote X3 library. Go to http://www.asp. choose Open. Go to http://www.asp.endnote. A conversion utility is available from the EndNote website.com/support/enconversion.Software Basic Conversion Instructions Bookends and Bookends Export from Bookends or Bookends Pro using the “ProCite” Pro format. and import the resulting file into EndNote using the ProCite import option. Go to http://www.” find “BibTex conversion tools.endnote.

............. 233 Searching for References............................................... Combining Results from Separate Searches.............................. Saving Search Strategies .......... 250 Sorting the Library ................................................................................. Simple Searches ........................................ 252 231 ..... 232 Working with Showing References .... 250 Special Cases in Sorting ............................... Search Command Tips .................. Restricting Searches to Specific Fields ................................................................................................................................................................ 233 234 234 236 239 240 241 244 245 247 Finding Duplicate References.” and “Not” ..... Using Comparison Operators .................................................. The Search Tab ......................................................... 248 Finding Text in a Single Reference .....Chapter 8 Searching and Sorting in EndNote Contents Showing and Hiding References............... Quick Search ........................” “Or... 232 Using Show Selected and Hide Selected ........................... Combining Search Lines with “And................................................

as a way to combine search results. Sort. and Move Field commands to modify only the showing references. 232 Chapter 8: Searching and Sorting in EndNote .) Use the Change Text. (Choose 'Search showing references” on the Search tab. Change Text. Here are a few examples of operations that you can do with the showing references: Restrict the Search Library command to search only the showing references. (Choose “Add to showing references” on the Search tab. Notice the words “Showing 10 out of 210 references” at the bottom of the Library window.) Add the results of a new search to the currently showing references. and Export) can work with only those references that are “showing” in the Library window. Print or Export only the “showing” references. Use the term lists’ Update List command to scan only the showing references for new terms. Here is an example of an EndNote library showing only 10 of the 210 references in the library.Showing and Hiding References When working with references in your EndNote library. Change Field. Working with Showing References Some EndNote commands (such as Search Library. you can view all of the references or just a subset. and Change Field. Print.

2. Choose Hide Selected References from the References menu. To use the Hide Selected References command: 1. After completing the work you need to do with the showing references. For example. or you can limit your searches to specific fields (such as Author or Keywords). Select the references that you want to temporarily hide. The references that you had selected will now be the only ones showing in the Library window. To save a set of references to a group.” Using Show Selected and Hide Selected Use the Show Selected References command to restrict the references showing in the Library window to only the selected references. choose Show All References (CTRL+M) from the References menu to return all of the references to the Library window. 3. The Show Selected References and Hide Selected References commands in the References menu provide another convenient way for you to control which references are showing in the Library window. 3. Choose Show Selected References from the References menu. see Chapter 9. Chapter 8: Searching and Sorting in EndNote 233 . The Hide Selected References command is similar to the Show Selected References command except that it temporarily hides the selected references in the Library window from view. and others. or hold down the SHIFT key to select a range of references). 2. Select the references of interest (hold down the CTRL key and click the references with the mouse. Not. “Using Groups.One way to view a subset of references is to use the Search Library command as described later in this chapter. To use the Show Selected References command: 1. After you have completed your work with the showing references. Or. Less than. you can choose a very general search. one that scans the entire library. which you can easily display later. You can also create more complex searches using a variety of operators such as And. choose References>Show All References (CTRL+M) to display all references in the Library window. Greater than. Searching for References EndNote provides a powerful and flexible Search Library command that enables you to locate specific references or groups of references.

You can use the Search Library command to search EndNote libraries as well as remote databases that are available online. You can use the drop-down list to select a recent search term. displaying several empty search lines (you can add more if necessary). With your library list displayed. use the Search tab. the comparison operator. EndNote executes a general search of all fields. Field List The field list allows you to restrict your search to a particular field—such as Author. Use the plus or minus buttons to the right of each search line to insert or delete a line. The Search Tab To begin a search. field list comparison list search set list search term add or remove search lines Boolean operator list Quick Overview of the Search Tab Functions are described in more detail in the sections that follow. By 234 Chapter 8: Searching and Sorting in EndNote . The Search tab appears. Quick Search To quickly search your entire library. and the text to be found (the “search term”). If you need a more specific or complicated search. See Chapter 6 for information about online database searches. display the group of references you want to search and then choose Search Library (CTRL+F) from the Tools menu or click the Search tab in the Tab pane. enter a word or phrase and press ENTER. or Keywords—or all fields. Search Line A search line includes the field to be searched (from the Field list). use the Quick Search item on the Main toolbar. Read further for information about more complex searching. Year.

EndNote finds only those records in which the search term is capitalized exactly as you typed it on the Search tab. For example. Search Term The search term is the word or phrase that you want to locate. For example.default. Search Set List Use the search set list to specify the set of references to search and how the search results should be combined with other references in the Library window. a search for “résumé” will not find “resume. if your search term is “AIDS” and you select “Match Case”. EndNote finds only exact matches to the search term. or the full Journal name actually Is “science. Comparison List Choose an item from the comparison list to indicate how the search term should relate to the field(s) being searched.” with the “Match Chapter 8: Searching and Sorting in EndNote 235 . EndNote ignores the word “aids” and finds only the acronym “AIDS.” If you want to find all variations of a letter. Match Words With “Match Words” selected. For example." the Journal field Contains “science” anywhere in the field. For example. See page 244. By default. EndNote ignores capitalization when searching for text in a library. then Title. Thus. a search for specific diacritical marks such as é. Match Case By default. EndNote can find references in which the Journal Field begins with "science. a search for the term “state. then Year. a search for the text “paleontology” also finds “Paleontology.” and “Not” list between the search lines indicates how the search lines are to be combined. ü and î will match those letters exactly. See “Restricting Searches to Specific Fields” on page 240.” When the “Match Case” option is checked.” “Or. deselect the “Match Case” option. Boolean Operator List The “And. rather than partial-word matches. Use the Options button at the bottom of the Search tab to insert a Tab or Carriage Return in the search line.” When the “Match Case” option is checked. and then shows only the results of the search. EndNote searches the group of references currently displayed. the Field lists are set to search Author.” See page 241.

See “Entering Special Characters” on page 152 for information about entering diacritics. Matching Partial Words Unless you have selected the “Match Words” option.and left-truncation are enabled). you can search for just the root of a word and find all related terms. Thus. Click the Options button and select Restore Default at any time to return the tab to that configuration. exactly. in your reference text.” Save Search and Load Search If you frequently use the same search strategies on the Search tab. EndNote looks for that string as text. finds references with the word “state” while ignoring words like “statehood” or “understated. select the “Match Case” option. Finding Tabs and Carriage Returns Use the Options button to insert a Tab or Carriage Return in the search line. you can use the Options button to save these searches and later load them when you need them. Searching for Numbers When you search for a number. This is a good tactic for general subject searches. Select an appropriate comparison operator. a search on “Any Field” which “Contains” the search text “0025” will match the numbers 00025 and 0025. Search Command Tips Canceling Searches Pressing ESC cancels a search in progress. a search for “résumé” will not find “resume. See “Saving Search Strategies” on page 247 for more information. but it will not match 25. Diacritics (Accents) To search for specific diacritical marks.Words” option selected. ü and î will match those letters exactly. EndNote matches partial words when searching for text (both right. 236 Chapter 8: Searching and Sorting in EndNote . letters such as é. For example. such as “Field begins with” or "Word begins with.” If you want to find all variations of a letter. Set Default and Restore Default Click the Options button and select Set Default to save the configuration of all of the items on the Search tab except for the search terms." to limit your search term. deselect the “Match Case” option. See “Setting and Restoring Defaults for the Search Tab” on page 239 for more information. Consequently.

which are assigned by EndNote. leading zeros are stripped from your search text before comparing it to record numbers. a search for “Smith. For example: Smith. For example. If you wish to search for author initials. Chapter 8: Searching and Sorting in EndNote 237 . Record numbers. J P” without Match Words selected will also find references by authors such as “Smith-Wilkins. J P” in the Author field. make sure to include a space between the first and second initial. Choose the desired field from the Field list. a search for “0025” will match record number 25. Searching with Multiple Libraries Open The Search Library command searches one library at a time. which means that Author represents Reporter. Click Search and EndNote finds references in which the chosen field is blank. Finding Empty Fields EndNote can search for empty fields. J P If you do not include a space between initials. Author Fields The field names in the Field list are EndNote’s “Generic” field names.” The Year Field When searching in the Year field. however. EndNote looks for an exact match in all text fields. EndNote will assume that JP is a complete first name. choose Is as the comparison operator.View the library you want to search. A search for “Smith. To limit your search. a search for “1994” retrieves only references published in 1994.There is an exception for record numbers. where as a search for “94” retrieves references from the 1940s and 1994. J P” with Match Words selected will find only those works with “Smith. Jeremiah. It will not match record number 250. Only an exact match of a record number will be returned. cannot include leading zeros. select the Match Words check box. and use the Search tab on the Tab pane. Editor. When you search Any Field for a number. Artist or any other variations of the Author field used in the different reference types. and leave the search term blank. So.

all references not written by Hall or Billoski. Click in the list of references. Cleaning Up Search Results After executing a search. 2. you would like to view the references not written by those authors. and from the Edit menu. there may be a handful of references that you want to exclude from the search results. choose Show All References (CTRL+M) (notice that the original selection is maintained). You are left viewing only those references that were not previously showing in the Library window. that is. choose Select All (CTRL+A) to select all of the Hall and Billoski references. Instead of doing another search: 1. From the References menu. Viewing the Opposite of Your Search Results Let’s say that you have searched for all of the references written by Billoski or Hall. enter these two search lines: NOT Record Number File Attachments Is greater than or equal to Is 1 [blank] The first line ensures that all references are searched. Now. 3. NOTE: Another easy way to see references with file attachments is to simply click on the paper clip header in the Library window to sort those references at the top of the list of references.Finding File Attachments You can easily search for a specific file attachment by name. choose Hide Selected References. Often this is much easier than trying to refine your search. 238 Chapter 8: Searching and Sorting in EndNote . From the References menu. Search for: File Attachments Is [name of the file] To search for all references that include file attachments. Select those references and choose Hide Selected References to hide them from the set of found references and display exactly the references that you want. and the second line looks for references in which the File Attachments field is not blank. so you are currently viewing only those references.

and the Match Case and Match Word settings. as are all of the operators. If no references in the library match your search request. field names. The layout of the tab (such as the number of search lines) is saved. Using the Search tab to find all references that contain a particular term: 1.Setting and Restoring Defaults for the Search Tab Click the Options button and select Set Default to save the current configuration of the Search tab as your default. Display All References to make sure you are searching your entire library. Set the search field to Any Field and the comparison list to Contains. type a search term into the Quick Search text box and press ENTER to search all references. Or. 5. Click the Options button and select Restore Default on the Search tab to clear out all of the search terms currently entered in the Search tab. click on the Search tab in the Tabs pane. Click Search to begin the search. and reset all of the settings back to the default configuration. From the Tools menu. The search terms are not saved. See “Quick Search” on page 234. 2. Simple Searches Using Quick Search: On the toolbar. The default configuration will appear whenever you first display the Search tab. choose Search Library (CTRL+F). EndNote displays “No matching references were found. Type the desired text into the first search line.” Chapter 8: Searching and Sorting in EndNote 239 . 3. 4. This example uses the word “triceratops” as the search term.

Otherwise, all matching references are displayed in the Library window. (Click on a column header to apply a sort order):

When you are finished working with the found references, click the All References group or choose Show All References (CTRL+M) from the References menu to restore all references to view, or start another search. After completing a search, EndNote displays the same library that you were viewing before the search, however only the references that match your search requests are showing. The references found in the last search operation are saved in a temporary Search Results group. Each time you run a search, the temporary Search Results group is updated with the new set of references. When you close the library, this temporary group is discarded.

Restricting Searches to Specific Fields

Use the Field list on the Search tab to narrow your search to a specific field. (You can select Any Field to look for a match for the search term in any of the fields in your references.) For example, to find references published in 2002, restrict the search to the Year field to avoid finding entries that include “2002” in the abstract, title, or elsewhere.

The search is restricted to the Year field

The field names in the Field list are EndNote’s “Generic” field names. For example, Author represents Reporter, Editor, Artist or any other variations of the Author field used in the different reference types. See Appendix C for a complete list of Generic field names and their corresponding field names in each reference type. EndNote can import references from hundreds of sources, each of which uses its own set of field names. Once you have transferred references into EndNote, you will search for information by using the destination EndNote generic field names, and not the original field names from the information provider. For example, the PMID number from PubMed

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typically transfers into the Accession Number field in EndNote. To search for a specific PMID in EndNote, search the Accession Number field.

Using Comparison Operators

Comparison Operators
The “comparison operators” are used to indicate how the search term relates to the chosen field in that search line. For example, if you have a search line that looks like this:

You will be searching for references where the Title (the search field) contains (the comparison operator) dinosaur (the search term). The comparison operators function as follows: Contains: finds all references where the search field includes the search term. The search term includes both left and right truncation, so a search for "house" would find "house," "greenhouse," and "household" anywhere in the field. If you want to limit the search specifically to the word "house," check the Match Words box on the Search dialog.
NOTE: Comparison operators other than “Contains” cannot be used when searching online databases.

Is: finds all references in which the entire content of the search field is exactly the same as the search term. Is Less Than: finds all references in which the search term is less than the contents of the search field. Is Less Than or Equal To: finds all references in which the search term is less than or identical to the contents of the search field. Is Greater Than: finds all references in which the search term is greater than the contents of the search field. Is Greater Than or Equal To: finds all references in which the search term is greater than or identical to the contents of the search field.
NOTE: For all of the “Greater Than” and “Less Than” comparisons, the comparison is either numerical or alphabetical based on the nature of the term. When the fields have both numbers and letters, numbers are considered “less than” letters, and empty fields are ignored.

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Field Begins With: finds all references in which the search term is found at the beginning of the selected field (also referred to as right field truncation). The search term can be a partial word, a full word, or several words, and will be compared to the initial text in the field. If you enter more than a single word, remember that punctuation and spaces are significant, so you must enter exactly what is found in the reference. If you do not want to match partial words, check the Match Words box. Field Ends With: finds all references in which the search term is found at the end of the field (also referred to as left field truncation). The search term can be a partial word, a full word, or several words, and will be compared to the ending text in the field. If you enter more than a single word, remember that punctuation and spaces are significant, so you must enter exactly what is found at the end of the field. If you do not want to match partial words, check the Match Words box. Word Begins With: finds all references in which the search term is found at the beginning of a word anywhere in the field (also referred to as right word truncation). Punctuation and spaces are ignored. This can help you find words that start with the same root. For example, searching for a word that begins with "land," would also find "landing" and "landfill," but not "Iceland" or "island."
NOTE: The "Field begins with," "Field ends with," and "Word begins with" comparisons all treat Author fields like any other field. There is no manipulation of surnames and first names; EndNote simply looks at the literal string of text in the field.

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Examples of Comparison Operators in Searches
Field Year Year Year Title Author Comparison Operator Is Greater Than Is Less Than Is Greater Than or Equal to Is Less Than Is Less Than or Equal to Search Term 2000 2000 1998 A C EndNote finds: all references published after 2000 all references published before 2000 references published during or after 1998 all references where titles start with a number all references with authors whose last names begin with A, B, or a number; this would not match a name such as “Carter,” as “Ca” is greater than C all references with authors whose last names begin with S-Z all references with “hawaii” in the title all references with “hawaii” as the exact title all references with no abstract (empty field) sediment all references where titles start with "sediment," including "Sediments," and "Sedimentation," but not "Synsedimentary" all references where abstracts end with "dinosaur," which would include "duckbilled dinosaur," but not "dinosaur extinction" or "dinosaurs" all references where any field includes a word that begins with "house," which would include text such as "U.S. House of Representatives" and "household," but not "greenhouse."

Author Title Title Abstract Title

Is Greater Than or Equal to Contains Is Is Field begins with

S hawaii hawaii

Abstract

Field ends with

dinosaur

Any Field

Word begins with

house

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Combining Search Lines with “And,” “Or,” and “Not”

You can combine search lines on the EndNote Search tab with the Boolean operators “And,” “Or,” and “Not” to produce the following effects: And finds references that match the preceding search line(s) and the following search line. “And” narrows search results. Example: A search for “triceratops” And “extinction” finds only those references that mention both terms. Or finds references that match either the preceding search line(s) or following search term. “Or” broadens the search. Example: A search for “triceratops” Or “extinction” finds all references that include either term. Not finds all references containing the preceding term(s) and then omits references that contain the subsequent term. “Not” narrows search results. Example: A search for “triceratops” Not “extinction” finds all references including “triceratops,” excluding any triceratops references that mentioned extinction. You can use the Boolean operators (“And,” “Or,” and “Not”) in sequence with as many as nine search lines to build your search strategy. Items in combination searches are executed from the top to the bottom of the Search tab. For example, if you have entered four search lines on the Search tab, EndNote carries out the search by combining the results of the first two items with the third search line. Those results are combined with the fourth search line to produce the final search results. For example, the search below could be represented as: (((confidentiality and insurance) not medicare) or Qualler, J)

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Adding or Deleting Search Lines
You can add or delete search lines by using the plus and minus buttons next to each line. Click the minus button (-) next to the line you want to delete. Click the plus button (+) to add a line below the current line.

Combining Results from Separate Searches

By default, EndNote searches the entire library and then displays only the results of the search in the Library window. To search only a subset of references, or to combine your search results with other references, choose one of the following options from the Search Set list on the Search tab.
search set list

Search Whole Library/Search Whole Group
If All References or one of the automatic temporary groups are displayed in the reference list, the first item in the search set list (and the default setting) is Search Whole Library. The tab itself is titled “Search.” Use the Search Whole Library setting to make sure you are searching every reference in your library. If the reference list displays a Custom Group, Smart Group, Online Search group or EndNote Web group, the first search set item is Search Whole Group. Use this setting to limit your search to a specific group of references. The title of the Search tab changes to Search plus the name of the group, such as “SearchLiterature.”

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Add Search Results to Currently Showing References
Choose Add to showing references if you want to search the whole library and add the results of your search to a subset of showing references. For example, if you have already found a group of references written by Komar in 2000, and now you want to add all references written by Billoski in 1997: 1. 2. 3. 4. From the Tools menu, choose Search Library (CTRL+F). Enter “Billoski” in Author And “1997” in Year. From the Search Set list, choose Add to showing references. Click Search and you should see the combined results of the two searches.

Search Only the “Showing” References
Select the Search showing references option in the Search dialog to restrict a search to only those references that are currently displayed in the Library window. This is useful to narrow the results of a previous search, to search a saved group of references, or to search a set of references that you have just imported from another library or online database.

Omit Search Results from Showing References
Choose the Omit from showing references option to hide the results of a search from the references that are showing in the Library window. This is a convenient way to locate all references that do not include a particular term or to narrow the results of a previous search. For example, to find all references not about extinction: 1. 2. 3. 4. With all of the references showing in the Library window, choose Search Library from the Tools menu. Choose Omit from Showing References from the Search Set list on the Search tab. Type “extinction” into the first search line, leaving the Field list set to Any Field. Click Search.

EndNote displays every reference except those that contain the word “extinction.”

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Saving Search Strategies

The Save Search and Load Search commands accessed with the Options button allow you to save the settings currently on the Search tab and recall them for later use. Most of the options on the Search tab are saved, including the search terms; however, the target of the search (the EndNote library or online database) is not saved, nor are Match Case and Match Words. To save a search: 1. 2. 3. Configure the Search tab as you would like. Click the Options button and select Save Search. A dialog appears, prompting you to name the search strategy. Enter or edit the name and click Save. The search files are saved by default in the EndNote\Searches folder in the Windows Application Data folder. You may save them elsewhere if you prefer, but EndNote will open to this Searches folder when you choose to Load a saved search. EndNote adds “.ENQ” as the file name extension for saved searches. On the Search tab, click the Options button and select Load Search. In the dialog that appears, select the search strategy that you would like to use, and click Open. The contents and settings of the Search tab change to reflect the saved search. Click Search to initiate the search.

To load a saved search: 1. 2. 3.

When you save a search strategy, it is easy to run a complicated search again, which you may want to do as you add references to the library. You can save the search results (the set of matching references) as a group. You can use the saved search strategy to set up a Smart group. Smart groups are updated as you add references to your library. Or, you can save the specific results to a Custom group, but the group will not be updated as you add references to your library; you would need to run the search again to find references entered since the last search. For information about Groups, see Chapter 9, “Using Groups.”

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Finding Duplicate References
In order to help locate duplicate references, EndNote offers a Find Duplicates command. This command searches the references that are currently showing in the Library window to identify duplicates. Duplicates are determined based on the duplicate criteria specified in the preferences—see page 603. To find all of the duplicate references in a library: 1. 2. With the Library window open, click on the All References group to show all references. From the References menu, choose Find Duplicates. EndNote will display a Find Duplicates dialog, where you can compare duplicates and decide which version to keep and which to delete.

3.

For each set of duplicates, you have the option to: Click Keep This Record to save that particular reference and throw the other one in the Trash. Click Skip to leave both references in the library, intact. They will appear in a temporary Duplicate References group, so you can review them later. Click Cancel to stop the Duplicate References operation. All duplicates will appear in the temporary Duplicate References group if you wish to review them.

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The older (first entered) reference will always appear in the left column.
WARNING: Before selecting Keep This Record, which will delete the duplicate, check the record numbers to be sure that you are not deleting a reference already cited in a paper.

By default, references are considered duplicates if they have the same reference type (such as Journal Article or Book), and the Author, Year, and Title fields are identical. The criteria for detecting duplicates can be changed using the Duplicates settings in EndNote’s Preferences dialog. See page 603 for details. References which seem identical may not show up as duplicates if the information in the fields EndNote checks is slightly different or if the reference types are different. When trying to determine how references differ, it is helpful to know exactly how EndNote compares them. Author: Compares last name and first initials (even if the first or middle name are written in full). Capitalization is not important. Compared exactly as entered. Leading articles “A,” “An,” or “The” are ignored but punctuation is included. Capitalization is not important. Compared exactly as entered.

Year: Title:

Reference Type:

When there are no more sets of duplicates to compare, the Find Duplicates dialog closes. The Duplicate References group is refreshed, the Trash group contains the unwanted duplicate references, and all other groups are updated appropriately. The Duplicate References group is empty unless at least one set of duplicates was skipped or the Duplicate References operation was cancelled.

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Finding Text in a Single Reference
When you have a reference that contains a significant amount of text, such as long abstracts or notes, it can get hard to find things! To jump to specific text within a reference with the Go To command: 1. Open a reference. The Go To command works on the currently open reference. If more than one reference is open, it works on the topmost reference. 2. From the References menu, select Go To. You could also right click to select Go To from the contextsensitive menu, or use the keyboard command noted on the References menu. 3. Type the text you want to locate and click next (or press Enter). You can type a maximum of 255 characters. The Go To dialog also includes a drop-down list of recently searched terms. EndNote will jump to the text and highlight it within the reference. You can use Go To again to find the next occurrence, or click Cancel to dismiss the Go To dialog.

Sorting the Library
The Sort Library command provides a way to arrange all references showing in the Library window for browsing, exporting, printing, or copying. EndNote libraries are typically sorted by the author’s last name and first initial, year, and record number. When you add a new reference, or modify an existing reference, EndNote automatically files it in this order. Use the Sort Library command to change this order. The current sort order remains in effect until you change it again. To change the sort order: 1. 2. Click in the reference list. From the Tools menu, choose Sort Library.

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3.

Select one or more field names from the lists in the dialog. Enter the field names in the order you want the references sorted. (You do not have to use all five options.)

4.

Click the button to the right of each field to indicate ascending or descending order.
ascending order descending order

5.

With the field names entered as desired, click OK.

The dialog shown above is set to sort the library by author names, in alphabetical order, and then references published by the same author are sorted by year (from oldest to newest). References by the same author in the same year would then sort by record number.
NOTE: EndNote reads the default language (or locale) setting from your operating system and uses it as the default language for character sorting. However, you can override the default language setting on this dialog. The Korean sort option was added to EndNote X, and will be ignored by earlier versions of EndNote.

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Special Cases in Sorting

Except for title fields, quotation marks, parentheses and other punctuation marks are considered during a sort. In an alphabetic sort, punctuation comes first, then numbers, then letters A-Z. If the field you selected to sort by is empty in a particular reference, or not included in the selected reference type, that reference will sort before the other references in ascending order.

Author Names
When you select the Author field for sorting, author names from the first Author field are sorted by last name first, then first initial. Next, author names from the Secondary Author field are compared for sorting. Then, author names from the Tertiary Author field are compared for sorting. If a reference has more than one author in a single field, EndNote includes the additional authors in the sort (up to 255 characters) before moving on to other fields. If you select the specific First Author field to sort, only the surname is used for sorting. If your EndNote library includes author names with connectives such as de, di, van, and von, you may want EndNote to skip these initial parts of the name in order to sort the references by the principal element of the surname. See “Sorting” on page 597.

Titles
When sorting by title fields, EndNote ignores the words A, An, and The as well as punctuation at the start of the titles.You may enter additional words that should be ignored for sorting purposes when they appear at the beginning of a title. To do so, see “Sorting” on page 597.

Sorting Diacritical Characters
EndNote sorts diacritical characters according to the rules of the language selected in the Sort References dialog. Characters with diacritics are sorted differently in English, Spanish, Swedish, and other systems.

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Chapter 9 Using Groups

Contents
About Groups and Group Sets ........................................ 254 The Types of Groups in EndNote ......................... 254 The Types of Group Sets in EndNote ...................255 Displaying or Hiding Groups ................................ 255 Important Points about Groups ............................ 257 Group Sets ............................................................................ 258 Creating a Group Set .............................................. 259 Changing the Position of a Group Set .................. 259 Renaming a Group Set ........................................... 259 Deleting a Group Set .............................................. 259 Automatic Groups .............................................................. 260 Permanent Groups .................................................. 260 Temporary Groups ................................................. 261 Custom Groups ................................................................... 262 Creating a Custom Group ...................................... 262 Adding References to a Custom Group ................ 263 Removing References from a Custom Group ...... 264 Smart Groups ....................................................................... 265 Creating a Smart Group ......................................... 265 Creating a Smart Group from an Existing Search Strategy ................................................. 266 Editing a Smart Group ........................................... 266 Managing Groups ............................................................... 267 Searching a Group .................................................. 267 Renaming a Group .................................................. 267 Deleting References from a Group ........................ 268 Deleting a Group .................................................... 268

253

About Groups and Group Sets
Groups make it easy to break a large library into subsets for later viewing. A group simply points to a subset of references that already exist in the library. You can further organize your references by storing multiple groups in custom Group Sets.

The Types of Groups in EndNote

There are several types of groups that make it easy to organize your references in EndNote. The first section of groups are automatically generated, and include both permanent groups and temporary groups. Permanent Groups include All References, Unfiled, and Trash. These are groups that you cannot remove or rename. All References displays every reference in the library. Unfiled displays those references that are not part of a custom group (and, optionally, smart groups). Trash is a holding place for references you have removed from the library but have not yet permanently discarded by emptying the Trash. Temporary Groups include Copied References, Duplicate References, Imported References, Search Results and several Full Text groups. These temporary groups may be replaced as you use commands in EndNote, and are always deleted when you close a library. (Only the groups are deleted; the references remain in the library.) Custom Groups are manually created by the user to help organize the library; you can drag-and-drop to copy individual references into a custom group. Custom Groups are listed alphabetically (click the My Library header to toggle between ascending and descending order). Smart Groups use search criteria to dynamically update groups as existing references are edited or new references are added to the library. Online Search groups allow you to easily initiate a search of a favorite online database and quickly view the latest download. For information about online searching, see Chapter 6, “Searching Online Databases with EndNote.” EndNote Web groups allow you to easily initiate a transfer of references between an EndNote Web folder and your EndNote desktop library. For information about EndNote Web, see Chapter 21, “Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries.”

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click on the appropriate toolbar button.Find Full Text groups are temporary. For more information about group sets. see “Group Sets” on page 258.” Find Full Text For information about Find Full Text. These group sets are permanent. You can also create any number of custom group sets. To select a display mode. “Searching Online Databases with EndNote. see “Finding Full Text for a Reference” on page 200. as described later in this chapter. When a set is collapsed. and appear only when you use the Find Full Text command. Expand or collapse the list under a group set heading by clicking the plus (+) or minus (-) icon. you can work in Integrated Library & Online Search Mode or switch between Local Library Mode and Online Search Mode. Each set may list a number of groups. and cannot be removed: Online Search For information about online searching. Displaying or Hiding Groups Display Modes In the Library window. see Chapter 21. See “Finding Full Text for a Reference” on page 200. see Chapter 6. the number next to the group set heading reflects the total number of references found in all groups in the set. Custom group sets can contain any combination of custom groups and smart groups. Integrated Library & Online Search Mode Online Search Mode (Temporary Library) Local Library Mode The default display is Integrated Library & Online Search Mode. “Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries. where all groups and commands are available. When you click on a group name. The Types of Group Sets in EndNote Groups sets are indicated by group set headings in the Groups pane. When you Chapter 9: Using Groups 255 . the name is highlighted and the reference list is updated to reflect the references found in that group.” EndNote Web For information about EndNote Web.

Many library commands are not available in Online Search Mode. and references are downloaded into a temporary library. all library commands are available. see “The Library Window Display Modes” on page 92. In Online Search Mode. you can copy them to a permanent EndNote library. This allows you to download references from online databases without affecting your local library. once you select the Online Search command from the Tools menu. For more information about the display modes. they are saved directly into your open library. A new 256 Chapter 9: Using Groups . but Online Search groups are not available. only the Online Search groups are available. See “How to Search on Online Database” on page 179 for step-by-step information about searching online databases. you are automatically switched to Online Search Mode. once you determine which references you want to keep. You may want to always work in Integrated Library & Online Search Mode. The Groups Pane The left pane of the Library window lists the groups in the current library. along with a record count for each group. The other option is to switch between Local Library Mode and Online Search Mode.download references from an online database. In Local Library Mode.

From the Groups menu. Click a minus sign (-) next to a group set heading to hide the list of groups under that heading. so all groups are available. You can add a reference to a particular group only once (based on the unique record number). Important Points about Groups Keep these points in mind as you work with groups: You can create a maximum of 500 Custom Groups and Smart Groups (combined) in a single library. and cannot be removed. You can create a maximum of 500 group sets in a single library. Click a plus sign (+) next to a group set heading to display the list of groups in that group set. You can drag the separator bar between the group name list and the reference list to adjust the size of the panes. A single reference will Chapter 9: Using Groups 257 .library may have very few groups. The All References and Trash groups are permanent. You may not always want to display groups. as that pane takes up screen space. Integrated Library & Online Search Mode is selected. choose Hide Groups or Show Groups.

However. and Find Full Text. Highlight the reference. To help organize your groups. until you choose Empty Trash. Deleting a reference from a library also deletes it from all groups in that library.never appear more than once in a particular group. When you are viewing a group of references with selected (highlighted) references. and it cannot be searched or cited). This number could include duplicates (references that are included in more than one group). it is not included in your reference count. EndNote Web. you can create up to 500 custom Group Sets. but the reference still exists in the library. Some group sets are automatic and cannot be removed or renamed. 258 Chapter 9: Using Groups . the number next to the group set header reflects the total number of references found in each group. When the list is collapsed. You can drag references from one library directly into a group in another open library. You cannot delete a reference from the library while displaying a custom group. The references are copied to the second library and into the target group. However. The reference no longer exists. you can add that reference to any number of groups. Removing a reference from a custom group does not delete it from the library. Once you move a reference to the Trash group. Custom group sets can contain any combination of custom groups and smart groups. the same set of references are selected in the All References view until you deselect them. Group Sets Before long. you can still drag the reference from the Trash group back to your active library. Use the plus (+) or minus (-) signs next to a group set header to expand or collapse the list of groups found in that group set. and then switch to viewing All References. it is no longer officially in your library (it will not appear in any other group or reference list. and then choose Move References to Trash from the References menu. go to the All References view. It removes the reference from the group subset. you could have a large number of groups in your library. These include the sets Online Search.

Chapter 9: Using Groups 259 . From the Groups menu. Enter a name for the new group set. 2. hold down the mouse button. choose Delete Group Set. 2. EndNote Web. You cannot rename the permanent group sets: Online Search. Changing the Position of a Group Set To change the position of a group set: Click on the group set heading. and drag and drop the group heading to its new position in the Groups pane. 2. The new position will be remembered each time you start EndNote. Click on a group set heading to select it. However. including Online Search. Enter a new name for the group set. From the Groups menu. or you can create new custom groups and/or smart groups under the new heading. EndNote Web. When you first create a group set. choose Rename Group Set. Renaming a Group Set To rename a group set 1. Click on a group set heading to select it. You can change the position of any group set. Or. Renaming does not affect the groups found in the set. they still reside in your library. there are no groups listed below the heading. and Find Full Text. and Find Full Text. Deleting a Group Set Are you sure you want to delete that group set? When you delete a group set. You can drag groups to move them from other group sets to the new group set. all of the groups within that set are also deleted! The references are not deleted. To delete a group set: 1. choose Create Group Set. Your groups will remain intact. right click on the group name and select Rename Group Set. From the Groups menu. you can create up to 500 custom group sets in your EndNote library. To create a group set: 1.Creating a Group Set A new library begins with a single custom group set titled My Groups. 3.

EndNote Web. Right click on Unfiled to display a context sensitive menu and toggle the setting Exclude Smart Groups in Unfiled/Include Smart Groups in Unfiled. you can still drag references from the Trash group back to your active library. are listed at the top of the Groups pane in the Library window. and cannot be renamed or deleted. The status line along the bottom of the window will always tell you how may references you are viewing plus the total number of references in the library. Unfiled: This group contains those references that are not part of a custom group (and optionally not part of a smart group). While the references are officially no longer in your library (they will not appear in any other group or reference list. and Find Full Text. they are not completely deleted until you go to the Groups menu and choose Empty Trash. and cannot be changed. Permanent Groups Permanent groups are maintained by EndNote. they are not included in your reference count. If you highlight a subset of references in this group and then display only those selected references. the name of the group changes to Showing References. Automatic Groups The automatic groups include both permanent and temporary groups. 260 Chapter 9: Using Groups . Trash: This group contains the references you have removed from the library by highlighting references and selecting Move References to Trash from the References menu. Each library must have at least one custom group set as a place to store new custom groups or smart groups. You also cannot delete the last custom group set left in a library.You cannot delete any of the permanent group sets: Online Search. The permanent groups are: All References: This displays all of the references in the current library. Until you choose Empty Trash. and they cannot be searched or cited).

Duplicate References: This group shows the results of duplicate detection in your library. and Not Found. with several temporary groups in it—Searching. Closing EndNote or just the library will delete a temporary group. See “How to Search on Online Database” on page 179. Found URL. this group is replaced with the new set of references. this group is updated with the new search results. Each time you execute another search on the library.Temporary Groups There are several groups that are created automatically and are temporary. See “General Importing Instructions” on page 211. Find Full Text groups: When you use the References>Find Full Text command to find the full text of a reference. See “Finding Duplicate References” on page 248. All of these groups may be available at the same time. Search Results: This group shows the results of the last search performed on the current EndNote library. See “Finding Full Text for a Reference” on page 200. they exist only while a library is open. Because temporary groups are deleted when you close the library. Each time you import additional references into the library. You can run duplicate detection with the References>Detect Duplicates command. The temporary groups are: temporary groups Copied References: This temporary group displays the last group of references that were retrieved in Online Search Mode and then copied into your permanent library with either the References>Copy References to command or the Copy to Local Library icon on the toolbar. Found PDF. a Find Full Text group set appears. but the references themselves are not deleted from the library. Imported References: This group shows the last group of references imported into the library with the File>Import command. you may occasionally want to save one of them to a custom group so it is available during a later session. See “Searching for References” on page 233. Chapter 9: Using Groups 261 .

and then go to the Edit menu and choose Select All. Use one of these options: From the Groups menu. Create group sets in order to organize your custom groups and smart groups. If you add more references to your library. Highlight the name of the group set to contain the new group. To create a custom group: 1. custom groups You can create group sets in order to further organize your custom groups and smart groups. choose Create Group. Creating a Custom Group You have two options for creating a custom group. 2. 2. 262 Chapter 9: Using Groups . NOTE: You are saving a specific set of references. first click in the list. select Add References To>Create Group. Custom Groups Custom groups are perfect for when you want to build a group of references that are not easily found by index term or other common text. 4. You would need to re-run the search to find the new references. Custom Groups are listed alphabetically (click the My Library header to toggle between ascending and descending order). 3. You can select references and then add them to a new group. See “Group Sets” on page 258. You can browse through your reference list and drag individual references to a custom group. Name and save the new group. To select all references in the list. Click on the group name to display the list of references in the group. or you can create an empty group and then add references to it. the search results you saved to a custom group are not updated. From the Group menu.To save a temporary group as a custom group: 1.

Display a list of references (such as search results). for example: Click on an individual reference to select it. Hold down the CTRL key and click on individual references to select them. then go to the Groups menu and choose Add References To>Create Group. Select references in a reference list. the new group will be added to the first (top-most) custom group set. click in the list of references. Hold down the SHIFT key and click on two references to select a range of contiguous references. 4. Adding References to a Custom Group You can add references to a new or existing custom group at any time. There are no restrictions on the characters you can use in a group name. You do not have to worry about copying the same reference to a group more than once. Once you reach that limit. To add references to a group: 1. select Add References To and then select either the name of an existing custom group or Create Group. Enter a group name that is anywhere from 1 to 255 characters in length. If you do not have a group set selected when you create a new group. You have several methods available: Drag and drop the selected references onto an existing custom group name in the left pane of the Library window. select the references you want to add to the group. You are limited to 500 custom and smart groups per library. First. You can do this in many ways. 3. From the Groups menu. and then go to the Edit menu and choose Select All. It is possible to give two different groups the same name. The next step is to add references to the custom group as described in the next section. you must delete a group before you can add a new one. EndNote will not allow duplicates (based on unique EndNote record numbers). 2. Chapter 9: Using Groups 263 . Add the references to a group.Right click in the Groups pane of the Library window to display a contextual menu and select Create Group.

select Add References To. If you really want to delete the references from your library. and then select either the name of an existing custom group or Create Group. You can select multiple references: Hold down the SHIFT key and click on two references to select a range of contiguous references. To remove references from a custom group: 1. 3. Removing References from a Custom Group You can remove references from any of your custom groups or online search groups. Right click on Unfiled to display a context sensitive menu and toggle the setting Exclude Smart Groups in Unfiled/Include Smart Groups in Unfiled. Select the Remove References from Group command in one of these ways: Press the DELETE key on your keyboard. Remember that the selected references are only removed from this group. From the Groups menu. click on the name of the group. they just will not appear in that particular custom group. In the reference list. and possibly in other groups.Right click on the reference list to display a contextual menu. How do you know which references are not included in any custom groups? The automatic Unfiled group includes references that do not appear in any custom groups. 264 Chapter 9: Using Groups . 2. select Remove References from Group. select the reference(s) you want to delete. The Unfiled group may or may not include references that are part of a smart group. they still exist in the library. Hold down the CTRL key and click on individual references to select them. The references will still be in your library and appear under All References. see “Deleting References from a Group” on page 268. In the left pane of the library window.

smart groups You can create group sets in order to further organize your smart groups and custom groups. If you need more information about how to use the Chapter 9: Using Groups 265 .Smart Groups Smart groups are built with search strategies. This would typically be All References. Display the set of references that you would like to search. Enter a name for the group. 3. 2. whether you are showing Integrated Mode or Online Search Mode. Creating a Smart Group Smart groups are built with search strategies and are dynamically updated as you add references to and edit references in the library. and then click Create. The Smart Group search dialog works the same as the regular Search tab. A search dialog appears. To create a smart group: 1. Smart groups are dynamically updated as you add references to and edit references in the library. See “Group Sets” on page 258. then your search strategy. From the Groups menu. NOTE: You cannot create a smart group when an Online Search group is displayed. select Create Smart Group.

see Chapter 8. select Edit Group to display the smart group search dialog. To create a smart group from a search strategy: 1. See “Renaming a Group” on page 267. Editing a Smart Group You may have created a smart group only to find that you need to tweak the search strategy for the group. Click on All References to display all references in the library. Locate. “Searching and Sorting in EndNote. A Converted Search group is created and stored as the first group in the next custom group set. To edit a smart group: 1. You can drag-and-drop the smart group to any custom group set. the Converted Search group will appear as the first group under the first custom group set. and open the search strategy to load it into the Search tab. Creating a Smart Group from an Existing Search Strategy You may have already created and saved a search strategy to find a subset of references. click the Search tab. Click Options and select Load Search.Search dialog. select. you can use the saved search strategy to create a smart group. The smart group will be updated with matching references each time you save a reference. 2. 3. the Converted Search group will appear as the first item under the next group set. Click Options and select Convert to Smart Group. Highlight the smart group name in the Groups pane. 2. 4. If you are searching all references. If you searched a group subset. it will be in the top-most custom group set. 5. 266 Chapter 9: Using Groups . From the Groups menu. You can drag-and-drop the new smart group to any custom group set. You can rename the new group. If you searched all references.” The new smart group will be added to the next group set after the one being searched. In the Tab pane. The current search strategy is displayed. Rather than run the search again each time you enter and edit references.

To rename a group: 1. Click on the group name to display the references in the Library window. so you can choose the one that is the most convenient for you. Unfiled.” Enter your search strategy and click Search. If you need more information about how to use the Search dialog. Right click with your mouse on the group name to display a contextual menu. “Searching and Sorting in EndNote”. Managing Groups Searching a Group You can limit your searching to a specific group of references. and click Save. 3. 2. select Rename Group. In the left pane of the library window. Chapter 9: Using Groups 267 . The smart group updates based on the new search strategy. Trash and the Find Full Text groups. see “Searching for References” on page 233. From the Tools menu. Duplicate References. Make sure the search set list is set to “Search Whole Group. To search a group: 1. You cannot rename the automatically created groups: All References. From the Groups menu. Renaming a Group There are several ways to rename a custom group or a smart group. Select the Rename Group command in one of these ways: Click on the group name a second time to directly edit the name. select Search Library (or click on the Search tab) to display the Search tab. For more information about searching. Modify the search strategy as needed. Imported References. click on the name of the group. 4. 2.3. and select Rename Group. see Chapter 8. Search Results.

You can delete an EndNote Web group. Temporary groups are always removed when you close the library. If what you really want to do is just remove the reference from a custom group. When you are absolutely certain that you no longer want the reference(s) you have moved to Trash. You can go to Tools>Online Search and select that connection file again. You have not deleted the connection file from disk. references are removed from the group but are not deleted. it does not mean that you can no longer search that online database.Deleting References from a Group When you delete a reference from a group. and cannot be cited or searched. 2. select the Trash group. and then go to the References menu and choose Empty Trash. 268 Chapter 9: Using Groups . 4. Display All References to continue working in your library. NOTE: If you do not Empty Trash. Deleting a Group When you delete a group. 3. you can recreate the group. The Trash group is a temporary holding place. From the References menu. see “Removing References from a Custom Group” on page 264. Highlight the reference (or multiple references) in the Reference List pane of the Library window. either. EndNote will prompt you when you close the library. the references themselves are still part of the library. you have simply removed it as a favorite. but they have not been irrevocably thrown away yet. To delete a reference from your library: 1. select Move References to Trash. If you change your mind. The references are no longer in your library. the references are moved to the Trash group. without deleting the reference from your library. When you delete an Online Search group. but when you connect to EndNote Web again. you can still drag a reference from the Trash back to the All References group to bring it back into the library. it is moved to the Trash and is deleted from all groups in your library. At this point.

2. Select the Delete Group command in one of these ways: From the Groups menu. The group is deleted from the library. select Delete Group. and select Delete.To delete a group: 1. In the left pane of the library window. click on the name of the group you want to delete. Chapter 9: Using Groups 269 . Right click with your mouse on the group name to display a contextual menu. but the references that were in the group are still part of the library.

270 Chapter 9: Using Groups .

.......................... Importing Terms Into Term Lists ................................................................... 288 Important Points About Entering Journal Names ........... 285 285 285 286 Exporting and Printing Term Lists........................................................ 284 Creating Term Lists ......................... 273 Overview ........................ 283 Modifying Terms ....... 288 Updating a Journal List ............................................................................ Automatic Updating of Term Lists ................................ Inserting Terms into References ............................................................................... 283 Defining Term Lists ... 289 271 ............. Copying Terms Between Lists ........................ Copying Terms From Other Sources ................. 283 Deleting Terms....... Using Term Lists for Data Entry and Searching......................................................................................... 283 Deleting and Renaming Term Lists ................. Creating a New Term List........................ Inserting Terms Without Using the “Suggestion” Feature ........Chapter 10 Term Lists Contents Introduction to Term Lists ......................................... 273 Important Points About Term Lists .............. Using the “New Term” Command ......................... 288 Working with the Journals Term List.. 284 Configuring Term Separators (Delimiters) ................................................................................................... Predefined Term Lists ............... Linking Term Lists to Fields ........................ 274 Adding Terms to a Term List ............................................ Using Terms For Searches............................. Manually Updating Term Lists .......................................................................................................................... 274 275 276 276 277 277 280 281 281 282 282 Editing Terms and Term Lists.............

Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations ............. 292 272 Chapter 10: Term Lists ........................... 290 Creating Bibliographies With Journal Abbreviations ......... 291 Converting Old EndNote Journals Files .............................

As you begin entering an author name. If you do not like this behavior. and Keywords. or pasting them) EndNote updates the term lists automatically so that the Authors. you will notice two other features associated with the term lists. importing. journal names. Overview To get a general sense of how the term lists work. Journals. or journal names. the name appears in red text to indicate that it is a new addition to the term list. You can also use the Journals term list to store abbreviated journal names that EndNote can substitute for the full journal name in a bibliography. and keywords entered into your references. If you enter a new name that is not already in your Author list. You can use these stored terms when entering references to improve consistency and accuracy of information in your library. author names. When you close or save the reference. and autocompletion. EndNote attempts to complete the name for you by suggesting the closest matching name in the Authors term list. there are three empty term lists already set up and ready for you to use: Authors. that new term is added to the list. happens automatically. Chapter 10: Term Lists 273 . As you enter new references into your library (whether by typing. Term Lists Help With Data Entry When you use the New Reference command in the References menu to create new references. all of the updating of terms. When you are searching for references. With the default term list settings in the preferences. you can also open a term list to pick the exact term or name for which to search. Journals.Introduction to Term Lists EndNote’s term lists are used to store terms such as keywords. here’s a brief overview of how term lists can be built and used for someone with a new EndNote library. and Keywords lists include all of the author names. Term Lists are Automatically Maintained When you create a new EndNote library. you may turn off these settings (see page 606).

EndNote provides several Journals lists (including Humanities. This functionality may be turned off using EndNote’s Preferences. Term lists can be “linked” to specific fields so that EndNote associates the correct term list with the field you are editing. A library must be open before you can edit its term lists. Look in the EndNote X3>Terms Lists folder. By default. Medical. One term can be up to 253 characters long. Entire term lists can be exported and imported. These points are covered in more detail later in the chapter. and Chemistry) that can be imported for use with your EndNote libraries. this option is turned on so that EndNote will suggest the closest matching term as you type in a reference. Adding terms to a term list does not change any data that you have entered in your references. term lists are automatically updated from the terms entered in your references.Important Points About Term Lists The following list includes useful information about term lists. By default. There is no limit to the number of terms in a term list. Terms lists can be used with the “Auto-entry” feature on or off. you may find it helpful to create new term lists for things like publisher and city names. Adding Terms to a Term List Terms can be added to the term lists using a variety of methods described in this section. Term lists are stored with the library and therefore are specific to only that library. If you enter a lot of references manually. Up to 31 term lists can be created for any library. The Journals term list stores various forms of journal names that can be used when creating bibliographies. 274 Chapter 10: Term Lists . Terms can be copied from one list and pasted into another. New terms appear in red text in the Reference window.

it needs to know when one term ends and the next term begins. By default. EndNote uses carriage returns (end of line marks). the term lists can speed data entry. and backslashes (\) as delimiters for the Keywords field. the person doing data entry knows that they have entered something that was not intended to be a valid term for that field.Automatic Updating of Term Lists By default. semicolons. Journals normally have just one journal name per reference in this field. From the Edit menu. you can manually enter all of the terms you plan to use into a term list before entering references into the library. and if a red term appears. If you enter a term into a reference. see “Delimiters used for Separating Terms” on page 279. Select the Term Lists panel. EndNote automatically updates the term lists in a library so they stay current with the data that has been entered into the references. This can be extremely helpful when you have someone else entering data for you and you want a specific vocabulary used for keywords or other terms. We call the punctuation that separates the terms “delimiters. For example. As references are entered into the EndNote library. author names must always be entered one name per line. The feature will be turned off. and journals. Carriage returns (end of line marks) are the only valid delimiter for this field. 2. so delimiters are not important here.” For the Author fields. Turning Off the Automatic Updating of Term Lists: 1. Delimiters EndNote has predefined term lists for authors. the term appears in red text to alert you that you have entered a new term. You can also turn this option off and manually enter terms into your lists as described in the following sections. You can turn off automatic updating of term lists if you do not want to use the term lists at all (see below). When you enter multiple terms into those fields and EndNote updates the term list. Chapter 10: Term Lists 275 . choose Preferences. 3. and that term is not in the associated term list already. This can help you to maintain a controlled vocabulary for keywords and other terms. Keywords are the most complex of the three. keywords. Click the check boxes for “Update lists when importing or pasting references” and “Update lists during data entry” to remove the check mark. If you would like to use other delimiters.

On the Terms tab. you will have options to enter different forms of the journal name. 4. 3. choose Open Term Lists and select the list with terms you want to copy. Click New Term. Copying Terms Between Lists You can copy terms from one list and paste them into another as a way to quickly transfer terms between lists. See page 288 for more information about using the Journal lists. If you are entering terms into the Journals term list. 5.Using the “New Term” Command To manually add a term to a term list: 1. On the keyboard. From the Tools menu. This is particularly useful because term lists are specific to an individual library. choose Open Term Lists and select the term list that you want to modify. click New Term. 276 Chapter 10: Term Lists . 2. Enter the term and click OK to add it to the list and dismiss the “New Term” dialog. Select the term to copy. Open another list. 2. then click OK to dismiss the dialog. From the Tools menu. press CTRL+C to copy the highlighted term. press CTRL+V to paste in the term. NOTE: The Save Term (or Save Journal) button is unavailable (dim) if the new term already exists in the term list. and click OK. To copy terms between lists: 1. Continue this way until you have added the last term. 3.

The Update List command can apply to just the selected references or all references showing in the Library window. See “Linking Term Lists to Fields” on page 286. or if you have received a library from a colleague without a term list. first select the term in your word processor and copy it. press CTRL+V to paste in the term. Update List removes leading and trailing spaces. Update List does not automatically link fields to a term list. Update List does not add duplicate terms to a list. For easy data entry. and click OK. open the desired term list. use the Update List button on the Terms List dialog. To create a term list automatically from words already in your library. Manually Updating Term Lists Chapter 10: Term Lists 277 . Use the Search command to show only those references from which you want to update the list. it only adds new terms from your references into the term list. and then paste them into a term list. Important points about the Update List command: Update List does not change the terms in your references. click New Term. or if you have deleted a term list and wish to recreate it. but does not change punctuation. For example. you can link a single term list to any number of fields.Copying Terms From Other Sources You can copy terms from any text. Or select references in the Library window and update the term list from just those references. Then switch to EndNote. This is useful if you have turned off the preference to automatically update your term lists. Choose Show All References from the References menu before using the Update List command to be sure that you are updating the list from all of the references in your library. to copy a word from a paper you are writing and paste that word into a term list.

278 Chapter 10: Term Lists . NOTE: Typing ESC stops the update process. 5. 6. Click OK and the process is complete. 2. The currently linked fields are listed in the dialog as the fields from which EndNote gathers new terms. 4. 3. but all terms added up to that point are kept in the term list. Adding or removing field names from this list does not affect the links between fields and term lists. 1. See the “Table of Predefined Reference Types” on page 463 to find the corresponding field names for the fields of various reference types.To update a term list: If you are updating the Journals list. Determine which references should be scanned for terms and make sure they are either “showing” or selected in the Library window. see page 289. To update a term list from only the currently selected references in your library. EndNote displays the number of terms added to the list. check the “Update Terms From Selected References” option. When finished. choose Define Term Lists and select the term list that you would like to update. or add a new field by selecting it from the Add Field list. remove a field from this list by selecting it and clicking Delete Field. Click OK to begin the updating process. The Generic field names are used in this dialog. Click Update List. From the Tools menu. If necessary.

then click on the Library window. If necessary. updating from the references with different delimiters separately. If it did not. or any other field that has terms entered one-per-line. you can highlight specific terms and remove them by clicking Delete Term. If your keywords are separated by a slash. so it is not necessary to enter a delimiter for the Author fields. Cleaning Up After Updating Click on the Terms tab. you will need to do more than one update process. use the Change Text command to change all occurrences of a term in your library. Scan through the list and delete the unwanted terms. For example. you can delete the unwanted term “geochronology” from the term list. After using the Update List command. if both “geochronology” and “geo-chronology” are entered as keywords. and choose Chapter 10: Term Lists 279 . A carriage return is always interpreted as a delimiter. you have multiple entries for the same term. If different delimiters are used for the same field in your references. Select a term list and the delimiters used for it will be marked in the Delimiters section below. and scroll through the term list to make sure that the Update List command had the desired result.Delimiters used for Separating Terms The text that is used to separate the terms in a particular field is determined by the “Delimiter” settings on the Lists tab of the Term Lists dialog (choose Define Term Lists from the Tools menu). you might find that due to errors or variations in spelling. such as: Antarctica/ozone/stratosphere you should type a slash (/) as the field’s term delimiter.

and the Humanities.) NOTE: EndNote provides several journal lists in the Terms folder of the EndNote folder. 280 Chapter 10: Term Lists . be sure to save the list as plain text using the Save As command in your word processor. you may open them in your word processor—but do not edit or save them. 2. If you would like to look at the lists before importing them. select the Unicode (UTF-8) encoding option. See “Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations” on page 290 for more information. They must remain tab-delimited text files in order for EndNote to correctly import the terms. Make sure a carriage return is also inserted after the last term in the list. If you create a list of terms in a word processing document. Medicine (Index Medicus). Terms can be imported from any text file that lists the terms one per line. If you are interested in using these abbreviated forms of the journal names in your bibliographies. Click Import List. (Use Create List if you want to create a new list. You may want to import one of these lists to add journal names to the Journals term list. if your terms include extended characters. 3. you can import them into your term lists and adjust your styles to use the abbreviations (see “Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations” on page 290 and “Creating Bibliographies With Journal Abbreviations” on page 291). Select the text file to be imported and click OK. including lists for Chemistry. choose Define Term Lists and highlight the term list to which you want to add terms.Change Text (CTRL+R) from the Edit menu to change “geochronology” to “geo-chronology” throughout the library. From the Tools menu. This import must be done for each library that you want to use these terms. Importing Terms Into Term Lists EndNote provides several lists of journal names and abbreviations. To import a text file that contains terms: 1. Then. all of which are stored in the Terms folder in the EndNote folder. The new terms are imported and sorted alphabetically into the existing term list.

Inserting Terms into References Suggesting Terms As You Type (Auto-completion) If you are entering text into a field that is linked to a term list. you can use the Up or Down arrows on your keyboard to have the suggested text change to the previous or next possible matching term in the term list. and then press ENTER or TAB to accept it. (ENTER creates another line in the field so that you can enter more author names. that term is added to the term list and will no longer display in red.Using Term Lists for Data Entry and Searching You can use term lists to enter terms directly into a reference or into the Search tab. When you close or save the reference. it appears in red to indicate that it is a new term. Continue typing until EndNote suggests the correct term. TAB moves the cursor to the next field in the reference. EndNote finds the first matching term in the list and suggests that as the term you want to enter. Chapter 10: Term Lists 281 . When you enter a term that is not already in the term list. for example. The suggested text appears highlighted after the cursor.) When EndNote suggests a term.

2. Journal. Inserting Terms Without Using the “Suggestion” Feature If you have turned off the option to suggest terms as you type. Using Terms For Searches To ensure that you are searching for the correct terms. and select the desired list. use the Copy (CTRL+C) command to copy the text. Double-click a term to insert it directly into the reference. 3. or Keywords field. you can use the term lists with EndNote’s Search command. 2. Or. From the Tools menu.” See “Term Lists” on page 606. and then the Paste (CTRL+V) command to paste the text into your reference. turn off the preference to “Suggest Terms as You Type. Click Insert Term to insert the selected term(s). For example: 1. 282 Chapter 10: Term Lists . press CTRL+1 to display the appropriate list. Highlight the term in the term list. they are listed in the reference one per line in alphabetical order. you can still insert terms into your references manually. or by clicking on the term with the mouse. Selected terms can also be copied from the term list and pasted into a record. Double-click a term to insert it into the Search tab. Open a reference and position the insertion point where you want to add the term. by using the ARROW keys. or Keywords field. Terms can also be selected by typing the first few letters of the term. 3. NOTE: The insertion point must be in a field in a Reference window or Search tab before you can insert a term. click Edit Term. in an Author. choose Search Library (CTRL+F) and change the first search line to search the Keywords field. Journal. If multiple terms are selected and inserted. in an Author. press CTRL+1 to display the appropriate list. choose Open Term Lists and select a list. Or.These term list features may be turned off. Hold down the CTRL key to select multiple terms. Choose Open Term Lists from the Tools menu. To insert a term from a Term List window: 1. highlight the text to copy. Terms can be entered into the Search tab just as they are entered into references. To turn off the display of red text. From the Tools menu.

the OK button is dim. If multiple terms are selected. This command is also used to specify the punctuation that separates individual terms in a reference (delimiters). only the first one opens. 2. rename or delete a term list.) NOTE: Editing a term in a term list does not change all occurrences of that term in your library. Deleting a term from a term list does not remove it from the references in the library. Defining Term Lists Use the Define Term Lists command in the Tools menu to create. (If the term already exists. Modifying Terms To edit a term in a term list: 1. Deleting Terms A term can be deleted by highlighting it in the list and clicking Delete Term or selecting Clear from the Edit menu. Chapter 10: Term Lists 283 . Use the Change Text command to find the old term in your references and replace it with the new one. From the Tools menu. Then click on the Terms tab.Editing Terms and Term Lists Any term in a term list may be modified or deleted without affecting any of the references in the library or any links between term lists and fields. The modified term replaces the original term in the term list. choose Define Term Lists and select the list that contains the term to be modified. Change the term as necessary and click OK when finished. 3. Select a term and click Edit Term.

To Delete a Term List: Select a term list and then click Delete List. Click OK to save your changes. Myopia.) to separate keywords: Adult. University. Astigmatism. Keratotomy. The drop-down menu at the top of the Lists tab lets you choose from a list of open libraries.Deleting and Renaming Term Lists Term lists can be renamed without disturbing their links to reference fields or the terms within them. From the Tools menu. Hospitals. Select the library for which you would like to modify the term lists. Configuring Term Separators (Delimiters) EndNote uses the delimiters in the Define Lists dialog to determine what punctuation separates the individual terms in the same field in a reference. To delete or rename a term list: 1. In the Rename List dialog. Age Factors. Ocular 284 Chapter 10: Term Lists . Deleting or renaming term lists does not change the data entered into your references. Radial. choose Define Term Lists (at least one library must be open to access this command). To Rename a Term List: Highlight a term list and then click Rename List. if you import data from a source that uses semicolons (. and click OK. For example. enter the new name for the list. 2. Refraction. Follow-Up Studies. 3.

and Keywords. Words or phrases entered on different lines in a field (by pressing ENTER) are always interpreted as separate terms. Creating a New Term List 3. choose Define Term Lists. 4. Secondary. then click on the name of the term list that you intend to modify. Tertiary. Click Create List.).you would want to be sure that the semicolon was selected as a separator for your Keywords term list. Verify that your library name is selected at the top of the dialog. The last check box provides a place to enter a custom term delimiter. These lists are already linked to their corresponding fields: the Authors term list is linked to the Author. From the Tools menu. By default. choose Define Term Lists. To create a new term list: 1. Click the check box to the left of the desired separator to choose it (or to unselect it if it is already checked). if necessary. From the Tools menu. 3. the Journals term list is linked to the Secondary and Alternate Title fields. 2. and the Keywords term list is linked to the Keywords field. NOTE: Author names must always be entered one per line. To customize the delimiters for a term list: 1. and end of line markers as separators. Open a library. Creating Term Lists Predefined Term Lists Three empty term lists are available by default with every library: Authors. Click OK. and enter the name for the new list. backslash (\). You would also want to be sure that the comma was not chosen. You cannot create a term list with the same name as an existing term list. 2. because the commas in this example are used within some of the terms. Chapter 10: Term Lists 285 . Journals. EndNote uses the semicolon (. and Subsidiary Author fields. but the other separators can be changed depending on your needs.

Instructions for linking term lists to fields follow. Open a library.4. 286 Chapter 10: Term Lists . NOTE: New term lists must be linked to fields for the “Suggest terms as you type” and automatic updating features to work. See “Adding Terms to a Term List” on page 274. Any new term list that you create is not linked to a field until you set up the links. you can use the Auto-Suggestion feature whenever you are entering data into the linked field. EndNote can also keep the term lists current by automatically adding new terms from linked fields. The links between term lists and fields are specific to each library. Linking Term Lists to Fields Term lists are associated with fields using the Link Term Lists command from the Tools menu. If you delete this list. or click on the Terms tab to manually enter terms into the list. The three predefined term lists (Authors. Check the “Journal List” box only if you want to create a term list for storing journal names and abbreviations. At this point. These different forms of the journal name can be used interchangeably when creating bibliographies (see “Journal Names” on page 495 for a description of this feature). The predefined Journals term list is already set up as a multicolumn list. However. When a term list is linked to a field. Do not create a 4-column journal list for non-Journal fields. and Keywords) are already linked to their corresponding fields. By linking term lists to particular fields. update the list from existing EndNote field data. To change these settings or to link a new term list to one or more fields: 1. Journals. the list can be used to facilitate data entry. you could import an existing list of terms. you can create another one as described here. Each field can be linked to only one term list. you can link the same term list to different fields.

These changes will not alter any data that is currently entered in either your references or your term lists. To unlink a term list from a field: 1. select the list. choose Link Term Lists. 4. 3. 2. Save your changes by clicking OK. From the Tools menu.2. Click OK to save your changes and close the dialog. Choose None from the list next to the field name. This first item shows the Author field linked to the Authors term list. choose Link Term Lists from the Tools menu. Choose a library from the list at the top of the dialog. With the library open. The names of the available term lists appear next to the field names with which they are linked. Scroll through the list of fields to find the field that you would like to be unlinked from a list. and click Update List. Go to the Tools menu. You may change the links here as necessary by choosing a different term list from the pop-up lists. select Define Term Lists. Term lists may be linked to multiple fields. Chapter 10: Term Lists 287 . 3. NOTE: After linking a term list to one or more fields. you should make sure the list is updated with the data from those fields. 5.

choose Define Term Lists. one term per line. 3. 4. Enter a consistent abbreviation format in each column. EndNote can remove periods from abbreviations during formatting. EndNote cannot add periods to an abbreviated journal name. Name and save the text file that will be created during the export.Exporting and Printing Term Lists Term lists can be exported and then imported into other term lists as a way to move complete lists from one library to another (see also “Copying Terms Between Lists” on page 276). This file can now be imported into another EndNote term list or opened in a word processor to be printed. Term lists cannot be printed directly from EndNote. keep these points in mind: Enter variations of the same journal name together in one term. 288 Chapter 10: Term Lists . Highlight the term list that you want to export. but if you do. Working with the Journals Term List Important Points About Entering Journal Names You do not have to use the abbreviation sections in a Journals term list. To export a term list: 1. all Index Medicus abbreviations could be entered under the Abbreviation 1. another format of abbreviated names in Abbreviation 2. Click Export List. From the Tools menu. Use the Journal Abbreviation option in the styles to pick which form of the journal names should be used in the bibliography (see “Creating Bibliographies With Journal Abbreviations” on page 291). 5. Only the first term for each journal (the one in the Full Journal slot) is transferred when you insert a term. Click OK and the terms are exported to the text file and listed alphabetically. 2. and so on. You can also open exported term lists in a word processor to print them. For example.

the entry in the main Journal field goes into the first column of the list (Full Journal) and the journal entered into the Alternate Journal field goes into the second column (Abbreviation 1). Chapter 10: Term Lists 289 . unless you have turned off the preferences to update lists (see page 606). you may manually update the lists as described here. it is not added again. Note that if the name entered into the Journal field exists in any of the columns of the Journals term list.Updating a Journal List For EndNote to accurately use the abbreviated journal names in your bibliographies. When you are manually updating Journal lists. you can choose which columns in the list are used for which fields of data. Open a library and select the references from which you would like to update the Journals term list. it is important to be consistent when entering different formats of a journal name. from the Journal Article and Electronic Article reference types. The first column should always list the full journal name. When journal lists are updated. and then Journals. Alternatively. Click Update List. Journal lists are updated automatically. If you have turned off the preference to automatically update the term lists. EndNote tries to avoid duplicate entries in the Journals list. 3. choose Define Term Lists. and subsequent columns should store consistent formats of abbreviated names. 2. To update a journal term list: 1. use the Search command to find only those references that you would like to use. From the Tools menu. Be consistent when entering data into these fields so that the Journals term list will be updated correctly. See page 288 for more information.

Select the fields from which EndNote should extract the journal names. 4. 5. 3. but make sure to leave it a plain text file so that EndNote can import it. you will see a column of journal names listed in alphabetical order. The lists are supplied as plain text files in the EndNote X3\Terms Lists folder.4. 5. Loading Supplied Journal Abbreviations You can load one of the supplied journal title lists to use for data entry. and click Open to import the journal names and abbreviations from the file into the Journals term list. In the File dialog. When the importing is complete. and then click Delete Term). navigate to the EndNote X3EndNote X3\Term Lists folder. Click Import List. From the Tools menu. Click OK. Delete all existing terms from the list (you can click and drag to highlight all terms. To replace the existing Journals list with one of the supplied journal abbreviation lists: 1. select Open Term Lists and then Journals Term List. If importing from selected references. and are used by certain output styles. Click on the Lists tab and highlight the Journals list. You can open and view one of these files with any word processor. 2. check the “Update from Selected References” option. 290 Chapter 10: Term Lists . select the list you want to use. These lists also contain journal abbreviations for alternate output.

From the Edit menu.Creating Bibliographies With Journal Abbreviations When you insert a journal name from the Journals term list into a reference. The predefined Journals term list that is added to every library is already set up as a multi-column list. If a journal name in one of your references does not have the selected abbreviation entered in the Journals term list. choose Output Styles and select Open Style Manager. you can create a bibliography that uses any abbreviation in the term list by editing the style used to format the paper: To edit a style to use journal abbreviations: 1. only the first entry for the journal name is entered. Now when you format a paper or look at the preview tab on the Tab pane. the journal name appears in the bibliography exactly as it is entered in the Reference window. Which Term List is Used for the Abbreviations? Since it is possible (though not common) to have more than one multi-column journal list in a library. and it is linked to these fields: Journal Article reference type—Journal field Journal Article reference type—Alternate Journal field Electronic Article reference type—Periodical Title field Chapter 10: Term Lists 291 . (For example. 5. EndNote uses the multi-column list linked to the Alternate Journal field. 2. all of the journal names should be replaced with the appropriate abbreviation. 4. From the list of options at the left of the Style Editor window. However. Select the style that you would like to edit. if the Alternate Journal field is specified by the style. EndNote uses the multi-column list that is linked to the journal field used by the style.) If there is not a multi-column list that is linked to a journal field.) Close and save the style. click Journal Names. (See Chapter 17 for more information about these settings. and click Edit. EndNote uses the first multi-column list that it finds. Select one of the available options. 3. it is important to know how EndNote chooses which Journal list to use with the Journal Abbreviations feature.

you can have a different set of journal abbreviations for each library. you can import the journal names from your old Journal Abbreviations table into the Journals term list.0-1. NOTE: In this version of EndNote. and you may want to update each library similarly.EN file and it can be directly imported into the Journals term list using the Import List command (see page 280).Converting Old EndNote Journals Files If you have previously used the Journal Abbreviations feature in an earlier version of EndNote (versions 1. The information in the old table is stored in the JOURNALS.3. 292 Chapter 10: Term Lists .5).

.......... Customizing Individual Citations ............... Finding and Inserting Citations ............................................................. Inserting Selected Citations .... Writing Your Paper ................................................................................................................................. Components of a Temporary Citation ...... Notes About Temporary Citations.... Field Codes in Word.......................................................Chapter 11 Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word Contents Overview of the Cite While You Write Process ........................ Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper ...................... Typing Citations into Your Paper.................... Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes ....... Including Notes in the List of References ............. 295 Word Processor Compatibility .................... 295 Basic Instructions ......... Inserting Multiple Citations ................... Citing Sources As You Write ... Supplying Info to the Template Wizard .................................................................. Forms of Citations ........... Citation Prefixes.................................... Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text .............................................. Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste ............. Inserting From Multiple Libraries . Installing CWYW Support in Word ..................... The CWYW Commands in Word 2003 .. 296 Notes about Microsoft Word ........................ Omitting Authors or Years from Citations................................................................. Using Predefined Manuscript Templates ..................... 299 299 299 302 304 305 306 308 309 311 311 312 314 314 314 315 315 317 318 320 321 321 322 322 323 325 326 293 ..... Manually Inserting Citations ....................... Creating a Word Doc Based on a Template ......................... The CWYW Commands in Word 2007 ...............

.... Editing a Reference in the Library............................ Deleting Citations .. Moving Bibliographies ......................... Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word Processors ......................... Examples of Modified Citations ........................................................ Converting Word 2007 Citations to EndNote ................ Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes .................................................................................. Moving or Copying Citations .................... Figure and Table Preferences....... Creating Multiple Bibs in a Single Document ...... Moving Figures and Tables ... Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher ... Making Changes to the EndNote Library .. Exporting Word’s Traveling Library to an EndNote Library .................................... Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Docs .............................................................. Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables.....Citation Suffixes ............ Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List ...................................... Deleting Bibliographies .. Directly Editing Bibliographies . Formatting the Bib and/or Changing Settings ......................... Finding Cited References in a Library ...................... Deleting a Reference From the Library ................................. Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables .......................................................................................................................................... Changing Existing Citations..................................................... Reformatting Papers ...................................... 294 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 326 327 327 329 330 330 331 333 333 334 334 335 336 339 341 341 343 345 345 345 346 346 347 350 352 353 355 356 357 357 357 358 359 359 360 361 361 362 363 363 Setting Cite While You Write Preferences ....... Removing Field Codes................................. Sharing Your Word Documents ............................................. The Traveling Library........................................................................................... Editing Citations ............................................................... Adding Styles to the Output Styles List .......... 356 .......... Basic Instructions ........................ Instant Formatting .............................. Placing Figures and Tables ....................................................... Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables ....... Working on Different Computers ...... Updating Figures and Tables .............. Unformatting Citations ......................................... Generating Bibliographies...... Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation ...............

figures. A Traveling Library allows you to reformat references in your Word document even when your EndNote library is not available. Word 2007 displays Cite While You Write commands on an EndNote tab.org Writer as your word processor.org Writer. and create a paper with properly formatted citations. Then. See Chapter 13.” If you use a word processor other than Microsoft Word or OpenOffice. If you use OpenOffice. and tables. For more information about using EndNote Web to Cite While You Write. figures. Word 2003 displays Cite While You Write commands on a Tools>EndNote X3 submenu. Cite While You Write can convert and use Word documents that previously used the EndNote Add-in or earlier versions of Cite While You Write. see “Using Cite While You Write with EndNote Web” on page 636. Instant formatting technology can automatically update your citations and bibliography as you write. See “The Traveling Library” on page 359 for more information. You can start by basing your paper on a predefined Manuscript Template that is set up with publishing rules applied. or an older version of Word. in Word 2007. as described on page 306. you must use Microsoft Word 2003 or 2007.org Writer. you can rely on the Traveling Library to supply reference information.Overview of the Cite While You Write Process This chapter describes how to Cite While You Write ™ (CWYW) with Microsoft® Word 2003 or 2007 to easily and quickly cite references. insert a citation into the document. If you are collaborating with other authors. You can use your EndNote desktop application or EndNote Web to Cite While You Write. Cite While You Write gives you access to EndNote references and formatting commands with either an EndNote X3 submenu on Word’s Tools menu. “Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. You can even insert figures and tables found in EndNote references. save your document as an RTF file and use Format Paper. Word Processor Compatibility To Cite While You Write. or. although we recommend that you first unformat those documents. A bibliography formatted according to any one of hundreds of styles is created. and tables. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 295 . a bibliography. see Chapter 12. with an EndNote tab.

These procedures are described in more detail later in this chapter. 296 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . Start Microsoft Word and open the paper you are writing. 3. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab.To create a stand-alone bibliography that is not based on the citations in a paper. Basic Instructions The basic steps required to cite a reference and generate a bibliography with Microsoft Word 2003 or 2007 are summarized below. see “Independent Bibliographies” on page 416 in Chapter 14. 4. (We recommend using the template wizard to create your Word documents as described under “Using Predefined Manuscript Templates” on page 305. in the Citations group. NOTE: Only one word processor at a time should be open when inserting citations and formatting documents. click Insert Citation and select Find Citation(s). Open the EndNote library or libraries that contain the references you wish to cite. then the EndNote X3 submenu. position the cursor in the text where you would like to put the citation. To Cite While You Write: 1. and select Find Citation(s). Word 2003: Go to the Tools menu in Word. 2.) When you are ready to cite a source.

Identify and highlight the appropriate reference(s). Click Find and EndNote compares the identifying text to your EndNote references and then lists the matching reference(s). a year. 5. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 297 . which may show previous search results. or any other combination of terms found in the reference. Use the Insert button triangle to display a menu. This could be an author’s last name.An EndNote Find & Insert My References dialog appears. In the text box at the top. a keyword. 7. You can click Insert (not the triangle) to quickly select the default Insert command. 8. and select from: Insert to insert the citation and format it as defined by the currently selected output style Insert & Exclude Author Insert & Exclude Year Insert & Exclude Author & Year 6. enter identifying text for EndNote to locate the appropriate reference.

9. 10. updates formatted citations. where you can change. click the corner arrow dialog box launcher. A Format Bibliography dialog appears. To find out more about this setting. 298 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . the style and layout of the bibliography. your document is done! Instant Formatting is turned on by default. When you are done inserting citations. and continue citing references this way. Even when Instant Formatting applies. Go back to step 3 to insert the next citation. Click OK. NOTE: The dialog lists the styles that are currently selected as your “favorites” in the Style Manager. click Browse to locate it. If you need to choose a style that is not in the list. NOTE: When Instant Formatting is turned on. formats temporary citations. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. and a bibliography is not updated each time you insert a citation: Word 2003: Go to the Tools menu in Word. using the selected style. or simply verify. and appends a bibliography to the end of the paper. in the Bibliography group. and select Format Bibliography. you may want to update the bibliography in order to change the style or layout of your citations and bibliography. EndNote scans your paper and. then the EndNote X3 submenu. see “Instant Formatting” on page 335. 11. If your citations are not automatically formatted. each time you insert a citation it is formatted and a bibliography is updated at the end of your document.

you must either reinstall EndNote or Repair or Modify your installation. several EndNote commands appear on an EndNote X3 submenu of the Tools menu in Word: Word 2003 Tools menu and EndNote X3 submenu When you choose an EndNote command from the menu.Your paper is ready for publication! If you want to insert figure or table citations. Notes about Microsoft Word Installing Cite While You Write Support in Word EndNote’s installation program installs Cite While You Write support for Microsoft Word 2003 or 2007. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 299 . see “No EndNote commands in Word or Writer. For more information. The CWYW Commands in Word 2003 When Cite While You Write is installed. the EndNote program starts (if not already running) and a Cite While You Write submenu becomes active on EndNote’s Tools menu. In Word 2007. If you install Word after installing EndNote.” EndNote commands appear on an EndNote X3 submenu of the Tools menu in Word 2003. EndNote commands appear on an EndNote tab on the ribbon. see “Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables” on page 346.

Edit Citations Edit existing individual or multiple citations. See page 312 for more information. and leaves temporary citations which usually consist of the author’s last name. so your citations and bibliography are automatically formatted as you work. Insert Selected Citations Insert a citation for each reference currently selected in the open EndNote library. You can omit author and/or year from citations. See page 334 for more information. Unformat Citation(s) Unformat a selected citation before editing it. The formatting process replaces the temporary citations in your paper with formatted citations.displaying some of the same EndNote commands available in Word. Instant Formatting is turned on. You can insert up to 250 consecutive in-text citations. See page 331 for more information. This command launches EndNote if it is not already running. and the record number surrounded by delimiters. or unformat the whole document. or add prefix or suffix text (such as page numbers) to citations. These are brief descriptions of the Cite While You Write commands found on the EndNote X3 submenu of the Tools menu in Word: Go To EndNote Bring EndNote to the front of your screen. Edit Library Reference(s) Select citations in your Word document. 300 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . an EndNote Web submenu appears on the Tools menu in Word. This removes style formatting for the selected citations. then choose this command to directly edit the corresponding references in EndNote. Find Citation(s) Search for EndNote references to select and insert as citations in your Word document. and builds a bibliography at the end of the document. Insert Note Add custom text citations to your Word document. See page 320 for more information. See page 330 for more information. NOTE: When you use Cite While You Write Preferences to choose EndNote Web as the active Cite While You Write Application. The EndNote Web submenu contains a smaller set of CWYW commands. the year. NOTE: By default. Format Bibliography Format (or reformat) your paper according to the rules of the selected style.

change the EndNote keyboard shortcuts available in Word.” NOTE: Several Cite While You Write commands also appear on the Tools menu in EndNote. Formatted citations and the bibliography are saved as text. See page 347 for more information. You may prefer to execute these commands from the keyboard. The title that appears on the toolbar indicates which EndNote application is in use to Cite While You Write: EndNote (your desktop application) or EndNote Web. see Chapter 21. For more information about EndNote Web. See page 334 for more information. See page 360 for more information. Export Traveling Library Create an EndNote library from the references used in a paper. Generate Figure List Update your figure and table citations plus the formatted figures and tables found within the body of the document or in a list at the end of the document. Find Figure(s) Search for an EndNote reference that contains a figure. The citation is numbered. “Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries. Help Display help specifically about Cite While You Write features. Cite While You Write Preferences Change general Cite While You Write preferences. or switch to EndNote Web Cite While You Write. You can also use the corresponding EndNote X3 toolbar in Word for easy access. you must use at least one Cite While You Write command from within Word during the current session. and the figure or table is automatically added to the document. See page 363 for more information. change figure and table settings. Note the keyboard shortcuts defined under Cite While You Write Preferences. See page 616 for more information.Remove Field Codes Save a copy of your document without formatted Cite While You Write field codes. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 301 . To use these commands from within EndNote. and insert a figure or table citation in your Word document.

Insert Citation > Insert Note Add custom text citations to your Word document. Word 2007 EndNote tab When you choose an EndNote command from the tab. Below are brief descriptions of the Cite While You Write commands that are found on the EndNote tab on the ribbon in Word 2007.The CWYW Commands in Word 2007 When Cite While You Write is installed. several EndNote commands appear on an EndNote tab in Word 2007. Citations Group Insert Citation > Find Citation(s) Search for EndNote references to select and insert as citations in your Word document. You can insert up to 250 consecutive in-text citations. Insert Citation > Insert Selected Citations Insert a citation for each reference currently selected in the open EndNote library. displaying some of the same EndNote commands available in Word. See page 320 for more information. The citation is numbered. NOTE: When you use Cite While You Write Preferences to choose EndNote Web as the active Cite While You Write Application. Go To EndNote Bring EndNote to the front of your screen. or add 302 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . See page 347 for more information. and insert a figure or table citation in your Word document. See page 312 for more information. and the figure or table is automatically added to the document. This command launches EndNote if it is not already running. You can omit author and/or year from citations. Insert Citation > Find Figure(s) Search for an EndNote reference that contains a figure. the EndNote program starts (if not already running) and a Cite While You Write submenu becomes active on EndNote’s Tools menu. The EndNote Web tab displays a smaller set of CWYW commands than the EndNote desktop application. Edit Citations Edit existing individual or multiple citations. an EndNote Web tab appears in Word.

Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 303 . The styles listed are marked as “favorites” in the output style manager. Instant Formatting is turned on. When you click OK to leave the dialog. and builds a bibliography at the end of the document. NOTE: By default. the year. Bibliography Group Style Select an output style from the list to format (or reformat) your paper according to the rules of the selected style. See page 331 for more information. See page 334 for more information.prefix or suffix text (such as page numbers) to citations. Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Unformatted Citations Unformat a selected citation before editing it. See page 334 for more information. Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert Word 2007 Citations to EndNote Convert any Word 2007 citations in this document to EndNote Cite While You Write citations. Edit Library Reference(s) Select citations in your Word document. then choose this command to directly edit the corresponding references in EndNote. Formatted citations and the bibliography are saved as text. Update Citations and Bibliography Format (or reformat) your paper according to the rules of the selected style. or unformat the whole document. so your citations and bibliography are automatically formatted as you work. Format Bibliography Click the arrow in the bottom right corner of the Bibliography section to display a tabbed dialog of formatting options. See page 363 for more information. See page 330 for more information. The formatting process replaces the temporary citations in your paper with formatted citations. Use Update Citations and Bibliography to format the paper again. and leaves temporary citations which usually consist of the author’s last name. Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Plain Text Save a copy of your document without formatted Cite While You Write field codes. EndNote formats (or reformats) your paper according to the rules of the selected style. and the record number surrounded by delimiters. This command also updates your figure and table citations plus the formatted figures and tables found within the body of the document or in a list at the end of the document. This removes style formatting for the selected citations.

The title that appears on the tab indicates which EndNote application is in use to Cite While You Write: EndNote (your desktop application) or EndNote Web. change the EndNote keyboard shortcuts available in Word. For example. These hidden codes allow EndNote to format. you must use at least one Cite While You Write command from within Word during the current session.” NOTE: Several Cite While You Write commands also appear on the Tools menu in EndNote. Note the keyboard shortcuts defined under Cite While You Write Preferences. and reformat citations within Word. Help Display help about Cite While You Write features. or switch to EndNote Web Cite While You Write. Export to EndNote > Export Word 2007 Citations Create an EndNote library from the Word 2007 citations found in the document. change figure and table settings. see Chapter 21. Export to EndNote > Export Word 2007 Master List Create an EndNote library from the Word 2007 master list of citations. You may prefer to execute these commands from the keyboard. See page 616 for more information.Tools Group Export to EndNote > Export Traveling Library Create an EndNote library from the references used in your paper. EndNote Preferences Change general Cite While You Write preferences. this formatted citation: 304 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . To use these commands from within EndNote. unformat. “Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries. See page 360 for more information. Field Codes in Word Cite While You Write places field codes around and inside your formatted citations in Word. For more information about EndNote Web.

EndNote’s Cite While You Write field codes are supported by Word 2003 and 2007. If a formatted document is opened and saved with an incompatible word processor. see “General Preferences” on page 616. Before you open a paper in a different word processor or give a publisher an electronic copy of your final formatted document. The reference data saved with each citation includes all fields except Notes. Using Predefined Manuscript Templates Many predefined Microsoft Word manuscript templates are supplied with EndNote to ease electronic submissions to publishers. and Caption. EndNote cannot reformat the document. you must take precautions before opening those files in other word processors or another version of Word. please do not modify them. Once you start using Cite While You Write. When this happens. We provide them as guides to make your writing Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 305 . please see “Sharing Your Word Documents” on page 359 for instructions. This allows you to use the document on a computer that does not contain a copy of your EndNote library. Field codes for formatted citations include a Traveling Library of the EndNote references cited. Abstract. the formatted EndNote citations and bibliography lose their field codes.appears with these field codes: NOTE: We recommend that you not view field codes in Word. If you choose to view field codes. Figure. Always keep backups of your papers! To automatically turn off the display of field codes when you open a Word document.

As with bibliographic formats. “Supplying Information to the Template Wizard” on page 308 for more information. but they are not required in order to use Cite While You Write. there are hundreds of variations between publishers. 306 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . and the information requested. 5. headings. The windows that appear. you can use a manuscript template even when you do not plan to use Cite While You Write. and starts a manuscript template wizard to help you set up your paper. you may receive a notice about macros. 3. such as proper margins. 2. many formatting issues are already set up for your target publication. Enter the information requested by the template wizard. (EndNote should automatically select this location. When you use one of the templates to start your paper.) Select and open the template named for a particular editorial style guide or the publisher to which you intend to submit your manuscript. pagination. line spacing. From the Tools menu. (See the next section.) As you enter information. You can also copy and edit one of the predefined manuscript templates. graphics placement. NOTE: The first time you launch the manuscript template wizard. the wizard places it in all of the appropriate places in the document. Plus. In the File dialog. select Manuscript Templates. title page. and font type and size. This opens a new document in Microsoft Word that is based on the template file. From Within EndNote To create a document based on one of the predefined manuscript templates: 1.process easier. abstract page. Accept macros to continue with the wizard. browse to the Templates folder found in the EndNote folder. Start EndNote. 4. varies depending upon the publisher. Creating a Word Document Based on a Template You can start a new Microsoft Word document based on predefined templates either from within EndNote or directly from Word.

The EndNote manuscript template wizard will start. 2. click Finish to close the wizard and start writing! NOTE: You can click Finish at any time to bypass the wizard and start working in the document. 3. To complete the wizard: Click Next to continue providing information. simply click Next to continue with the wizard.DOT.6. you may first need to display the General template tab. bracketed fields in Word. Start Microsoft Word. 2. From Word’s File menu. You can later enter the appropriate information in the designated. 5. See “Writing Your Paper” on page 309 for tips about writing in the new document. Select the EndNote tab to display the supplied templates. From Word’s File menu. You will need to manually enter information that would have been inserted by the wizard. 3. Template filenames end with the extension . Select the template you wish to use. Navigate to EndNote’s Templates folder. To start entering text into the document. look for indicators to guide you. and will lead you through the process of setting up your paper. select the radio button to Create a New Document. 4. Clicking Cancel will stop the creation of a new document. as described earlier. you are ready to start writing! To edit a manuscript template with Word 2003: 1. When you complete the wizard. From Within Word 2003 To use a manuscript template from within Word 2003: 1. If you do not know how to respond to an information request. select Open. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 307 . 4. and click OK. Select and Open the manuscript template you wish to modify. Start Microsoft Word. On the final template wizard window. The resulting Word document already contains the information you provided to the wizard. select New. NOTE: Depending on your version of Word.

select the radio button to Create New Template. The EndNote manuscript template wizard will start. 2. click the Office button and then New. which the wizard then places in your document. select My templates and click on the EndNote tab. When you complete the wizard. select My templates and click on the EndNote tab. Select the template you wish to use. 3. Make changes to the template. 3. 5. 4. you enter it once and the wizard copies it as needed to the appropriate places and in the appropriate format. Supplying Information to the Template Wizard The EndNote document template wizard asks you to supply information. 308 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . If the same information is required in more than one place. In the upper left corner. 5. In the upper left corner. From Within Word 2007 To use a manuscript template from within Word 2007: 1. 2. as described earlier. you are ready to start writing! To edit a manuscript template with Word 2007: 1. Select the manuscript template you wish to modify. and click OK. required by the publisher. NOTE: Changes to a manuscript template may disable the manuscript wizard for that template.DOT. and then save a copy of the file with a new name. In the Templates list. Template filenames end with the extension . and click OK. In the Templates list. NOTE: Changes to a manuscript template may disable the manuscript wizard for that template.5. and will lead you through the process of setting up your paper. click the Office button and then New. 4. Start Microsoft Word. Make changes to the template. select the radio button to Create New Document. and then save a copy of the file with a new name. Start Microsoft Word.

The wizard lists the required sections. and Figures. or the publisher may require MeSH terms (the National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings). press the F1 button on your keyboard to display a context-sensitive help topic. you can simply select names from the list. you are ready to write your paper. Introduction. Then. so your new Word document already contains that information. but you can select or remove sections as needed. and those guidelines vary greatly. These requirements vary significantly between publishers. Click Add Author to type information about each contributing author. Tables.Each publisher maintains its own guidelines. Reference List. You can either provide your own keywords. Now. you may be asked to provide the full title as well as a short title or running header. Author Contact Information and Affiliation Publishers typically require author information on title pages. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 309 . You should provide information about each contributing author. NOTE: If you need help on one of the windows. but they may also require it in acknowledgements or in headers throughout the document. such as Abstract. you may be asked for: Title Depending on the publisher. you followed the template wizard to provide basic information. As you follow the wizard. Keywords Almost every publisher requires that you provide keywords for indexing the manuscript. Writing Your Paper You selected the Word template appropriate for your publisher. You also have the option to click Address Book to link to an Outlook address book and easily insert existing author information. Once you add an author name with contact information. it is retained in an Authors on File list to use later. Select the check box next to the corresponding author (the contact person). Sections The manuscript sections required by the publisher are listed. For subsequent papers. Acknowledgements.

or to move the table list to a separate file. you may see: [Insert Acknowledgements here] Again. The manuscript template applies a corresponding output style to the bibliography. although you can apply a different output style if you wish. They organize your manuscript and help you follow the rules of the publisher. the figure list is created at a [Figures] tag. the table list is created at a [Tables] tag. or to move the figure list to a separate file.Tag Line Indicators To start entering text into the document. Bibliographies: When you insert an in-text reference citation in the body of your document. and the current output style is set to create a table list at the end of the document. see “Placing Figures and Tables” on page 352. For example. the bibliography is created at the [References] tag. Table Lists: When you insert a figure citation where the image comes from EndNote’s Chart or Table reference type. Next. Cite While You Write Markers There are several instances where a section tag acts as a marker for Cite While You Write: Figure Lists: When you insert a figure citation into your document. These tags may tell you of character limits. To change the position of the tables in your document. indicate whether you should include subheadings. look for tag line indicators to guide you. you may see a tag that says: [Insert Introduction text here (no subheadings)] You can select this tag and overwrite it as you type the introduction. Most of the sections of the paper are tagged in this way. select the tag and overwrite it as you type your acknowledgements. the Nature manuscript template would use the Nature output style to format the bibliography. and contain font and style formatting. To change the position of the figures in your document. For example. 310 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . and the current output style is set to create a figure list at the end of the document. see “Placing Figures and Tables” on page 352.

of the species at hand1. Instant Formatting is turned on by default. but most writers prefer entering citations as they write the paper rather than waiting to insert them after the text is written. year. NOTE: If you have Instant Formatting turned on. . A citation typically consists of a bibliography number or the author and year in parentheses: . For example: {Alvarez. with citation delimiters at each end to identify the text: {Author... Citations can appear as either unformatted or formatted in your Word document. Insert Selected Citation(s). An unformatted citation typically consists of the first author’s last name. Year #Record Number}. It may appear after you Find Citation(s) and Insert. and the EndNote record number.. Unformat Citation(s). you can see meaningful information while you are working on your document. Unformatted (Temporary) Citations An unformatted citation is a temporary placeholder. or manually enter unformatted citations. you may never see an unformatted citation. drag-and-drop or copy and paste citations from EndNote to Word. 1994 #8} The unformatted citation makes it easy to identify the record cited. 1991). of the species at hand (Argus. It contains information to find a unique. Even if your final goal is numeric citations. EndNote relies on these temporary citations to determine which references to include in the bibliography. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 311 .Citing Sources As You Write You can enter EndNote temporary citations into a paper at any time.. and does not reflect final output. Forms of Citations A “citation” is the brief bibliographic information in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a complete reference in the bibliography. corresponding EndNote reference in the currently open library.

Open the Word document and position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation.2] You can easily revert from formatted citations back to unformatted citations at any time. 3. NOTE: When Instant Formatting is turned on. Finding and Inserting Citations You can search for EndNote references and insert them without ever leaving Word. Citations formatted in an Author-Date style might look like this: (Alvarez 1994. and reflects final output. Open the EndNote libraries that contain the references you wish to cite. 2. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. select the EndNote X3 submenu and Find Citation(s) to display the EndNote Find & Insert My References dialog. formatting is done as you insert citations–but you can still use Format Bibliography to change the style or layout of your citations and bibliography. Formatted citations include hidden Word field codes in case you want to Format Bibliography again later. either after adding more citations or because you want to format in a different style.Formatted Citations The Format Bibliography command uses an output style to convert all unformatted citations into formatted citations. This is the easiest way to find and insert a citation into a Word document: 1. Turnhouse 1987) This is the same citation formatted in the Numbered style: [1. See “Unformatting Citations” on page 331. 312 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word .

6. Use the Insert button triangle to display a menu. 5. Identify and highlight the appropriate reference(s). Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 313 . If no references match your text. 4. Click Find.Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. and select from: Insert to insert the citation and format it as defined by the currently selected output style Insert & Exclude Author Insert & Exclude Year Insert & Exclude Author & Year You can click Insert (not the triangle) to quickly select the default Insert command. EndNote assumes an “and” between each word. you need to modify your search text and click Find again. and EndNote compares the text to text in your EndNote references and lists the matching reference(s). In the text box at the top. enter text to identify the reference you wish to cite. in the Citations group. click Insert Citation and then Find Citation. 7. and will search all fields in your records.

click Insert Citation and then Find Citation. Word 2003: From the Tools menu in EndNote. and highlight that text. 314 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . You can also copy citations from the EndNote Library window and paste them into the document (using Copy from EndNote’s Edit menu and then Paste from Word’s clipboard). click Go to EndNote. 3. Highlight the desired reference(s) in your EndNote library. 2. Open the Word document and position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation. Remember to Save your document as you work. in the Citations group. You can insert citations in an existing manuscript or as you write. see “Generating Bibliographies” on page 334. enter text to identify the reference you wish to cite. in the Citations group. it contains complete reference information in hidden codes. Instant Formatting applies as you insert citations.” Inserting Selected Citations To insert references selected in EndNote: 1. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Using Dragand-Drop or Copy and Paste You can drag selected citations from your EndNote library and drop them into your paper at the desired location for the citation. Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text To find and insert a citation from highlighted text: 1. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. click Insert Citation and then Insert Selected Citation(s). select the Cite While You Write submenu and choose Insert Selected Citation(s). Use the Find & Insert My References dialog as described above under “Finding and Inserting Citations. As you are typing in Word. Word 2003: From the Tools menu in Word. EndNote inserts your highlighted text into the Find box. in the Citations group. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. select the EndNote X3 submenu and Find Citation(s) to display the EndNote & Insert My References dialog. 2. Once a citation is inserted. In most cases. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and then Go to EndNote. To format your citations and generate a bibliography.Citations are inserted directly into your paper in the same font as the surrounding text. 4.

Click Insert. in the Citations group. There are several ways to insert multiple references in one in-text citation.Manually Inserting Citations Inserting Multiple Citations You can manually type temporary citations if you prefer. 3. Enter a generic search term that will find the references you want. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Find Citation(s). 1988 #16} Formatted: (Baker. Baker. To insert multiple citations from Word: 1. click Insert Citation and then Find Citation. Word 2003: From the Tools menu in Word. Hall. See “Typing Citations into Your Paper” on page 322 to learn what types of citations EndNote recognizes. and click Find. they appear as one multiple citation. 1988 #77. the entire citation remains unformatted. Notes cannot be inserted as part of a multiple citation. 4. Hold down the CTRL key while clicking on the desired references in the list (or hold down the S HIFT key to select a continuous range of references) in order to highlight the references. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 315 . 1988. 2. sorted as your bibliographic style requires: Unformatted: {Hall. NOTE: If one of the citations in a multiple citation is not matched during formatting. When formatted. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. 1988) EndNote can insert up to 250 consecutive in-text citations.

1988 #16} Merged when Formatted: (Baker. in the Citations group. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Citations do not merge if any character separates them–including a space or punctuation mark. 1988) NOTE: You can add citations to an existing in-text citation. To insert. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. click Insert Citation and then Insert Selected Citation(s). or edit citations within an existing in-text citation: 1. 316 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . To insert multiple citations individually: Another option is to insert citations individually. Word 2003: From EndNote’s Tools menu. hold down the C TRL key while clicking on the desired references in your library (or hold down the SHIFT key to select a continuous range of references). Click on the formatted citation. remove.To insert multiple selected citations from EndNote: 1. Cite While You Write merges adjacent citations during formatting.1988 #77}{Baker. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog. Unformatted: {Hall. but immediately next to each other. go to the Cite While You Write submenu and choose Insert Selected Citation(s). In EndNote. 2. 2. 1988. Hall. or change the order of citations within the delimiters with the Edit Citations dialog.

Inserting From Multiple Libraries You can cite references from multiple libraries. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. 3. and then: Click Remove to delete it. The line below shows the cited reference(s). we recommend that you use a single library when writing a paper. in the Citations group. changing the order of citations in a multiple citation has no effect. (If a Citation Sort Order is applied by the current output style. Highlight a citation. Keeping all of your references in one library simplifies the writing process because you know exactly where to find each reference. there is little likelihood of duplicate Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 317 . Simply open the selected libraries before you begin inserting citations. An ellipses shows where a citation appears within text. If possible. Click Insert to insert another citation within the same set of delimiters. though.Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Use the arrow buttons to change the order of the citation in a multiple citation.) You can use the other features on this dialog as described on page 318. click Edit Citation(s).

3. Click on the formatted citation. and you only need to have one library open when inserting citations. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. 1988 p. read about the “Merge Duplicates in Bibliography” preference in the “Preferences” chapter on page 600. assume a formatted citation looks like this: Hall’s discovery (Hall. You may want to remove the year or author from a citation if either was mentioned in the context of the sentence.references. Customizing Individual Citations There may be cases where you want individual citations to differ from the standard format. 1988) You can omit the author’s name from the citation: Hall’s discovery (1988) You can omit the date from the citation: the 1988 discovery (Hall) You can add a suffix with page number to the citation: the discovery (Hall. 1988) To customize a formatted citation: 1. Insert and format the citation. NOTE: If you plan to insert citations from more than one library into a paper.4) You can add a prefix to the citation: the discovery (see Hall. For example. 318 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . 2. Or. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog. you might want to add a page reference or comment before or after the citation.

Suffix: Enter text here to print after the citation text (spaces are significant). For information about how to modify your output style to include Cited Pages. Prefix: Enter text here to print immediately before the citation text (spaces are significant). see Chapter 17. Pages: Page numbers entered here are considered entered into a “Cited Pages” field. so they can be manipulated on output just like any other EndNote field. in the Citations group. 5. You can enter page numbers here if you always want them to print after the citation. This is typically used to print the page numbers within a full footnote citation. the Cited Pages field must be listed in the citation template and/or footnote template of your output style. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 319 . Most EndNote styles that require a special format for citations in footnotes are already configured this way.Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. The line below shows the cited reference(s). Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the formatted citation. 4. Customize as needed: Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the formatted citation. In order to print. Highlight the citation you want to customize. click Edit Citation(s). An ellipses shows where a citation appears within text.

Type your note text into the text box. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Insert Note to display the EndNote Insert Note dialog. For example: 320 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . Position the cursor at the location in your text where you would like the number indicating the note. To manually type text as a numbered note in the reference list: 1. Be sure to surround the entire section of text with your Temporary Citation Delimiters (curly braces by default). 4.6. along with bibliographic references. In such a system. the note text is assigned a number and listed along with the references at the end of the paper. Including Notes in the List of References Some journal styles (such as Science) require that you include notes along with the list of works cited at the end of the document. To insert text as a numbered note in the reference list: 1. notes are numbered just like citations. Click OK to implement the change(s) to the citation. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. and are included in the reference list in order of appearance. There is no limit on the amount of text you can enter. Word 2003: From the Tools menu. 2. 2. When your paper is formatted by EndNote using a numbered style. Click OK to insert a numbered note. 3. and begin it with “NOTE:”. in the Citations group. click Insert Citation and then Insert Note. Type the text into the body of your document where you would want the number for the note to appear. The way that notes are displayed when unformatted can be changed in the Temporary Citations preferences (see page 594). Including notes in this way makes sense only when you are formatting your paper with a numbered style (not an authordate style).

simply insert the new citations into the text (as described earlier in this chapter) and choose Format Bibliography when you are ready to update the bibliography and citations. Use the appropriate command in Word to create the footnote or endnote. Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper If you need to add one or more citations to a paper that has already been formatted. 1984. equations. such as the record number marker. 1996) NOTE: Do not insert a citation into the middle of a formatted citation.. otherwise. with no space between them.} Restrictions on the Use of the “NOTE” Feature: This feature requires that a numbered style be used for formatting. Do not use the temporary citation delimiters as part of the text of the note. To cite a reference in a footnote or endnote: 1. Do not enter graphics. the prefix marker. the note appears as text in the body of your paper.{NOTE: The authors would like to acknowledge the support of. 1996){Argus. Hockney and Ellis. Notes cannot be combined with regular bibliographic citations within the same set of delimiters (such as parentheses or brackets). Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes Once you have created a footnote or endnote in Word. Insert it immediately before or after the existing citation. you can cite references in that footnote or endnote just like you cite them in the body of the document. and the formatted citations are sorted according to the style: (Argus.. 1984 #1} Adjacent citations are merged during formatting. To add a new reference to an existing citation. and the multiple citation separator may be used. (EndNote does not create the footnote or endnote Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 321 . like this: (Hockney and Ellis. Other markers. or symbols. They must be cited separately— each in its own set of delimiters. insert the new reference next to (not within) the existing citation. Enter alphanumeric text only.

Insert the citation as you normally would.in the document. including options like “Ibid. but is used to insert and format citations in the note. See “Customizing Individual Citations” on page 318. EndNote can format these citations as brief in-text citations or like complete references in the bibliography. Use these rules when typing temporary citations directly into your document. see “Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes” on page 327. you can include specific page numbers to be formatted like a regular EndNote field. as discussed previously in this chapter. When Instant Formatting is turned off. It can also create a special format specific to footnotes or endnotes. it is not triggered when you manually type a reference into a document. The EndNote style that is selected when you choose Format Bibliography determines how citations in footnotes and endnotes are formatted. You must use the Tools>EndNote X3 menu (or the EndNote tab in Word 2007) and either insert another reference with the Find Citation(s) command or choose Format Bibliography to format or update citations and a reference list (you can use Update Citations and Bibliography in Word 2007). 3. 1990 #5}. the year of publication.) 2. Or. Position the cursor in the footnote or endnote where you would like the citation(s) to appear. a temporary citation is enclosed in citation delimiters and typically includes the first author’s last name. if you are manually typing citations. See Chapter 17 for more information. NOTE: Even when Instant Formatting is enabled. The most flexible way is to manually type temporary citations directly into your paper. The rules described in this section govern how EndNote recognizes and interprets temporary (unformatted) citations. Your hands never have to leave the keyboard. and “Bibliography and Footnote Templates” on page 480. Typing Citations into Your Paper There are many ways to insert citations in your paper. and the record number for that reference: {Schwartz. 322 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . Notes About Temporary Citations Each citation must match only one reference in the library.” and other variations of shortened references when a citation appears more than once in the footnotes or endnotes. If you are citing full references in footnotes.

Prefix Text.Within one set of citation delimiters you can have several citations separated by semicolons: {Schwartz. a year. Year #Record Number Suffix} {Prefix \Author. and a record number. 1990} Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 323 . Temporary citations must begin and end with the opening and closing citation delimiters. as long as enough information remains to match just one reference in the library. 1990 #5. although they can be changed (see page 595). Include a comma after the author’s name to limit the search only to author fields: {Schwartz. Suffix Text. Any Text. Any part of a temporary citation can be omitted. these are other possible components to a temporary citation: Author. Curly braces (“{” and “}”) are the default temporary citation delimiters. you can type any of these items in this order (comma placement is significant): {Prefix \Author. more detailed information follows. and not just the first author. In addition to the citation delimiters. and any other text found in the record. Suffix} Each component is briefly described below. If you omit an author or year from a temporary citation. Author’s Last Name: Only the last name of one author is listed in a temporary citation. all enclosed in citation delimiters. You can type any string of text found in the reference. EndNote looks for these markers to find citations in your word processing documents. as in: {dinosaur extinction} Or. Year. Billoski. (See “Omitting Authors or Years from Citations” on page 325. However. but the other components of a temporary citation can vary. temporary citations can take on various other formats. It can be any author associated with the reference.) Components of a Temporary Citation The typical EndNote temporary (unformatted) citation consists of an author’s last name. those components are omitted from the formatted citation as well—although you can change this preference. Year. 1992 #28}. Record Number.

Year: The year should appear exactly as it does in the reference.293} {Smith. greenhouse} {Schwartz. greenhouse} In the third example. you must insert a space between the two commas or EndNote will not recognize any citation matches. 1995 #98 p. or enter the text in place of the record number part of the temporary citation and after a second comma: {greenhouse} {Schwartz. where the date is omitted. . Enter the specific text only. dinosaur. 324 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . 1987 #84} Suffix Text: To add text to print after a formatted citation. Prefix Text: To add text to print before the formatted citation. 1995. include a comma before the year to limit the search to the Year field: {. p. and it should be preceded by a comma. 1987 #84} Any Text: Any text that appears in the reference can be used to help EndNote locate the reference in the library. 2001} Record Number: The record number is EndNote’s unique number for a reference. type the text immediately after the opening brace and then a backslash “\” to separate prefix text from the search text: {see \Jones. enter the suffix text immediately after the record number or enter a third comma after the search text and then type the suffix text: {Smith. 1990. see “Customizing Individual Citations” on page 318. Even if you leave out the author name. It is the only part of a temporary citation that you can count on to always identify just one reference in your library. In order for this to be helpful. choose words that are unique to that reference. The record number must be preceded by a number sign: {Jones.293} NOTE: For an easy way to modify individual Cite While You Write citations once they are formatted.

To omit the date. which will format as: . To omit the author’s name. you may enter just the record number “{#34}” as a temporary citation. and uncheck the setting to “Omit Author and/or Year from formatted citation if removed from temporary citation. #38}. which will format as: .. choose Preferences from EndNote’s Edit menu. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 325 . leaving only the record number. However.. 1993 #38}.. enter: . so these settings would be ignored..about his 1993 discovery (Wyatt)..Wyatt’s recent discovery {. When you format your paper with a style that formats authors and years in the citations. this particular citation will not display in text. enter: . select the Formatting option. but will be included in the bibliography. you may want to omit the author and/or year from a particular citation.. This is useful if you have mentioned the author or year in the context of the sentence and do not want to repeat the information in the citation. and still format the paper accurately with a style that requires authors and years in the in-text citations. If you want a reference to appear in your bibliography.about his 1993 discovery {Wyatt. if you would rather have the author and year appear in the formatted citation regardless of whether or not they are in the temporary citation..” With this setting turned off. NOTE: For an easy way to modify individual Cite While You Write citations once they are inserted. see “Customizing Individual Citations” on page 318..Wyatt’s recent discovery (1993).Omitting Authors or Years from Citations While your style may normally include the author’s name and date in each in-text citation. but not as a citation in your paper. you can exclude both the author and year. To remove the author’s name or date from a citation. NOTE: Numbered citations do not print the author name or year in any case. simply leave that information out of the unformatted citation.

semicolons. For example. an in-text citation such as: {see also \Hall. “@” and commas cannot be prefix markers. For example. 1984. using a backslash to separate the prefix text from the reference.. For example. especially Hall. 1991 #11} after being formatted in the APA style will appear as: (e. it will stay there regardless of how the citations are sorted. Letters. Argus. 1988 #77} formatted in the Author-Date style will be: (Argus. 1988) If the prefix is not at the beginning of the multiple citation. \Hall.g. p.1988 #77.293} after being formatted in the APA style will appear as: (Hall. 1988. 5} {Smith. numbers. the prefix text remains with the reference it precedes. 1988) When there is only one prefix in a multiple citation and it is at the beginning of the citation. 5) 326 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . p. See “Temporary Citations” on page 594 for more information. Use a character that is not otherwise used in the citations. 1988 #77.Citation Prefixes You can type a prefix in front of any unformatted in-text citation. 1995. 1991. selecting the Temporary Citations option. these citations: {Hall. especially \Hall.g. this citation: {Argus. this citation: {e. 1984 #11. 1988 #77} formatted in the APA style would be: (see also Hall. and changing the character in the “Citation Prefix Marker” box. For example. or if there is more than one prefix in a multiple citation. Argus. Hall. 1988) Changing the Citation Prefix Marker You can change the prefix marker from a backslash to another character by choosing Preferences from EndNote’s Edit menu. dinosaur. Citation Suffixes Text typed after the record number or search text in an unformatted citation appears immediately after the citation when it is formatted. p.

When citing full references in footnotes. p. this citation: {Hall. EndNote provides a way to do this where the page numbers that you type into a temporary citation can be manipulated by the EndNote style just like a field in your EndNote reference. \Jackson. 1999 #24 @145-6} All text that follows the @ symbol (up to the next space) is considered the “Cited Pages. 5. Jackson. and how to list the range of pages. The style can also apply special pages formatting. 1994)” the unformatted citation must look like this: {see Figure 1`. See “Customizing Individual Citations” on page 318. Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 327 .” You must also configure the EndNote style used to format the paper to use “Cited Pages” in the footnote template. The accent grave tells EndNote to treat the following character as regular text. you might want to include specific page numbers. You can add specific pages to the temporary citation. 1994 #28}. type an accent grave (`) before the character. 1988 #77 p.” or “pp.293) In multiple citations.” before the page numbers. For example. like deciding whether to add “p. The ` character before the semicolon tells EndNote not to treat the semicolon as a separator between citations. to create a citation that is formatted as “(see Figure 1. Hall. and not as a significant character for parsing the citation.(Smith. For example. Argus. Most EndNote styles that require a special format for citations in footnotes are already configured this way. 1988 p. 1991. To manually include specific page numbers to a reference in an unformatted footnote citation. simply enter the page number preceded by “@” at the end of the temporary citation: {Smith. the suffix text remains with the citation that it follows. The easiest way to add cited pages is to use the Edit Citation dialog. and have the EndNote style include them wherever they need to be in the formatted citation. 1991 #11} formatted in the Author-Date style will be: (Argus. even if the citations are sorted differently during the formatting process. 1995. 5) Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation In order to print an actual semicolon or the prefix marker (\) as part of a citation.

This method will not work for citations in footnotes that are formatted as full bibliographic references or with a special footnote format. They will simply appear. as entered. See Chapter 17 for more information about EndNote’s styles. at the end of the formatted in-text citation. they will still appear in a formatted in-text citation.When EndNote formats the citation. 328 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . NOTE: If you enter page numbers at the end of the temporary citation without the “@” character. you must use the @ symbol to identify the cited pages in the temporary citation. the cited pages (“145-6” in the example above) are inserted in the correct location and formatted as appropriate for the style. See “Citation Suffixes” on page 326 to see how this works. For those cases. This is a perfectly acceptable way to enter page numbers for in-text citations (or for footnotes formatted just like your in-text citations). but EndNote will not be able to manipulate them by changing the page format or by moving them to a different position in the formatted citation.

p.4”. p.4} (Hall.1988 #77 p. delete just the author’s name from the unformatted citation. 1988 #77} (1998) [1] {#77} No citation appears [1] {Hall. the text after the record number. including spaces and punctuation. To add text before the formatted citation. the in-text citation is eliminated.4) [1 p.4) [1. With this temporary citation. is added to the formatted citation. #77. This temporary citation removes the author and the year from the formatted citation. When formatted with an authordate style. To remove the author from the formatted citation. Examples of Modified Citations Unformatted Citation {Hall. type the text immediately after the opening curly brace.4] Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 329 . add it after the record number in the unformatted citation. Type additional text after the record number or after a third comma when using additional search text. In the first column is an example of a modified temporary citation before formatting. To add text after the formatted citation. simply delete it from the unformatted citation. p. p. {. but the reference still appears in the bibliography.Examples of Modified Citations The following examples demonstrate how different modifications to a temporary citation affect its formatted citation in either an author/year or numbered style. (See “Citation Prefixes” on page 326. and to the right are two examples of that citation formatted in different styles.4] {see \Hall. and type a backslash “\” to separate the text from the author’s name. #77} Formatted with Author-Date (Hall) Formatted with Numbered [1] Comments To remove the year from the formatted citation. 1988 #77} (see Hall 1988) [see 1] {Hall.) This temporary citation eliminates the year from the formatted citation.4} (Hall 1988 p. Numbered citations appear as usual. Note that the comma remains in the temporary citation to indicate the omission of the author. but adds the additional text “.

the EndNote reference.Changing Existing Citations You can change citations at any time. in the Citations group. An ellipses shows where a citation 330 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . choose Format Bibliography to (re)format the new or modified citations and regenerate the bibliography. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog. you should not edit it directly (although you can do so. To safely edit a formatted citation: 1. right-click with your mouse. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. Editing Citations Once you have inserted and formatted a citation. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Click on the citation you wish to change. Direct edits are lost the next time EndNote formats the bibliography. NOTE: An easy way to omit the Author or Date from an individual citation is to select the citation. if you feel you must). After making changes. or the citation (as described here). choose Edit Citation(s) and then Exclude Author or Exclude Year. You can almost always get EndNote to format your citations exactly to your specifications by editing the style. 2. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. click Edit Citation(s).

Prefix: Enter text here to print immediately before the citation text (spaces are significant). and turns off instant formatting. After making changes. 3. Insert: Use this to add another citation within the same set of delimiters. The line below shows the cited reference(s). 4. Remove: Highlight a citation and click Remove to delete it from the in-text citation. Up and Down Arrows: Highlight a reference and use the arrows to change the order of display.) 5. You can add or remove citations from a multiple citation. removes the bibliography. Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the formatted citation. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 331 . Pages: Enter page numbers here to print as Cited Pages. in the Bibliography group. Click OK to implement your change(s). Unformatting Citations Unformatting reverts formatted citations to temporary citations. using this dialog to change the order of citations in a multiple citation has no effect. Suffix: Enter text here to print after the citation text (spaces are significant). or change the order of citations. To print.appears within text. choose Format Bibliography to (re)format the new or modified citations and regenerate the bibliography. Select the appropriate citation from the list at the left of the dialog (you can scroll through all citations in the document) and make any of the following changes to the highlighted citation: Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the formatted citation. click Update Citations and Bibliography or click the corner arrow to change bibliography preferences and Format Bibliography. the Cited Pages field must be listed in the citation template or footnote template of the output style. (If a Citation Sort Order is applied by the current output style.

highlight the multiple citation. 332 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . unformatted citations require that you have the corresponding EndNote library open in order to format the paper again. If you are unformatting the entire document. Unformatting removes the Traveling Library. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. You can format the paper again at any time. click the corner arrow. Unformatted citations are temporary placeholders that do not reflect final output. To save the formatted paper as text. see “Removing Field Codes” on page 363. NOTE: When you unformat citations. either select nothing or highlight the entire document. To unformat citations: 1. To format your paper. NOTE: Unlike formatted citations. highlight only that citation. and choose Format Bibliography. EndNote tab. You can tell when a paper is unformatted because the citations appear in the temporary citation format (such as “{Smith. this unformats all of the in-text citations and removes the current bibliography. To unformat a section of the document. go to the Tools menu. click Convert Citations and Bibliography and select Convert to Unformatted Citations. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. All citations within the delimiters will be unformatted. then the EndNote X3 submenu. 2. in the Bibliography group. you can unformat your paper to easily identify citations as you work. 1999 #25}”). go to the EndNote X3 submenu and Unformat Citation(s).If your citations are formatted in a numbered style. To unformat the entire document. If the citation you want to unformat is part of a multiple citation. highlight that section. in the Bibliography group. You can format the bibliography again later. Determine which citations you want to unformat: To unformat a particular citation. Instant Formatting is disabled. Word 2007: On the From the Format Bibliography dialog. you can enable Instant Formatting again on the Instant Formatting tab.

make sure the highlighted citation is the one you want to delete. simply highlight the entire citation (including delimiters). If the citation is part of a multiple citation. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. make sure you highlight the entire citation (including surrounding delimiters). You can do this with formatted or temporary (unformatted) citations. Click Remove. The citation you highlighted in the document should be highlighted in the list. Highlight the citation you want to delete. in the Citations group. While it is possible to highlight a formatted citation and simply press the delete key on your keyboard. Click OK. An ellipses shows where a citation appears within text. you could corrupt your document. To safely delete a formatted citation: 1. Word 2003: From the Tools menu in Word. make sure you select just the citation you want to delete. 3. 2. The line below shows the cited reference(s). 4.Moving or Copying Citations You can highlight any text that includes citations. and press the backspace or delete key. In the left column. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 333 . click Edit Citation(s). To move or copy only the citation itself. then use the Clipboard commands to Cut or Copy and then Paste it elsewhere in the document. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. we do not recommend you do that. Then Cut or Copy and Paste it elsewhere in the document. Deleting Citations To delete an unformatted citation. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog. 5. If you do not completely delete the citation and all associated codes.

However. in the Bibliography group. You could also simply choose a new style from the Style list in the Bibliography group. 2. and is turned on when you first start using Cite While You Write. in the Bibliography group. Update Citations and Bibliography is available in Word 2007. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. It adds a complete bibliography to the document (unless you override this with a setting in the output style). EndNote uses the currently selected style to format citations. Basic Instructions When you have finished writing your paper in Word. This is also where you enable or disable Instant Formatting. plus figures and tables. click the bottom corner arrow. On the Format Bibliography tab. EndNote uses the currently selected style to format citations and update the bibliography each time a citation is inserted. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Format Bibliography. if you want to change the style or layout of references. Word 2003: From the Tools menu in Word. the bibliography. Format Bibliography allows you to modify bibliography preferences such as style and layout before formatting your document. you are ready for EndNote to format the paper and generate a bibliography. select Format Bibliography. It is 334 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . The format used for citations and references is determined by the output style selected. Word 2003: From the EndNote X3 submenu on the Tools menu. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. and all of your EndNote citations have been inserted into the text. These are the basic formatting instructions: 1. click the bottom corner arrow. This can be done in one of these ways: Instant Formatting actually works as you insert citations.Generating Bibliographies Formatting a bibliography serves two functions: It formats each in-text citation according to the selected bibliographic style. use the With output style option to select an output style to format references. You will find it on the EndNote tab. you can use the Format Bibliography command. in the Bibliography group.

which is described in the next section. such as when you unformat your paper. Instant Formatting is enabled the first time you use the Tools>EndNote X3 menu in Word 2003. then Word Options. Even when Instant Formatting is enabled. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 335 . you can use the Format Bibliography command. or the EndNote tab in Word 2007. To verify that Smart Tags are enabled: Word 2007: Click the Office icon. 2. By default. click the bottom corner arrow. To enable or disable Instant Formatting in the current document: 1. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. to insert a citation or format the bibliography. Word 2003: From the Tools menu in Word. To use Instant Formatting in Word 2007. then Proofing. or to change Instant Formatting settings. to either insert another citation or format the citations and a reference list. 3. smart tags must be enabled (they are turned on by default). select the check box titled “Label text with smart tags” and make sure “In-text Citation (Cwyw Citation Recognizer)” is selected. then AutoCorrect Options. Instant Formatting is disabled. On the Smart Tags tab. Click OK to format all citations and build the bibliography. it is not triggered when you manually type a reference into a document. Click Turn On or Turn Off to toggle Instant Formatting. In some cases.okay to experiment with different styles because you can simply reformat again. You must use the Tools>EndNote X3 menu in Word 2003. EndNote uses the currently selected style to format citations and update the bibliography. 3. or the EndNote tab in Word 2007. in the Bibliography group. As you insert citations. To change the style or layout of references. Instant Formatting Instant Formatting works while you write your paper. Click the Instant Formatting tab. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Format Bibliography.

Word 2003: From the Tools menu in Word. leaving the Format Bibliography dialog--whether you click OK or Cancel--will always trigger formatting in your document. This finds and formats all citations. When Instant Formatting is enabled. NOTE: The first time a citation is formatted. To format citations and generate a bibliography: 1. See “The Traveling Library” on page 359 for more information. Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings You may be halfway through inserting citations. or you may have finished writing your paper.When enabled. You may have instant formatting enabled. the corresponding EndNote library must be open. You can select how often EndNote scans your document. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Format Bibliography. NOTE: To turn Instant Formatting on or off for new Word documents. You can reformat after adding more citations or to change the style or layout settings. you can format your paper at any time. After that. Click OK to save changes to the Instant Formatting settings. see “General Preferences” on page 616. you can click the Settings button to change these Instant Formatting controls: Scan for temporary citations turns on scanning of temporary citations. EndNote can use the Traveling Library for reference information. It doesn’t matter. including those you may have entered manually. 4. As long as you have citations entered in your document. or you may have manually inserted citations with formatting disabled. Click OK to format all citations and build the bibliography. Check for citation changes turns on background scanning that looks for citation changes. 336 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word .

The defaults are curly braces. Make sure they are unique delimiters. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 337 . To add more output styles to the list. On the Format Bibliography tab.Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. in the Bibliography group. and not characters you would normally use in your paper. see “Adding Styles to the Output Styles List” on page 339. Temporary citation delimiters: These are the opening and closing delimiters for temporary citations. You can experiment by reformatting with various output styles. change or verify these settings: Format document: Make sure the appropriate Word document is selected from the list of open Word documents. 2. click the bottom corner arrow. With output style: Select the appropriate output style to format references.

Click the Libraries Used tab to see which libraries are referenced in the document. Text Format: Highlight the bibliography title text and then use the Text Format button to display a dialog where you can change the format of the highlighted text. or no indent at all. See the Instant Formatting section above for more information. On the Instant Formatting tab. Type measurements as centimeters (cm). type the title in this text box. a hanging indent. Bibliography title: To print a title at the top of your bibliography. The hanging indent applies to the second and subsequent lines of a reference in the bibliography. change or verify these settings: Font and Size: These are the text font and size used for the bibliography. First line indent and Hanging indent: Use these settings to set a paragraph indent. or points (pt). This tab lists the name of the library or libraries that were used for the formatted citations within the document. you can Turn On or Turn Off Instant Formatting. 5.3. On the Layout tab. 338 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . Start with bibliography number: Enter a starting reference number if you want to number your bibliography. the list is empty. Line spacing and Space after: Set the Line spacing for within a reference and the Space after for spacing between references. If your document is unformatted. 4. inches (in). lines (li).

700+ styles that are available. only the 100 most popular output styles are initially installed with EndNote. choose Output Styles. select the output style on the Format Bibliography tab. The style takes care of text styles. see “Installing Additional Output Styles” on page 471. punctuation.6. Adding Styles to the Output Styles List The bibliographic style selected on the Format Bibliography dialog determines how EndNote formats the citations in your paper and the references in the bibliography. as well as which fields are included in the bibliography. close button Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 339 . If all you want to do is change the output style. and click OK. look in the Bibliography group. In EndNote. For a typical installation. choose Format Bibliography. Word 2007: An easier option is to go to the EndNote tab. If you want to install more of the 3. go to the Edit menu. Click OK to save changes and format your citations and bibliography. To mark an installed output style as a favorite so it will appear in the Output Style list: 1. and sorting required for the citations and bibliography. You can use Format Bibliography to select a different style and reformat your document at any point. and then select Open Style Manager. and simply select a new Style. NOTE: You do not have to verify each tab every time you format.

Use the Find by button to quickly locate categories of styles or individual styles. Click on the column headings to sort the styles by either name or category. 4.” The Style Info item in the information panel can be changed from Style Info to Style Preview to display a preview of how the selected style formats EndNote’s sample references. Styles marked as favorites appear in the Output Styles list of EndNote’s Edit menu as well as the styles list in Word. Use the Find by button in the Style Manager window to find entire categories of styles. Type text into the Quick Search text box on the toolbar and press Enter to search for the style by the name of the file. perhaps a whole category. Or. click Mark All. You can quickly select a style by typing its name. Choose to show the style preview or information. You can enter a partial name or the full name. to mark all of the styles that are displayed. All styles marked as “favorites” appear on the Output Styles menu. Find the style that you need. 3. EndNote will display all matching results. Click a second time to reverse the sort order. Click in the column box to the left of the style’s name to choose it as one of your favorites. For example. 340 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word .2. click the Find by button and choose Chemistry to display all of the styles in the category “Chemistry. Close the Style Manager by clicking the close button or choosing Close Style Manager from the File menu. The Less Info/ More Info option shows or hides the information pane. or scroll through the list to find what you need.

Word 2003: Go to the Tools menu. and choose Format Bibliography again. Word 2007: You can select a new Style in the Bibliography group. then the EndNote X3 submenu. Select a new style from the Format Bibliography dialog and click OK. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 341 . Reformatting Papers Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers If you add more citations to your paper after the formatting process. NOTE: You do not need to unformat your citations in order to reformat them.) To generate a single bibliography: 1. 2. Your citations and bibliography are updated for the new bibliographic style. and choose Unformat Citations to unformat all of the citations in the document. Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents You can use Word’s Master Document feature to generate a single bibliography from multiple documents. See Chapter 17 for instructions about creating and modifying styles. go to the Tools menu. then the EndNote X3 submenu. Word 2007: Click Update Citations and Bibliography or click the corner arrow to bring up the Format Bibliography dialog. Word 2003: In each document. insert your citations to link them to references in an EndNote library. 2. (As an alternative. or chapters. See “Adding Styles to the Output Styles List” on page 339 for information about expanding the list of available styles. See “Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document” on page 343.All styles can be modified to meet your specifications. Reformatting with Different Styles To reformat your paper in a different style: 1. or click the corner arrow to bring up the Format Bibliography dialog. we recommend using a single Word document split into Sections. This allows you to create a cumulative bibliography from any number of book chapters. In each of your documents. You can also create completely new styles if necessary. you can update the citations and the bibliography by simply choosing the Format Bibliography command again.

NOTE: Your documents must allow read/write access. Word 2003: From the Tools menu. 342 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . then insert and display each of your chapters as subdocuments. If you want to format a bibliography for each subdocument plus a cumulative bibliography at the end of the master document. NOTE: If you choose Word’s Insert > File command and select the “Link” option to insert a document into the text. and places it at the end of the master document. 4. The text from the linked document will be skipped. EndNote will not format the linked document when you format the main document. 6. 5. In the case of a master document. in the Bibliography group. Close all of your documents.) NOTE: If you have collapsed subdocuments to hide their content in Outline view. click Convert Citations and Bibliography and choose Convert to Unformatted Citations. subdocuments are treated as sections.Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Format Bibliography. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. EndNote creates the bibliography. Create a New document. but use an output style that allows formatting of Sections. Verify the formatting options and click OK. See the description below about "Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document" and “Sections (Microsoft Word Only)” on page 497 for additional information. Use the Outline view to designate the new document as a master document. (Check Word’s documentation if you need step-by-step instructions. they cannot be designated Read-only (locked). using citations from the master document and all displayed subdocuments. make sure you expand them in order to display the contents of all subdocuments before continuing. You can move the bibliography anywhere within the master or subdocuments. 3. click the bottom corner arrow. in the Bibliography group. and it will remain in that location even when you reformat. follow the instructions above. 7.

EndNote creates a single bibliography at the end of each of your Word documents. break your document into sections EndNote can format each section individually. Create a bibliography for each section and also a complete bibliography at the end of the document. you may want to create a separate bibliography for each section (or chapter) in your document. Output style options are available so that you can choose to: Create a single. please see your Microsoft Word documentation. choose Breaks. subdocuments are treated as sections. However. NOTE: If you need additional information about section breaks. In Microsoft Word 2007: On the Page Layout tab. and then select one of the four options under Section break types: Next Page. You may want to break each chapter into its own section. These styles are already defined to format a bibliography for each section.Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document By default. try APA 5th (sections) or Chicago 15th B (sections). and then choose one of the four options under Section Breaks: Next Page. and do not require modification. (In the case of a master document. Create a bibliography for each section in the document. click on Breaks. Even Page. or Odd Page. Continuous. In Microsoft Word. Modify the output style as needed If you want to use a predefined style that formats sections. NOTE: These options are ignored by versions of EndNote prior to version X3. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 343 . complete bibliography at the end of the document (the default setting for almost all of the supplied output styles). Continuous. or Odd Page.) In Microsoft Word 2003: From the Insert menu. Even Page.

click on the Sections panel in the output style." but you have only one section in the Word document. cumulative bibliography. If you have instructed the output style to “Create a bibliography for each section and a complete bibliography at the end of the document. This is where you select the appropriate option for creating a single bibliography from all sections. and once as a complete bibliography for the entire document.. and switch from formatting with a style that formats sections individually to a style that formats a single. the bibliography title will be used from the Layout tab of Format Bibliography. Next. For a complete description of the formatting options for Microsoft Word sections. see “Sections (Microsoft Word Only)” on page 497. we recommend that you start by copying an existing output style and giving it a unique name. If you have multiple sections in your Word document. See “Copying Styles” on page 474.. See “Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings” on page 336. Additional Formatting Notes When working with sections in Word. If you do not want a title for each section bibliography.you will see the section bibliographies 344 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . See “Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings” on page 336. please note that: EndNote will always insert a blank line between the final text of each section and the reference list for that section. This leaves the original style intact. make sure the Bibliography Title text box on the Layout tab is empty. a separate bibliography for each section individually. These styles are already defined to format a bibliography for each section. but make sure you first select the output style that formats sections. Format your Word document with the new output style Format your bibliography as you normally would. a complete bibliography will appear twice — once for the end of the section. Save your changes and close the output style. When you format a reference list at the end of each section. Again. or both. you can use the predefined styles APA 5th (sections) or Chicago 15th B (sections).Otherwise.

but make sure to put it after the end of the formatted bibliography—outside of the bibliography field. You can add text after the bibliography. NOTE: When Instant Formatting is enabled. after making the necessary changes. NOTE: See the Styles chapter (Chapter 17) for instructions about editing styles. format the bibliography to automatically make the corrections. Make sure you drag the cursor across the very beginning of the bibliography to select the entire bibliography field. if Instant Formatting is disabled. If you must do this. or adding or deleting citations from your paper. The bibliography may be shaded. it deletes the existing one and puts a new one in its place. Deleting Bibliographies To delete a bibliography.disappear! If you want them back. Then. editing the output style you are using. Moving Bibliographies Cite While You Write always creates the initial bibliography at the end of the Word document that it has formatted. Directly Editing Bibliographies It is always best to make changes to your final bibliography by correcting the data in the EndNote library. Press the Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 345 . or. You can drag-and-drop the bibliography. you can Cut and Paste the bibliography. EndNote will not preserve your edits. If you try to use Cut and Paste. your edits will be gone. remember that if you reformat a paper after editing the bibliography. You can edit the bibliography as you would any text. Instant Formatting will create a new bibliography at the end of the document before you have a chance to Paste. make sure Instant Formatting is disabled. and then delete it. use drag-and-drop to move a bibliography. When EndNote reformats a bibliography. EndNote keeps it there even if you reformat the paper. make sure to format with a style that formats sections individually. so you might need to manually edit the formatted bibliography. but you can still edit it. select the bibliography. If you later reformat the paper. If you move the bibliography to a different location in the document. It is not always possible for EndNote to format the bibliography exactly as needed.

The field may be shaded by Word to help you see citations. but shading does not print. those figures will not be included in the figure list. they are available for inserting into a manuscript with Cite While You Write commands. A figure citation is a brief numbered citation in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a figure at the end of the paragraph or to a figure in a complete list of figures at the end of the paper. In-text figure citations are sequentially numbered and formatted like this: Marella splendens is a small “arthropod” somewhat reminiscent of a trilobite. which are labeled and numbered separately from figures. They appear either within the body of the paper. You can turn field shading off in Word. The current output style determines the placement of formatted figures and tables. the sequential number. Notes About Formatting Figures and Tables Do not use Microsoft Word Captioning in conjunction with EndNote figure captioning or in-text citations. (You still use the generic Find Figure and Generate Figure List commands. This illustration also shows the dark “blob” produced by body contents which were squeezed out of the animal after burial. after the bibliography. The finishing touch is the automatic creation of a figure list and/or a table list that presents a sequential list of all graphics inserted in a manuscript. or in a list at the end of the document.BACKSPACE or DELETE key. and then use the Find Figure command to insert them into the document. Inserting and Formatting Figures and Tables Once figures are organized in an EndNote library. You can also Cut the bibliography if you want to paste it somewhere else. directly after †he paragraph where they are cited. and surrounding parentheses.) If you open an existing document that already has figure citations in the body (that were not inserted with EndNote’s Find Figure command). 346 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . Figures found in the Chart or Table reference type are inserted into word as tables. (Figure 1) It includes the word “Figure” (or “Table”). You will need to add the existing figures to references in EndNote.

In-text figure citations are always formatted as you insert them. See “Placing Figures and Tables” on page 352. choose Update Citations and Bibliography. In the Word document. If more than one in-text figure citation references the same figure with the same caption. position the cursor at the location where you would like the figure citation to appear. and the figure appears only once in a figure list. For example. in the Bibliography group. The Figure field in your references may be titled Figure or have a custom name assigned by you. some versions of Word will not accept PDF files. These page breaks will be remembered if you choose Generate Figure List (or Update Citations and Bibliography in Word 2007) again. Figure and table captions are added from the Caption field in the EndNote reference. select the EndNote X3 submenu and Find Figure(s) to display the EndNote Find Figures dialog. Open the EndNote library that contains the figure you wish to insert. The Instant Formatting that applies to bibliographies does not apply to figures. To insert a graphic or file that is stored in an EndNote reference: 1. or in a list at the end of the document. but if you move or delete a figure citation in your paper. Finding and Inserting Figures and Tables You can search EndNote references and insert a graphic or file from the Figure field of a reference into your Word document. 2. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 347 . you must manually select Generate Figure List from the Tools menu to update the document.You can format figures either directly after the paragraph in which they are cited. NOTE: The file types accepted are dependent on your version of Word and other software installed on your computer. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. You can manually insert a page break between figures if you prefer each figure on a separate page. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. 3. those citations are assigned the same figure number.

Drag the vertical bars between the column titles to display more or less of a field. and Caption field from each matching reference. Identify. 5. in the Citations group. and will search all fields in your records. including the Caption field. Year. Endnote displays the Author. Title. 4. If no references match your text. enter text to identify the reference that contains the figure. Click Find.Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. highlight. 6. In the text box at the top. and Insert the appropriate figure. you need to modify your search text and click Find again. click Insert Citation and then Find Figure. EndNote assumes an “and” between each word. 348 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . The Caption field should contain a description of the figure. and EndNote compares the text to text in your EndNote references and lists each matching reference that contains a figure.

along with the caption. which are labeled and numbered separately from figures. See “Figures and Tables” on page 520 for more information. Remember to Save your document as you work. NOTE: The Instant Formatting that applies to bibliographies does not apply to figures. EndNote inserts the image itself. The figure or table number represents the order of the image in the document. you must manually select Generate Figure List from the Tools menu to update the document as described next. choose Update Citations and Bibliography. but if you move or delete a figure citation in your paper.EndNote places an in-text figure citation at the cursor location and inserts and labels the figure itself. after the bibliography. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 349 . in the Bibliography group. immediately after the paragraph that cites it. You can insert figures and tables in an existing manuscript or as you write. You can modify the output style to place figures and tables in lists at the end of the document.In-text figure citations are always formatted as you insert them. For example: NOTE: Figures found in the Chart or Table reference type are inserted into word as tables. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab.

(Figure 2) EndNote also inserts and displays the actual figures (graphics. you can direct the output style to format tables and figures in lists at the end of the document. in the Bibliography group. EndNote will number each figure and table citation sequentially in the Word document. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. they appear directly after the paragraph in which they are cited. figures. in 350 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . or files) and labels them with figure or table numbers (to match each in-text reference) and Caption text (up to 245 characters from the Caption field in the EndNote reference). tables. and the figure appears only once in the list. You can continue to add figure citations to the Word document. (Figure 1) As researchers look at evidence.Updating Figures and Tables In-text figure citations are always formatted as you insert them. charts. If you move or delete a figure citation in your paper. you must manually generate the figure list to update the figure citation numbering and placement. it illustrates how evolution incorporates traits that evolved for unrelated reasons into a novel structure. choose Update Citations and Bibliography. Or. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. click the Generate Figure List button on the CWYW toolbar. those citations are assigned the same figure number. equations. If you change the position of figure citations in your document (with the Copy and Paste commands). Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. By default. select the EndNote X3 submenu and choose Generate Figure List. choose Generate Figure List again to update figure numbers and the corresponding figures. if more than one citation references the same figure with the same caption. However. If your figures are listed at the end of the document: In a figure or table list. (Table 1) Marella splendens is a small “arthropod” somewhat reminiscent of a trilobite. as shown in this example: This family tree is not a chronological progression. even the crest on the modern Cockatiel provides insight into the evolution of feathers. This illustration also shows the dark “blob” produced by body contents which were squeezed out of the animal after burial. Rather.

direct the output style to always insert page breaks between figures. Or.the Bibliography group. You can manually insert a page break between figures if you prefer each figure on a separate page. A figure list at the end of the document: Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 351 . These page breaks will be remembered if you generate the figure list again. choose Update Citations and Bibliography to update figures and tables.

Both are formatted with Generate Figure List (in Word 2007.Placing Figures and Tables Figures and tables are formatted either after the paragraph where cited or in a list at the end of the manuscript. You can select a different output style even if you have no bibliographic citations in your paper. and the Separation and Punctuation panel determines image separation and punctuation of labels and captions. remember that your output style choice affects both bibliographic citations and figure and table citations. the Tables panel determines the placement of tables (figures from the Chart or Table reference type) and their captions. Automatic Placement by the Output Style The selected output style determines where figures and tables are initially placed in a document and when you Generate Figure List or Update Citations and Bibliography. You can edit individual output styles to place figures and tables either after the paragraph in which they are cited or in a list at the end of the document. 352 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . see “Figures and Tables” on page 520. Both are inserted with the Find Figures command. choose EndNote X3 and then Format Bibliography. use Update Citations and Bibliography). This placement is determined by the current output style. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. output styles are set up to place figures and tables immediately after the paragraph in which they are cited. in the Bibliography group. Figures from the Chart or Table reference type are inserted and formatted as Tables. you can directly choose a different style. If you do have bibliographic citations. or click the bottom corner arrow. Selecting a Different Output Style To apply a different output style in Word: Word 2003: From the Tools menu. By default. For information about editing your output style for figure placement. The Figures panel determines the placement of figures and their captions. Select an output style on the Format Bibliography tab and click OK. NOTE: Figures from any reference type other than Chart or Table are inserted and formatted as Figures.

Moving Individual Figures and Tables To move an individual figure or table within the text of the manuscript: 1. For example: (Figure 1) 2. The selected output style determines whether figures and tables appear directly after the paragraph where cited or in a list at the end of the document. Normally. 5. select Generate Figure List to renumber the in-text citations and update figures and tables. you may adjust the placement of actual figures and tables by cutting the pictures and pasting them elsewhere in the document. 3 4. Paste the Clipboard contents at the new location. Moving Figures and Tables Moving In-text Figure and Table Citations To move or copy a figure or table citation: 1. including the label and caption. Cut the figure (or table). Highlight the entire citation. and tell EndNote to leave existing figures and tables where they are currently placed. select Update Citations and Bibliography. Word 2003: From the Tools>EndNote X3 menu. and Paste it in the appropriate position in your manuscript.Cite While You Write Override of the Output Style As you work in your document. including the surrounding parentheses. when the figure list is generated again. (These commands are found in a Clipboard group in Word 2007. See “Figures and Tables in Word” on page 619 for information about Cite While You Write preferences that affect Figures and Tables. the output style puts them back in their initial location! You can override the output style.) You could also use dragand-drop to move a figure citation. To modify this section of your output style. see “Figures and Tables” on page 520. Use Copy or Cut from the Edit menu to copy or move the citation to the Clipboard. Move the cursor to the new location. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. in the Bibliography group. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 353 .

When the output style is set up to list figures and tables in lists at the end of the document. On the Figures and Tables tab. you may want the list to appear elsewhere in your document. the lists appear after the bibliography. 3. regenerating the figure list will always move figures and tables to the appropriate list at the end of the document. Word 2003: In Word. 354 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . but will not change the position of existing figures and tables. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. select EndNote X3>Generate Figure List.2. EndNote will update figure and table numbering. NOTE: This custom placement is honored only when the current output style is set up to print figures and tables within the text of the manuscript. select Preferences. in the Tools group. select Update Citations and Bibliography. go to the Tools menu and select EndNote X3>Cite While You Write Preferences. Some publishers even require that figures be provided in a separate file. However. select the bottom button for custom placement of figures and tables and click OK. Word 2003: From the Tools menu. in the Bibliography group. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Moving Figure and Table Lists When an output style is modified to print figures and tables in a list at the end of a document. 4.

2. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. in the Bibliography group. Highlight the entire list.To move a figure or table list elsewhere in your document. 3. To provide a figure or table list in a separate file: 1. 4. If multiple in-text figure citations reference the same figure with the same caption. in the Bibliography group. so the list will be updated in its current location. Finalize your manuscript and figure list. 2. Then. NOTE: Do not choose Generate Figure List or Update Citations and Bibliography again within either document. Cut the list to move it to the Clipboard. Deleting a Figure Citation or Figure List To delete a figure or table citation: 1. Delete the figure or table list from the manuscript file. EndNote looks for the beginning marker. and then use the Copy and Paste commands to paste the list into another Word document. those citations are assigned the same figure number. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Highlight the entire list. Paste the Clipboard contents at the new location. 3. 2. including the surrounding parentheses. Each time you choose Generate Figure List (or Update Citations and Bibliography in Word 2007). To delete a figure or table list: To remove a single figure or table from the list. use Generate Figure List to generate an updated list at the end of the document. delete the corresponding in-text figure citation. Move the cursor to the new location. and the figure appears only once in a figure list. select Update Citations and Bibliography. Word 2003: From the Tools>EndNote X3 menu. 3. Press Backspace or Delete. such as before the bibliography: 1. select Update Citations and Bibliography. select Generate Figure List to renumber the remaining in-text figure and table citations and update the formatted figures and tables. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 355 . especially the very beginning of the list which contains a hidden marker. Highlight the entire citation.

If you do not remove the in-text citation. see “Temporary Citations” on page 594 and “Formatting” on page 600. highlight the List of Figures marker or List of Tables marker and press Delete. to completely remove any mention of a figure or table list. see “Figures and Tables” on page 520. in the Tools group. first delete all in-text figure citations and update the list with Generate Figure List or Update Citations and Bibliography. go to the Cite While You Write submenu and select CWYW Preferences. the ability to assign keyboard shortcuts to menu commands. regenerating the figure list will use the in-text citation to display the picture again! Figure and Table Preferences For information about output style settings that affect the placement of figures and tables. Cite While You Write preferences include general preferences. Then. and changes are saved in the same place: From EndNote’s Tools menu.If you want to completely remove the figure or table list. Setting Cite While You Write Preferences You can access and set Cite While You Write preferences from either EndNote or Word. Remove the in-text figure citation and then Generate Figure List or Update Citations and Bibliography. and the ability to control placement of figures. 356 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. For information about Cite While You Write preferences that override output style settings for figures and tables. select Preferences. See “Microsoft Word Cite While You Write Preferences” on page 616 for detailed information about these preferences. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. For information about other EndNote preferences that directly affect Cite While You Write. see “Figures and Tables in Word” on page 619. The same dialog appears. go to the EndNote submenu and select CWYW Preferences. NOTE: Do not delete the figure (picture) itself from the document.

and choose Format Bibliography from the EndNote X3 submenu on the Tools menu in Word. it will take the original reference information from Word’s field codes. EndNote opens the corresponding reference for editing.Making Changes to the EndNote Library Once you have inserted and formatted citations in Word. and then later edit the corresponding reference in EndNote. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 357 . Instead. 3. changes to the corresponding EndNote library could affect reformatting. so changes to these items in an EndNote reference are not reflected in the in-text citation. If you make changes to a figure in an EndNote reference. To find an EndNote reference: 1. Editing a Reference in the Library You may insert a citation in a Word document. select Edit Library Reference(s). select Update Citations and Bibliography. open your EndNote library. Open your document. NOTE: The author’s last name and the publication year are both used to identify a reference. 2. in the Citations group. Cite While You Write will no longer identify a match between the citation and the reference. Finding Cited References in a Library You can quickly jump from a bibliographic in-text citation (not a figure citation) to the corresponding EndNote reference. Word 2003: From the Tools menu in Word. you must manually replace the figure in your Word document. in the Bibliography group. Make sure both your Word document and your EndNote library are open. EndNote will not be able to make the update if the library is not open during formatting. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Highlight the citation(s) in your Word document. and will use reference information from Word’s field codes (the traveling library). Are those changes reflected in your Word document? Your citations and bibliography will reflect the edits the next time you reformat the paper with the EndNote library open. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Edit Library Reference(s).

We recommend that you not rely on EndNote’s record numbers as a means of filing or numbering your office reprints. EndNote will not be able to find the reference information for formatting. EndNote uses information from the unformatted citation to look in the open library and find the corresponding reference. So.Deleting a Reference From the Library The first time a citation is formatted. When you delete a reference. and you have deleted the corresponding reference from the EndNote library. Instead. EndNote takes the reference information from hidden field codes in Word (the Traveling Library). Keep the following points about record numbers in mind: EndNote automatically assigns a record number sequentially to each reference as it is added to a library. If you later reformat. because you have no control over this number. the record numbers will most likely be different. You cannot modify or reassign record numbers. an unformatted citation is simply a temporary placeholder. EndNote again looks in the library for that reference. the required information is still available in the hidden field codes surrounding each formatted citation–even though the reference is no longer in the library. If the same reference appears in two different libraries. However. 1991 #11} The record number for a reference is also visible in the title bar of the Reference window. 358 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . it will be assigned a different record number. If the reference has been deleted from the library. These record numbers appear in temporary citations to ensure that the correct reference is used when the paper is formatted: {Argus. if you deleted a cited reference from the library. Record Numbers EndNote assigns a unique record number to each reference as it is added to your library. If a citation is unformatted. the corresponding record number is never used again in that library. Record numbers are never reused or reassigned within a library. If you add the reference to the library again. You would need to re-insert the citation in Word.

enter your own unique number into the Label field. different record number. Because reference data is kept with each formatted citation. and use that number for your reprints. To send a final. You will need to reinsert the citation into the paper using the new reference in your library. EndNote again looks in the open library for that reference. formatted document to someone. you do not need to do anything to your document other than print it! NOTE: Cite While You Write codes are directly compatible between Word 2003 and 2007. If you later reformat. Each formatted citation is surrounded by field codes which contain full reference information (also referred to as the Traveling Library). If you want to convert your document for use with a previous version of Word. you may want to Remove Field Codes to save the formatted citations and bibliography as text. you may be able to reformat. or a different word processor. Then. you should Unformat Citations before saving in the different file format. However. The corresponding EndNote library (or libraries) must be available in order to format. If you add the reference to the library again. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 359 . or any Custom field. if the library is not available or not open. you can collaborate with other authors on a paper without each author having the same EndNote library. The Traveling Library Each formatted citation in your Word document is saved with field codes that embed reference data in the document. The paper contains a “Traveling Library” of references cited. EndNote uses the Traveling Library for reference information. Of course. if you just want to print a copy of the paper for someone. Sharing Your Word Documents You can directly share your Word 2003. or Word 2007 files with colleagues. The first time a citation is formatted. it will be assigned a new. so EndNote still will not be able to find it when formatting your paper. EndNote looks in the open library and finds the corresponding reference.

Figures. Or. NOTE: Do not unformat your document if you do not have the original references in your libraries. or click Browse to locate a library. in EndNote. or Captions.The reference data saved with each citation includes all fields except Notes. Unlike formatted citations. There is an alternate way to copy references from your Word document to an EndNote library. unformatted citations require that you have the corresponding EndNote libraries open in order to format references. Word 2003: From the Tools menu. To export references from a Word document to an EndNote library: 1. so you can review the records before adding them to an existing library. you may have a large EndNote library. Then. and Figure. Perhaps you received only the formatted Word document from a colleague. 3. Abstract. but want to create a smaller EndNote library with only the subset of references used in your paper. in the Tools group. NOTE: The Traveling Library does not contain Notes. On the Export Traveling Library dialog. select either: An existing EndNote library: Select a library from the drop-down list of available libraries. Open both your Word document and the EndNote library. select Export to EndNote and then Export Traveling Library. Open the document in Word. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. A new EndNote library: You will be prompted to name and Save the new library. and would like to create EndNote references to use later. Exporting Word’s Traveling Library to an EndNote Library There may be occasions where you want to copy all of the references used in a Microsoft Word document to an EndNote library. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and choose Export Traveling Library. go to the 360 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . Abstracts. 2. NOTE: We recommend that you export to a new EndNote library.

select Export to EndNote and then Export Word 2007 Master List. in the Bibliography group. That way you will always access the same library when inserting citations. These footnote and endnote citations are not used directly by EndNote’s Cite While You Write feature (although you can insert an EndNote citation within a Word footnote).Tools menu. To export the Word 2007 master citation list to an EndNote library: 1. On the EndNote tab. select Export to EndNote and then Export Word 2007 Citations. in the Tools group. where you can use commands to insert Microsoft Word footnote or endnote citations. NOTE: The Word citation conversion features requires that your computer have the Microsoft . Open the Word document that contains the citations. then the Cite While You Write submenu. Converting Word 2007 Citations to EndNote Word 2007 includes a Reference tab. If you separately add references to a copy of the library at home and to a different version at work. the exported references are renumbered and do not retain their original reference numbers. Working on Different Computers If you are working on a single paper and moving between different computers. To export Word 2007 citations to an EndNote library: 1. 2. Open the Word document that contains the citations. If you have citations already entered into Word. record numbers may not match up correctly and Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 361 . To convert Word 2007 citations to EndNote citations within the document: 1. select Convert Citations and Bibliography and then Convert Word 2007 Citations to EndNote. On the EndNote tab. On the EndNote tab.Net Framework installed. 2. 2. in the Tools group. you can copy the reference information into an EndNote library and then convert the Word citations into EndNote Cite While You Write citations. Open the Word document that contains the citations. it is best to keep a copy of your reference library with your paper. NOTE: When you use the Export/Import Traveling Library commands. and choose Import Traveling Library.

Because reference data is kept with each formatted citation. but are saved as though you had used the Copy and Paste commands.EndNote may have to rely on the Traveling Library for reference information. See “Removing Field Codes” on page 363 for more information. but you want to make sure that any library edits are reflected in your Word document. you can collaborate with other authors on a paper without each author having the same EndNote library. For information about using your Word document with OpenOffice. NOTE: Cite While You Write codes are directly compatible between Word 2003 and 2007. Saving Files for Other Versions of Word and Other Word Processors Formatted citations are Word “fields” specific to the version of Word that created them and the other compatible versions (Word 2003 and 2007). and use Format Paper to format citations from these placeholders. That is not necessarily bad. The copy reflects final. formatted output. If you open your document with a different version of Word. If you plan to use your document with a different word processor. you will want to rely on the traveling library. Graphics are no longer linked. however.org Writer. you should either Unformat Citations or Remove Field Codes (Convert to Plain Text in Word 2007) from the Word file before converting the document to the other file format. 362 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word .) You may be able to unformat citations. save the document as an RTF file. it is fine to move the document itself to other machines—as long as you will be accessing the document with the same version of Word. NOTE: If you are collaborating with other authors. a different version of Microsoft Word. you may lose the ability to format citations in that document. (See “Unformatting Citations” on page 331. If you are inserting citations on only one machine. or use the Save As command to save a formatted copy of your paper in another format. you save a copy of the document and convert formatted fields to regular formatted text. they are temporary placeholders that do not reflect final output. Unformatting Citations: Unformatted citations are regular text. see “Moving Documents between Microsoft Word and Writer” on page 394. or on a Macintosh machine. Removing Field Codes: When you remove field codes. but you cannot reformat later.

removing field codes saves the formatted citations and bibliography as text.Submitting the Final Paper to a Publisher Removing Field Codes Many publishers ask that you submit an electronic copy of your paper in addition to a printed copy. the document includes a “Traveling Library. Because EndNote and Cite While You Write cannot reformat or unformat your paper once field codes are removed. you could remove field codes to share your final document. However. Intext figure citations become plain text. in-text figure citations are no longer linked to an EndNote reference or to the figure list. See “The Traveling Library” on page 359 to learn more about the Traveling Library. NOTE: If you are working with master and subdocuments in Word. Removing field codes means deleting Word’s Cite While You Write field codes and saving the formatted citations and bibliography as text. If your colleague is using a different word processor or an incompatible version of Word. and not all other Word field codes. as described next. When field codes are removed. and does not allow reformatting. you can share your formatted document as is. You should first manually save copies of the master and subdocuments. You may need to remove Cite While You Write field codes in order to share your document with a publisher or colleague. Pictures in the figure list become GIF files as though they were copied and pasted into the document. This removes only Cite While You Write field codes. you may be asked to submit a copy of your paper without field codes. Because the field codes in your document may be incompatible with the publishing software. the Remove Field Codes command (Convert to Plain Text in Word 2007) makes a copy of your document without codes. If your colleague is using the same version of Word that you are. and then remove codes from the copies. Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word 363 .” which includes all required information for the formatted citations and bibliography. the Remove Field Codes or Convert to Plain Text command warns that it will strip codes from the original documents.

which retains field codes. To remove all Microsoft Word field codes: 1. Single document: In Word’s Save As dialog. A copy of the document. Press CTRL+6 to remove all Microsoft Word field codes from the document (not just Cite While You Write codes!) and leave the text. in the Bibliography group. which may yield better results. so you can submit your paper to a publisher or share your final paper with a colleague using a different word processor (including a different version of Word). First save a backup copy of your document. work with copies of your documents. you can remove all Microsoft Word field codes. and bibliography as they appear. 364 Chapter 11: Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word . Word 2003: From the File menu. To reformat. Word 2007: Click the Office icon and then Save. start with the original document. select Convert Citations and Bibliography and then Convert to Plain Text. If you are working with Master and Subdocuments. 4. citations. 2. Open your formatted Word document.To remove field codes and save the formatted citations and bibliography as text: 1. type a new name for this copy of your document and click OK. so you cannot reformat with Cite While You Write. without field codes. because this will irretrievably remove the links between your document and your EndNote libraries as well as all other Word field codes. 2. 3. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. Word 2003: From the Tools menu. Word saves your document without embedded formatting codes. If you find that removing EndNote field codes produces undesired layout or other formatting changes to your document. go to the EndNote X3 submenu and select Remove Field Codes. 3. appears in a new document window. Master and Subdocuments: You may be advised to save a copy of the master and each subdocument. Save the document. NOTE: The copy does not contain Cite While You Write field codes. Select all text in the document by pressing CTRL+A.

............................................................................................ Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes ... 385 Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings ............ 380 Generating Bibliographies ............ 367 Word Processor Compatibility ............................................................................................. 367 Basic Instructions ............................. 386 365 ................................................ Finding and Inserting Citations ....................org Writer Contents Overview of the Cite While You Write Process .. 371 371 372 373 374 374 374 374 376 377 379 379 381 381 382 383 383 Typing Citations into Your Paper........... Customizing Individual Citations .......................... 385 Basic Instructions ... Inserting Multiple Citations ....................................... Changing Existing Citations....................... Inserting From Multiple Libraries .............. Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper ...................................... Moving or Copying Citations ................................... 367 Notes about OpenOffice.............................. Using Drag-and-Drop or Copy and Paste ..................................... Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text ........................ Editing Citations ..............................Chapter 12 Cite While You Write with OpenOffice........................................................... 370 Citing Sources As You Write .......... Manually Inserting Citations ........... Deleting Citations ..... Forms of Citations ............................................................. Unformatting Citations .........................org Writer..................................................... Inserting Selected Citations ...................... 369 The CWYW Commands ................................... 369 Installing Cite While You Write Support in OpenOffice....org Writer ...

org Writer Documents................................ 393 Working on Different Computers .org Writer and Other Word Processors ................ 391 Making Changes to the EndNote Library .............................................. 387 388 389 389 390 Setting Cite While You Write Preferences .................... 394 366 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice... 393 Saving Files for Other Versions of OpenOffice......................... 392 Sharing Your OpenOffice.......................................... Moving Bibliographies ........................ 391 Editing a Reference in the Library..... 394 Moving Documents between Microsoft Word and OpenOffice........................ Deleting Bibliographies ........... Directly Editing Bibliographies ............ Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents..........Reformatting Papers ................................org Writer ..................................org Writer ......................... 392 Deleting a Reference From the Library ................

you must use the OpenOffice.org Writer .org Writer and open the paper you are writing. see “Independent Bibliographies” on page 416 in Chapter 14. or an older version of these word processors. see Chapter 11. To create a stand-alone bibliography that is not based on the citations in a paper. NOTE: Only one word processor at a time should be open when inserting citations and formatting documents. If you use Microsoft Word as your word processor.org Writer displays Cite While You Write commands on an EndNote menu.org Writer.Overview of the Cite While You Write Process This chapter describes how to Cite While You Write ™ (CWYW) with OpenOffice.” If you use a word processor other than Microsoft Word or OpenOffice. These procedures are described in more detail later in this chapter.org Writer are summarized below. Start OpenOffice. save your document as an RTF file and use Format Paper. Then. Basic Instructions The basic steps required to cite a reference and generate a bibliography with OpenOffice. “Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word. See Chapter 13. To Cite While You Write: 1. You can start by inserting a citation into the document. 3. position the cursor in the text where you would like to put the citation. 2.org Writer. OpenOffice. 367 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. Cite While You Write gives you access to EndNote references and formatting commands with an EndNote menu in OpenOffice. When you are ready to cite a source.org™ version 3 Writer to easily and quickly cite references and create a paper with properly formatted citations and a bibliography. Open the EndNote library or libraries that contain the references you wish to cite.org version 3 Writer. you can format the citation and a bibliography according to any one of hundreds of styles. Word Processor Compatibility To Cite While You Write.

6. 368 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. Identify. enter identifying text for EndNote to locate the appropriate reference. a keyword. your document is done! 9. 7. it may be completely blank because there are no previous search results to display. NOTE: Each time you insert a citation it is instantly formatted. NOTE: If this is the first time you have used the Find Citations dialog. and Insert the appropriate reference(s). go to the EndNote menu and select Format Bibliography. When you are done inserting citations. and continue citing references this way. Go back to step 3 to insert the next citation. An EndNote Find Citations dialog appears. highlight. a year. and a bibliography is not updated each time you insert a citation. which shows the previous search results. 8. In the Find box. Click Search and EndNote compares the identifying text to your EndNote references and then lists the matching reference(s).4.org Writer . Go to the EndNote menu and select Find Citation(s). This could be an author’s last name. 5. or any other combination of terms found in the reference. If your citations are not automatically formatted. and a bibliography is updated at the end of your document.

using the selected style. click Browse to locate it. see “No EndNote commands in Word or Writer” on page 697. and appends a bibliography to the end of the paper. (You can Format Bibliography at any time in order to change the style or layout of your citations and bibliography.) NOTE: The dialog lists the styles that are currently selected as your “favorites” in the Style Manager. Your paper is ready for publication! Notes about OpenOffice. the style and layout of the bibliography.org Writer Installing Cite While You Write Support in Writer EndNote’s installation program installs Cite While You Write support for OpenOffice. EndNote scans your paper and. or simply verify. 10. If you installed the OpenOffice suite after installing EndNote.org Writer 369 . formats temporary citations. Click OK. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.A Format Bibliography dialog appears. where you can change.org Writer. updates formatted citations. If you need to choose a style that is not in the list. EndNote commands appear on an EndNote X3 menu in the OpenOffice. For more information. you must either reinstall EndNote or Repair or Modify your installation.org Writer.

See page 382 for more information. This command launches EndNote if it is not already running. This removes style formatting for the selected citations. and the record number surrounded by delimiters.org Writer When you choose an EndNote command from the menu. Format Bibliography Format (or reformat) your paper according to the rules of the selected style. Unformat Citation(s) Unformat a selected citation before editing it.org Writer . The formatting process replaces the temporary citations in your paper with formatted citations. the EndNote program starts (if not already running). You can omit author and/or year from citations.org Writer: The EndNote X3 menu in OpenOffice. or add prefix or suffix text (such as page numbers) to citations. Find Citation(s) Search for EndNote references to select and insert as citations in your OpenOffice. however.org Writer: Go To EndNote Bring EndNote to the front of your screen. See page 385 for more information. Insert Selected Citations Insert a citation for each reference currently selected in the open EndNote library. attempting to insert hundreds of EndNote references at one time may cause a system slowdown or freezing. Edit Citations Edit existing individual or multiple citations. You can insert any number of consecutive in-text citations. 370 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. the year. several EndNote commands appear on an EndNote X3 menu in OpenOffice. and builds a bibliography at the end of the document. or unformat the whole document. See page 372 for more information.org Writer document. These are brief descriptions of the Cite While You Write commands found on the EndNote menu in OpenOffice. See page 381 for more information.The CWYW Commands When Cite While You Write is installed. and leaves temporary citations which usually consist of the author’s last name.

It will appear when you Unformat Citation(s) or manually enter unformatted citations. You may prefer to execute these commands from the keyboard. Unformatted (Temporary) Citations An unformatted citation is a temporary placeholder. and does not reflect final output.. You can also use the corresponding EndNote X3 toolbar in OpenOffice.org Writer 371 . of the species at hand (Argus. but most writers prefer entering citations as they write the paper rather than waiting to insert them after the text is written. Note the keyboard shortcuts defined under Cite While You Write Preferences. Citing Sources As You Write You can enter EndNote temporary citations into a paper at any time. A citation typically consists of a bibliography number or the author and year in parentheses: .. See page 616 for more information. Forms of Citations A “citation” is the brief bibliographic information in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a complete reference in the bibliography.Cite While You Write Preferences Change general Cite While You Write preferences. 1991). It contains information to find a unique.. Citations can appear as either unformatted or formatted in your OpenOffice. Hold your mouse pointer over an icon to view a tooltip. change the EndNote keyboard shortcuts available in OpenOffice.org Writer document.. Help Display help specifically about Cite While You Write features.org Writer for easy access. . corresponding EndNote reference in the currently open library.org Writer. or switch to EndNote Web Cite While You Write. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. of the species at hand1.

org Writer document: 1.org Writer. 1994 #8} The unformatted citation makes it easy to identify the record cited. either after adding more citations or because you want to format in a different style.2] You can easily revert from formatted citations to unformatted citations at any time. Open the OpenOffice. Even if your final goal is numeric citations. Formatted citations include hidden information in case you want to Format Bibliography again later. For example: {Alvarez. Citations formatted in an Author-Date style might look like this: (Alvarez 1994. 2. Turnhouse 1987) This is the same citation formatted in the Numbered style: [1. Open the EndNote libraries that contain the references you wish to cite. year. See “Unformatting Citations” on page 382. and reflects final output. 372 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.An unformatted citation typically consists of the first author’s last name. Formatted Citations The Format Bibliography command uses an output style to convert all unformatted citations into formatted citations.org Writer document and position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation. with citation delimiters at each end to identify the text: {Author. Year #Record Number}. EndNote relies on these temporary citations to determine which references to include in the bibliography. you can see meaningful information while you are working on your document. Finding and Inserting Citations You can search for EndNote references and insert them without ever leaving OpenOffice. and the EndNote record number.org Writer . This is the easiest way to find and insert a citation into an OpenOffice.

choose Find Citation(s) to display the EndNote Find Citations dialog.org Writer 373 . Citations are inserted directly into your paper in the same font as the surrounding text. and Insert the appropriate reference(s). enter text to identify the reference you wish to cite. enter text to identify the reference you wish to cite. From the EndNote menu. Go to the EndNote menu and Find Citation(s) to display the EndNote Find Citations dialog. EndNote assumes an “and” between each word. highlight. it contains reference information in hidden codes.org Writer. Click Search. Finding and Inserting from Highlighted Text To find and insert a citation from highlighted text: 1. 4.3. To format your citations and generate a bibliography. Identify. As you are typing in OpenOffice. and highlight that text. Once a citation is inserted. and EndNote compares the text to text in your EndNote references and lists the matching reference(s). and will search all fields in your records. 2. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. In the Find text box. You can insert citations in an existing manuscript or as you write. Remember to Save your document as you work. see “Generating Bibliographies” on page 385. you need to modify your search text and click Search again. 6. 5. If no references match your text.

” Inserting Selected Citations To insert references selected in EndNote: 1. When formatted. select Insert Selected Citation(s).org Writer .org Writer document. 374 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. Go to the EndNote menu and select Go to EndNote.org clipboard).org Writer document and position the cursor at the location where you would like the citation. 1988 #77.EndNote inserts your highlighted text into the Find box. sorted as your bibliographic style requires: Unformatted: {Hall. 2. You can manually type temporary citations if you prefer. You can also copy citations from the EndNote Library window and paste them into the document (using Copy from EndNote’s Edit menu and then Paste from the OpenOffice. attempting to insert hundreds of EndNote references at one time may cause a system slowdown or freezing. 1988) You can insert any number of consecutive in-text citations. 3. Hall. the entire citation remains unformatted. Switch back to the OpenOffice. however. 5. Highlight the desired reference(s) in your EndNote library. 1988. From the EndNote menu. Using Dragand-Drop or Copy and Paste You can drag selected citations from your EndNote library and drop them into your paper at the desired location for the citation. 4. 1988 #16} Formatted: (Baker. Manually Inserting Citations Inserting Multiple Citations There are several ways to insert multiple references in one in-text citation. Open the OpenOffice. they appear as one multiple citation. Use the Find Citation(s) dialog as described above under “Finding and Inserting Citations. NOTE: If one of the citations in a multiple citation is not matched during formatting. See “Typing Citations into Your Paper” on page 380 to learn what types of citations EndNote recognizes. Baker.

4. Unformatted: {Hall. and click Search. To insert multiple selected citations from EndNote: 2. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. From the EndNote menu. 1988) NOTE: You can add citations to an existing in-text citation.org Writer: 1.org Writer 375 . 1988. Citations do not merge if any character separates them–including a space or punctuation mark.To insert multiple citations from within OpenOffice. choose Insert Selected Citation(s). 2. Hold down the CTRL key while clicking on the desired references in the list (or hold down the S HIFT key to select a continuous range of references) in order to highlight the references. 3. In EndNote. but immediately next to each other. select Find Citation(s). or change the order of citations within the delimiters with the Edit Citations dialog. 1988 #16} Merged when Formatted: (Baker. Click Insert. Switch back to the OpenOffice.org Writer document. Cite While You Write merges adjacent citations during formatting. 3. From the EndNote menu. Enter a generic search term that will find the references you want.1988 #77}{Baker. 1. To insert multiple citations individually: Another option is to insert citations individually. Hall. hold down the C TRL key while clicking on the desired references in your library (or hold down the SHIFT key to select a continuous range of references).

org Writer . Simply open the selected libraries before you begin inserting citations. Use the arrow buttons to change the order of the citation in a multiple citation.) You can use the other features on this dialog as described on page 377. go to the EndNote menu and then Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog. though. Click Insert to insert another citation within the same set of delimiters. Highlight a citation. 3. or edit citations within an existing in-text citation: 1. remove. Inserting From Multiple Libraries You can cite references from multiple libraries. Keeping all of your references in one library simplifies the writing process because you know exactly where to find each reference. changing the order of citations in a multiple citation has no effect. Click on the formatted citation.To insert. (If a Citation Sort Order is applied by the current output style. In OpenOffice. and then: Click Remove to delete it. there is little likelihood of duplicate 376 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. we recommend that you use a single library when writing a paper. If possible. 2.org Writer. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog.

and you only need to have one library open when inserting citations. 1988) You can omit the author’s name from the citation: Hall’s discovery (1988) You can omit the date from the citation: the 1988 discovery (Hall) You can add a suffix with page number to the citation: the discovery (Hall. assume a formatted citation looks like this: Hall’s discovery (Hall. Or. you might want to add a page reference or comment before or after the citation. For example. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. Customizing Individual Citations There may be cases where you want individual citations to differ from the standard format. read about the “Merge Duplicates in Bibliography” preference in the “Preferences” chapter on page 600.references. NOTE: If you plan to insert citations from more than one library into a paper.4) You can add a prefix to the citation: the discovery (see Hall.org Writer 377 . Click on the formatted citation. 2. 1988) To customize a formatted citation: 1. 1988 p. Insert and format the citation. You may want to remove the year or author from a citation if either was mentioned in the context of the sentence.

so they can be manipulated on output just like any other EndNote field. Customize as needed: Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the formatted citation. Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the formatted citation. the Cited Pages field must be listed in the citation template and/or footnote template of your output style. go to the EndNote menu and Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog. 4. Pages: Page numbers entered here are considered entered into a “Cited Pages” field. You can enter page numbers here if you always want them to print after the citation. This is typically used to print the page numbers within a full footnote citation. In OpenOffice. In order to print.org Writer. For information about how to modify your output style to include Cited Pages. Suffix: Enter text here to print after the citation text (spaces are significant). Highlight the citation you want to customize.3. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. Click OK to implement the change(s) to the citation. Most EndNote styles that require a special format for citations in footnotes are already configured this way.org Writer . 5. Prefix: Enter text here to print immediately before the citation text (spaces are significant). 6. 378 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. see Chapter 17.

with no space between them.org Writer. 2. The EndNote style that is selected when you choose Format Bibliography determines how citations in footnotes and endnotes are formatted. (EndNote does not create the footnote or endnote in the document. insert the new reference next to (not within) the existing citation. if Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. you can cite references in that footnote or endnote just like you cite them in the body of the document. 3. To cite a reference in a footnote or endnote: 1.Inserting Citations into a Formatted Paper If you need to add one or more citations to a paper that has already been formatted. Insert the citation as you normally would. Insert it immediately before or after the existing citation. It can also create a special format specific to footnotes or endnotes. like this: (Hockney and Ellis. simply insert the new citations into the text (as described earlier in this chapter) and choose Format Bibliography when you are ready to update the bibliography and citations. Hockney and Ellis. but is used to insert and format citations in the note. 1984. 1984 #1} Adjacent citations are merged during formatting. Use the appropriate command in OpenOffice. and “Bibliography and Footnote Templates” on page 480. To add a new reference to an existing citation. EndNote can format these citations as brief in-text citations or like complete references in the bibliography.) Position the cursor in the footnote or endnote where you would like the citation(s) to appear. and the formatted citations are sorted according to the style: (Argus. Or. 1996) NOTE: Do not insert a citation into the middle of a formatted citation. you can include specific page numbers to be formatted like a regular EndNote field.” and other variations of shortened references when a citation appears more than once in the footnotes or endnotes. See “Customizing Individual Citations” on page 377.org Writer to create the footnote or endnote. Citing References in Footnotes and Endnotes Once you have created a footnote or endnote in OpenOffice.org Writer 379 . including options like “Ibid. 1996){Argus. If you are citing full references in footnotes. See Chapter 17 for more information.

Your hands never have to leave the keyboard. The most flexible way is to manually type temporary citations directly into your paper. Manually entering citations is the same whether you are using Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. see “Citing Specific Page Numbers in Footnotes” on page 327.you are manually typing citations. See the following sections in Chapter 11. Use these rules when typing temporary citations directly into your document. “Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word. You must use the EndNote menu and either insert another reference with the Find Citation(s) command or choose Format Bibliography to format or update citations and a reference list.org Writer .” “Notes About Temporary Citations” on page 322 “Components of a Temporary Citation” on page 323 “Omitting Authors or Years from Citations” on page 325 “Citation Prefixes” on page 326 “Citation Suffixes” on page 326 “Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation” on page 327 “Examples of Modified Citations” on page 329 380 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. as discussed previously in this chapter. Typing Citations into Your Paper There are many ways to insert citations in your paper. or Format Paper with an RTF file.org Writer. The rules described in this section govern how EndNote recognizes and interprets temporary (unformatted) citations. NOTE: Instant Formatting is not triggered when you manually type a reference into a document. Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word.

if you feel you must). go to the EndNote menu and Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog. Direct edits are lost the next time EndNote formats the bibliography. choose Format Bibliography to (re)format the new or modified citations and regenerate the bibliography.org Writer 381 . In OpenOffice. To safely edit a formatted citation: 1. right-click with your mouse. 3. After making changes. You can almost always get EndNote to format your citations exactly to your specifications by editing the style. Select the appropriate citation from the list at the left of the dialog (you can scroll through all citations in the document) Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. NOTE: An easy way to omit the Author or Date from an individual citation is to select the citation.org Writer. Editing Citations Once you have inserted and formatted a citation. Click on the citation you wish to change. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. 2. choose Edit Citation(s) and then Exclude Author or Exclude Year. the EndNote reference. you should not edit it directly (although you can do so.Changing Existing Citations You can change citations at any time. or the citation (as described here).

Prefix: Enter text here to print immediately before the citation text (spaces are significant). 4. Suffix: Enter text here to print after the citation text (spaces are significant). 382 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. Remove: Highlight a citation and click Remove to delete it from the in-text citation.org Writer . If your citations are formatted in a numbered style. Click OK to implement your change(s). You can format the bibliography again later.) 5. Pages: Enter page numbers here to print as Cited Pages. (If a Citation Sort Order is applied by the current output style. using this dialog to change the order of citations in a multiple citation has no effect. Unformatting Citations Unformatting reverts formatted citations to temporary citations and removes the bibliography.and make any of the following changes to the highlighted citation: Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the formatted citation. choose Format Bibliography to (re)format the new or modified citations and regenerate the bibliography. NOTE: You must have the corresponding EndNote library open in order to format the paper again. To print. You can add or remove citations from a multiple citation. Up and Down Arrows: Highlight a reference and use the arrows to change the order of display. After making changes. the Cited Pages field must be listed in the citation template or footnote template of the output style. Insert: Use this to add another citation within the same set of delimiters. you can unformat your paper to easily identify citations as you work. Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the formatted citation. or change the order of citations.

You can format the paper again at any time.To unformat citations: 1. (If the hidden bookmark is not part of the selection. 1999 #25}”). go the EndNote menu and choose Format Bibliography. Including the characters before and after the citation ensures that you include the hidden bookmark associated with the citation. To unformat the entire document. and not an EndNote citation. Determine which citations you want to unformat: To unformat a particular citation. While it is possible to highlight a formatted citation and simply press the delete key on your keyboard.) Then Cut or Copy and Paste it elsewhere in the document. we do not recommend Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. make sure you highlight the entire citation (including any surrounding delimiters) as well as an extra character before and after the citation. either select nothing or highlight the entire document. Moving or Copying Citations You can highlight any text that includes citations. If you are unformatting the entire document. 2. To format your paper again. To move or copy only the citation itself. You can do this with formatted or temporary (unformatted) citations. highlight only that citation.org Writer 383 . simply highlight the entire citation (including delimiters). To unformat a section of the document. If the citation you want to unformat is part of a multiple citation. and press the backspace or delete key. Unformatted citations are temporary placeholders that do not reflect final output. this unformats all of the in-text citations and removes the current bibliography. highlight that section. You can tell when a paper is unformatted because the citations appear in the temporary citation format (such as “{Smith. select Unformat Citation(s). All citations within the delimiters will be unformatted. Deleting Citations To delete an unformatted citation. From the EndNote menu. highlight the multiple citation. then use the Clipboard commands to Cut or Copy and then Paste it elsewhere in the document. you will copy plain text.

Go to the EndNote menu and select Edit Citation(s) to display the EndNote Edit Citation dialog. Click OK. 4. All of the cited references in the document are listed in the left column of the dialog. If the citation is part of a multiple citation. make sure you select just the citation you want to delete. To safely delete a formatted citation: 1. make sure the highlighted citation is the one you want to delete. If you do not completely delete the citation and its associated bookmark. 5. Click Remove. 2. highlight the citation you want to delete.you do that. In the left column. In OpenOffice. 3. The line below shows the cited reference(s). An ellipses shows where a citation appears within text.org Writer . The citation you highlighted in the document should be highlighted in the list. you could corrupt your document.org Writer. 384 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.

3.Generating Bibliographies Formatting a bibliography serves two functions: It formats each in-text citation according to the selected bibliographic style. It is okay to experiment with different styles because you can simply reformat again. and all of your EndNote citations have been inserted into the text. The format used for citations and references is determined by the output style selected. Format Bibliography allows you to modify bibliography preferences such as style and layout before formatting your document. go to the EndNote menu and select Format Bibliography. and is turned on when you first start using Cite While You Write. This can be done in one of these ways: Instant Formatting actually works as you insert citations. 2. In OpenOffice. Click OK to format all citations and build the bibliography. In OpenOffice. if you want to change the style or layout of references. On the Format Bibliography tab. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. It adds a complete bibliography to the document (unless you override this with a setting in the output style).org Writer. you are ready for EndNote to format the paper and generate a bibliography. Basic Instructions When you have finished writing your paper. These are the basic formatting instructions: 1. However. EndNote uses the currently selected style to format citations and update the bibliography each time a citation is inserted. go to the EndNote menu and select Format Bibliography.org Writer. you can use the Format Bibliography command. use the With output style option to select an output style to format references.org Writer 385 .

In OpenOffice.org Writer. see “Adding Styles to the Output Styles List” on page 339. or you may have finished writing your paper. Make sure they are unique delimiters. Temporary citation delimiters: These are the opening and closing delimiters for temporary citations. 2. change or verify these settings: With output style: Select the appropriate output style to format references. The defaults are curly braces. you can format your paper at any time. As long as you have citations entered in your document. On the Format Bibliography tab. You can experiment by reformatting with various output styles. go to the EndNote menu and select Format Bibliography. and not characters you would normally use in your paper. To add more output styles to the list.org Writer . To format citations and generate a bibliography: 1. Each time a citation is formatted. You can reformat after adding more citations or to change the style or layout settings. the corresponding EndNote library must be open.Formatting the Bibliography and/or Changing Bibliography Settings You may be halfway through inserting citations. 386 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.

select the output style on the Format Bibliography tab. Bibliography title: To print a title at the top of your bibliography. change or verify these settings: Font and Size: These are the text font and size used for the bibliography. Start with bibliography number: Enter a starting reference number if you want to number your bibliography.org Writer 387 . 4. you can update the citations and the bibliography by simply choosing the Format Bibliography command again. Reformatting Papers Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers If you add more citations to your paper after the formatting process. choose Format Bibliography. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice.3. and click OK. If all you want to do is change the output style. NOTE: You do not have to verify each tab every time you format. NOTE: You do not need to unformat your citations in order to reformat them. Click OK to save changes and format your citations and bibliography. On the Layout tab. type the title in this text box. Text Format: Highlight the bibliography title text and then use the Text Format button to display a dialog where you can change the format of the highlighted text.

Creating a Bibliography from Multiple Documents You can use the OpenOffice. they cannot be designated Read-only (locked).org Writer . insert your citations to link them to references in an EndNote library. 7. using citations from the master document and all displayed subdocuments. (Check the OpenOffice. Insert and display each of your chapters as subdocuments.) 3. Create a File>New> Master document.org Writer Master Document feature to generate a single bibliography from multiple documents. In OpenOffice. See “Adding Styles to the Output Styles List” on page 339 for information about expanding the list of available styles. Your citations and bibliography are updated for the new bibliographic style. Select a new style from the Format Bibliography dialog and click OK. NOTE: Your documents must allow read/write access. 6. In each document.org Writer. select Format Bibliography. In each of your documents. and places it at the end of the master document. To create a single bibliography: 1. From the EndNote X3 menu. Verify the formatting options and click OK. EndNote creates the bibliography. and choose Format Bibliography again. go to the EndNote X3 menu and choose Unformat Citations to unformat all of the citations in the document. 4.Reformatting with Different Styles To reformat your paper in a different style: 1. go to the EndNote menu. This allows you to create a cumulative bibliography from any number of book chapters. NOTE: If you have collapsed subdocuments to hide their content in Outline view. make sure you expand them in order to display the contents of all subdocuments before continuing. or chapters. You can move the 388 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. 2.org Writer help documentation if you need step-by-step instructions. 5. Close all of your documents. 2.

If you later reformat the paper. format the bibliography to automatically make the corrections. If you add text to the bibliography field. You can add text after the bibliography. We recommend that you leave the bibliography at the end of the document. it will disappear the next time you generate a bibliography. after making the necessary changes. When EndNote reformats a bibliography.org Writer document that it has formatted. See the Styles chapter (Chapter 17) for instructions about editing styles. or adding or deleting citations from your paper. editing the output style you are using. your edits will be gone. but it gets tricky! First. but realize that is not always possible.org Writer 389 . but you can still edit it. highlight the entire bibliography field—but make sure you Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. Copy and Paste the Bibliography You can copy and paste the bibliography.bibliography anywhere within the master or subdocuments. EndNote will not preserve your edits. Directly Editing Bibliographies It is always best to make changes to your final bibliography by correcting the data in the EndNote library. If you must do this. You can edit the bibliography as you would any text. Below are some options for moving the bibliography to a different location in your paper. remember that if you reformat a paper after editing the bibliography. Then. NOTE: Please back up your document before you begin! Add Text After the Bibliography You may want to add text after the bibliography. The bibliography may be shaded. You can do this. and it will remain in that location even when you reformat. it deletes the existing one and puts a new one in its place. It is not always possible for EndNote to format the bibliography exactly as needed. but make sure to put it well after the end of the formatted bibliography—outside of the bibliography field. Moving Bibliographies Cite While You Write always creates the initial bibliography at the end of the OpenOffice. but make sure you are well beyond the end of the bookmarked bibliography field. so you might need to manually edit the formatted bibliography.

Deleting Bibliographies To delete a bibliography. plus the paragraph marker after the bibliography. Make sure you drag the cursor from the line above the bibliography to the end of the bibliography in order to select the entire bibliography field. if you have included one). 390 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. and then delete it. bookmarked bibliography field to a different location in the document. EndNote keeps it there even when you reformat the paper.org Writer . Cut the bibliography and Paste it in the new location. Then. and the bibliography in the old location will change as you update citations or reformat the bibliography. select the bibliography. Once you have moved the complete. NOTE: If you have not selected the complete.include the two paragraph markers before the start of the bibliography (or the two paragraph markers before the bibliography title. you will have copied and pasted plain text. The text in the new location will never get updated. bookmarked bibliography field. Press the BACKSPACE or DELETE key. plus the complete bibliography. You can also Cut the bibliography if you want to paste it somewhere else.

org Writer 391 .org Writer.org Writer.org Writer Select this item to always close EndNote when you leave OpenOffice. go to the EndNote menu and select Cite While You Write Preferences. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. Making Changes to the EndNote Library Once you have inserted and formatted citations in OpenOffice. This works only when the EndNote program was launched with one of the Cite While You Write commands from within Writer or if the Open EndNote When Starting Writer preference is selected.org Writer Select this item to always open EndNote when you start OpenOffice. For information about other EndNote preferences that directly affect Cite While You Write. Open EndNote When Starting OpenOffice.org Writer.Setting Cite While You Write Preferences To access and set Cite While You Write preferences: In OpenOffice. see “Temporary Citations” on page 594 and “Formatting” on page 600.org Writer. Close EndNote When Leaving OpenOffice. changes to the corresponding EndNote library could affect reformatting.

NOTE: The author’s last name and the publication year are both used to identify a reference. Record Numbers EndNote assigns a unique record number to each reference as it is added to your library. EndNote uses information from the unformatted citation to look in the open library and find the corresponding reference.org Writer. If you have deleted the corresponding reference from the EndNote library. If the same reference appears in two different libraries. Open your document. EndNote again looks in the library for that reference. If you add the reference to the library again. open your EndNote library. EndNote will not be able to find the reference information for formatting. and choose Format Bibliography from the EndNote menu in OpenOffice. 1991 #11} The record number for a reference is also visible in the title bar of the Reference window. Keep the following points about record numbers in mind: EndNote automatically assigns a record number sequentially to each reference as it is added to a library. EndNote will not be able to make the update if the library is not open during formatting. 392 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. the record numbers will most likely be different. If you later reformat. Cite While You Write will no longer identify a match between the citation and the reference. Are those changes reflected in your Writer document? Your citations and bibliography will reflect the edits the next time you reformat the paper with the EndNote library open. Deleting a Reference From the Library The first time a citation is formatted. it will be assigned a different record number.org Writer .org Writer document. These record numbers appear in temporary citations to ensure that the correct reference is used when the paper is formatted: {Argus.Editing a Reference in the Library You may insert a citation in an OpenOffice. so changes to these items in an EndNote reference are not reflected in the in-text citation.org Writer. and then later edit the corresponding reference in EndNote. You would need to re-insert the citation with OpenOffice.

because you have no control over this number. different record number.ODT files with colleagues. you may be able to reformat. You cannot modify or reassign record numbers.org Writer Documents You can directly share your OpenOffice.Record numbers are never reused or reassigned within a library. Then. You will need to reinsert the citation into the paper using the new reference in your library. That way you will always access the same library when inserting citations. record numbers may not match up correctly. When you delete a reference. If you separately add references to a copy of the library at home and to a different version at work.org Writer 393 . you should Unformat Citations before saving in the different file format. Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. and use that number for your reprints. enter your own unique number into the Label field. We recommend that you not rely on EndNote’s record numbers as a means of filing or numbering your office reprints. If you add the reference to the library again. the corresponding record number is never used again in that library. it is fine to move the document itself to other machines—as long as you will be accessing the document with the same version of Writer. Of course. If you are inserting citations on only one machine.org Writer document unless the associated EndNote library is available. If you want to convert your document for use with a previous version of Writer or a different word processor. The corresponding EndNote library (or libraries) must be available in order to format references. so EndNote still will not be able to find it when formatting your paper. it will be assigned a new.org . or any Custom field. You cannot format citations in your OpenOffice. you must keep a copy of your reference library with your paper. You want to make sure that any library edits are reflected in your Writer document. if you just want to print a copy of the paper for someone. Instead. you do not need to do anything to your document other than print it! Working on Different Computers If you are working on a single paper and moving between different computers. Sharing Your OpenOffice.

however. or as an RTF file. Then. or on a Macintosh machine. These include: using the template wizard inserting notes inserting figures and tables constant background instant formatting creating multiple bibliographies in a single document with sections using a traveling library (rather than always having the library available and open) 394 Chapter 12: Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. and not in OpenOffice. If you plan to use your document with a different word processor.org Writer and vice versa. For Word files. you should Unformat Citations before converting the document to the other file format.Saving Files for Other Versions of Writer and Other Word Processors If you open your document with a different version of Writer. they are temporary placeholders that do not reflect final output. or use the Save As command to save a formatted copy of your paper in another format. open the file in the other word processor. Unformatted citations are regular text. a different version of OpenOffice.org Writer. Always start by making a backup of the original document! With the original word processor. There are several Cite While You Write functions that are available only in Microsoft Word. make sure you first unformat citations and Save the document. For older ODT files or RTF files. Moving Documents between Microsoft Word and Writer You can convert your Microsoft Word documents for OpenOffice. as an older version Writer ODT file.org Writer . you may lose the ability to format citations in that document.org Writer. use Cite While You Write for Microsoft Word to reformat the paper.) You can unformat citations and then save the document as a Microsoft Word file. You must have the associated EndNote library available and open in order to format the citations and bibliography. use Format Paper to format citations from these placeholders. (See “Unformatting Citations” on page 382.

.... 401 Temporary vs...............412 Working on Different Computers .. 403 Record Numbers ................................Chapter 13 Scanning and Formatting Files Contents Scanning and Formatting Files ......................................... 403 Typing Citations into Your Paper .............. 410 Rescanning the Paper ..................................................... 411 Finding EndNote References for Editing ........ 397 Tips on Citing Sources .................... 411 Modifying References in Your Library ....................... Formatted Citations ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 411 Formatting With Multiple Libraries ........... 411 Managing Your EndNote Library ...... 396 Basic Instructions .401 Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor ............................ 404 Formatting Citations and Creating Bibliographies ......................................................... 413 395 ...................... 407 Previewing Formatted References (or Styles) .409 Specifying the Starting Number of a Bibliography ............................................................................402 Citing References in Footnotes ............................................................................................................. 407 Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers ............ 407 Reformatting a Paper .................. 405 Bibliographic Styles . 409 Copying Formatted References ................ 405 The Citations Window .......................411 Finding and Labeling References Used in a Paper ........... 401 Multiple References in One Citation .... 396 Word Processor Compatibility ...........................................

or OpenOffice documents with the extension ODT. NOTE: EndNote uses Unicode to appropriately display diacritics and other extended characters. including documents created with: Microsoft® Word WordPerfect® OpenOffice. it may be because your word processor lacks Unicode support. see our website at http://www. To format references and create a bibliography (Cite While You Write) with OpenOffice. You can format OpenOffice documents ending with the extension . Please refer to your word processor's documentation.ODT. While you can use the Format Paper command described in this chapter to format Word files. If these characters do not display correctly when you format EndNote citations and references in your word processor document. 396 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . it is much easier and more efficient to use Cite While You Write. see Chapter 11.com.org Writer StarOffice™ Microsoft® Works WordPad Almost any application that can save as RTF (Rich Text Format) The Format Paper feature also works with the Open Document Format used by the OpenOffice Suite.Scanning and Formatting Files This chapter describes how to create formatted citations and bibliographies for your papers without using Cite While You Write™ for Microsoft® Word or OpenOffice. see “Creating an Independent Bibliography” in Chapter 14.org Writer. To format references and create a bibliography (Cite While You Write) with Microsoft Word 2003 or 2007. For up-to-date compatibility information.org Writer. Word Processor Compatibility This chapter describes how to cite references and create bibliographies for documents that can be saved as RTF. see Chapter 12.endnote. To create a stand-alone bibliography that is not based on the citations in a paper.

While writing a paper in your word processor. Select the reference(s) in your EndNote library that you want to cite. You can scan OpenOffice documents directly. Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 397 . To practice using the Format Paper feature. If you use OpenOffice. 2.Basic Instructions The basic steps required to cite references in a paper and “format” that paper using EndNote are covered here. Start your word processor and open the paper you are writing. More details about how to switch between programs and various tips for citing references are described in the sections following these basic instructions. To cite a reference in a paper: 1. you can locate and open Sample_RichText.RTF found in the EndNote X3\Examples folder. We recommend experimenting with the Sample_RichText. NOTE: The Format Paper command works on RTF documents or OpenOffice documents... you must first save a copy of your paper as RTF. position the cursor in the text where you would like to put the citation.RTF and/or Sample_OpenDocType. you can follow this procedure using one of the example documents found in the EndNote X3\Examples folder. You create your paper and insert citations with your word processor. When you are ready to cite a source.ODT file along with the Sample_Library_X3. you can use Sample_OpenDocType. Press the CTRL key while clicking on the references to 4.a commonly documented phenomena 3. See “Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor” on page 401 if you need help with this step. and then scan that copy of the paper. As an example. When you are ready to scan and format citations for other document types. Start EndNote and open your library (if it is not already open). |. Citing references is a straight-forward process of copying temporary citations from EndNote and pasting them into your word processing document. . you can have EndNote running in the background so that it’s easy to switch between the two programs when you need to cite a source. most writers find it convenient to enter the citations as they are writing the paper instead of waiting to insert them after the text is written.ODT as an example. Although you can enter the EndNote temporary citations into a paper at any time.

RTF retains most styles and formatting. year of publication. press the SHIFT key to select a range of references. Choose Copy (CTRL+C) from the Edit menu. OR Drag-and-drop the selected citations into your paper. set the type of file as RTF. Navigate the file dialog to locate and select the RTF document or ODT document. all enclosed in curly braces: {Morehouse. Baker. and reformats them according to the selected style. and record number. When you have finished adding citations. The pasted citation appears in EndNote’s temporary format: first author’s last name. choose Save from your word processor’s File menu to save all changes to your document. 8. When you format this paper. You can leave your word processor running. 10. Return to EndNote. From the File menu. choose Save As. 7. 1999 #90. EndNote builds a bibliography based on the temporary citations that it finds in the paper. 5. 11. From the Tools menu. save a copy of the file as RTF.select multiple references. go to the Format Paper submenu and then Format Paper. 1988 #38} This citation is not the final citation. 1993 #125} If multiple references were selected. The number in the temporary citation is not a bibliography number but a unique record number. If the file you created is not an OpenOffice document or an RTF document. Close your document by choosing Close from the File menu. To generate the bibliography: 9. but rather a temporary citation that will be formatted later. Continue following steps 2-5 to insert citations as you write your paper. then return to your word processor and Paste (CTRL+V) the temporary citation into the text of your document. To save your document: 6. 398 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . {Hall. their citations appear together within one set of delimiters in the order in which they are listed in the Library window. In the file dialog.

you may need to resolve mismatched citations. Select a style from the Output Styles list on the Citation window. If a reference is cited more than once in a paper. however the reference will appear only once in the bibliography. Numbers in the Matches column show how many references in your library match each citation. When all of the citations in the window have a “1” next to them. These citations were taken directly from a paper EndNote scanned. Every citation listed in the Citations window should have a “1” next to it in the Matches column. The Citations window lists the citations found in the paper together with the number of matching references in the open libraries. 12. Enter a starting bibliography number if you wish.The next time you choose Format Paper you will see your recently used files listed for easy access. Each citation should have a single match. During the scanning process. If a “0” or a number greater than one appears in the Matches column. Check the Citations window to make sure that EndNote was able to find matching references for all of the citations. EndNote displays the Citations window. and searches the library to find references that match each of the citations. you are ready to go on to the next step of formatting a paper. The citations in the Citations window appear in the order they are cited in the paper. meaning that EndNote found exactly one reference in the library to match the citation in the paper. EndNote locates temporary citations in the paper. When scanning is complete. it is listed more than once in this window. 13. Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 399 .

EndNote automatically adds the name of the output style to your existing filename. By default EndNote saves the formatted file in the same location as the unformatted file. 16. choose Select Another Style to open the Style Manager. If you need to choose a style that is not in the list. Click Format to have EndNote create a copy of your paper complete with formatted citations and a bibliography. In the formatted paper. you can open that paper in your word processor.The individual styles listed are the styles that are currently selected as your “favorites” in the Style Manager. When the formatting has finished. While EndNote is formatting. or change the bibliographic style). 15. EndNote has replaced the temporary citations with formatted citations and inserted a bibliography. Remember that you want to open the file that has the name of the style appended to the file name. Choose Open from the word processor’s File menu and select and open the formatted version of the paper. Mark your favorite styles there. EndNote will generate a new formatted copy of the paper. See “Adding Styles to the Output Styles List” on page 339 for details. 14. IMPORTANT: Never save the formatted paper with the same name as the original unformatted document. See “Reformatting a Paper” on page 407. The paper is ready to be printed and submitted! Making Changes to the Paper If you need to make changes to the paper (such as change a citation. 17. add more text. You can also use the “Save in:” list at the top of the window to change the location where EndNote saves the file. Now that EndNote has generated a formatted copy of the paper. the cursor returns to an arrow and the Citations window remains open. the cursor changes to a wait cursor. 400 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . You are then prompted to name and save the formatted copy of the paper. and start this step again. Switch to your word processor using ALT+TAB (see page 401 if you need additional help with this step). you should edit the original unformatted document. and then format it again. You can change the name of the formatted document if necessary by typing a new name in the text box. You must have the unformatted document if you ever want to format the paper again.

and creates a duplicate of your document complete with “formatted” in-text citations and a bibliography at the end. Temporary Citation: {Argus. year. citation delimiters are curly braces. Normally a citation consists of a bibliography number or the author and year in parentheses: . Year #Record Number} When EndNote formats this paper it replaces the temporary citations with formatted citations.) Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 401 . 1991 #11} Formatted Citation (in APA): (Argus & Matthews.Tips on Citing Sources Temporary vs. To run both programs simultaneously in Windows: 1. finds their matching references in the EndNote library. . NOTE: By default.. it appears in EndNote’s temporary citation format. EndNote scans your word processing document for temporary citations. {Author. you may want to change your citation delimiters. you can switch between the two files without closing either program. see “Library Preferences” on page 589. EndNote starts and prompts you to open your library. of the species at hand (Argus. 1991). and pick EndNote Program. See “Temporary Citations” on page 594. Formatted Citations A “citation” is the bibliographic information in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a complete reference in the bibliography.. Switching Between EndNote and a Word Processor With your EndNote library and word processing document both open. of the species at hand1. If you have other text within curly braces. then choose Programs. select EndNote. Start EndNote by clicking the Windows Start button in the taskbar.. This format consists of the first author’s last name. with citation delimiters at each end. During formatting. This new document is called your “formatted” paper. 1991) EndNote relies on the temporary citations to determine which references to include in the bibliography. and the EndNote record number.. (To set a library to open automatically. When you first copy an EndNote citation and paste it into your paper.

If you are running more than just EndNote and your word processor. you can accomplish this in one of two ways. Once you have EndNote and your word processor running. Hold down the CTRL key while clicking on the desired references in your library (or hold down the SHIFT key to select a continuous range of references). keep the ALT key pressed. choose Copy.2. 3. Hall. 1988 #38} Formatted: (Baker. release both keys. and press the TAB key repeatedly to cycle through all open programs. One option is to insert all of the citations together: To insert multiple citations: 1. you can switch between the two programs by clicking the taskbar button along the bottom of the screen for the program you wish to use. Position the cursor in your word processing document where you want the citations. 2. Multiple References in One Citation If you need multiple references in one in-text citation. choosing Program Files. When you see the name of the program you want. The citations are inserted together in one set of delimiters. sorted as your bibliographic style requires: Unformatted: {Hall. Once formatted. You can also press ALT+TAB to switch between the programs. 3. and selecting the option for your word processor. 1988. From the Edit menu. 1999 #90. 1999) 402 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . You can start your word processor in a similar fashion by clicking the Start button. and choose Paste from the Edit menu. Baker. they appear in one multiple citation.

select the reference(s) that you would like to cite and choose Copy from the Edit menu. including options like “Ibid.” and other variations of shortened references when a citation appears more than once in the footnotes or endnotes. the entire citation will remain unformatted. however. To cite references in footnotes: 1. (EndNote does not actually create the footnote or endnote in the document.The other option is to add the citations to the paper individually. EndNote merges adjacent citations automatically during the formatting process. “Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word. including spaces or punctuation. or Cite While You Write with Microsoft Word. 1999) NOTE: If one of the citations in a multiple citation cannot be matched during formatting. Citations do not merge.) Position the cursor in the footnote or endnote in your paper where you would like the citation(s) to appear and choose Paste from the Edit menu. Citing References in Footnotes Once you have created a footnote or an endnote in your word processing document. or Cite While You Write with OpenOffice. but it is used to insert and format the citations in the notes. It can also create a special format specific to footnotes or endnotes. Typing Citations into Your Paper Manually entering citations is the same whether you are using Format Paper with an RTF file. In your EndNote library. 1988. EndNote can format these citations as brief in-text citations or like the complete references in the bibliography. The EndNote style that is selected when you choose Format Bibliography determines how the citations in the footnotes or endnotes will be formatted. 1988 #38} Merged when Formatted: (Baker.” “Notes About Temporary Citations” on page 322 “Components of a Temporary Citation” on page 323 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 403 . Create the footnote or endnote using the appropriate command in your word processor.org Writer. separates them. 3. Unformatted: {Hall. if any character. 1999 #90}{Baker. Hall. See Chapter 17 for more information. you can cite references in the footnotes or endnotes just like you cite them in the body of the text. 2. See the following sections in Chapter 11.

keep the following points in mind: We recommend that you do not rely on EndNote’s record numbers as a means of filing or numbering your office reprints. See “Display Fields” on page 602 for details. that number is never used again in that library. The record numbers are never reused or reassigned within a library. EndNote automatically assigns a record number sequentially to each reference as it is added to a library. Instead. because you have no control over this number. and use that number for your reprints. If the same reference appears in two different libraries. 1991 #14} The record number for a reference is also visible in the title bar of the Reference window. These record numbers appear in the temporary citations to ensure that the correct reference is used when the paper is formatted: {Argus. You may also see record numbers in the Library window by choosing Record Numbers as one of the display fields for the Library window. enter your own unique number into the Label field.“Omitting Authors or Years from Citations” on page 325 “Citation Prefixes” on page 326 “Citation Suffixes” on page 326 “Including Semicolons & Other Citation Delimiters in a Citation” on page 327 “Examples of Modified Citations” on page 329 Record Numbers EndNote assigns a unique record number to each reference as it is added to your library. the record numbers will most likely be different. Because these record numbers are so important. or any Custom field. If you delete a reference. 404 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . and it is subject to change under certain conditions (read on).

Deleting References in the Library If you delete a reference from your library after you have cited it in a paper. (EndNote automatically checks the matching references to see if any are duplicates. If any number other than a 1 appears in the Matches column. The Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 405 . different record number. in the order in which they appear in the paper. it will be assigned a new. highlight the citation in the Citations window and click Lookup. Ambiguous Citations (Matches Greater than 1) A number greater than 1 indicates that multiple references in the currently open library (or libraries) match the citation and EndNote does not know which reference to use.) To see which references are considered matches. You can choose from the check box options to show only the Matched Citations. or Ambiguous Citations. EndNote brings special attention to unmatched and ambiguous citations. EndNote will not be able to find it when it tries to format that paper. Unmatched Citations (A “Zero” Match) A zero in the Matches column indicates that there is no matching reference in any open library for that particular citation. Unmatched Citations. so EndNote still will not be able to find it when formatting your paper. You will need to reinsert the citation into the paper using the new reference in your library. they are not listed as separate possible matches. If you add the reference to the library again. The Citations window lists all of the citations found in the document and displays the number of matching references for each citation. In the Citations window. Reinsert the correct citation into the paper. If so.You cannot modify or reassign record numbers. the corresponding citation will be left unformatted in the document and will not be included in the bibliography EndNote generates. Formatting Citations and Creating Bibliographies The Citations Window The Citation Matches window opens in the EndNote program after you format a paper (or if the formatting process is canceled). It lists all of the citations found in a document.

) Clear the “Unmatched Citations” box at the top of the Citations window to hide these items from view if you have numerous sections of bracketed text in your document and the corresponding unmatched citations are just cluttering the Citations window. (You could also change the Citation Delimiters. Year. (The Citation window is still available after formatting if you want to see the list of citations. delete it. 406 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . Copy and paste your citations from EndNote to your word processing documents instead of typing them. and EndNote will simply leave the text as it was before formatting. you can highlight the citation in the Citation Matches window and click Lookup. and Record Number (if used in the temporary citation) must all match the Author. EndNote displays the matching references in the Library window. Normally. If text in your document is surrounded by citation delimiters (such as “{sic}”). You can ignore the warning about it being a mismatched citation. EndNote will treat the text as a mismatched citation. Mismatches of this type are only possible when the record number has been omitted from the temporary citation in the text. You may then select the appropriate reference and reinsert it into the paper. Year. Correcting Mismatched Citations Mismatched citations must be corrected either in the word processing document or in the EndNote library—whichever contains the incorrect information. and then reinsert the citation from the library. and Record Number of a reference in the library in order for EndNote to consider it a match. After you have corrected the mismatched citations and saved your changes to the paper. the easiest way to fix a mismatched citation is to search the word processing document for the mismatched citation (use the Find command on your word processor’s Edit menu).Author. If there is a citation for which EndNote lists multiple matches. Format again.) The best way to avoid citation mismatches: Keep all of your references in one main library.

Select the references in the Library window. Previewing Formatted References (or Styles) The preview tab in the Library window displays how the currently selected reference will be formatted in the bibliography by the current style. and sorting required for the citations and bibliography. From the Edit menu. choose Copy Formatted (CTRL+K). see Chapter 17. The style takes care of all text styles. choose Output Styles and select the style that you would like to use. and how you can modify them.700 styles. To preview how multiple references will appear in a bibliography: 1. 2. You can always Format Paper to select a different style and reformat your unformatted (original) RTF document at any point. all of which can be modified to meet your specifications. 4. punctuation. Related sections in this manual: See “Adding Styles to the Output Styles List” on page 339 to learn more about the Styles Manager and how to get the styles you need to appear in EndNote’s Output Styles list. you can always reformat the original document. as well as which fields are included in the bibliography. Choose a style on the Citation Matches window after choosing Format Paper. Reformatting a Paper Since EndNote creates a copy of the paper during the formatting process. You can also create completely new styles if necessary. 3. To learn about how the styles work. or Paste the formatted references into a word processor document. The EndNote Styles collection includes more than 3. From the Edit menu. This preview tab only shows one reference at a time. Use the Windows Clipboard Viewer to view the contents of the Clipboard. if Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 407 .Bibliographic Styles The bibliographic style determines how EndNote formats the citations in your paper and the references in the bibliography.

IMPORTANT: When you need to make changes in your paper. choose Format Paper>Format Paper. You can select one of the “favorite” styles currently in the list. When you open the new formatted copy of your paper. If you need to create a copy of your paper in a different style than what you did originally: 1. 408 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . you should see that your citations and bibliography use the new bibliographic format. On the Citations window. click the Format button. Unformatted Paper Formatted Papers Reformatting with Different Styles The appearance of both the in-text citations and the bibliography in the formatted paper is determined by the selected style. 2.necessary. to create a new document with the changes that you need. select a new output style from the Output Style drop-down list. 4. From the Tools menu in EndNote. or choose Select Another Style to pick a style from the 3. Open the original unformatted copy of your paper (the one with the EndNote citations surrounded by curly braces or brackets). If the Citations window shows that all the citations in the paper are correctly matched.700+ styles shipped with EndNote. remember to work only with the unformatted copy of the paper (the one with the bracketed temporary citations). Notice that the style name is included as part of the new paper’s name. EndNote will prompt you to name and save the new formatted copy of the paper. rather than the formatted copy that EndNote created. 3. That will help you distinguish between various copies of one paper (perhaps formatted to be submitted to different journals).

and you see that it needs to be edited by either adding or removing citations. or select it from the menu. however you have the option to change the names. A Scan Next button appears on the Citations window. This is useful if you are collaborating with other EndNote users and you have each written a separate part of the paper. Creating One Bibliography From Several Papers EndNote can format a series of separate word processing documents and put a cumulative bibliography at the end of the last one. Each paper’s citations will be added to the list of citations in the Citations window.Adding New Citations to Formatted Papers If you have already formatted your paper. and then save the paper as RTF. or if you have separated a lengthy paper into different chapters. Open that document in your word processor. EndNote includes an output style list to confirm or change the style that should be used to format the paper. Add. During the formatting process. you must return to the original. Specifying the Starting Number of a Bibliography When you choose Format Paper to display a Citations window. select an output style on the Citations window and click Format. 2. Only the last paper in the series will include the bibliography. (The Format Paper command on the menu changes to Scan Next). to open each of the subsequent papers in the correct order. By default. EndNote makes a formatted copy of each paper and puts a cumulative bibliography at the end of the last paper. modify or delete citations as necessary. unformatted copy of the document (the one with EndNote’s “temporary citations”). You may now format the paper (as described above) to create an updated copy of it. If you would like EndNote’s numbering to start with a number other than “1” for the document that you are formatting. each formatted paper retains its original name with the style name incorporated into it. 3. To create one bibliography from several papers: 1. enter that number here. This setting is ignored if you are formatting Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 409 . When the last paper has been scanned. It also gives you the option to change the starting number for your citations and bibliography. choose Format Paper>Format Paper to open and scan the first paper. From the Tools menu. Click Scan Next in the window.

This produces the same results as using the Copy Formatted command.the paper with a style that does not create numbered references in the bibliography. Fonts and character styles are transferred if you are pasting into a program that interprets Rich Text Format (RTF) information on the Clipboard. To insert a fully formatted reference: 1. Select the reference(s) in the Library window. If your word processor supports drag-and-drop. Switch to your word processing document. Choose Copy Formatted from EndNote’s Edit menu. 3. Copying Formatted References There may be times when you want to insert a fully formatted reference into the body or footnotes of your paper without having to format an entire document. 410 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . Enter a starting citation number here. Multiple references are sorted according to the rules of the selected style. 2. you may also drag the references and drop them on your paper with the CTRL key pressed. Select a style from the list of styles on the toolbar. and select Paste from the Edit menu. position the cursor in the text. 4.

If you edit a reference. For example. make sure you Rescan your paper to reflect the changes. EndNote prompts you to rescan the paper before formatting. On the Citations window. leave the Citations window open and switch to your word processor to make the necessary changes. close your document and switch back to EndNote. This should change the “0” match to a “1.Rescanning the Paper If there is a problem with your citation matches after choosing Format Paper. EndNote would list a “0” in the Matches column for that citation on the Citations window. Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 411 . using multiple libraries for a paper may be a useful and necessary thing to do. Keeping all of your references together in one library simplifies the writing process because you know exactly where to find each reference. make sure you click Rescan to have those changes reflected in the Citations window and in the formatted paper. Although EndNote can format papers using references from more than one library. click Rescan Paper. we do not recommend that you use multiple libraries when writing a paper. and you only need to have the one library open when formatting. however. You can open each record for viewing or editing. Managing Your EndNote Library Modifying References in Your Library If you add or change a reference in your library while the Citations window is open. 1988} into your paper but forgot to enter the reference in the library. You can leave the Citations window open and enter the Geoffery reference into your library. Bring the Citations window forward and use the Rescan button to recheck the library for matching references. you can select any number of matching references and then click Lookup to search and display those references in EndNote’s Library window. After saving your changes. if you typed the citation {Geoffery. EndNote then updates the information in the Citations window to reflect the recent changes made to the paper. If the paper was modified and saved since it was last scanned. If you are collaborating with other authors on a document.” Finding EndNote References for Editing Formatting With Multiple Libraries In the Citations window.

Finding and Labeling References Used in a Paper The Citation Matches window appears when you format a word processing document. To locate all of the references in a library that were cited in a paper: 1. (If there are problems during formatting. all of the necessary libraries must be opened in order for EndNote to format the paper correctly.If citations have been inserted into one document from multiple libraries. 412 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files . The Citations window is visible in the EndNote program after the formatting is finished. After formatting your paper. and displays the number of matching citations found in the currently open libraries. NOTE: Read about the “Merge Duplicates in Bibliography” preference in the “Preferences” chapter on page 600 if you plan to insert citations from more than one library into a paper. select all of the citations listed in the Citations window by choosing Select All from the Edit menu. It lists all of the citations found in a document.) Double-click citations in the Citations window to find the matching references in your EndNote library. consult the Citations window. or if the formatting process is canceled. This information can help you resolve problems.

Working on Different Computers If you are working on a paper on different computers. 2.2. you will always access the same library when inserting citations. To add a keyword to all of these references for your own filing purposes: 1. 3. Choose Change Field from the References menu. Double-click to display the list of references in the Library window. Choose Keywords (or any other field you would like to use from the field popup menu. That way. and EndNote will be unable to find references when it scans your paper. If you add references to a copy of the library at home and to a different version at work. be sure to keep a copy of your reference library on the same disk as your paper. the record numbers may not match. and click Change. Enter the term or phrase you want to use to identify these references. Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files 413 .

414 Chapter 13: Scanning and Formatting Files .

........... Printing Instructions. 418 Exporting References ................................................................................ 417 Copy Formatted... 419 Supported Formats .................................... 424 Creating Annotated Bibliographies ..................... Abstracts......................................... 420 Printing and Previewing References ............................................................................. and Other Information in a Reference List ........................ 416 Using Drag-and-Drop to Create an Instant Bibliography ........................................... 425 415 ........... Previewing References ......... 422 422 423 423 Including Notes......................................................... Important Points ...................................... 419 Using the Export Command .....................................................................................Chapter 14 Creating an Independent Bibliography Contents Independent Bibliographies............................................................................... 424 Printing Only the Notes .........

Select a style that meets your needs before exporting. Each has its own advantages. and mark the styles that you need.Independent Bibliographies There may be times when you want to create a bibliography without an associated paper. The styles determine what information is included in the bibliography. see Chapter 17. For information about modifying styles. they will show up in your styles menus. For more information. the bibliography is generated independently of a paper. We call this an “independent bibliography” because EndNote does not generate the bibliography based on citations found in a paper—instead. so look for the option that best suits your needs: Use drag-and-drop to instantly transfer a bibliography to a word processing document Copy formatted references from a library and paste them into a word processing document Export references from a library Preview and/or Print references from EndNote Styles Determine the Look of the Bibliography The appearance of your independent bibliography depends entirely on which EndNote style is selected in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu (or the drop-down style list on the Main toolbar). 416 Chapter 14: Creating an Independent Bibliography . and what punctuation and text styles are used. If you do not see the style that you need in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu. see “Adding Styles to the Output Styles List” on page 339. how it is arranged. printing or formatting references. Any one of the procedures described in this chapter can be used to create an independent bibliography. choose Open Style Manager from the Output Styles submenu. Once the styles are marked as “favorites” in the Style Manager.

The font used for the bibliography in this case is the “General Display Font. NOTE: Dragging with the CONTROL key pressed transfers the formatted references to the word processing document. Chapter 14: Creating an Independent Bibliography 417 . Select the necessary style from the Output Style submenu of EndNote’s Edit menu. you can drag a bibliography from an EndNote Library window directly into your paper. To drag your bibliography: 1. If your word processor supports drag-and-drop. only the temporary citation is transferred. Hold down the CTRL key as you drag the references from the library and drop them directly onto a word processing document in the background. 3. Open your library and select the desired references. 2. selecting Display Fonts. and choosing a new font and size under the General Display Font heading. and the text will either be moved or copied to the new destination. All text style information (such as bold and italic) is retained if you “drop” the bibliography into a program that recognizes RTF (Rich Text Format) text. If you do not hold down the CONTROL key. This creates a fully formatted bibliography with the references formatted and sorted according to the selected style.” You can change this font by choosing Preferences from the Edit menu. Use this latter method to cite references in your paper. If your word processor does not support drag-and-drop. Simply release the mouse button when the cursor is over the destination.Using Drag-and-Drop to Create an Instant Bibliography “Drag-and-drop” is a way of moving or copying selected text (or other items) by clicking on the text and dragging it to a new location. read about the Copy Formatted command below.

The font used for the Copy Formatted command is the “General Display Font” which can be changed by choosing Preferences from the Edit menu. Open a document in your word processor. Open your EndNote library and select the desired references in the Library window. and choosing a new font and size under the General Display Font heading. 4. On the toolbar. 418 Chapter 14: Creating an Independent Bibliography . To copy formatted references from EndNote and paste them into a word processing document: 1. or anywhere else. The references are sorted and formatted according to the rules of the selected style. All text style information (such as bold and italic) is retained if you paste into a program that recognizes RTF (Rich Text Format) text.Copy Formatted Use the Copy Formatted command to quickly create and copy a bibliography that you can paste into a word processing document. 3. go to the Output Style list and select the necessary style. selecting Display Fonts. 2. put the cursor where you would like the references to appear. and choose Paste (CTRL+V) from the word processor’s Edit menu. choose Copy Formatted (CTRL+K) to copy the references to the Clipboard. From the Edit menu.

Chapter 14: Creating an Independent Bibliography 419 . When you export from a library. If any references in the Library window are selected.DATA folder into the DATA folder for the new library. Rich Text Format (RTF) The RTF export is an ideal way to create a free-standing bibliography that can be edited or printed using a word processor. NOTE: The Export command exports only text. figures are not included. HTML Documents exported in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) provide an easy way to post reference lists on the World Wide Web. However. XML The XML option exports in a proprietary EndNote XML format. you can restore figures by copying the figure files from the original library’s . Supported Formats Use the Export command to create a free-standing bibliography in any of the following formats: Text File The Text File export option is suitable for draft purposes or exporting references to be imported into another database. if you import the references back into an EndNote library. EndNote creates a file of references formatted according to the chosen style. set encoding to “Unicode-UTF 8” to appropriately display extended Unicode characters in the exported document.Exporting References Exporting bibliographies from EndNote is easy and flexible. In your Web browser. the EndNote export dialog gives you the option of exporting just those selected references. or only the selected (highlighted) references in the current list. This format can be opened by all popular word processors and preserves font and text style information. You can export either all of the references in the current references list.

5. If you want to export references in the order in which they are listed in the current Library window. 6. Select the output style and click Edit. If you want to change the sort order. choose Order of appearance. From the “Output style” list at the bottom of the dialog. You can further limit the list of references to export by highlighting just those references in the current list. under Bibliography. or Show Selected References commands to show the subset of references you want to include. c. click the All References group or choose Show All References from the References menu. 4. Select the “Export Selected References” option if desired. d. 2. choose Export. Change the current sort order in the right pane. From the “Save as Type” list at the bottom of the dialog. select the type of file to be exported: Text File. From EndNote’s File menu. 3. If you want to export all of the references in the current list.Using the Export Command You can export either all references in the current list. To export a bibliography from EndNote: 1. 420 Chapter 14: Creating an Independent Bibliography . you must modify the output style: a. or only the selected (highlighted) references in the current list. and show the references you want to export. Close the output style and the style manager. Rich Text Format. From the Edit menu. choose Output Styles and then Open Style Manager. Open the library from which you will export. choose a style (or choose “Select another style” to choose from all available output styles). select Sort Order. e. Hide Selected References. or XML. b. (Optional) References are exported in the order specified by the selected output style. In the left pane of the window. To export a subset of references. clear the check box. To export all of the references in the library. HTML. display a group or use the Search Library.

7.

Enter a name for the exported file and use the “Save in:” list to specify where it should be saved.

NOTE: The Export feature creates a new file; it does not append to an existing file. If you enter the name of a file that already exists, that file will be overwritten.

8. 9.

Click Save. (It is best to keep the assigned file extensions as part of the exported file name.) Open the exported file in a word processor to edit or print it. At this point, the file is just like any other text document. You can change the font, margins, line spacing, or other page layout features if necessary. (If you use the Open command in your word processor, make sure that the open file dialog is set to show files with the correct extension.) If you exported the references in HTML format, your exported reference list is ready to be posted directly to your website. In your Web browser, set encoding to “UnicodeUTF 8” to appropriately display extended Unicode characters.

NOTE: The Export command exports only text; figures are not included.

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Printing and Previewing References
To print references directly from EndNote, go to the File menu and select Print (CTRL+P) to send a copy to your printer. Or, select Print Preview to format references onscreen. These are quick ways to view your formatted references on paper or onscreen—no special page layout options are provided. Typical uses might include trying out various output styles, printing a list of references to take to the library with you, printing your notes, or generating a complete printout of the references in an EndNote library.

Important Points

The currently active (topmost) window affects which references are printed with the Print command: If a library window is displayed, you can print either the selected (highlighted) references or all references showing in the list. If an individual reference is open for viewing, EndNote prints only that specific reference–as displayed on the screen with field labels. No output style is applied. The Sort References command unselects any selected references, so use the Show Selected References command if necessary before sorting to retain the subset of references you selected. In addition to the selected style, the appearance of the printed references is determined by the following items: References will be printed in the order specified by the selected output style. If you want to change the sort order, you must modify the output style. If you want to export references in the order in which they are listed in the current Library window, change the output style's sort order setting to Order of appearance. Each printed page has 1-inch margins, left-justified text, and a header that displays the library name in the upper left corner and the page number in the upper right corner. There are no options to customize the margins, headers or footers of the printouts. Use one of the other options for creating an independent bibliography if you need to modify these aspects of your printout. The font and size of the printed references are determined by the General Display Font, if that font is a True Type font; otherwise a font substitution will be made. Choose Preferences from the Edit menu, and click the Display Fonts

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option to change the font and size if necessary. The double “T” to the left of the font name indicates a True Type font. Choose Page Setup from the File menu to specify other printing options including the paper size and page orientation. Page setup options vary depending on the printer used.

Printing Instructions

To print a list of references directly from EndNote: 1. Make sure that all of the references you want to print are either selected (highlighted) or showing in the Library window. From EndNote’s Edit menu, go to the Output Styles submenu and choose a style (or use the style menu on the Main toolbar). (Optional) References will be printed in the order specified by the selected output style. If you want to change the sort order, you must modify the output style: a. From the Edit menu, choose Output Styles and then Open Style Manager. In the left pane of the window, under Bibliography, select Sort Order.

2.

3.

b. Select the output style and click Edit. c.

d. Change the current sort order in the right pane. If you want to print references in the order in which they are listed in the current Library window, choose Order of appearance. e. 4. Close the output style and the style manager. From the File menu, choose Print (CTRL+P). In the print dialog, specify the number of copies and the range of pages to print. By default, EndNote prints only the selected references. To print all of the references showing in the Library window, change the print range option to All. 5. Click Print to print the references.

Previewing References

To preview a list of references onscreen: 1. Make sure that the references you want to print are listed in the Library window. You can select individual references and then select Show Selected References from the References menu.

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2.

From EndNote’s Edit menu, go to the Output Styles submenu and choose a style (or use the style menu on the Main toolbar). (Optional) References will be displayed in the order specified by the selected output style. If you want to change the sort order, you must modify the output style: a. From the Edit menu, choose Output Styles and then Open Style Manager. In the left pane of the window, under Bibliography, select Sort Order.

3.

b. Select the output style and click Edit. c.

d. Change the current sort order in the right pane. If you want to print references in the order in which they are listed in the current Library window, choose Order of appearance. e. 4. Close the output style and the style manager. From the File menu, choose Print Preview.

From the onscreen preview, you can click Print to send a copy to your printer.

Including Notes, Abstracts, and Other Information in a Reference List
Most of the styles included with EndNote produce standard bibliographies without including additional information such as notes or abstracts. Two of EndNotes standard styles are the Annotated style and the Show All Fields style. The Annotated style includes the Abstract field after each reference, and the Show All Fields style lists all of the field names and the information found in those fields for each reference. See Chapter 17 for detailed information about editing and creating styles. What follows here are two examples of common ways you might want to edit styles for your printouts or for stand-alone bibliographies.

Creating Annotated Bibliographies

To create a bibliography that includes abstracts, you can use the Annotated style included with EndNote. The Annotated style is based on the Author-Date style, and creates an alphabetical listing of the references (by author), with the abstract appended to each reference. You can modify any other style to include the Notes or Abstract field as well.

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For this example, we modify the Numbered style to include the Abstract field. 1. 2. 3. From the Edit menu, choose Output Styles and select Open Style Manager. Choose a style from the list in the Style Manager window, and click the Edit button. The Style window opens. Choose Layout from the options under the Bibliography heading and click in the text box under the “End each reference with” heading. Text or fields inserted into this section appear at the end of each reference in the bibliography.

4.

To insert the abstracts on a new line after each reference: choose ¶ End of Paragraph from the Insert Field list, and then choose Abstract from the same list. From the File menu, choose Save As and give the style a new name, but keep the “.ENS” extension.

5.

This annotated version of the style will appear in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu (and on the styles menu on the Main toolbar). If you format a paper, print, or export references using this style, the abstracts are included in the bibliography.

Printing Only the Notes

To print only the notes for each reference, create a new style that includes only the Notes field. To create a style that prints only notes: 1. 2. From the Edit menu choose Output Styles and select New Style. Click on the Templates panel under the Bibliography heading. Chapter 14: Creating an Independent Bibliography 425

3.

Click in the “Generic” template and choose Notes from the Insert Field list. Press the ENTER key to add a blank line after the notes for each reference. From the File menu, choose Save As. Name and save the style. You should now see this new style in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu. Close the style by clicking the close button.

4.

5.

Select this style whenever you want to print or export only the Notes from your references. This style is also useful to preview just the notes on the preview tab of the Library window.

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Chapter 15 Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists

Contents
Overview .............................................................................. 428 Printing a Subject Bibliography ...................................... 428 Basic Procedure....................................................... 428 Printing a Subject List ....................................................... 431 Subject Bibliography Settings ......................................... The References Tab ................................................. The Terms Tab ........................................................ The Page Layout Tab .............................................. The Bibliography Layout Tab ................................ Examples of Subject Bibliographies ............................... Using Author Names as Subject Headings .......... Using Keywords as Subject Headings .................. Using Call Numbers as Subject Headings ............ 437 437 438 443 444 446 446 446 447

427

Overview
This chapter explains how to create subject bibliographies and subject lists. Subject List Archaeology Astronomy Biology Geochemistry Geology Hydrology Subject Bibliography Archaeology Parker, F. and B. J. Parker (1997). Educational Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) and First U.S. Paleontology Professor Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-99) at Yale University. U.S., Tennessee. Astronomy Lowman, P. D., Jr. (2001). Evidence from Apollo. Science Teacher. 68: 22-25. A general bibliography is a continuous listing of citations in a particular order. A subject bibliography is made up of smaller listings, each appearing under a distinct heading. Despite the name, a subject bibliography (or a subject list) can be based on any EndNote field or combination of fields. Subject bibliographies have diverse uses, including: generating lists of journal abstracts; current awareness lists; subject indexes; or lists of holdings by category. Typical subject bibliography headings are by Keyword, Author, Journal Title, or Call Number. You can print entire bibliographic citations, information from one or more fields, record IDs, or nothing at all under each heading.

Printing a Subject Bibliography
Basic Procedure
This section walks through the basic steps to create a subject bibliography. To print a subject bibliography: 1. In the current Library window, show only the references you wish to include in a subject bibliography. From the References menu, choose Show All References to include all references in the subject bibliography. Click on a Group name to display only the references in a specific group. 428 Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists

From the Tools menu, choose Search Library to find a subset of references for your subject bibliography. Highlight individual references and then use the Show Selected References command to list those references for the subject bibliography. 2. 3. Click in the reference list to make it the active pane. From the Tools menu, select Subject Bibliography to display a list of the EndNote fields by default field name.

4.

Highlight the field(s) whose contents you wish to use as subject headings. The most common selection is the single Keywords field to create a subject bibliography. You can include any number of fields. If you build the list of headings from more than one field, the subject headings generated from these fields are combined into a single list. If you mix date fields with other fields, dates will sort before alphabetic subject headings. To quickly select all fields or clear all fields, use the buttons on the right side of the dialog. You can click on individual fields to select or deselect them.

5.

Select the check boxes as needed to determine whether an entire field is used as a heading, or whether a field should be split into multiple headings. List each author separately, when checked, will list each author name as a separate heading. If not checked, all authors from a single field will appear as a single heading.

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In other fields, list each entry that is separated by slash, carriage return, or line feed, when checked, separates any non-author field into multiple subject headings. Terms in the Keywords field are always listed as separate headings. 6. Click OK to display the terms found in the fields you selected.

7.

Select those terms you wish to include as subject headings. To quickly select all terms or clear all terms, use the buttons to the right of the dialog. You may want to select all terms and then click to deselect the few terms you do not want included.

8.

Click OK to format the subject bibliography on the screen. If you want to modify the term selections you just set, to either add or remove terms from the selected field(s), click on the Terms button.

NOTE: Subject headings print as they appear in your records. No special formatting of author names and no journal title substitution is applied.

9.

Click on the Layout button to modify the layout and style of your subject bibliography. Verify the settings on the References, Terms, Page Layout, and Bibliography Layout tabs (all four tabs are discussed later in this chapter under “Subject Bibliography Settings”), particularly these items on the References tab:

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Output Style, which determines the bibliographic style used to format each reference. Reference List Title, which prints at the top of the bibliography Reference List Order, which determines the order of references under each subject heading Use the Terms tab to set options specifically for subject headings. For a subject bibliography, it is important to select the Subject Terms and Reference List item. Click OK to save changes to all of the Layout tabs. 10. Once your subject bibliography is set up the way you want it, you can do one of these: Display a formatted page view by clicking Print Preview. Print to your printer by clicking the Print button. A Print dialog will appear. Verify settings and click OK or Print. Print to a disk file (Text, RTF, or HTML) by clicking the Save button. A dialog appears for you to name the file. Choose the file type, name and place the file, and click Save.
NOTE: In your Web browser, set encoding to “Unicode-UTF 8” to appropriately display extended Unicode characters in an exported HTML document.

11. Close the Subject Bibliography window when you are done viewing it.

Printing a Subject List
A subject list is a sorted list of unique terms (words or phrases) that occur in particular fields of the records you choose. You can base a subject list on any EndNote field or combination of fields. To print a subject list: 1. Determine which references you want EndNote to use when building the subject list, and display only those references in the Library window. From the References menu, choose Show All References to include all references in the subject list. Click on a Group name to display only the references in a specific group.

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From the Tools menu, choose Search Library to find a subset of references for your subject list. Highlight individual references and then use the Show Selected References command to list those references for the subject list. 2. 3. Click in the reference list to make it the active pane. From the Tools menu, choose Subject Bibliography. A Subject Fields dialog appears, listing the EndNote fields by default field name. Highlight the field(s) whose contents you wish to use as subject headings.

4.

You can include any number of fields. If you build the list from more than one field, the terms generated from the fields are combined into a single list. To quickly select all fields or clear all fields, use the buttons to the right of the dialog. Click on individual fields to select or deselect them. 5. Select the check boxes as needed to determine whether an entire field is used as a term, or whether a field should be split into multiple terms. List each author separately, when checked, will list each author name as a separate entry. If not checked, all authors from a single field will appear as a single entry. In other fields, list each entry that is separated by slash, carriage return, or line feed, when checked, separates any non-author field into multiple entries.

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Terms in the Keywords field are always listed as separate entries. 6. Click OK to display the terms found in the field(s) you selected.

7.

Select the terms you want in the subject list. To quickly select all terms or clear all terms, use the buttons on the right side of the dialog. You may want to select all terms and then click to deselect the few terms you do not want included.

8.

Click OK to display your subject list. If the window does not display a simple list of terms, you must modify settings on the Configure Subject Bibliography dialog as described next.

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9.

Click the Layout button to display the Configure Subject Bibliography dialog.

10. On the References tab, enter a Reference List Title, which will print at the top of the list. When you print a subject list, the other settings on the Reference List tab are simply ignored. The output style is ignored because you are not printing formatted references, and the sort order set here applies only to formatted references. The sort order of terms is set on the Terms tab. 11. On the Terms tab: Reference List must be set to Subject Terms Only. Include may include Subject Term Counts and/or a List of Record IDs if you wish. Subject Term Layout can be set to print terms in Alphabetical or Term Count order and in Ascending or Descending order. Do not include a Prefix, and include a caret-p (^p) as a Suffix so each term prints as a new paragraph on a new line.

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Apply Styles as you wish. However, if you print to a text file all styles are stripped.

12. Click on the Page Layout tab if you wish to change the font, size, or page margins.
NOTE: The Bibliography Layout tab applies to subject bibliographies only, and does not affect a simple subject list.

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Click OK to save changes to the dialog and update the list in the Subject Bibliography window. No special formatting of author names and no journal abbreviations are applied. Click Save to print to a disk file. you can click on the Terms button to select or deselect terms from the selected field(s) or click Layout again to make more changes to the Configure Subject Bibliography dialog. NOTE: Terms are printed as they appear in your records. Click Print to print to a printer. View. or HTML). Click Close to dismiss the Subject Bibliography window and return to your record list. print or dismiss the list: Click Print Preview to see a page layout view of the bibliography. and click Save. A file dialog appears for you to name the file. name the file. Verify settings and click OK or Print. Choose the file type (text. RTF. If the window still does not show the list you need. 14. 436 Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists . The Print dialog appears.13.

The References Tab When you select Subject Bibliography from the Tools menu to format a subject bibliography or subject list. If you have special settings that you want to always use for subject bibliographies. it may be easier to copy and modify an output style specifically for generating subject bibliographies. This section describes the References tab available on that dialog. Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists 437 .Subject Bibliography Settings To access subject bibliography settings. a Layout button becomes available. Once the subject bibliography or subject list is displayed. first generate a subject bibliography from the Tools menu. Output Style: Use the drop-down list to select an output style from the list or to Select Another Style that does not currently appear in the list. NOTE: Some subject bibliography settings are updated from the current output style. a Layout button is available to display a Configure Subject Bibliography dialog and change settings. so changes you make are not saved for future subject bibliographies.

Reference List Title: Type a title in the text box to print at the top of your subject list or subject bibliography. This section describes the Terms tab on that dialog. This setting is ignored for a subject list. 438 Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists . Then. a Layout button is available to display a Configure Subject Bibliography dialog and change settings. This setting is ignored for a subject list. The output style is used to format the references in a subject bibliography. EndNote will display the Choose a Style window. where you can choose from over 3.700 output styles. select a style in the list and click Choose.If you opt to Select Another Style. The Terms Tab When you select Subject Bibliography from the Tools menu to format a subject bibliography or subject list. Use the Find by button to narrow the list of output styles by discipline. Bibliography Sort Order: Click on a button to select the sort order you wish to use for the formatted references printed under each subject heading in a subject bibliography.

2002.R. EndNote typically prints each unique subject heading only once with the related references listed below. if you generate a list of Subject Terms Only. Antarctica 3. Journal of Paleontology. Billoski. Cycleryon glaessner (crustacea. Whitney. in New Directions in Paleontology. Academic Press: New York. P. You can select the Repeating Subject Terms box to print a subject term before each formatted reference. For example: American Museum of Natural History 1. Personalities in Paleontology.V. 2000.G. Jones. When printing subject terms with reference lists.R. until you change them again. the next time you choose Subject Bibliography. Antarctica.. click the Layout button and the Terms tab to select Subject Terms and Reference List. J. select one of the two radio buttons: Subject Terms Only prints each unique subject term. NOTE: The options on this tab are saved for this subject bibliography session and for future sessions. Evidence for Triceratops in Antarctica. Antarctica 2.Selecting a Subject List or Subject Bibliography In the Reference List area of the Terms tab.V. P. Quilty. Editor. It does NOT print formatted references below each term. 24-27. Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists 439 . To include formatted references. T. So. American Museum of Natural History. T.. Subject Terms and Reference List prints each subject term with related references listed below it. Billoski. 619. you will produce a simple subject list again. 1997. decapoda) from the jurassic of Ellsworth Land. 62(4): p. and V.

For example: Evolution (1) Excavation (4) Extinction (12) Subject Term Counts always print on the same line as the subject term. 33. List of Record IDs prints the record IDs of the records that contain the term. 148. First formatted reference 2. For example: Recycling Reference Numbers Heading Number One 1. 162. For example: Excavation 34. 48. and separated from the term by three spaces. 162. 132. First formatted reference 2. 10. 6.Select the Recycling Reference Numbers box to restart reference numbering for each subject heading. 125. 98. 48 Extinction 34. 148. 96. 6. 48 Extinction 34. 33. 48. 11 440 Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists . 132. 46. 10. First formatted reference 2. for the records selected for output: Subject Term Counts prints a number next to the subject term to indicate how many records contain the term. 96. surrounded by parentheses. Second formatted reference Heading Number Two 1. First formatted reference 4. 6. 98. 125. 46. 11 or Excavation 34. Second formatted reference Heading Number Two 3. Second formatted reference Continuous Reference Numbers Heading Number One 1. 6. Second formatted reference Including Subject Term Counts or Record IDs In the Include area of the Terms tab you can check a box to include. You can print the list of record IDs on the same line as the subject term (set apart by three spaces) or on the next line.

they are always separated by three spaces. For example. That way.When you print these items on the same line as the term. If you want to change the order of the references printed below each heading. using the tab as a separator. do so on the References tab of the Configure Subject Bibliography dialog. You can print both term counts and record IDs: Excavation (4) 34. 132. 98. Inserting Space or Text Around Subject Terms Use the Prefix and Suffix text boxes to print text or punctuation before or after each subject term. whereas a term used in 20 references would appear further down in the list. you can save to a word processor file. By Term .Alphabetical sorts subject terms by Date for date fields. NOTE: This sort order setting affects subject headings only. By Term Count . By Term Count . Dates).Descending reverses the By Term Count Ascending order. 33. 9-1. 6. a term that appears in only one reference would display at the top of the list. 6. Each term may include a subject term count and/or a list of record IDs. and convert the text to a table. and then alphanumeric order (1-9. 46. The order of output is: Text Before | Subject Term | Subject Term Count | List of Record IDs | Text After | Reference List Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists 441 .Alphabetical order (Z-A. 48. 10. 148. 96. A-Z) for all other fields. replace the three spaces by a tab character.Ascending lists terms based on how often they appear in records. 125. 11 Sorting the Subject Terms You have four options for ordering your subject terms: By Term . so the most-used terms are listed first. 48 Extinction (12) 34. 162.Inverse Alphabetical simply reverses the By Term .

2000.You can use these special formatting codes in the text boxes: New Paragraph: New Line: Tab: Bold: Italics: Underlining: ^P ^L ^T CTRL+B CTRL+I CTRL+U By default. Jones. Apply styles to bibliographic references by modifying the output style. If you save your list to a text file. Applying Styles In the Styles area of the Terms tab. P.R. all styles will be stripped. 2. J.R. and the List of Record IDs. Quilty. Evidence for Triceratops in Antarctica.V. You can combine styles in any way.. Journal of Paleontology. the Prefix box contains “^p” and the Suffix box contains “^p^p” in order to leave blank lines between each subject heading and the first citation listed below it. so each subject term begins on a new line with no blank lines between them. such as: Antarctica (2) 144. Academic Press: New York. Billoski. Cycleryon glaessner (crustacea. decapoda) from the jurassic of Ellsworth Land.G. check the appropriate boxes to separately apply styles to Subject Terms. Billoski. 62(4): p..V. you will probably want to print only a single “^p” after each term. Editor. 442 Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists . 24-27. 12 1. and V. Subject Term Counts. 619. When you print Subject Terms Only. T. Antarctica. in New Directions in Paleontology. P. 1997. Whitney. T.

Select the Default Font and Size: Use the drop-down lists to select a default font and size for your subject headings or subject terms. Font and size for bibliographic references are set in the output style. Use the drop-down lists to determine location and alignment of page numbers. Position Page Numbers: Use the check boxes to determine whether your pages are numbered and whether to suppress the first page number. This section describes the Page Layout tab available on that dialog.The Page Layout Tab When you select Subject Bibliography from the Tools menu to format a subject bibliography or subject list. a Layout button is available to display a Configure Subject Bibliography dialog and change settings. Set Margins: Enter your page margins in inches. Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists 443 .

You can make a copy of the output style to edit specifically for subject bibliographies. These settings are not used when you print a simple subject list. edit the output style. You can override those settings for this session. a Layout button is available to display a Configure Subject Bibliography dialog and change settings. the settings on this tab change to reflect the settings found in the output style. Starting and Ending Each Reference with a Special Character or Text Use the Start each reference with and the End each reference with text boxes to enter fields. but changes to this tab are not saved after you close the subject bibliography window. The options available on the Bibliography Layout tab affect only the bibliographic references printed in a subject bibliography. text. 444 Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists . NOTE: When you select an output style. If you want to make the changes permanent. or punctuation to print before and after every formatted reference. This section describes the Bibliography Layout tab available on that dialog.The Bibliography Layout Tab When you select Subject Bibliography from the Tools menu to format a subject bibliography or subject list.

type the text “Note: ”. Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists 445 . Singular/Plural changes between the singular and plural version of a word. You can use the Insert Field button to enter control characters or fields of information as described below. Your “Notes: ” text will print only when a Notes field contains information. Forced Separation inserts a vertical bar. then insert another vertical bar. Enter these fields of information in the Start each reference with box by clicking the Insert Field button and selecting the field name: Reference Type prints the Reference Type (such as Journal Article or Book) of each reference. Citation prints the in-text citation form of each reference.Simply click in one of the text boxes and type text. to include the text “Note: ” before the note field. such as editor versus editors. For example. Record Number prints the unique EndNote record number from each reference. and not when it is empty. Use one of the Insert Field buttons to insert these control characters in a text box: End of Paragraph inserts a paragraph marker. so that if the field is empty the punctuation will not print. Label prints the label field from each reference. Use vertical bars to attach punctuation to a specific field. Enter these fields of information in the End each reference with box by clicking the Insert Field button and selecting the field name: Label prints the Label field from each reference. Bibliography Number prints the sequential number assigned to the reference in the sorted list below each heading. Link Adjacent Text keeps text together so that it will not be broken between lines or pages. Tab inserts a tab character. which moves the following text to the next line. insert the Notes field. Keywords prints the entire Keywords field for each reference. The spacing for tabs is determined by the ruler settings in your word processor. first insert a vertical bar.

Baker. Using Keywords as Subject Headings This example uses keywords as subject headings. and restarts reference numbering after each subject heading. 3.R. R. Natural History 110. You would select Recycle Numbering in the Configure Subject Bibliography 446 Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists . Setting a Hanging Indent Use the drop-down list to apply a hanging indent to paragraphs in each formatted reference. 62 (Sept. Barnes. Barlow. R. BARLOW. so that single author names are used for headings rather than entire author fields. 1. 2001). V. 381 (1988). C. 1157 (1988). BARNES. The List each author separately box was checked on the Subject Fields dialog. Numbering References Enter a starting reference number for bibliographic references printing below each heading. CONNIE 2. C.. BAKER. Record Number prints the unique EndNote record number from each reference. This setting is ignored if reference numbering is not applied from the current output style. C. Geological Magazine 125. Uppercasing was applied to the Subject Terms. V.R. Examples of Subject Bibliographies Using Author Names as Subject Headings This example uses author names as subject headings. Notes prints the Notes field from each reference. Geological Society of America Bulletin.Abstract prints the Abstract field from each reference. 100.

D. 5. geysers. C. NOTE: Whether references are numbered or not is determined by the output style selected. Insert a tab between each subject heading and reference with the Suffix box (insert ^t). On the Layout/Terms tab: Select Subject Terms and Reference List with Repeating Subject Terms. Princeton University (2000). 2.dialog on the Terms tab. J. Geochemistry 1. such as: DL312 Forbes. Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists 447 . Iceland: Its volcanoes. convert the output to a twocolumn table. Select an output style that does not number citations. Using Call Numbers as Subject Headings You can create a two-column output with Call Numbers. 2957 (2000). Save the subject bibliography to a word processor file. A. S. J. 3. Megnien. 37. Ph.. 4. With your word processor. adjust the column widths. 2000). Lebedev. The starting reference number is set on the Bibliography Layout tab. and glaciers. 142 (June. (1860). 2. In the Subject Fields dialog. C. A. Izbicki. S. London. select the Call Number field. Dissertation Abstracts International. Do not include Subject Term Counts or a list of Record IDs. Murray. sort by the first column. Geology 1. 61. Bulletin d’Information des Geologues du Bassin de Paris. and reformat the paragraph style. To create a two-column output: 1.

448 Chapter 15: Creating Subject Bibliographies and Subject Lists .

.. 450 What is a Reference Type? . 463 449 ........................................................... About the Reference Types Preference ............... Adding...................................... and Renaming Fields ............................................ 462 Table of Predefined Reference Types ... 453 Special Fields........................... 451 The Generic Reference Type ...................................... Adding and Deleting Reference Types ...... 453 Customizing the Reference Types............... 450 Reference Types and Data Entry .................. Deleting........................................................................................................... 456 456 458 460 Sharing Your Reference Type Table ................Chapter 16 Reference Types Contents Introduction ........

Conference Proceedings. Thesis. Patent. Book. Audiovisual Material. Conference Paper. EndNote provides built-in forms for these and other common reference types. Online Database. Bill. Changes made to the Reference Types preference apply to all libraries opened under the current user account. 450 Chapter 16: Reference Types . Electronic Article. Ancient Text. and newspaper articles. We call these different sources reference types. Online Multimedia. each capable of supporting up to 54 fields (including the name of the reference type). Figure. accessible through EndNote’s Preferences. Important Points About Reference Types You can assign a particular reference type to each reference entered into your library. Blog. your references will follow the layout of the Reference Types preference for the current user account on that computer. Grant. Artwork. Edited Book. Legal Rule or Regulation. and Web Page. delete. Hearing. Government Document. EndNote has three unused and 44 pre-defined reference types: Aggregated Database. Equation. If you move your library to a different computer. The Reference Types preference. Encyclopedia. Journal Article. Film or Broadcast. journal articles. Manuscript. You can also hide complete reference types. Magazine Article. Map. Unpublished Work. Classical Work. Rows reserved for Authors should be used only for names. Of the 48 reference types. Electronic Book. such as books. The Reference Types preference allows up to 48 different types of references. or rename fields. determines which fields are available for each of the different reference types. Report. Personal Communication. The layout of the Generic reference type should be used as a guide when modifying or creating reference types. Pamphlet. Book Section. Case. Dictionary. Statute. Standard. all but the Generic type can be modified. Newspaper Article. Chart or Table. In addition to an all-encompassing “Generic” reference type. Use the Reference Types preference to add. Catalog. Serial.Introduction What is a Reference Type? Your EndNote library can contain references from a variety of different sources. Computer Program.

It is best to select the reference type before entering the bibliographic information in a reference. This dialog is designed to store just the names of the reference fields. figures found in the Chart or Table reference type are inserted as tables.” and “Issue.” “Volume. you can change the reference type of a reference at any time using the Reference Type list at the top of the Reference window.unless you also transfer a copy of your reference type table. an EndNote journal article reference includes the fields “Journal. See “Sharing Your Reference Type Table” on page 462. Do not enter reference data into the Reference Types preference. Figures found in any other reference type in EndNote will format as figures in Word. For instance. However.” The Reference window displays only the fields that are relevant to the chosen reference type. When you use Cite While You Write to insert figures in Microsoft Word. Reference Types and Data Entry The chosen reference type specifies which fields appear in the Reference window. Chapter 16: Reference Types 451 .” while a book reference includes fields such as “Series Title” and “City.

filter. From the Edit menu. the Journal Article reference type appears when you insert a new reference. and Connections Styles. Setting a Default Reference Type By default. 2. These files update automatically to reflect changes made in the Reference Types preference (such as changing the name of a field). This enables various types of references to be formatted differently in a bibliography or imported differently. While you can change the assigned reference type during data entry. and connection files can include templates for all of the different reference types. as necessary. filters. you may want to change the default setting To change the default reference type setting: 1. or connection file depend on how the reference types are configured in the Reference Types preference. The reference types and fields available to you when editing a style.The Reference Type List Relationship Between Reference Types and Styles. 452 Chapter 16: Reference Types . Filters. Click on Reference Types. choose Preferences.

The more important function of the Generic reference type is to set up a guide for the other reference types to follow. it plays an important role in formatting bibliographies. Click Apply to save the change. For example. including fields such as “Artist.” “Reporter. Special Fields EndNote includes 54 fields (including the first field. EndNote searches all fields that appear in the Generic “Author” row of the Reference Types preference. use the Generic type only for references that do not fit any of the other reference types. in the Sort References dialog and the Search tab) to refer to a similar category of fields that can be found in the different reference types. When you choose a Generic field name in any of these dialogs. Consequently. Few restrictions are placed on the type of text that can be Chapter 16: Reference Types 453 . Click the Default Reference Type list and choose from one of the available reference types. which contains the name of the reference type).” NOTE: When editing the Reference Types preference it is important to keep similar fields in the same row. as defined by the Generic field names at the start of the row. Each reference type can call these fields by a different name. however. In addition to formatting Generic references. Each of the different EndNote data fields is available for use by the different reference types.” and “Cartographer. The Generic Reference Type When entering references into your library. it refers to all field names assigned to that Generic row of the Reference Types preference. the content of the fields should be similar. 4.3. only the Generic reference type includes all fields. Using the Generic Type in Styles Although the Generic reference type is rarely used for data entry. the Generic template in a style is used to format any reference types that are not specifically defined in the style. The Generic field names are used throughout the EndNote program (for example. every bibliographic style should contain a Generic template so that all references get formatted when EndNote creates a bibliography. if you use the Search command to search the Author field. Initially.

”. Author Fields The Author. and Tertiary Title—are usually found under different names in other reference types. However. put a comma after the name so that EndNote does not interpret it as a first and last name. a section of a book which is part of a series will use all three title fields: the chapter title would belong in the main Title field. and Subsidiary Author fields. That name is also used in the temporary citations inserted into word processing documents. The Library window displays the last name of the first author that it finds in the Author field. Tertiary Author. For example. EndNote will still try to interpret it and format it as a person’s name. Secondary Author. and should not be used for any data other than names. Editor List is used for Secondary Author. there are a few fields that are reserved for specific functions. Tertiary Author.entered. respectively. are the only ones that can be used along with the Journals term list to modify journal names in formatted bibliographies (see page 288): Journal Article reference type—Journal field Journal Article reference type—Alternate Journal field Electronic Article reference type—Periodical Title field 454 Chapter 16: Reference Types .) If you put text other than personal names in any of these fields. the book title corresponds to the Secondary Title field. and Subsidiary Author rows in the Reference Types preference are specially configured to handle author names. the information in these fields is formatted according to the specifications of the selected style’s Author List and Editor List settings. NOTE: If you have a corporate author name in an Author field. Secondary Title. found in specific reference types. The fields listed below. (The Author List is used for the Author field. and the series title corresponds to the Tertiary Title field. For example. Title Fields The three fields that the Generic type uses for titles—Title. When EndNote creates a bibliography. The Generic Secondary Title and Alternate Title fields map to the Journal and Alternate Journal fields. Acme Corporation should be entered as “Acme Corporation.

See “Inserting Figures” on page 155 for information about adding figures to a reference. use the Preferences dialog to edit reference types. as described in the next section. This character allows you to pick a singular and plural form of a term to precede or follow the pages in a bibliography. or you can specify a relative path to copy the file to your library’s . 25” and “pp. Chapter 16: Reference Types 455 .DATA\PDF folder. File Attachments Field Use the File Attachments field to store the path to files on your hard drive (such as graphics. for example “p. 32-45”. You can link up to 45 files to each reference. See “Linking References to Websites and Files” on page 160. EndNote checks the URL field for a valid hyperlink. they cannot be used with these features. the File Attachments>Open File command on the References menu can be used to launch the file. any field in the Pages row of the Reference Types preference can take advantage of a special formatting character in the styles: the caret (^). To add or remove the Figure field from a reference type. Figure Field The Figure field stores a single graphic or file attachment specifically for use in Microsoft Word. and PDF files). When a reference is selected and Open URL is chosen. No other fields are checked. This feature lets you specify how EndNote should format the page numbers in the bibliography (first page only or a full or abbreviated range of pages). You can specify an absolute path to a specific folder. the Open URL command on the References menu can be used to launch your Web browser and take you to that site. This field is included in all reference types. See “Linking References to Websites and Files” on page 160. When a correctly formatted path and filename is entered into this field. If you enter page numbers in any other part of the reference.Pages Field The fields in the row reserved for page numbers are the only ones that work with the Page Numbers option in the styles. URL Field When a correctly formatted URL is entered into this field. Similarly. word processing documents.

Customizing the Reference Types All of the reference types. you may want to limit the use of new and modified reference types. remove. 456 Chapter 16: Reference Types . the Caption field. The date format of the Auto Date Stamp fields. If you modify a reference type for records in your EndNote library. unless you also transfer a copy of your reference type table. to enter relevant information pertaining to the figure or file. The Reference Types table applies to all libraries opened on a computer from your user account. you should also edit your styles to make sure that they correctly format the new or modified reference types. sort. About the Reference Types Preference You can change the available reference types and the fields that each reference type contains. they do not appear in the list for editing.” adheres to your default operating system settings. or export these fields just as you would any other EndNote field. print. You cannot remove or edit either of the Auto Date Stamp fields. such as “9/16/2008. search. you should make sure that the reference type is also created or modified on other computers that will access the library. However. Use the Reference Types preference to add. The Added to Library and Last Updated dates are inserted when you save a new reference. Whenever you make a change to a reference type. or rename fields—or to rename a reference type. Date Stamp Fields Two Auto Date Stamp fields appear in the footer of each EndNote reference. except for Generic. If your library is opened from a different computer or a different user account. you can display. See “Sharing Your Reference Type Table” on page 462. can be modified using the Reference Types preference.Use the text field immediately following the Figure field. and then the Last Updated date is reset each time you save changes to a reference. your references will follow the layout of the Reference Types preference for that computer and user. If you plan to share your libraries with other users.

Connection. go to the Edit menu. The rows correspond to the editable fields that each reference type can contain. The names of the fields in each reference type should closely correspond to their Generic field names in the left column. Filter. which lists all of the available fields. select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences. choose Preferences. NOTE: The Modify Reference Types command is enabled only when all Style.To access the Reference Types preference. and Reference windows are closed. nor can the names of the Generic fields be changed. The first column is reserved for the Generic reference type. As described earlier. Each named cell in a column represents a field that appears in the reference. Use the drop-down list at the top of the dialog to display one of the 48 reference types in the right-hand column. Chapter 16: Reference Types 457 . and click Modify Reference Types. the Generic reference type serves as a model for constructing all other reference types. See“The Generic Reference Type” on page 453 and “Special Fields” on page 453 for more information. The Generic column is the complete set of fields that can be included in any type of reference—no fields can be added to this list.

and type a new name for the field to replace the current name. click on it. Filter. choose Preferences. Similarly. you are simply telling EndNote to close the original “Journal” field and display a new field called “Journal” in another location—this does not move your data from the original “Journal” field to the new one. NOTE: Be sure to read the previous section about “Special Fields” on page 453 before changing any fields. 3. but the field will have its “Generic” name of “Secondary Title. To navigate in the Reference Types dialog: Use the vertical scroll bar to see the additional fields available for each reference type. Deleting. If an existing reference type does not contain all of the fields that you need. For example. From the Edit menu. you can delete it from the reference type so that it no longer appears in your references.Do not try to edit the Reference Types preference to rearrange information within your references. and click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference. if there is a field that you know you will never use. and Reference windows are closed. Adding. 2. Pressing ENTER closes the dialog. To rename a field: 1. Connection. Within the column for that reference type. Use the drop-down list at the top to find the reference type that you want to change. Press the ESC key or click Cancel to exit from the Reference Types preference without saving any changes. 458 Chapter 16: Reference Types . respectively. you can define a new field or rename an existing field. within the same reference type. select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences. and Renaming Fields There are different ways you can customize the various reference types. NOTE: The Modify Reference Types command is enabled only when all Style. 4. find the field name that you want to change. if you delete the “Journal” field and retype “Journal” elsewhere in the column for Journal Articles. click the Apply to All Ref Types button. Any references that had data in the original “Journal” field will still show that information. (Optional) If you want to change the field for all reference types.” The new “Journal” field will remain empty. The UP or DOWN ARROW keys select the previous or next field.

From the Edit menu. select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences. Use the drop-down list at the top to find the reference type that you want to change. choose Preferences. and connection files update automatically to use the new name. To add a field to a reference type: 1. filters. 6. then you should use another field. If it is not blank. Click in the blank cell and type the name for the new field. 2. Chapter 16: Reference Types 459 . click the Apply to All Ref Types button. 4.5. Make sure that the corresponding cell is blank for the reference type that you are modifying. and click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference. 6. Click OK to return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types. Click OK to save your changes. (Optional) If you want to add the new field to all reference types. Styles. 3. Click OK to return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types. Look at the field names listed in the Generic column and find the one with the most similar meaning to the field that you want to add. 5.

suppose you remove the Editor field from the Book reference type. you may have no use for the Artwork reference type. 3. 460 Chapter 16: Reference Types . However. if you edit an old book reference. Data in a field is not deleted by deleting a field from a reference type format. 6. To remove all text from a field. one in which you had entered an editor’s name. choose Preferences. To delete a field from a reference type: 2. The deleted field no longer appears in any references using that reference type. However. if your subject area never involves art. where you can define a new type of reference. Click OK to save your changes. Click OK to save your changes. you can overwrite other reference types that you do not need in order to create new reference types. If these are already in use. Thereafter. select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences. 4. Press the DELETE or BACKSPACE key to clear that field name. however it is now displayed with its Generic name. select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences. From the Edit menu. From the Edit menu. use the “Clear Field” option in the Change Field command. there will be no available field for entering an editor. choose Preferences. (Optional) If you want to delete the field from all reference types. and click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference. when you add new book references to your library. Find the name of the field you want to delete and select it.7. 7. For example. Adding and Deleting Reference Types There are three Reference Types titled Unused. Click OK to return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types. click the Apply to All Ref Types button. To add a new reference type: 1. It is the same Editor field that was used originally. it still appears in the reference. Use the drop-down list at the top to find the reference type that you want to change. the name will be displayed in the field titled Secondary Author. For example. but the field is displayed with its Generic name. 5. you could replace it with another reference type. You can also move data from one field to another using the Move Field command on the References menu. 1. and click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference. if there was any information in the deleted field.

) Remember to match the meaning of the fields you add with the Generic row headings. Use the drop-down list at the top to select one of the Unused reference types. 6. If you simply change the name of an Unused reference type. It is often helpful to use the other reference types as guides. NOTE: A reference type must have fields defined in order to appear in the reference type list for new or existing references. too. it will not appear in your reference type list.2. 4. 5. Continue down the column for that reference type. You can now use this new reference type when entering references. If all of the “Unused” reference types are in use. Click OK after you have added all of the necessary fields. select a reference type that you are willing to overwrite. (Delete or rename unwanted fields if you are overwriting another reference type. Type a name for that new reference type into the column heading. You must also include fields in the reference type as described next. and you will return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types. 3. Chapter 16: Reference Types 461 . adding new fields as necessary. Click OK to save your changes.

do not overwrite the Journal Article or Electronic Article reference types. that when you do this. the column heading would be “. start EndNote. To hide an unwanted reference type: 1. Add a period before the reference type’s name in the column header to have EndNote remove that item from the Reference Type list in the Reference windows and elsewhere. however. if you were hiding the Map reference type. For example. 5. From the Edit menu.You should also edit your styles so that they correctly reflect the type of format required for this new reference type. 3. From the donor’s user account. Click OK to save your changes. any references that used the old reference type will change to use the new reference type. choose Preferences. NOTE: Replacing another user's reference type table overwrites all changes to his/her current reference type table. 2. 2. export the reference type table you wish to share: 1. Use the drop-down list at the top to find the reference type that you want to hide. choose Preferences. remains in case you later wish to restore it by removing the period. Click OK to return to the main Preferences window for Reference Types. Keep in mind. select the Reference Type option in the list of preferences.Map”. From the Edit menu. you completely replace the recipient’s existing reference type table. Sharing Your Reference Type Table An EndNote user can share a customized reference type table with another EndNote user. These two reference types are the only ones for which Journal Abbreviation replacements can be made with the Journals Term List. NOTE: If you ever plan to use journal articles in your library. 4. however. First. The definition. and click Modify Reference Types to open the Reference Types preference. 462 Chapter 16: Reference Types . If you overwrite an existing reference type.

From the recipient’s user account. 2.xml file that was previously exported. From the Edit menu. Under Reference Type Table. and click Save. import the table for a different user: Table of Predefined Reference Types The table presented in Appendix C. 5. Then. Copy the exported . 1. “Reference Types and Fields” on page 711 shows the default fields used in each of the different reference types and what the fields are called. locate.xml suffix to the file name. Name the file. 6. Under Reference Type Table. 4. and Open the .3. start EndNote. choose Preferences. 4. 5. Click the Reference Types option in the list of preferences. click Import to display a file dialog. In the file dialog.xml file to the recipient’s computer. click Export to display a file dialog. highlight. Click the Reference Types option in the list of preferences. Chapter 16: Reference Types 463 . 3. select a folder where you will be able to find it later. EndNote will append an .

464 Chapter 16: Reference Types .

..... Renaming Styles....................................................................... The Output Styles Menu ............................................................ Anonymous Works .................................................................... Journal Names......... What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included? ....... Basic Components of a Style...............................................Chapter 17 Bibliographic Styles Contents Introduction ...................... Copying Styles ....................................................................................... Reverting Changes to a Style ................................................................................................................................................................. The Style Manager .............. Page Numbers ................................................... Additional Style Formatting Options................... Saving Styles ........ Special Formatting Characters ................................................................................................................... Modifying Style Templates ...... Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference ............. Fonts and Text Styles............. Citation Template ......................... Adding New Reference Types................................................................................................................... Accessing Styles in Other Places ................................. 467 467 468 468 471 472 474 474 475 475 475 475 476 476 477 479 479 480 482 483 485 487 487 489 490 493 494 495 495 465 .... Installing Additional Output Styles................................................................................................. Bibliography and Footnote Templates ................................................... EndNote Cleans Up ............................... Deleting Styles .... Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference ...... Rules for Working with Style Templates................................ Closing a Style.................................. Previewing Styles and Showing Information ........................................ What is an Output Style? ...........

..... Ambiguous Citations ...... 497 499 501 503 505 507 508 509 510 514 517 517 Figure and Table Placement and Captions ................... 522 Example: Creating an Author Date Style............................................................... Author List (Bibliography and Footnotes) ............. 521 Creating a New Style...................................................... Citation Author Lists ..... Citation Author Names ................... Author Names (Bibliography and Footnotes) ........................... 520 Separation and Punctuation....................................................... Repeated Citations (in Footnotes) ............................ 519 Figures and Tables ............................................................ Bibliography Layout ..................Sections (Microsoft Word Only) .................................. Editor List and Editor Names ..................................................................... Sort Order: Bibliographies and Multiple Citations........ Numbering Citations ..................... Title Capitalization ........................................ 522 466 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles ..........................................................

Journal of Paleontology 17:119-127. Or it could be formatted in the Nature style like this: 1.Introduction What is an Output Style? The term output style (or just “style”) is used to describe a particular method of documenting your work. Journal of Paleontology 17. and bibliographies for all types of references. Stratigraphic excavation techniques for paleontologists. You can think of styles as templates that show EndNote how to arrange the information in each of your EndNote references for citations and bibliographies. Each style is designed as a complete solution for formatting in-text citations. 119-127 (1991). M. E. Argus. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 467 . and Edward K.. Matthews. Michele V. 1991. V. For example. & Matthews. Stratigraphic excavation techniques for paleontologists. footnote citations. K. this reference: could be formatted in the Chicago style like this: Argus.

The Style Manager EndNote includes more than 3. If your style is not available. but rather export styles designed to aid in transferring EndNote data into other databases. Format. and the Chicago style is named after the Chicago Manual of Style. Show All Fields: generates a list of the references as entered. for example. Print. To install additional styles. By default. Numbered: generates a numbered bibliography with corresponding numbered in-text citations. The name of the style refers to the journal or publisher that has defined the bibliographic format. see “Installing Additional Output Styles” on page 471. is based on the format required by the journal Nature. Mark individual styles as your favorites in the Style Manager to have them appear in the Edit>Output Styles menu. 468 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles .700 individual bibliographic styles. the 100 most popular styles are stored as individual files in the Styles folder in your EndNote folder.The Output Styles Menu The style selected in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu (or the style menu on the toolbar) determines how references are formatted for the preview in the Library window as well as for the Format Bibliography. By default. Export. including all fields and the names of the fields. the style menu on the toolbar. To see if your journal’s style is included in EndNote. peruse the list of styles in the Style Manager or consult the EndNote Help file. any style can be modified to suit your needs and you can create new styles. and the confirm formatting dialog. such as “RIS” are not bibliographic styles. Styles in the Export category. and in-text citations with Author and Year. Author-Date: generates bibliography alphabetized by author name. EndNote’s four standard bibliographic styles are installed in your Output Styles menu: Annotated: generates an Author-Date style bibliography with abstracts. The Nature style. and Copy Formatted commands.

choose Output Styles from the Edit menu. EndNote will display all matching results. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 469 . you may start typing it and the first file that matches what you type will be selected. Click to display more or less information about the selected file. the Output Styles menu on the Edit menu. Click again to set it back to ascending order. Click the column headings to sort the styles by name or by category. and select Open Style Manager. Clicking the same column heading a second time will change the sort order from ascending to descending. Navigating in the Style Manager Use the following features to locate the output style that you want to use: If you know the name of the style that you want to use. Click column headings to sort the list. and gives you the options to edit them or select them as “favorites” for quick access from the style menu on the toolbar. Click the Find by button and choose All Styles to return all of the styles to the displayed list. You can click and drag the corner of the dialog to increase the size.To see the available styles in EndNote’s Styles folder. or the confirm formatting dialog. Click the Find by button and choose a category (such as Medicine or Humanities) to find only the bibliographic styles for a specific discipline. Click to search for files by The Style Manager lists the names of the original styles available in the Program Files\EndNote X3\Styles folder as well as any new or modified styles in your personal Styles folder.

click the check box to the left of it to mark it as a favorite. You may be able to use that style (perhaps with minor modifications). select the category of interest. Find the style that you need. Close the Style Manager by clicking the close button or choosing Close Style Manager from the File menu. Click in the box to the left of the style's name to choose it as one of your favorites. and then click Mark All when all of the styles for that category are displayed. To add a style to the Output Styles submenu on the Edit menu: 1. EndNote includes over 3. Try the interactive Styles Finder on the EndNote web site. You can also create completely new styles if necessary. but it may not include the exact style you need. If you cannot find the style you need: Many bibliographic styles are simply variants of a small number of well-known bibliographic formats. All styles can be modified to meet your specifications.700 different styles. This gives you easy access to the styles you use most often. Click Find and choose All Styles to bring all of the styles back into view. A shortcut to the Web Styles Finder is provided on the Help menu. 4.Click the More Info button at the bottom of the dialog to display additional information about the selected style (such as modification and creation dates. More Info toggles with Less Info. To select a whole category of styles as favorites. you can: Check the submission guidelines for the publication to see if the style is a derivative of a well-known style. Marking Your Favorite Styles When you have found a style that you will want to use in the future. You also have the option of displaying a preview of the style in the “More Info” panel. The Unmark All button may be used to unmark all of the output styles that are showing in the list. 3. and any comments or limitations). choose Output Styles and select Open Style Manager. If you can't find the specific style you need. From the Edit menu. click the Find by button in the Style Manager window. 2. All styles that are marked as favorites appear in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu. 470 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . and the styles menu on the toolbar.

To install sets of output styles: 1. 6." Click Next to continue with the installation. click on EndNote X3 and then Change. Do one of these: Start the EndNote installation program as you would for a new installation. On the “Application Maintenance” dialog. choose Add or Remove Programs. choose the option to Modify the installation. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 471 . 3. and the new files will be available for use the next time you start EndNote. and then select sets of output styles to install. Then. Using the EndNote installer to install additional output styles First. 5. 4. Because installing all of these styles can slow performance. Log in to the machine with administrative rights or as a user with program installation privileges. from the Windows Start menu. You can run the EndNote installation program again. a typical EndNote installation includes only the 100 most popular styles. select the Modify option and click Next. 2.Installing Additional Output Styles The EndNote team has developed over 3. For each set of styles you would like to install. make sure EndNote is closed and not running. click the plus sign (+) next to Additional Styles. The styles will be copied to the EndNote Styles folder. Or.700 different output styles. On the “Select Features” dialog. In the list. click the triangle and select either "Will be installed on local hard drive" or "Entire feature will be installed on local hard drive. select Control Panel. which is typically Program Files\EndNote X3\Styles. or choose Settings and then Control Panel. or you can download individual styles from the EndNote website. You can install sets of styles by discipline with the EndNote installer.

Click Get More on the Web to start your default browser and go to the appropriate page on the EndNote website. or to your personal Styles folder (see “Folder Locations” on page 604). 6. Previewing Styles and Showing Information Click More Info in the Style Manager to show the information panel. choose Output Styles and then Open Style Manager. category. If EndNote is still open. which will hide the panel. Copy the downloaded files to your Styles folder. 472 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . 5. These include the creation and modification dates. NOTE: Another way to direct your browser to this web page is to select Web Styles Finder from the Help menu. To download individual output styles: 1. Use the Style Info/Preview button to toggle between these displays: Style Information: Details about the style are displayed in the Information panel. From the Edit menu in EndNote. (When you choose More Info. please Exit the program and then restart EndNote to read in the added output styles. which is typically located at Program Files\EndNote X3\Styles. the button changes to Less Info.) The information panel is used to display more detail about the selected style. which style guide the style is based on. The styles will now be available in EndNote to select for formatting. 3. Click Accept to accept the Terms of Use. Browse through an alphabetical listing of the available output styles. and Download those files you want to install.Finding individual output styles on the EndNote website You can use the Style Manager in EndNote to find and download individual output styles. 2. and any limitations or comments about using the style. 4.

and select the style to preview.Style Preview: In the preview section. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 473 . Open a library. This adds the style to the Output Styles menu. 4. Select one or more references in your library and choose Copy Formatted (CTRL+K) from the Edit menu. The preview tab displays only one reference at a time. Select any reference in your library to have it displayed on Preview tab. book. In the Style Manager. choose Output Styles. 3. EndNote shows how a journal. 2. you can use the Copy Formatted command and the Clipboard: 1. From the Edit menu. 2. From the Edit menu. and click the Preview tab in the Tab pane. Paste from the Clipboard into a word processor document to see the formatted references as they would appear in a bibliography. and book section would be formatted with the selected style. Previewing Styles Using Your Own References EndNote uses built-in examples for the previews in the Style Manager window. If you want to preview a style using your own references: 1. 3. mark the style as a favorite by clicking in the check box next to its name. If you would like to preview a group of references. choose Output Styles and select a style.

If you close a Style window before saving a style. Because each style is a separate file on your hard drive. or to save changes to a style you have just modified. Give this copy of the file a new name and Save it. We recommend that you make a backup copy of any new or modified styles (see Appendix A). 3. If you have modified a style that is already located in your personal Styles folder. 2. see “Folder Locations” on page 604. you can choose either Save to directly modify the file. 474 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . For a description of where your styles are stored. you must use Save As to save a copy to your personal Styles folder. select the style on your hard drive and drag it onto a disk. Without making any changes to the file. choose Output Styles and select Open Style Manager. The new style will remain open. Copying Styles When you display a list of styles in EndNote. choose Save As from the File menu. the list is comprised of the installed styles found in the Program Files\EndNote X3\Styles folder as well as new or modified styles found in your personal Styles folder. If you have modified one of the original installed files in the Program Files\EndNote X3\Styles folder. the same dialog appears. choose Save or Save As from the File menu. From the Edit menu. or choose Cancel to return to the style. you can copy them as you would copy any file on your hard drive using the Windows desktop. To make a copy of a style from within EndNote: 1. Saving Styles To save a new style that you have just created. use the Print Preview command on the File menu to print the showing references in the library window. To copy a style to a removable disk. Select the style you want to copy and click Edit. For an explanation of where your files are stored.Or. The original style will be left untouched. or Save As to make a copy with the changes. If you quit from EndNote while a Style window is open. EndNote prompts you to save or discard the changes you have made. 4. see “Folder Locations” on page 604. The file is saved in your personal Styles folder.

EndNote styles use the file name extension of “. You can also rename styles by switching to the Windows desktop. For an explanation of where your files are stored. choose Revert Style from the File menu. or right-click on the style and choose Delete from the shortcut menu. 2. or choose Close Style from the File menu. see “Folder Locations” on page 604. so you can keep several variations of the same style. and typing a new name. select the file to delete and choose Delete from the File menu. 3. Choose Clear from the Edit menu. you likely will not be able to delete a file located within the Program Files folder. Renaming Styles Rename styles using the Save As command in EndNote’s File menu. click the close button in the upper right corner of the window. From the Edit menu. EndNote Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 475 . For instructions see “Folder Locations” on page 604.EndNote automatically saves new styles to your personal Styles folder.” Deleting Styles To delete a style from within EndNote: 1. Then. This allows you to make a copy of any style that you want to modify. choose Output Styles and select Open Style Manager. Once you close the Style window the changes are permanent until changed again. clicking on the file name.ens. Select the style to be deleted. You can also delete an unwanted style by switching back to the Windows desktop and opening the appropriate Styles folder (see “Folder Locations” on page 604). as in “Nature. If you have not saved your changes to the style. locating the style file in the Styles folder. To close a Style window. or drag the file to the Recycle Bin. If you do not have administrator access. NOTE: You must have read/write access to the Styles folder in order to delete a style. or press the DELETE key. Reverting Changes to a Style Closing a Style If at any time you need to revert your changes back to the last saved copy of the style. You may also specify a different folder if necessary.ENS” (for EndNote Style).

To download more of the predefined styles. From the Edit menu.prompts you and gives you the option to save or discard any changes that you have made. For more details about editing parts of a style. Once the new copy of the style has been saved. For an explanation of where your files are stored. 6. Scroll through the list of available styles to see if you can find one that is similar to what you need. in the event that you need to use it later. or to change your personal Styles folder location. The new Style window remains open for you to edit it as you need. The preview of the selected style should now be displayed. choose Output Styles and select Open Style Manager. 476 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . 4. If a style that you need is not included with EndNote. give this copy of the style a new name that corresponds to the name of the journal you want to use it for. because there are thousands of journals published.700 journal styles for your convenience. Accessing Styles in Other Places The Style Manager displays only the styles found in specific folders. We recommend that you copy additional styles to your personal Styles folder. read “Basic Components of a Style” and “Modifying Style Templates” starting on page 477. and click the Edit button. select it. however. it will be added to your style menus. 2. see “Folder Locations” on page 604. and click Save. Once you have found a similar style. Choose Save As from the File menu. 5. see “Installing Additional Output Styles” on page 471. In the Style Manager. change the setting in the information panel from Style Info to Style Preview. What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included? EndNote supplies over 3. 3. This will also keep the original style unchanged. This should not be a problem because you can customize a style of your own or edit any of EndNote’s preconfigured styles. The Style window opens. the style you need may not be included. To find and modify a similar style: 1. we recommend modifying a style that is similar to what you need.

Bibliographies: The items listed under the Bibliography heading apply to the bibliography that EndNote creates when you format Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 477 . Select the file to edit and click Edit. bibliographies. choose Output Styles and select New Style. EndNote opens the Style window. To edit a style: From the Edit menu. The most recently used style can also be opened by selecting Output Styles from the Edit menu. Page Numbers. and citations in footnotes. and Journal Names) apply to citations. choose Output Styles and then Open Style Manager.Basic Components of a Style The best way to understand how a style works is to open one up and look at it. Anonymous Works. To create a new style: From the Edit menu. also read “Creating a New Style” on page 522. The Style Window After choosing the option to edit an existing style or create a new one. The rest of the options in the Style window are grouped under one of four headings: Citations: Panels listed under the Citations heading apply only to citations in the body of the text. If you are interested in creating a new style. and choosing Edit <style>. All of the different options for editing a style are listed on the left side of the Style window. The first four items (About This Style.

You may switch between panels as needed while editing the file.a paper. The Templates panels are the major component of the styles. and then insert EndNote citations into them. and Footnote sections of the style all have a Template panel and other options for fine tuning the style. No changes are saved in any of the panels. Footnotes: The items under the Footnote heading apply to citations that have been inserted into the footnotes or endnotes in a word processing document. Click on the plus next to one of the headings to expand or collapse the view to show or hide the related options. The templates look like citations or bibliography entries. until you choose Save or Save As from the File menu. During the formatting process. 478 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . except that field names are used in place of the actual data. (You must first create the footnotes in your word processor. Style Templates The Citation. These settings are also used with the Export. They include the field names and punctuation organized in the way EndNote should format the references for that particular style. Many of these options are repeated for the three sections (such as the settings that determine how author names are treated). For details about working with style templates see page 479. Bibliography. EndNote replaces the field names with the corresponding information from the references. bibliographies. Copy Formatted. Click on an item under the headings to view the associated panel. however. and Footnotes) there are a series of options for how to fine-tune the formatted references in citations. or footnotes. Bibliography. These options are described starting on page 493.) Figures and Tables: The items under Figures and Tables apply to EndNote figures and tables that have been inserted into a Microsoft Word document. The Figures and Tables section applies specifically to EndNote figures and tables inserted into a Word document. Print. and Preview options. because each of these three areas of the document might require a slightly different format. Other Style Options Under each heading in the Style window (Citations.

) An author-year type of style would probably display something such as “(Author.) Editing a style requires a general understanding of how styles work and the components of a style. Citation Template Click on Templates under the Citation heading to view the Citation panel. Year)” in the citation template. More information about editing templates is provided later in this section. the Numbered style uses a bracketed bibliography number for the in-text citation. For example. Read “Basic Components of a Style” on page 477 to become familiar with the terms used in this section. (See “What Should I Do if My Style Is Not Included?” on page 476. A multiple citation is an in-text citation that includes Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 479 . (The bibliography number corresponds to a numbered reference in a bibliography. Multiple Citation Separators Use the “Multiple Citation Separators” section of this dialog to specify the punctuation to separate multiple citations in your papers. then you can modify a style to suit your needs. retyping the punctuation you want. You may change the template by deleting unwanted field names or punctuation.Modifying Style Templates If you are creating a bibliography that requires a style not included with EndNote. and inserting new fields with the Insert Field button. This template tells EndNote how to format the intext citations in the body of your paper.

480 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . and other reference-type-specific templates to format the various reference types in a bibliography. Remember to include a space in the separator section when necessary. which is why different templates are required: 1. Bibliography and Footnote Templates Click Templates under the Bibliography or Footnotes heading to see the templates for how those references are formatted.. This applies only to the years in the in-text citations. Competitive evolution. The following examples show how journal articles. 1993. Notice that each reference type is formatted differently. 1988). Smith and Barnes: New York. Editor. This example uses a semicolon and a space as the separator between citations. C. check the “Use 2-digit years” option. 1993. Journal of Theoretical Biology. books. Bloggs. For footnote and bibliography templates. Billoski. Year Format If you would like EndNote to use 2-digit years (such as ‘99) in the in-text citations. Hall. Jones. V. each has a “Generic” template. and book sections. 1976. would be formatted with the Numbered style. B. respectively. 1982.J.. The Theory of Foraging. Years from all centuries will be abbreviated to display just the last two digits.R. 2. such as: (Argus. Emiliani. 97: p.more than one reference within a single set of delimiters. 13-33. The separator can be changed by typing other text in the “Multiple citation separator” box.

The options at the top of the Footnote Templates panel allow for the different conditions. T.V. J. books.R. citations in footnotes are formatted just like intext citations (in the body of the paper). book references would be formatted using the Generic template. such as journals. and book sections. a template is already defined for it (you can edit the template). Similarly. Billoski.. in New Directions in Paleontology. 1987. simply choose the Same As In-text option from the Footnote Format options. Evidence for Triceratops in Antarctica. Jones. For some styles. Academic Press: New York. exactly like the Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 481 . Whitney. For example. there is no need to create a special template for footnotes.2427.3. T. Footnote Template Options Styles have varying requirements for how citations in footnotes should be formatted. p.V. Other Reference Type Templates The rest of the templates in the style tell EndNote how to format specific reference types. Generic Template The Generic template is used to format references that use the Generic reference type or do not have their own template in the style.R. and V. If a check mark appears next to a reference type in the Reference Type list. some formats request that citations in footnotes are formatted as full bibliographic references. if a Book template had not been included in the style. Billoski. Editor. In that case.

Choose Edit Numbered from the Output Styles menu to open the Numbered Style window. 2. 3. if you need the footnotes to use their own special format (most styles for the humanities require this). and “Ibid. For example. Changing the Punctuation in a Formatted Reference Punctuation that appears in your formatted references can be changed by editing the style you are using. and Book). For each reference type (such as Generic. you need to define the templates for how citations in footnotes should be formatted. you can set the footnote format option to Same as Bibliography. For information about how to treat repeated citations. or add additional punctuation where necessary. Click the Templates option under the Bibliography heading. delete the comma that follows the field name “Author” and type a period. you can edit the Numbered style to make this change. The style’s bibliographic templates should now look like the 482 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles .” for consecutive repeated citations. replace it with other punctuation. Journal Article. if the Numbered style creates a perfect bibliography for your document except that it puts a comma after the authors’ names where you need a period. However. such as using a short form for non-consecutive repeated citations. For this option. When you edit a style. you can delete unwanted punctuation. see “Repeated Citations (in Footnotes)” on page 517. you would choose the option to format citations in footnotes with a unique footnote format. To edit the Numbered style: 1.bibliography. 4. Choose the Numbered style in the Output Styles menu. For those styles.

Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 483 . choose Save As. enter a new name for this modified Numbered style and click Save. or see “Accessing Styles in Other Places” on page 476 if necessary. you should add the Notes field to the style that you use.example below. indicate what information is included in your formatted reference. and the carets (^) that you see in the style templates. Similarly. Now you can use the new style to create a formatted bibliography that puts a period between the author names and the titles. In the dialog that appears. That section also explains the use of the non-breaking spaces (◊). Year. 5. to exclude unwanted information that is appearing in a bibliography. vertical bars (|). such as notes. Notice that the punctuation after the Author field in each template has been changed to a period. From the File menu. NOTE: If you save a new style into a folder other than the current styles folder. along with your references. and Title) that you see when editing a style template. accent grave (`). Adding and Removing Fields in a Formatted Reference The field names (such as Author. For information about making punctuation or spaces appear only under certain circumstances see “Special Formatting Characters” on page 490. you must delete the field name that contains that information from the style’s bibliography template. it will not be available in the Style Manager. If you want to include a field. You should save new styles to your Styles folder.

In the Style Manager. Under the Bibliography heading. you can edit the style and delete the unwanted field’s name and any associated punctuation. 3. and click Edit. 2. that follows 484 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . Click on the Templates option under the Bibliography heading. add any punctuation or spacing that is necessary to correctly incorporate the new field into the style. Along with the Issue field. 4. click the Templates option. Click the Insert Field button and choose the field to be added. NOTE: As a short-cut. Select the text to be deleted (which includes “. and position the cursor at the location in the template where you want to add a field. Adding a Field to a Style Template To insert a new field into a style template: 1. Select the style that you want to edit.The examples below show two common scenarios in which fields are added to or removed from the formatted bibliography. you can use the options in the Layout panel to add text or punctuation before or after every reference in a bibliography. See “Adding Text Before Each Reference” on page 510 and “Adding Text After Each Reference” on page 511. also remove the period that precedes it and the vertical bar. and you do not want the issue to appear: 1. if a style includes the issue number in your journal references. 5. Whenever you change the fields in a style template be sure to check the surrounding punctuation to make sure that it is still accurate. 3.Issue|” in this example). For example. 2. a special formatting character. From the Edit menu. select the style and click the Edit button. Deleting a Field from a Style Template If EndNote includes information in your bibliography that you do not want to be there. choose Output Styles and select Open Style Manager. After the field is inserted. and press the DELETE or BACKSPACE key.

often it is not sufficient because the other reference types need to be formatted differently. click the Templates panel under the Bibliography heading. such as Report. In the Style window. From the Edit menu. click the Edit button.) Adding New Reference Types When a style does not include a template for a specific reference type. (Reference Types that are Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 485 . 4.the Issue field. 2. (See “Special Formatting Characters” on page 490 for more information about the vertical bar. 3. With the style selected. To add a new reference type template to a style: 1. you should make specific templates for the different reference types that you will be including in your bibliographies. Therefore. Although there are times when the Generic format suffices. Choose the name of the desired reference type from the Reference Types drop down list. EndNote uses the style’s Generic template to format that reference type. choose Output Styles>Open Style Manager and select the style that you want to modify.

and City): Trift.) A new template for that reference type is added at the bottom of the Style window (scroll to the bottom of the Style window if you do not see it). 486 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . Title. Defining the Format for the New Reference Type Template Defining the format for a new template is a process of inserting the necessary fields and punctuation in the correct order. TX. 88-101. Institution. M. Aspects of the tethyan rifting.already defined appear in the list with check marks next to their names. 1998. Institute for Tethyan Rifting: Austin. we want a report to look like this (Author. For this example. Year. Report Number.

Plain Size. Use the Edit menu or the Style toolbar to apply any font. size. EndNote uses that font for the paper’s bibliography. any italicized terms in your references will still appear italicized in your bibliography. The final template for the Report reference type looks like this: Fonts and Text Styles By default.We can insert the fields and type the punctuation to create a template for the Report reference type. which allow the bibliography that EndNote creates to adopt the font settings in your paper. Rules for Working with Style Templates There are four basic rules of dependence that govern how text. and field names influence each other when they are used in a style template. if you type your paper in a 10 point Times font. for example. For example. spaces. For example. Apply text styles. Use the Insert Field button at the top of the Style window to insert the fields in the correct order. Rule #1: Basic dependence Any text or punctuation that is not separated from a field name by an ordinary space is dependent on the adjacent field. After inserting a field name. In this context. by selecting the text to change and using the Style toolbar. regardless of the text attributes that the EndNote bibliographic style applies. If necessary. Any font or text style changes entered in an EndNote Reference window carry through the bibliography as well. You can use this feature. these rules can be circumvented in specific situations using the special formatting characters described in the next section of this chapter. For example. in this excerpt: Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 487 . to italicize titles or make the volume numbers bold. or text style to your Style templates. “dependent” means that the text or punctuation adjacent to a field only appears in your bibliography if the adjacent field contains data. such as italics for the Title. text entered into a Style window appears in EndNote’s Plain Font. and Plain Style settings.) All text attributes entered into a style template carry over into the bibliography that EndNote creates. type the punctuation and spacing that should follow it.(Note that only the standard Windows fonts are available.

Independent spaces can be forced to be dependent on an adjacent field using the special formatting characters discussed later. is dependent on the Author field. if the style includes two spaces between the Author and the Title: Author. Rule #2: The preceding field takes precedence over the following field. if there is no volume in the reference. In this example. however the second space is independent. Rule #3: The first space after a field is dependent on that field.Volume·(Issue) the parentheses around “Issue” only appears in a formatted reference if there is an issue number for the reference. so it remains in the formatted reference. The first ordinary space following a field is always dependent on that field.··Title the title will be preceded by one space for all anonymous references. 488 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . This can be done using the special formatting characters described in the next section. it is dependent on the preceding field. being dependent on the Author field. you might want to have the colon only show when there is an issue. The first space. If there is a volume. the colon will appear NOTE: This example shows a case where the rules of dependence might not do what you want. This means. just like the period. disappears when there is no author. However. For example. Volume:Issue the colon is dependent on the Volume field. if EndNote formats an anonymous book using a template that has the Author field followed by a space and the Title field: Author.·Title the title will not be preceded by a space in the final formatted reference because the space. When punctuation appears between two fields with no intervening spaces. Any consecutive spaces after that are independent and will always appear in the formatted references. For example. Additional spaces are independent. the colon will not appear.

) period semicolon... period (!.. even if you don’t get everything quite right according to the rules. For example.) period colon. field text is entered into EndNote without ending punctuation. period (.” will appear in all Book references—regardless of whether or not there is an edition for that reference. the text “ed. See “Link Adjacent Text (Using the Non-breaking Space)” below. EndNote will do its best to clean up the formatted reference. when you download references from various sources.) exclamation point EndNote treats other forms of extra punctuation like this: Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 489 . period (:. NOTE: The non-breaking space can be used in place of a regular space to link independent text to a field. period (. when an output style directs EndNote to insert a period after a field. if: Edition·ed.) single period question mark. period period comma. For example. plus punctuation added by output style: Replaced with: spaces.” and the field “Edition”. Normally.Rule #4: Independent text always appears in the bibliography. EndNote must determine what to do with any punctuation that already exists at the end of the field in the reference. However.) question mark exclamation point. so that the selected output style can supply punctuation as required by that particular style. is entered into a style’s Book template using only an ordinary space to separate the text “ed.) period double periods (. period (?. Punctuation found. EndNote Cleans Up Too confused about all these rules? Well. some information providers may include punctuation. Obvious problems are fixed automatically. Any text or punctuation that is not dependent on a field name always appears in the formatted references.

) double question marks (??) double periods (. 490 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . To avoid this problem.Punctuation found. exclamation point (?!) exclamation point. etc.. Think of a non-breaking space as bibliographic formatting glue..) double semicolons (. question mark (!?) Replaced with: single space single comma single semicolon single question mark single period period question mark exclamation point question mark exclamation point One set of punctuation that is never replaced is the period. Look at the example below to understand the correct locations for a non-breaking space. You can also enter it by typing CTRL+ALT+SPACE. You can insert a non-breaking space by selecting Link Adjacent Text from the Insert Field list in the Templates panels.) comma. Link Adjacent Text (Using the Non-breaking Space) If you type Edition ed. It appears on the screen as a small diamond. Special Formatting Characters EndNote has special formatting characters that add flexibility and precision to the grouping of punctuation and fields in the style templates.. period (!. period (. period (?.) question mark..” dependent on the Edition field by linking “ed. any text or punctuation “glued” to a field will drop out of the bibliography if that field is empty.”. Thus. It joins two or more items together so they act as a single unit...) exclamation point.) because it may be used for abbreviations like ed. comma (. then “ed. plus punctuation added by output style: double spaces double commas (.” to the Edition field with a non-breaking space..” will appear regardless of whether or not the reference has an edition (see Rule #4). make “ed. et al.) question mark. into a style template and use an ordinary space to separate the field name “Edition” from the abbreviation “ed.

Volume|: ◊Issue|. vol ◊Volume Editor ◊Ed. or forcing separation between two dependent items. The non-breaking space is also used in conjunction with the vertical bar (see next section) to change the dependency of a punctuation mark from one field to another. Think of a vertical bar as breaking dependence. and Carlson.(1982): 332-373. T. In this case. Common uses of the non-breaking space include (where “◊” is used as a non-breaking space): p^pp ◊Pages Edition ◊ed. use the vertical bar character (|). the bibliography entry will be incorrect. the Journal Article templates in some styles require a period between the volume and issue. to force a separation of the text from a field.^Eds. H. Notice that the period used to separate the volume from the issue appears here in the absence of an issue because it is dependent upon the Volume (Rule #2). so it does not print in the bibliography if the Issue field is empty. And the space separating the volume Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 491 .The non-breaking space is converted to a normal space in the formatting process. (The vertical bar works in exactly the opposite way as the non-breaking space.” Language 58. “Hearers and Speech Acts. A template for such a style might look like this: However. The vertical bar can be found on the same key as the backslash (\).) For example. when this style formats a journal article that does not include an issue number. It can also be inserted from the Insert Field list in the Templates panels. the colon (:) is linked to the Issue field with a nonbreaking space. as in the following example: Clark. Forced Separation—Using the Vertical Bar If you do not want text or punctuation to be dependent on the preceding or following field.

” Field names need not be capitalized to be recognized.J. Smith and Barnes: New York.L. such as “Editors” or “Issued. Use the vertical bar character in conjunction with the non-breaking space. 1976. and the space will no longer be dependent on the Issue field. Marion. T. (to make the final period independent) Field Names in Bibliographies Sometimes you may need to use text in a template that is also an EndNote field name for that reference type. and R. Bloggs. For example. Other common examples for using the vertical bar include: Publisher|: ◊City Pages|. Normally. you may want to use the word “Editor” after the editor’s name: Jones. H. Zeiss. To force EndNote to interpret a word as just text and not as a field name in a template. Remember to also use the non-breaking space to link the text. Editor. to the Editor field. This is even true of field names that appear as part of a word. `Editor`.and the year is lost because that space is dependent upon the Issue field (Rule #3).R. The Theory of Foraging. With these changes the style looks like this: And the formatted reference without an issue is correct: Clark. “Hearers and Speech Acts. put an accent grave character before and after the word: `Editor`. The vertical bar character (|) can be used to break the automatic grouping of spaces and punctuation with adjacent fields. If you insert the vertical bar before the period in our example. B. Add another vertical bar before the space that follows the Issue field. The accent grave is found in the upper left corner of most keyboards on the same key as the tilde (~). EndNote interprets the word “Editor” as a field name when it appears in a book’s style template. 492 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . EndNote has a way of avoiding these problems. V. B. and Carlson.” Language 58 (1982): 332-373. the period’s dependency switches from the Volume field to the Issue field.K. in A History of Foraging Behavior..

” after a single editor and “Eds.Singular/Plural Term Separator (Caret ^) You can specify both singular and plural forms of labels for editors or pages in a formatted reference by using a caret (^) to separate the terms. For example. These terms must also be linked to the relevant field using a nonbreaking space. The remainder of the panels in the Style window can be used to fine-tune certain aspects of a style. enter both the singular and plural forms of the label separated by a caret (insert it from the Insert Field list or type SHIFT+6). a style template might look like this: Or like this: Additional Style Formatting Options The templates determine the general layout of the formatted references and citations. up to the next space. and Cited Pages. Any text before the caret.” follows several editors’ names. Or. Pages. “p. is used for the singular form. For example. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 493 . is used for the plural form. Subsidiary Author. This feature can be applied to any field that corresponds to the Generic field for Author. back to but not including the preceding space.” precedes multiple pages. text after the caret. some styles put “Ed.” might precede a single page. Secondary Author. Tertiary Author. while “pp. similarly. In the style template.

Commonly this text would be something like the word “Anonymous” or “Anon. Bibliography. Use APA Specifications: The American Psychological Association format (used by many journals) requires a special variation of the “Use Title in Place of Author” option. If the references are to be sorted by author names. and it is used for sorting purposes if the references are to be sorted by author names. the anonymous works would be sorted at the top of the list because they have no author.Anonymous Works Anonymous works are defined by EndNote as references where the Author field is blank (not “Anonymous”). If you would prefer that EndNote use the contents of the “Short Title” field in place of the full title (where available). the title is used instead.” 494 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . Use Title in Place of Author: Where the author would have appeared. If the references are sorted by author. it uses the contents of the regular Title field instead. and Footnotes). If EndNote encounters a reference that does not have anything entered into the Short Title field. click the “Use Short Title” check box. The settings in the Anonymous Works panel apply to all sections of a style (Citations. Insert Text: The text that you enter here appears in the author’s place in the formatted reference. the anonymous references will be sorted as though the title were the author. Leave Author Blank: The author section of the formatted reference is left empty.

NOTE: The section “Special Formatting Characters” on page 490 describes how to instruct EndNote to add text such as “p.” “P. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 495 . Example: “123-125” in the Pages field becomes “123” in the formatted reference. Example: “123-125”in the Pages field becomes “123-5” in the formatted reference. keeping two digits Any digits of the last page number that are the same as the first page number are eliminated. and that your style is set up to use the correct form of the journal name. Show range of pages Leading digits are added to the last page number. the first dash or comma are included in the bibliography. some styles may require “Proceedings of the National Academy of Science” to be abbreviated as “Proc. if necessary. but not including. Abbreviate last page Any digits of the last page number that are the same as the first page number are eliminated. Nat. “pp.” vs.Page Numbers The Page Numbers panel allows you to specify how the page numbers should be formatted for your references: Don’t change page numbers The contents of the Pages field are used directly in the formatted reference. Acad.”. down to a minimum of two digits.N. Show only first page Only the first characters in the Pages field up to. or “page” vs. Example: “123-5” in the Pages field becomes “123-125”in the formatted reference.. Show only first page for Journals and full range for others Journal articles are formatted differently from other types of references.” or “PNAS.A. Example: “123-125”in the Pages field becomes “12325” in the formatted reference. and therefore it is ready to be used with the Journal Names options. “pages” to the formatted references using the caret (^). Abbreviate last page. No changes are made.S. so the full page range is used. You simply need to be sure that the necessary information is in the Journals term list. Journal Names Different journals have different standards for abbreviating journal names. Sci. For example. The Journals term list that is created for every library is automatically linked to the Journal and Alternate Journal fields.” EndNote’s Journals term list provides a way for you store up to four variations of journal names (the full name and three forms of abbreviations) to be used in your bibliographies.

EndNote also abbreviates fields such as Conference Name. and the names of magazines and newspapers. EndNote provides journal abbreviation lists for several different disciplines (including medicine. 3. select Output Styles and choose Open Style Manager. Select the style that you would like to modify and click Edit. Abbreviation 1 Abbreviation 2 Abbreviation 3 In the bibliography.If your Journals term list includes the name of the journal as it is entered in your EndNote references. or to the Secondary Title field for only the Journal Article reference type. chemistry. 496 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . If you uncheck this option to apply this feature to all reference types. you may also enter the journal abbreviations yourself. Abbreviate in Journal Articles Only The substitutions made with the Journal Names option can apply to all Secondary Title fields. respectively. If you are interested in using one of these lists. 2. See “Working with the Journals Term List” on page 288. EndNote uses the journal name exactly as it appears in the reference in the EndNote library. This first column is normally used for full names. If EndNote does not provide a journal term list that applies to your area of research. third. the journal name for each reference is replaced with the form of that name in the second. or fourth column of the Journals term list. No changes are made. EndNote replaces the Journal name in the reference with the form of that name in the first column of the Journals term list. To modify a style to use the abbreviations in a Journals term list: 1. you may simply set your preference in a style to have EndNote substitute a form of the name in the Journals term list for what was entered into your references. you may import it into your Journals term list (see page 280) and set up a bibliographic style to use one of the abbreviations for the formatted bibliography. From the Edit menu. Select the Journal Names panel from the list at the left of the Style window to see the available options: Full Journal Name When creating a bibliography. and humanities). and the form of the journal name that you would like to appear in your bibliographies. Don’t Replace In the bibliography.

NOTE: None of these changes actually takes place in the EndNote library. and you do not have a Journals term list that includes the names without periods. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 497 .Remove Periods Choose this option to have EndNote eliminate the periods from all journal names in the bibliography that it is creating. Create a bibliography for each section and also a complete bibliography at the end of the document. Export. This option does not require that the journal names be in the Journals term list. the style uses the journal name as it appears in the Reference window. If nothing is entered in the Journals term list or if there is no special Journals term list. Sections (Microsoft Word Only) Previous versions of EndNote always created a single bibliography at the end of your word processor documents.org Writer documents or format RTF files. Create a bibliography for each section in the document (as defined in the styles APA 5th (sections) and Chicago 15th B (sections)). For example. Print. and Format Bibliography commands. the Journal Names option always defaults to Don’t Replace. regardless of the abbreviation being used. No replacement is made for that journal. However. if the journal names are entered into your references using periods. EndNote X3 includes additional output style options specifically for Microsoft Word. That is still true when you Cite While You Write in OpenOffice. If a journal name is not found in the specified column of the Journals term list. These options only determine what information goes into the bibliography that is generated using the Copy Formatted. You can choose to: Create a complete bibliography at the end of each document (the default setting for almost all of the supplied output styles). and EndNote uses the journal name exactly as it appears in the original reference. you can still just check this option and the periods will be stripped out of the journal names when EndNote formats a bibliography.

or apply settings for disambiguation and repeated citations across sections. citation numbering will be restarted at the beginning of each section. a bibliography is created at the end of each section. An additional check box is available for sections: Continue numbering. 498 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . Create a bibliography for each section in the document When you select this option.org Writer. and includes only the citations within a section. NOTE: The Sections portion of an output style is ignored by OpenOffice. Create a complete bibliography at the end of each document This default setting formats a single bibliography at the end of a document. and versions of EndNote prior to version X3. see “Creating Multiple Bibliographies in a Single Document” on page 343. Even if you have broken the document into multiple sections. When the check box is blank When a numbered bibliographic style is selected. a single bibliography will appear at the end of the document.For more information about using sections in a Microsoft Word document. RTF files.

Note that these settings assume the author is used in the in-text citation. without restarting for each section. They are not relevant for styles that use bibliography numbers for the in- Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 499 . ambiguous citation settings will be restarted and applied to each section individually. see “Ambiguous Citations” on page 499. EndNote formats a single. For example. EndNote provides various ways to avoid this sort of ambiguity in your citations.When a non-numbered bibliographic style is selected. For a non-numbered style. 1995) or (Smith 246-9). This option creates a bibliography for each section as well as a complete bibliography of all the citations in the document. This leads to ambiguity in the citations that would make it impossible for the reader of your paper to know which reference to Smith you are referring. citations in the next section will start with number 11. For non-numbered styles. Click in the check box next to all options that apply. selecting the check box will assure that numbering is continued across sections. Create a bibliography for each section and a complete bibliography at the end of the document. ambiguous citation settings will apply across the entire document. Ambiguous Citations With in-text citations like (Smith. Any combination of the following options may be used. complete bibliography at the end of the document. ambiguous citation settings are applied across the entire document. without restarting for each section. For numbered styles. citation numbering continues sequentially across all sections. references can have identical in-text citations if they are by the same author or the authors have the same last name. When the check box is selected For a numbered style. see “Ambiguous Citations” on page 499. For more information about ambiguous citation settings. If a document is not divided into sections. For more information about ambiguous citation settings. if citations in the first section are numbered 1 to 10.

Smith 241-5)and(L. Initials are added to clarify which Smith wrote the cited reference: (S. and then “et al. and continue in that manner until the list of authors was different between the two citations. if the in-text citations were set to list only 3 authors. the MLA style uses just author names and page numbers in citations. Add the title for different works by the same author(s) If you have two works by the same author. For example. Include author initials in citation Check this option to have EndNote include initials with author names to distinguish between citations by different authors that happen to have the same surname. If you choose this option and select the “Short Title” option. Smith 12-20) Add more authors until citation is unique Some styles request that only a fixed number of authors be listed in the in-text citation.” or “and others” is inserted to indicate that the author list was abbreviated. For example. In this case. 500 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . Choose this option if you would like EndNote to list additional authors to make the citation unique. Choose how the initials should appear from the Initials option in the section.text citations as it is not possible to have ambiguous citations when they are uniquely numbered. EndNote would add a fourth author to the citations. some styles request that the title of the reference (or a shortened form of the title) be added to the in-text citation. and you have two references in which the first three authors are the same. it won’t help to add initials or list more authors to differentiate the two.

1998 #93. This is an example in the MLA style. 1998 #199} Use ranges for consecutive citations When this option is checked. which normally includes only the author and page number in a citation: (Smith.EndNote includes the contents of the Short Title field when available. The citations are not given their own numbers. 1996 #88. these options are relevant to multiple citations grouped within one set of citation delimiters. With this setting. it uses the full title. Year) format. Yagi. you also have the option to specify how the grouped references in the bibliography should be separated. EndNote can add a letter to the year to make citations from the same author published in the same year distinguishable from each other. but rather one number is used both in the text and the bibliography to identify the whole group of citations. When unformatted. Jen. The format of the title is taken directly from the bibliography. Otherwise. for example: …as shown by the Berkeley studies conducted in 19873-6 and 19891. History of Our Times 35) (Smith. a multiple citation looks like this: {Keys.7. the numbers correspond to entries in the bibliography. For papers formatted with a numbered style. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 501 . The letter appended to the year will appear in both the intext citations and references in the bibliography. This creates uniquely numbered citations in the text of the paper. Grouped References The “Grouped Reference” option allows you to cite with one number any references that always appear together in the paper as multiple citations. consecutive bibliography numbers appearing in a multiple citation are joined by a single hyphen. Looking Forward 77) Add a letter after the year For citations in an (Author. (Smith 1995a) (Smith 1995b) Numbering Citations The settings in the citation Numbering panel apply only when “Bibliography Number” is used in the citation template (see page 479).

Sedimentary Geology (1999) 58. 502 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . 495. 2a-c) The number always appears with a stand-alone letter or with the first letter of a range. Jones. 1b. The examples illustrate how letters and numbers appear for consecutive citations and ranges. 47. G. Postma. 2. B. Pemberton. Journal of Paleontology (1999) 62. (1a. MP.” Use the “Present letters in” list to select Lowercase or Uppercase letters. To define a composite citation: 1. SG.This option shows a semicolon and a space as a separator: 1. Composite Citations Within grouped references. Geophysical Research Letters (1999) 15. you can differentiate individual citations with letters. 907. This is the default setting. Select the box to “Use letters to separate grouped references. 1b). Select the appropriate letter format for in-text formatted citations. (1a. McCormick. 3.

additional letters include a number only if there could be ambiguity. b). b. b). Normally only the first row in the Author Separators box is used (with the range of authors set at “1 to 100”) so that the separators in that row apply to all of the authors cited in a reference. (1a. (1a. enter any punctuation and spaces that separate the individual author names in a citation. Use the “between” box to enter a comma and a space. Citation Author Lists If the style you are using lists the author names in the Citation template of the Style window. Separators Between Author Names In the “Author Separators” box. 1b. 1b). 2a-c) The letter of the first citation of the composite is preceded with a number. In the “before last” box. enter the separator that appears before the last author in a reference. 2a-2c) Letters are always preceded by a number. and more than two are listed as “Smith. make “·and·” the “before last” text Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 503 . Use the “Precede by” and “Follow by” boxes to enter any character(s) that you want to surround the letter in the bibliography. Sometimes this is something other than a comma and a space. or any other required punctuation to print between author names. (1a. Jones. it is standard to separate the names with a comma and a space. In references with multiple authors. such as “. In this case. (1a. and ” or an ampersand (&) followed by a space. If your citations do not include the author names. 4. 1b. ignore the Author List panel. there are styles in which two authors are listed as “Smith and Jones” (without a comma). you can use the Author List options (as well as the Author Names panel) to control how the authors appear in your in-text citations. 2a-c) Only the letter of the first citation of the composite is preceded with the number. (1a.(1a. and Johnson” (with a comma before the word “and”). However.

NOTE: Include spaces after commas as well as before and after the word “and”. et al. and enter “. Abbreviating the Author List. The example shown above abbreviates author lists of three or more names to show only the first two authors followed by “ et al. The “Abbreviated Author List” section of the Author Lists panel allow you to specify the number of authors needed to trigger this abbreviation. The spaces are not visible in this dialog. using “et al. First Appearance Some journals require that you abbreviate the list of authors.·and·” when there are 3 or more authors (as shown in the example below). If ___ or more authors. List all author names Choose this option if you do not want to abbreviate the author lists. how many authors to include in the formatted reference. and abbreviate with Enter an abbreviation such as ".” 504 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . and what the abbreviation should be.” or an equivalent. after a certain number of authors." You can italicize the abbreviation by selecting the “italic” check box in the dialog. list the first ___ author(s) Select this option and fill in the blanks with the appropriate numbers if you would like the list of authors abbreviated.when there are only two authors.

Regardless of whether or not the resulting Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 505 . if a reference is cited more than once in your paper the first appearance of it in an in-text citation is formatted differently from subsequent citations. the first citation might list all authors. • • • • As Is (as entered in the reference) Normal (first letter of each name is capitalized) ALL UPPERCASE SMALL CAPS (these may or may not be supported by your word processor)) If you apply a capitalization option to author names.” Use the “First Appearance” author list settings to specify the way the authors appear the first time the reference is cited. Capitalization: Specify how you would like the author names to appear. choose the example that shows the name in the order that you would like it to be in the citation. Subsequent Appearances In some bibliographic styles. First Author/Other Authors: Using the list for “First Author” and “Other Authors”. you can have the first author appear differently from the other authors in a reference. you can use the Change Case preference to leave that name as entered. Choose Last Only if you only need the last name of the authors to appear in the citations. “Use initials only for primary authors with the same name” This option allows for initials to be used only when there are primary authors with the same last name included in the bibliography. Initials: Choose from the available options in the list to specify how the initials should look in the citations. From these lists. For example. Citation Author Names Name Format The Name Format section allows you to specify how the author names should look—whether the first or last name should come first. If the intext citations use only the last name. this setting is not important. Use the “Subsequent Appearances” options to format authors in all other appearances of the citation.Abbreviating the Author List. and whether there should be a comma after the last name. See “Change Case” on page 599. but have a specific name that you do not want changed. while subsequent citations list only the first author followed by “et al.

For example. Wyatt. 1999. and the citations by the same author must appear one right after the other. Notice in the example above. 1999 p 5. Check the setting to “omit repeated authors” and EndNote will omit the author name from the citation after it first appears. EndNote will add the initials to those citations to clarify that they are from different authors who happen to have the same surname. check “Don’t omit authors from citations that have suffixes. In this case. 2000) would be changed to look like this: (Smith. a reference such as this: (Smith. 1993. In order for this setting to be used. If you have entered citations with suffixes and you would like those citations excluded from this formatting. 1999. the citations must all be grouped together in a multiple citation. a comma and a space should be entered as the punctuation with which to separate the consecutive citations by the same author.citations are ambiguous (that is. Consecutive Citations by the Same Author If a multiple citation includes works by the same author. the style normally uses a semicolon to separate multiple citations. if two references by the same author included page numbers: (Smith. But when there are a series of citations by the same author. Wyatt. Smith. 2000) 506 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . Wyatt. 2000) You have the additional option in this case to choose the separator to use between these citations. 1993 p 24. Smith. the repeated author names are dropped and the years are separated by commas. they could be from different years). 1993.” For example. some styles request that you not repeat the author name.

the first reference might list the full author name. You can print the entire author list for each reference. completely leave out the author list for subsequent works. so be sure that you check the Author List settings under both the Bibliography and the Footnotes headings to adjust settings. or replace repeated author lists with a text string. For example. You can format author names differently in the footnotes and bibliography.some styles request that you do leave the author name in the second citation for clarity. Author List (Bibliography and Footnotes) The Author List panels under the Bibliography and Footnotes headings let you specify exactly how the authors are to appear in the formatted bibliographic references or in your footnotes. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 507 . while subsequent references display a line of dashes in place of the author name. You can also determine formatting for subsequent works by the same author In some bibliographic styles. if a there is more than one work by an author (or group of authors). the first appearance of that author name is formatted differently from subsequent works. The settings in these panels apply to all reference types formatted with the current style. The “Separators Between Author Names” section and the “Abbreviated Author List” section on these panels are identical to those provided for the Author List panel under the Citations heading. See “Citation Author Lists” on page 503 for details about these settings.

Be sure that you choose the Author Names panel from under the appropriate heading. From these lists. whether there should be a comma after the last name. EndNote uses the names as you have entered them 508 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . • • • • As Is (as entered in the reference) Normal (first letter of each name is capitalized) ALL UPPERCASE SMALL CAPS (these may or may not be supported by your word processor) If you apply a capitalization option to author names. See “Change Case” on page 599. The author names format for citations is described on page 505. whether the first or last name should come first. and how the names should be capitalized. as well as for citations. If you have not entered the full first names and you choose the Full Names option. Initials: Choose from the available options in the list to specify how the initials should appear in the formatted references. you can use the Change Case preference to leave that name as entered. choose the example that shows the name in the order that you want in the reference.Author Names (Bibliography and Footnotes) Name Format There is an Author Names panel for bibliographies and footnotes. First Author/Other Authors: Using the list for “First Author” and “Other Authors”. you can have the first author appear differently from the other authors in a reference. These settings are for choosing how author names should look— for example. Capitalization: Specify how you would like the author names to appear. but have a specific name that you do not want changed. Some styles request that author names are formatted differently in all three cases. This section describes the options that are available for both the footnote and bibliography Author Names panel. Click the “Initials” list to choose how the authors’ first and middle names should be formatted.

select Editor List or Editor Names from under the Bibliography or Footnote heading. NOTE: Initials entered into an EndNote reference must be separated by a period or a space (such as M. Similarly. but instead as a two-letter first name. Tertiary Author. Author List and Author Names apply to the editor’s name in an Edited Book. These fields includes “Editor” in the Book Section and Conference Proceedings reference types.J. In those panels you will find some of the same settings that have been described for formatting author names. Therefore. and Subsidiary Author fields.into the reference. The Editor List settings apply to the generic Secondary Author. Editor List and Editor Names To specify how the editors’ names are to be formatted. Stein or M J Stein). Two letters together (such as MJ Stein) will not be interpreted as two initials. Choose Last Only to show just the last name. The instructions for the Editor List panel are identical to those described for the Author List panel (see page 507). “Editors” Are Considered Primary Authors for Edited Book Reference Types The Author List and Author Names settings apply to the primary author field of each reference type. And Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 509 . with no first or middle initials. and “Series Editor” in the Book and Edited Book reference types. the Name Format options in the Editor Names panel are the same as those for Author Names described on page 508.

and click Edit. 2. After the Style window opens. Bibliography Layout Under the Bibliography heading there is a Layout option that provides options for inserting text before and after each reference in a bibliography. To add a bibliography number before each reference: 1. you can specify what information. see “Citation Prefix Marker” on page 596. Open the Style Manager by choosing Output Styles from the Edit menu and selecting Open Style Manager. 510 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . if any. Adding Text Before Each Reference In the “Start each reference with:” section. (For information on how to add a prefix before a citation. 4.) A common reference prefix is the bibliography number. which is used by all numbered styles to number the references in a bibliography. and select Bibliography Number from the Insert Field list. should appear before each reference in your bibliography. as well as applying hanging indents to your references.the Editor List and Editor Names settings apply to the Series Editor’s name in an Edited Book reference type. Click in the text box below the “Start each reference with” section. Select the style that you would like to edit. choose Layout from under the Bibliography heading. 3.

(For information on how to add text after an in-text citation in your document. “New paleontological excavation techniques” Nature 19. where the second and subsequent lines of a reference are indented. Reference Type will insert the reference type (such as Journal Article or Book) before each reference. see “Citation Suffixes” on page 326.5. Argus. Some bibliographic styles use a Label in the citation and the bibliography to refer to each entry with a short mnemonic code. Other Reference Prefix Fields Other commonly used reference prefixes appear in the Insert Field list. or the Record Number. Choosing Citation as a reference prefix allows you to label the references in the bibliography with the in-text citation. Keywords. should follow each reference in your bibliography. it can put that code before each reference. Record Number will insert the record number before each reference.V. Adding Text After Each Reference Use the “End each reference with” section of the Layout panel to specify what information. or Notes field. such as: 1. see page 512.) This command can be used to add the content of the Label. you can type the mnemonic code directly into the Label field. 234-237 (1993). Type the necessary punctuation after the bibliography number (such as a period and a space) or insert a tab from the Insert Field list. The record number is the number that EndNote assigns to each reference in the library. When EndNote builds a bibliography. if any. With a style configured in this way. When you enter references into your library. M. Abstract. Any other text or punctuation can also be entered as a reference suffix and it will appear at the end of each reference in the formatted Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 511 . EndNote creates a bibliography with numbered references. Add Record Number as a reference prefix in any style in order to print all the references in your library with their unique EndNote record numbers. and it is also used in the in-text citations. often the author’s name and the last two digits of the year. NOTE: To create a hanging indent.

Nyamweru. Click in the text box below the “End each reference with” section. click on the Layout panel. Normally. To tighten up the bibliography and get rid of the blank line after each reference. Postma. you should add the Notes field as a reference suffix in the style that you are using to print or format the references.L. 3. G. so some of these options wouldn’t apply. C. To do this. & Kleinspehn. insert a paragraph mark from the Insert Field list before “Notes. as shown in this example: 1.bibliography. edit the style. Examples of multi-paragraph references include annotated bibliographies 512 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . Journal of African Earth Sciences And The Middle East 8. 1. Open the Style Manager by choosing Output Styles from the Edit menu and selecting Open Style Manager. insert a Tab before the word “Notes. If you want the notes to begin on a new line after the reference. like the start of a new paragraph. 4. and click Edit. After the Style window opens. Hanging Indents Many numbered bibliographic styles require a hanging indent.” Adding or Removing Blank Lines Between References Another common use for the Layout options is to add a blank line between references.. 2. Select the style that you would like to edit. each reference is one paragraph. Sedimentary Geology 58. This will append the Notes field to every reference in the bibliography when you format a paper with the style. and select and delete the paragraph mark (¶) to get rid of the blank line.” If you want the notes to be indented. EndNote provides a few hanging indent options. Nemec. 47 (1988). But if you have a reference that includes more than one paragraph. Example: Adding Notes to the Bibliography If you have notes that you want to print together with your references. and insert a paragraph mark (using the Insert Field list) into the “End each reference with” section. choose Layout from under the Bibliography heading. edit the style as described above. K. EndNote gives you options for which paragraph within a reference the hanging indents should apply. and select Notes from the Insert Field list. 2. 40-42 (1988). Two common uses for the Reference Suffix command are shown below. W.

The style applies a hanging indent to the second paragraph only. and then the year (and the rest of the reference) starts on a new line and is indented. and inserts a tab before and after the year. and N.where the abstracts follow each reference. Second Paragraph Only. Geophysical Research Letters 15(8):737. the spacing for the hanging indent should be aligned with the second tab stop. Ness 2000Remanent magnetism at Mars. insert a tab after the bibliography number to have the references line up correctly. S. The width of the tab as it appears in the bibliography is determined by the tab settings in your word processor. All Paragraphs. The spacing used for tabs and indents is determined by the ruler settings in your word processor. which is especially important if the bibliography entries use a hanging indent. The following is an example of when you would use Second Paragraph Only. or a style such as those common in anthropology journals where the authors are on a line of their own Hanging indent options include: None. NOTE: If you are creating a numbered bibliography. Tabs are often entered after the bibliography number as part of the Layout settings.A. Curtis. Tabs Tabs may be inserted from the Insert Field list. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 513 . The style requires that authors begin on the left margin.F. as shown in the previous example.. and All Paragraphs but the First. First Paragraph Only. A tab entered into a style will appear as a tab in the formatted bibliography. The tab appears as an arrow on the screen. This helps to align the start of each reference after the number. In the word processing document.

1994 #22. See “Custom Sorting” on page 516. Jacob 1994) Options for sorting multiple citations include: Same as Bibliography Sorts multiple citations in the same order as the Bibliography Sort Order (see page 515). the citations are sorted chronologically and the formatted citation looks like this: (Zoler 1983. 514 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . Jacob. and how to sort formatted multiple citations in the text of your paper. an unformatted multiple citation looks like this: {Lee. Author + Title Sorts multiple citations first by authors and then by title. Zoler. Then citations from the same year are sorted based on author names. and then by title. Don’t Sort Multiple citations remain in the same order as they appear in the unformatted temporary citations. Multiple Citation Sort The Sort panel under the Citation heading allows you to set the order that the style uses to sort multiple in-text citations.Sort Order: Bibliographies and Multiple Citations Each style has instructions for sorting references in the bibliography. Other A custom sort order is applied to multiple citations. Lee 1990. Year + Author Sorts multiple citations chronologically. 1983 #19} Formatted with the Author-Date style. then by year. For example. Author + Year + Title Sorts multiple citations first by authors. Select Sort Order from under either the Citations or Bibliographies headings. 1990 #5.

Order of Appearance References are listed in the order in which they are cited in the paper. References with identical authors and years are then sorted by title.Bibliography Sort Order The “Bibliography Sort Order” section determines how the bibliography should be sorted. then by the number of authors in the reference. For references with the same primary author and the same number of authors. First Author + Year + Other Authors References are sorted by just the first author. Other A custom sort order is applied to the references in the bibliography. then references with identical authors are sorted by year. Author + Title References are sorted by the Author field. References with identical authors are sorted by title. they are then sorted chronologically based on the Year field. Common options are listed. References with identical primary authors and years are then sorted based on the other authors in the reference. Author + Year + Title References are sorted by the Author field. and you may also configure a custom sort order. the original works Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 515 . First Author + # of Authors + Year References are sorted by just the first author. See “Custom Sorting” below. then references with identical primary authors are sorted by year. Sort Edited Works After Original Works By Same Author: Some styles request that if the same person is the author for a book and the editor for an edited book.

To see about omitting parts of author names or the initial words of a title when sorting. Custom Sorting To sort references or multiple citations differently from the options in the “Citation Sort Order” or “Bibliography Sort Order” sections. and then the edited works follow. Once you have set up your sorting strategy. You do not need to use all five options. Clicking these boxes toggles the sort order between ascending and descending order. The Other button will now display your custom sorting instructions.by that author are sorted first. including all author names (not just the first author) and initials. click OK to return to the main Sort Order panel for the style. This is an exception to the sorting rules that can be applied to the other sort options provided. This window is identical to the one that appears when you choose Sort References from the References menu. The button at the right of each box controls the direction of the sort. NOTE: When sorting by Author field. select the option for Other and choose from the lists any combination of up to five fields in ascending or descending order. either ascending or descending order. read “Sorting” on page 597. 516 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . EndNote sorts based on all information in the Author field.

This lets you enter one style of capitalization for the titles in your bibliographic references. Articles and prepositions are not capitalized. NOTE: See “Change Case” on page 599 to enter words or acronyms that should not be adjusted when EndNote changes the capitalization of titles.Title Capitalization Both the Footnotes and Bibliography sections have a Title Capitalization panel. Sentence Style Capitalization: Only the first letter of every title is capitalized. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 517 . Options for title capitalization include: Leave Titles As Entered: No changes are made. Headline Style Capitalization: The first letter of every significant word is capitalized. and another format for when the references appear in footnotes. There is a wide variety of formats required for citing references in the footnotes of a paper. Repeated Citations (in Footnotes) Most of the complex formatting in footnotes is relevant only to styles in the humanities. These options are provided in the Repeated Citations panel under the Footnote heading.

the full references appear (as specified in the Templates panel). the first time the reference is cited. for example.When a reference repeats. EndNote provides additional options for the special handling of these cases: If the same reference repeats in consecutive footnotes: When the same reference repeats in consecutive footnotes. a consecutive citation to the same reference.] Special Handling of Consecutive Footnotes Some styles take the shortening of references in footnotes even farther when the repeated references appear in consecutive footnotes (or in the same footnote). The second time that reference appears in a footnote.51. [This is the first. and a third instance of that source being cited. 518 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . underlined. The next option allows you to simply omit the repeated data. reference to the work]. 1: 207. you have the option of replacing the repeated data with text of your choice. a second reference to the same volume and page of Harding’s work requires only Ibid. 1989). and cited pages if there are any) is listed.. or in quotations) is determined by the format of the title in the footnote Templates panel. (New York: Nature Press. So. Vol. The contents of the Short Title field will be used. but the volume and cited pages are different: 1 George Harding. Or you may apply no special handling and when references repeat in consecutive footnotes they will be handled just like other repeated references in footnotes. use short form One common setting for citing references in footnotes is to list a shortened form of a reference after the first time it is cited in a footnote. 2 Ibid. California Wildlife. 2. Here is an example of the first occurrence of a citation in a footnote. p. 2 vols. This is normally “Ibid” (or a variation of the term). Check the option to “Include Title/Short Title” if you would like both the author and the title to appear in the shortened form of the footnote references. and replace it with nothing. [With no intervening reference. the regular title will be added to the citation. [Here another volume and page number of the reference are used.] 3 Ibid. only a shortened form of it (the Author name. and therefore complete. The format of the title (such as italic. if available. otherwise.

or newspaper name. please consult your style guide for more detailed descriptions and examples of handling repeated citations in footnotes. but rather if any of the source data repeats in two consecutive footnotes. They may require different placement for different document types (theses. if you find that you need to modify these parts of your styles. volume. Figure and Table Placement and Captions The Figures and Tables settings apply to images inserted into a Word document from EndNote. NOTE: Additional Figures and Tables settings are available under Cite While You Write Preferences.). If you choose this option. See “Figures and Tables in Word” on page 619. magazine. term papers. etc. they are often vague about figure and table placement. if two different references happen to be from the same journal. However. EndNote’s default figure and table placement settings are the same for all output styles. You can place figures where they are cited in a document or at the end of the document. You may choose “No special handling” for these cases. We have done our best to configure the styles for you so that you will not need to edit them and work through these details on your own. you may limit the replacement to only the Secondary Title field (this includes the journal. and you have control over the placement and punctuation of labels and captions. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 519 . or the title of a book for a book section). journal articles. NOTE: We realize that many of these detailed settings for the style can be confusing. Or you may choose to replace the repeated data with “Ibid” (or the text of your choice). or they may not offer instructions at all. and issue (or whatever portion of that source information is identical). these settings would apply to the journal name. so that these references are not abbreviated. and can override output style settings. While style guidelines tend to be very specific in regard to formatted citations and bibliographies. For example.If the same source repeats in consecutive footnotes: This setting does not apply to the identical reference that repeats in consecutive footnotes. Please check your own style documentation (or check with your editor or teacher) for specific guidelines about image placement for the type of document you are creating.

Figures and Tables Under the Figures and Tables heading in the left column of the output style editor. under Captions. Captions Next. select a button to place the label and caption either above or below the image. See “Figures and Tables in Word” on page 619. which allows you to place figures differently than tables. you can use Cite While You Write preferences to override this automatic placement when your document is reformatted. If your images are placed in-text. select a button to either place the images within the text of the document. The label is “Table #” for images found in the Chart or Table reference type. 520 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . NOTE: The label inserted by EndNote is “Figure #” for images found in the Figure and Equation reference types as well as for most other reference types. You can also select the check box to place the label and caption on separate lines. The Caption is the text typed into the Caption field of a reference. Figures are images inserted from the Figure field of any other EndNote reference type. Tables are images inserted from the Figure field in the Chart or Table reference type. or to place images in a list at the end of the document. select either Figures or Tables. Placement Under Placement. The same options are available under each. This is helpful if you have moved your images around in the document and want to retain their placement. near the reference to the figure.

this setting is ignored. you can enter separators for images inserted within the text of a document and for images that are listed at the end of a document. this setting is ignored. This setting affects both figures and tables that are placed in-text. If your images are placed in-text.Separation and Punctuation Under Image Separation. When images are placed in a list at the end of the document. Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 521 . you can separate each figure or table with a page break or a specified number of blank lines before and after each image. If your images are placed in a list at the end of the document. Caption Punctuation For each figure or table inserted into Word from an EndNote reference. EndNote generates a label and then inserts the caption from the Caption field of the EndNote reference. For example: Table 1. NOTE: The settings on this panel affect both figures and tables. you can specify the number of lines to insert before and after the image to separate it from text. This affects the labels and captions for both figures and tables. Image Separation When images are inserted in-text. Bird Evolution You can select the check boxes to insert a period after the label and/or after the caption.

Creating a New Style It is often easier to modify an existing bibliographic style that closely resembles a style that you need than it is to create a new style from scratch. To create style templates: 1. titles. click the Insert Field button and choose Author from the list of available fields. They are surrounded by parentheses and separated by a comma. The following example guides you through the creation of a fictitious author-date type of style. choose Year 2.) If you do wish to create a new style.EndNote will attempt to remove double punctuation in case you inadvertently include a period within the record as well as selecting one here. type a comma. and other fields are being formatted according to your requirements. type an open parenthesis. this section gives you a general overview of the process. Then adjust the various options to be sure that authors. 522 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles . 3. and the Generic bibliography template applies to all reference types that do not have templates of their own in the style. With the cursor in the Citation Template. The Generic template should be considered a default template. To create a bibliographic style. The Citation template applies to all in-text citations. Creating a bibliographic style involves building templates for the in-text citations and the bibliographic references to mimic how you want them to appear in your paper. go to the Edit menu to select Output Style and then New Style. and you should add additional templates for the standard reference types which you use. Our style uses the author name and the year in the citation. and not the Generic format. they are formatted according to that template. Click the Templates panel under the Citations heading to specify the format of the in-text citations. (See “Modifying Style Templates” on page 479. Example: Creating an Author Date Style Part I: Creating the Templates A new style need only contain a Citation template and a Generic Bibliography template for it to produce citations and bibliographies for any paper. and a new Untitled Style window appears. If you define a specific template for any reference types. pages.

Click the Templates option under the Bibliography heading. Smith and Barnes. This will save the style and add it as an option in the Output Styles submenu of the Edit menu. et al. but journal articles do not display enough information. 4. To do so: Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles 523 . the title must be italicized. 7. New York.· Publisher. The Theory of Foraging. Select different references in your library to see how they format.·Place·Published. BK Marion. then click in the “Generic” section of that Templates panel. (1976). You will probably see that the books look good. Save the new style by choosing Save As from the File menu. 6.·Title. VR. In the dialog that appears. so we can set up the Generic template to accommodate that format: Jones. You will need to return to the style and create a template to format journal articles. type “Practice Style” as the name of this style and click Save. In this style. Next. And continue inserting fields and punctuation until you have created a template that mimics the format of the reference (where “·” indicates a space): Author.) Type a period and a space. define the Generic format which serves as the default template for reference types that do not have their own template. (You can also type “Author” but it is safer to select the field name from the list. so double-click the word Title to select it. Test the Style Open your library and choose Show Preview from the bottom of the Library window.·(Year). We know that books should be formatted like this. 5.from the Insert Field list and then type the closing parenthesis. Choose Author from the Insert Field list to add the Author field to the style template. then from the Edit menu. choose Style and Italic.

Create a New Template for Journals In the Templates panel under the Bibliography heading. and various other options provided in the Style window. You should also take a close look at pages. Once again. the sort order of the references. Insert the fields and punctuation to create a template as shown below: Author·(Year). save the style by choosing Save from the File menu. This will create a new section for a Journal Article template. These are described in the “Additional Style Formatting Options” section starting on page 493. Finishing the Style Continue testing how other reference types format. Return to the Library window.”·Journal·Volume:◊Pages.·“Title. and change the necessary settings. Look at how the author names are formatted. and check the preview to see how journal article references are formatted. choose Journal Article from the Reference Type list. title capitalization. and include additional reference type templates as necessary. See “Modifying Style Templates” on page 479 for specifics about creating and modifying style templates. 524 Chapter 17: Bibliographic Styles .

.......... “About this Filter” Panel........................ Cutting............................ The Filter Manager ............................................................................. Working with Filter Templates............................................................ Deleting Filters.......... 527 527 528 529 530 531 531 532 532 533 533 534 534 534 535 535 536 536 538 538 539 540 541 542 542 546 548 550 553 555 525 .. EndNote Fields ..................................................................................... Navigating in the Templates Panel ......... Literal Text vs........... Reference Type............................................................................................................................................................... The {IGNORE} Field ......... Record Layout .................................................................. Continuation Lines ............................. The Reference Type Tag .... Source Parsing.............Chapter 18 Filters Contents Introduction to Filters ................................................... The Source Line ....................................................... Copying and Pasting Rows.................. Saving Filters...................... Author Parsing................................................ Field Editing .......................................... Templates ................................................ When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field ...................................... Templates for Different Reference Types . Copying Filters........................................................................... Options ............................................................................................... The Filter Editor window......................................................................................................................................... Fields with Special Characteristics.................. Installing Additional Filters ............................................................... The Basic Components of a Filter................................... The Filter Options ............ Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template................ What is a Filter? ...

............................... Rules for MARC Import Filters ................. What Are MARC Records?................ Overview ..........Importing MARC Records ........................ 561 Creating a New Filter ................... 562 562 563 564 526 Chapter 18: Filters ............................................. Creating a Filter for MARC Records .............................. 557 557 557 558 559 Example: Modifying an Existing Filter............ Example Data File and Templates ............................................... Tips for Entering Tags and Fields .................................. Unique Aspects of MARC Records ............................................. 560 Adding a Tag and Field to a Filter ............................................

It may also help to contact your information provider to let them know that the inconsistencies in the data entry for the database are keeping you from most efficiently making use of it. there needs to be a different filter for each database. A Comment About Difficult Data Files Although EndNote’s filters are very powerful and flexible import tools. Visit our website at http://www. Chapter 18: Filters 527 . Each filter provided with EndNote has been configured to import data files from a specific database offered by a single information provider.com. NOTE: You can download the latest filters available from Thomson Reuters. When fine tuning our filters.Introduction to Filters The Import command on EndNote’s File menu provides a way to import text files of reference data into EndNote libraries.endnote.” Filters are designed to import references downloaded from specific online or CD-ROM bibliographic databases. What is a Filter? The import filters provide a wide range of import options. A filter is selected during the import process to show EndNote exactly how to interpret the information in your data file (the records downloaded or saved from an online or CD-ROM database). others are almost impossible to discern. Because each database offered by the various information providers has its own way to organize reference data. there are still some data files that cannot be conquered. we have done our best to always capture the necessary data—even if that means dropping it all into the Notes field. please let us know. This chapter describes how to edit and create these import filters. The process of importing references using the Import command is described in Chapter 7. EndNote has a number of built in import options as well as a large collection of configurable import “filters. If you find filters that can be further improved. You can easily modify any of the supplied filters or create a new filter to import from other databases. A filter does this by mapping the information in each downloaded reference to the corresponding fields in EndNote. Lack of consistency in the source data and the omission of reference type tags often make it difficult for a person to understand the information. Whereas some databases provide very clean tagged data. the task of creating a perfect filter to handle these files is futile.

and select Open Filter Manager. the 100 most popular filters are stored as individual files in the Filters folder in your EndNote program folder. Click column headings to sort the list. you may start typing it and the first filter name that matches what you type will be selected. Click to search for files by category. Click to display or hide details about the selected file. To install additional filters.The Filter Manager EndNote provides hundreds of import filters for a variety of sources. Clicking the same column heading 528 Chapter 18: Filters . By default. choose Import Filters from the Edit menu. The Filter Manager lists the names of the import filters available in the Filters folder and gives you the option to edit them or select them as “favorites” for quick access when you use the Import command. Click a column heading to sort the import filters by name or by information provider. You can click and drag the corner of the dialog to increase the size. Use these features to locate the import filter you want to use: If you know the name of the filter that you want to use. To peruse the list of available filters in EndNote’s Filters folder. see “Installing Additional Filters” on page 529. Click the Find by button and choose All Filters to return all of the import filters to the displayed list. Click the Find by button and choose an information provider’s name (such as Ovid or SilverPlatter) to find only the import filters for a specific information provider.

The remainder of this chapter goes into detail about how to work with the filters. Using the EndNote installer to install additional filters First. Now. Do one of these: Start the EndNote installation program as you would for a new installation. Click the More Info button at the bottom of the dialog to display additional information about the selected filter. All filters that are marked as favorites appear in the Import Options list in the Import dialog. Log in to the machine with administrative rights or as a user with program installation privileges. To mark all of the filters for a specific information provider. Installing Additional Filters The EndNote team has developed hundreds of different filter files. The Unmark All button may be used to unmark all of the filters that are showing in the list. Marking Your Favorite Import Filters When you have found a filter that you will want to use in the future. make sure EndNote is closed and not running. with just that subset of filters listed in the Filter Manager window. a typical EndNote installation includes only the 100 most popular filters. You can get to the Import dialog by choosing Import from the File menu. You can install sets of filters by provider with the EndNote installer. click Mark All. Click again to set it back to ascending order. Because installing all of these files may slow performance. click the check box to the left of it to mark it as a favorite.a second time will change the sort order from ascending to descending. 2. select it in the list and click Edit. choose the option to Modify the installation. use the Find by button to choose the name of the information provider. Read the section that applies to the aspects of the filter that you would like to modify. Chapter 18: Filters 529 . Editing Import Filters If you would like to modify a filter. You can run the EndNote installation program again. and then select sets of filters to install. To install sets of filters: 1. This gives you easy access to those files you use most often. or you can download individual filters from the EndNote website.

The filters will be copied to the EndNote Filters folder. 3. 2. On the “Select Features” dialog. you can copy them as you would copy any file on your hard drive using the Windows Explorer. Then. From the Edit menu. On the “Application Maintenance” dialog. Browse through an alphabetical listing of the available filter files. In the list. There are two ways to copy filters. Click Get More on the Web to start your default browser and go to the appropriate page on the EndNote website.Or. For each set of filters you would like to install. select Control Panel. 4. click the triangle and select either "Will be installed on local hard drive" or "Entire feature will be installed on local hard drive. the list is comprised of the installed filters found in the Program Files\EndNote X3\Filters folder as well as new or modified filters found in your personal Filters folder. select the Modify option and click Next. Click Accept to accept the Terms of Use. 6. click the plus sign (+) next to Additional Filters. Since each filter is a separate file on your hard drive. 5. or choose Settings and then Control Panel. and Download those files you want to install. choose Import Filters and then Open Filter Manager. For an explanation of where your files are stored. choose Import Filters and select Open Filter Manager. 4. which is typically Program Files\EndNote X3\Filters. which is typically located at: Program Files\EndNote X3\Filters Copying Filters When you display a list of filters in EndNote. click on EndNote X3 and then Change. see “Folder Locations” on page 604. 530 Chapter 18: Filters . 3. To download individual filters: 1. From the Edit menu in EndNote. choose Add or Remove Programs. Copy the downloaded files to your Filters folder. 5. from the Windows Start menu. Finding individual filters on the EndNote website You can use the Filter Manager in EndNote to find and download individual filter files. To make a copy of a filter from within EndNote: 1." Click Next to continue with the installation.

3. you can choose either Save to directly modify the file. or to save changes to a filter you have just modified. you must use Save As to save a copy to your personal Filters folder. Select the filter you want to copy and click Edit.enf.2. EndNote automatically saves new filters to your personal Filters folder. You can also delete an unwanted filter by switching back to the Windows desktop. or Save As to make a copy with the changes.ENF” (for EndNote Filter). From the Edit menu. The file is saved in your personal Filters folder. or right-click on the filter and choose Delete from the shortcut menu. The new filter will remain open. 4. choose Import Filters>Open Filter Manager. Select the filter to be deleted. 2. and opening the appropriate Filters folder (see “Folder Locations” on page 604). choose Save As from the File menu. For instructions see “Folder Locations” on page 604. select the file to delete and choose Delete from the File menu or drag the file to the Recycle Bin. Without making any changes to the filter. Saving Filters To save a new filter that you have just created. you likely will not be able to delete a file located within the Program Files folder. Chapter 18: Filters 531 . If you have modified one of the original installed files in the Program Files\EndNote X3\Filters folder. and Save it. If you do not have administrator access. EndNote filters use the file name extension of “. or press the DELETE key. 3. Give this copy of the filter a new name. Choose Clear from the Edit menu. The original filter will be left untouched. Then. see “Folder Locations” on page 604. If you have modified a style that is already located in your personal Filters folder. You may also specify a different folder if necessary. NOTE: You must have read/write access to the Filters folder in order to delete a filter. choose Save or Save As from the File menu. as in “Medline. Deleting Filters To delete a filter from within EndNote: 1. For a description of where your styles are stored.

or choose Close Filter from the File menu. To create a new import filter: From the Edit menu. and choosing Edit <filter>. choose Import Filters and select New Filter. 532 Chapter 18: Filters . If you are interested in creating a new filter. The most recently used filter can also be easily edited by selecting Import Filters from the Edit menu. If you have not saved your changes to the filter. also read “Creating a New Filter” on page 562. choose Import Filters and select Open Filter Manager. If at any time you need to revert your changes back to the last saved copy of the filter.The Basic Components of a Filter The basic components of an import filter are described in this section. To edit a filter: From the Edit menu. All of the different options for editing a filter are listed on the left side of the Filter window. This information is useful if you want to customize or create a filter. Click on an item to view the associated settings. The Filter Editor window After choosing the option to edit an existing filter or create a new one. To close a Filter window. EndNote opens the Filter window. No changes are saved in any of the panels until you choose Save or Save As from the File menu. click the button in the upper right corner of the window. choose Revert Filter from the File menu. Select the filter to edit and click Edit. You may switch between panels as needed while editing the file. EndNote prompts you and gives you the option to save or discard any changes that you have made.

Category: The category is typically the information provider (such as Ovid or SilverPlatter). but you may enter anything that will help you categorize and organize your filters. In that window. You may simply scroll through the available filters in the Filter Manager window and view the information there. and Title). Last Modified: The date the filter was last modified. Templates The most important part of the filter is the Templates section. Commonly the server documentation is available on the Web. The category information is also listed in the Filter Manager window in the column next to the name of the filter. Name: Displays the name of the filter as it appears in the Filters folder in the EndNote folder. All of the information in this panel is visible in the Filter Manager if you click the More Info option at the bottom of the Filter Manager window. This panel contains descriptive information about the filter.“About this Filter” Panel The Filter window opens to display the About this Filter panel (see the picture in the preceding section). Created: The date the filter was installed or created. you may sort filters by category and also search for them by category. This is helpful because you do not need to edit a filter to view the comments or other descriptive information. Based On: Enter any information about what documentation was used to create the filter. All of the details about filter templates are covered in “Working with Filter Templates” on page 534. Chapter 18: Filters 533 . you would need to close this window and switch back to the Windows desktop to rename the filter. The templates define how the various lines of tagged data in your data file should be imported and filtered into the different EndNote fields (such as Author.ENF) is not displayed. The file name extension (. Year. Different sets of templates are required for the different reference types that may be in your data file. so you could enter a URL here as well to make it easy to later retrieve that information. The name of the filter cannot be changed here. None of the information used in this panel has any impact on establishing the connection. Comments and Limitations: Enter any helpful information such as how to download the references in the format that works with this filter.

For example. If a cell is active. hold down the SHIFT key while pressing the TAB key. Click and drag to the right or left to resize the column widths. these options include instructions for how EndNote should interpret author names and initials. To move from one cell to the next. an outline appears around the cell. To change the width of the Tag column in the Filter window. See “The Filter Options” on page 542. position the cursor over the vertical line dividing the Tag and Field(s) columns. Working with Filter Templates The Templates panel consists of individual Reference Type templates which correspond to the way the reference data is presented in the data file. Each of the various options is explained in its own section. change the capitalization of fields. 534 Chapter 18: Filters . simply press the TAB key or click the mouse in the desired cell. The cursor changes to indicate that you are in the correct place. To move back to the previous cell.Options The rest of the options in the Filter window involve refining the data that is imported using the filter templates. or even omit certain characters or terms that you do not want to be imported. This example shows a template for Journal Articles. The tag and its corresponding field(s) are two separate cells in a row. Navigating in the Templates Panel The Templates panel is divided into a Tag column and a Field(s) column. Click here to change the view to a different reference type template.

” before the Volume) is included to make the template exactly match the data file. This is because EndNote looks for matches starting from the top of the window working down the list of tags. and press ENTER. There is one case in which the order of the tags is important: if you are entering multiple variations of one tagged line. position the cursor in the Field(s) cell. if the database from which you are downloading contains only journal articles. you should enter the repeated lines for that tag in order from the most complex to the simplest. Book. Click the Reference Types list to change the view to a different reference type (such as from Journal Article to Book). For example. Chapter 18: Filters 535 . To delete a row. Templates for Different Reference Types The Templates panel includes templates for all of the various reference types (Journal Article. position the cursor in the Tag cell.Click the Reference Types list to change the view to a different reference type (such as from Journal Article to Book). etc. To start a new row immediately above the active row. the order of the tags does not have to match the order of the tags in the data file. The only reference types templates that need to be filled in are the ones that correspond to the reference types in your data file. Adding and Deleting Rows in the Filter Template When adding and deleting rows. To start a new row immediately below the active row. and press ENTER.). Within each reference type template there is a list of tags and their corresponding EndNote field names. you would only need to fill in the templates for the Journal Article section in that particular filter. The reference types that have a check mark displayed next to them already have a template defined (you can edit the template if you wish). It stops at the first template that matches the tagged data. These templates should exactly match the way the information is organized in the data file. highlight it and select Clear from the Edit menu. The reference type that appears in bold type is currently the default reference type. Any text or punctuation that you see that is not part of a field name (such as “vol.

click in the Tag cell for the new reference type. and paste the rows into another reference type (such as Newspaper). When you copy information from one reference type (such as Journal Article). (Dragging the mouse vertically across more than one row selects a range of rows. choose Cut (CTRL+X). choose Copy (CTRL+C) from the Edit menu. you can select all of the rows in a given Reference Type template.) 3. Select a row by dragging the mouse across both columns. the original field name in the template is replaced with {IGNORE}. and choose Paste. For EndNote to identify which data should go into a particular EndNote field. you may choose a different reference type from the Reference Type list at the top of the window. To duplicate the selected row(s) elsewhere in a filter. If there is not a corresponding field name in the new reference type. To do so: 1. you must include punctuation and any literal text or spaces that appear in your data file. If the cursor is in the Field(s) column. Copy. Copying and Pasting Between Reference Type Templates By choosing Select All (Ctrl+A) from the Edit menu.) 2. After copying the entire set of templates for a reference type. (Pasting when an entire row is selected will replace the row. EndNote Fields When you look at a filter. you will notice that some of the templates contain information other than EndNote field names. the pasted row will be inserted below. and Paste commands to move or duplicate a cell or a row of cells. Punctuation and literal 536 Chapter 18: Filters . If you want to delete the selected row and move it to another location. Literal Text vs. indicating that the data for that tag will be ignored. Copying and Pasting Rows You may use the Cut. the field names automatically change to reflect the names used by the new reference type. Click where you would like the cut or copied row to appear. This is useful for copying an entire template to a new reference type or filter. and choose Paste (CTRL+V) from the Edit menu.Cutting. The pasted row will be inserted above the row where the cursor is.

4. (This is true whether you type it in the filter or insert it using the Insert Field list. issue. you may find lines of data that include a word that is also an EndNote field name. pages 461-469. there are four different pieces of information: the journal name. they represent the literal text from the data file that precedes the data that you want to import. The following source line contains the word “pages” before the page numbers: SO: Town-planning-review. ‘pages‘ Pages. 62. the above SO: tag line should be represented in a filter like this: Tag SO: Field(s) Journal. Volume. volume. and pages. v6 n4 p3-6 The “v”. If entered into the filter. EndNote would normally interpret the word “pages” as a field name. they merely serve as guides for EndNote to correctly import the data. no. To match the SO: line shown above. you must insert the literal text. “n” and “p” are considered literal text because they are not EndNote field names.text act as delimiters allowing EndNote to parse the data into multiple EndNote fields. The accent grave character is found in the upper left corner. and spaces found in the data file next to the appropriate field name. As a result. Chapter 18: Filters 537 . the source line in the filter should appear as: Tag SO: Field(s) Journal. vVolume nIssue pPages In some databases. Here is an example of a data file’s source line (SO:) where. surround the name with accent grave characters. None of these “delimiters” actually gets imported into an EndNote library. In this particular source line.) To force EndNote to read a field’s name as literal text. as in `pages`. in addition to punctuation. there is literal text such as “v”. vol. vol. no. “n” and “p” preceding the data: SO: Youth Theatre Journal. punctuation. Issue. To help EndNote determine when one field ends and the next one begins. under the tilde (~) key of the keyboard.

The source line in your filter must match exactly the source line in the data file in order for EndNote to distinguish one piece of information from another. [{IGNORE}] The Source Line The source line is typically the most complex line of data in a record because it contains all of the information about the source of publication. In the third SO: tag line. starting with the most complex source. To force EndNote to ignore pieces of information. [letter] You should add a new TI tag and template to your filter (above the existing “TI: Title” line) that looks like this: Tag TI: Field(s) Title. and parentheses enclose the page numbers “(654-657)”. 127:5-24 1999 SO: Eur-J-Cancer. 118/6 (654-657) 1998 In the first SO: tag line. so a colon separates the volume number and the page numbers “127:5-24”.The {IGNORE} Field There may be pieces of information in a line of data that you do not want imported into your EndNote library. the city. In the second SO: tag line. the source line may contain the journal name. in which case you will need to create a separate source line for each variant. For example. use the Insert Field list to insert “{IGNORE}” in the appropriate place. suppose you want EndNote to ignore bracketed text that sometimes follows the title of an article: TI: Research funds are dwindling. you should place the most detailed source line first. parentheses enclose the issue number “(3)”. the volume number. and the number of pages. You will often find more than one variation of a source line for a given reference type in a single data file. a slash separates the volume number and the issue number “118/6”. there is no issue. page numbers. For a book. the source line may contain the publisher. 538 Chapter 18: Filters . the issue number. Since EndNote tries to match the source line in the data file with the first defined source line in your filter. Each variant in the data file’s source lines must be defined in your filter. The three source lines displayed below come from a single database: SO: Semin-Oncol. 76(3):465-71 1998 SO: Semin-Oncol. followed by progressively less detailed source lines. For a journal article. and the year of publication.

MCJ-009105| LA.Nov 1993| SN. In the Filter window. but it is used only to identify a record’s reference type. This literal text is not imported into EndNote. JN. Serial| JA.ENGLISH| DT. you must type the Reference Type tag in the Tag column.INDEX MEDICUS| Reference Type Tag To ensure that EndNote imports the data into the correct reference type. two common reference type tags are “DT” and “PT” (which stand for Document Type and Publication Type).Analytic.Am J Occup Ther. Although a reference type tag can be any tag at all. entered into the field column.9404| SF. 47 (11) p998-1008| CP. The Reference Type Tag A reference type tag identifies the kind of work or publication being referenced in a particular record in your data file.The filter for the above source lines should look like this: NOTE: If the filter fails to match a variation of the source line for a journal article.3O4| CN.UNITED STATES| PY. and no fields.0272-9490| JC. See “Source Parsing” on page 555. and the reference type name (or other identifying text) Chapter 18: Filters 539 . it is possible to have EndNote interpret the data on its own. a reference type tag is only defined by the characteristic of having literal text.

When entering the Reference Type tag in your filter. See also “Author Parsing” on page 542. it first scans the data file. the filter would import the word “Journal” (from the data file’s DT: line) into the Journal field. under the tilde (~) key. Fields with Special Characteristics Certain EndNote fields contain special restrictions on what sort of data can be imported. put an accent grave character at the start and end of the word. Author Fields The words “And Others” get converted to “et al” and the word “and” is omitted. (The accent grave character is found in the upper left corner of the keyboard. To force EndNote to interpret the word Journal (or any other field name) as literal text. When EndNote imports a record. Then it looks for a match in the record it’s importing. Instead. looking for a reference type tag in your filter. 540 Chapter 18: Filters .) The Reference Type tag can be placed anywhere in the appropriate Reference Type template. (The matching is case-sensitive. EndNote will not interpret this DT.exactly as it appears in the data file in the Field(s) column. For example. These settings cannot be modified and apply to all import filters. the text you enter in the Field cell must be interpreted by EndNote as literal text. The first reference type tag match encountered determines which of the Reference Type templates EndNote will use to parse the record. all reference types in your data file will import as the default reference type (see page 548). Years as well as parenthetical or bracketed text are removed by default. A problem can arise when you have text that contains an EndNote field name. This match also determines which reference type EndNote assigns the record in the EndNote library.) The above Reference Type tag should appear in a filter as: Tag DT: Field(s) ‘Journal‘ Article If the database you use does not specify a Reference Type tag.tag line as the Reference Type tag. the following Reference Type tag contains the field name “Journal”: Tag DT: Field(s) Journal Article Because the field name “Journal” appears in the template.

Pages Another source line in the same data file might look like this: SO: Proc. comma. EndNote would parse “Proc. For example. 10 (3): p. opening parenthesis. this separator is part of the journal name itself. If you place a vertical bar (|) before the separator.” as the journal name. back slash. semicolon. as is a number that appears to be a year.” before the number is automatically removed (this is not case sensitive). Nat. with the result that a period and a space cannot be reliably used to distinguish a journal name from the volume. Sci. Acad. Acad. so the volume would be “Nat. Sci. this instructs EndNote to read up to the last occurrence of this Chapter 18: Filters 541 . “No” or “No.Year Only 4-digit numbers (1### or 200#) are imported. Volume (Issue): p. Consequently. you may have a data file where a period followed by a space separates a journal name from the volume. and caret. There is a way to indicate a repeating separator within a field in the filter. The SO: line in the filter instructs EndNote to import the data up to the period and space into the Journal field. 80-90 The above source line would be defined in a filter as: Tag SO: Field(s) Journal. Issue An “N”. in some cases. For example: SO: Science. When Punctuation Repeats Within a Field A special formatting character called a “vertical bar” (|) can be placed in a filter to indicate a repeating separator within a field. 13”. dash. Pages A “P” or “p” before the number is automatically removed. However. Title The following punctuation is removed from the end of a title: Period. and everything after the period up to the open parenthesis as the volume. 13 (2): p. Volume A “V” or “v” before the number is automatically removed. colon. forward slash. 34-45 The problem arises in the second source line where the separator between the journal and volume (period and a space) is found repeatedly within the journal.

among other things. the SO: line in the filter would look like this: Tag SO: Field(s) Journal|. Volume (Issue): p. if we place a vertical bar before the repeating Journal field separator (period and space). it means that EndNote will do it’s best to interpret the data. If you do not know exactly how the reference is configured in the data file. and which characters should be omitted when you import records into an EndNote library. Pages This SO: line in the filter instructs EndNote to import all the data with the period followed by a space separator as a journal. The Filter Options The remainder of the options listed in the Filter window below Templates provide the tools for fine tuning your filter.” as the Journal. In the example above. In cases where the “Smart” option does not work for your data file. and “13” as the Volume. Here. how author names should be interpreted. Acad. EndNote provides a “Smart” option for your choices in configuring the filters. how text is indented in your data file. or if there is a lot of variability among the format of the references. EndNote would import “Proc. Nat. Wherever you choose a “Smart” option. you may try the other options provided for that particular setting. translators. These settings apply only to authors in EndNote’s main (Generic) Author field. Sci. then the Smart options are probably going to be the most reliable settings. EndNote’s “Smart” Settings When possible. Author Parsing Use the Author Parsing panel to specify how author names are arranged in your data file.separator. and other authors that are in 542 Chapter 18: Filters . The Editor Parsing panel applies to editors. These options include.

L. Jordan Name Order is Inconsistent AU: Smith. L. First Always Precedes Last AU: J.EndNote’s Generic Secondary Author. Examples appropriate to each setting are shown below: Last Always Precedes First AU: Smith. Jackie D Chapter 18: Filters 543 . K. Caton. L.. Jordan Interpreting First Names The “Interpret First Names as” option allows you to specify exactly how EndNote should interpret the part of the author name that it has identified as the first name or initials. For example. if the author’s name appears in the data file as: AU: Childs. K. Smith. J. Jordan. the letters are imported as a whole name. Caton. J.. Caton.. and Subsidiary Author fields. Tertiary Author. Otherwise. these letters are imported as initials. Name Order Use the “Name Order” settings to specify the order in which first and last names are arranged in the data file. which uses the following rule: If there are three or fewer contiguous uppercase letters. K. The default is set to Smart.

thus the author name would import into EndNote as: EndNote would only import ED as a first name “Ed” if you selected the Whole Names option. The Whole Names option should be used in the case where the authors in your data file are all uppercase. and use this 544 Chapter 18: Filters . It is extremely important that this setting is correct so that the author names import correctly into EndNote. For example. EndNote imports all first names as initials only. The default for the Between Authors option is set to Smart. as “S. You would only choose this latter option if the all the first names in your data file are initials.). either a semicolon (.E. The Whole Names and Initials Only options should only be used in special cases. and full names are used. and “D” as the middle initial. if the author’s name appears in the data file as: AU: TOBIES.” By contrast. This author name would import as: If the author’s name appears in the data file as AU: von Braun. EndNote looks for a common separator.U. if you select Initials Only.Smart parsing will interpret “Jackie” as the first name. a carat (^) or a vertical bar (|). With this option selected. This option prevents EndNote from converting names consisting of two or three uppercase letters. Author Name Separators The Author Name Separators tell EndNote how to extract the individual authors from a line containing several authors. SUE the Whole Names option would correctly import the author’s first name as “Sue. Author names in an EndNote references are listed one name per line. as in “SUE” or “AL” to initials.” Likewise. EndNote’s Smart Parsing would interpret the whole name SUE as three initials. Between Authors The “Between Authors” option refers to the punctuation that is used to separate individual author names. ED Smart parsing will interpret ED as initials.

you do not need to change the setting. AU: Takahashi. in this example. In your data file. a comma. R (1969-) Chapter 18: Filters 545 . if the separator used between the last name and the first name is something other than a space. J (1944-). Parenthetical Data in Author Field It is not uncommon for information providers to include additional information about the authors (such as date of birth or institutional affiliation). However. if your data file has a delimiter other than a semicolon (. along with the Name Order settings (page 543). or a vertical bar (|) separating multiple authors. you can select a separator from the adjacent list. multiple authors are separated by a semicolon: AU: Buning ME. The default Last & First Names setting is Smart. it looks at that name and tries to determine what the first name is and what the last name is. a caret (^). Hanzlik JR EndNote’s Smart parsing recognizes the semicolon separating the two author names and correctly imports them into an EndNote library as: Therefore. Izumi. The Last and First Names separator is used to do this. With this option selected. Everything that follows that tag in the data file will be imported exactly as it appears in the file.delimiter to identify where one name ends and the next name begins. A space and a return (where the authors are listed one per line) can be selected directly from the list.). you must select another option from the adjacent list. a comma. If you choose Import As Is from the list. Last and First Names Separator Once EndNote knows how to identify an individual author name in a list of authors. or a period. In this example. or a period. EndNote will not try to separate the names that follow the author tag. To type any punctuation such as a dash or a slash. EndNote attempts to interpret an author’s name based on the following separators: a space. choose Other and type the character there.

Because EndNote only imports tagged lines and continuation lines.When this information is mixed in with the list of authors on the tagged author line. or another custom field that is appropriate. it can avoid importing extraneous text that might interrupt a reference. Examples of extraneous lines are: -->>Press any Key to continue 546 Chapter 18: Filters . We call these continuation lines. EndNote ignores lines of text which do not begin with a tag unless the lines of text are continuations of a previous tagged item. EndNote provides two options for what to do with it. NOTE: It is not appropriate for EndNote to import that data into the Author field because it would produce an incorrectly formatted bibliography to have the parenthetical data included with the author names. Author Address. Import Into: All parenthetical data mixed in with the author names is imported into the field that you choose. Discard: All parenthetical information is discarded during the import. such as your logging on or logging off text. We suggest that you import it into the Notes field. Here is an abstract from a data file illustrating the concept of continuation lines (all but the first are considered continuation lines): ABA single-subject research design that used multiple baselines across behaviors compared traditional adaptations to computers. Continuation Lines In general.

...old dyslexics with that of 8 age-matched controls on a .. every line of text in the data file will import according to the tags that are defined in the Templates panel. A dual-task paradigm .. Chapter 18: Filters 547 .Two experiments compared the performance of 23 12 yr ... In all single..) AB-.was used: Ss performed each test as a. (Spaces are shown as periods for clarity. EndNote’s default Smart Indent Identification would import this abstract correctly..a task concurrent with a secondary task. If you use this option and do not want to import certain tagged lines.. you must use the “{IGNORE}” option (see page 538)... The following example is an abstract where the first line of data is indented four spaces from the left margin. and the continuation lines are properly indented four spaces. Continuation lines must be indented This option allows you to specify the exact number of spaces on the left margin for the continuation lines..<Record 5 of 42> EndNote provides two general options for dealing with continuation lines: Ignore Indents: Untagged lines are always a continuation of the preceding line With this option set.battery of tests of motor balance. Do not choose this option if there is any text in your data file that is not tagged..single task and as ..task conditions there was no difference between groups.

well) and enmeshed in the patient's internalized .interpersonal configurations. you may find data files where the continuation lines are not aligned with the first line of data. but one tagged field is indented differently (perhaps keywords are indented four spaces). All other lines that are left blank will use the general indent setting..However. If most of the lines in a data file import a fixed number of spaces (like two spaces in the example above).enactments are inevitable. turn on the setting in your word processor to display formatting characters.. For example. if the database that you use does not specify a Reference Type tag. (See page 539 for information about 548 Chapter 18: Filters . you can enter exceptions in the table provided. Reference Type Default Reference Type The default reference type tells EndNote which reference type to use if it cannot identify the reference type of a record. whereas the first line is indented four spaces: AB-.. For EndNote to treat the subsequent lines as continuation lines in the preceding example. all reference types in your data file will import as your default reference type.Beyond the inevitability of countertransference feelings ..two-person. suppose that in one filter. the continuation lines are indented two spaces from the left margin. and create a template for it. participant-observer or observing-participant . From a . The analyst becomes . any conference proceedings records will import as Journal Articles.influenced by the patient (and influences the patient as . the filter must specify the exact number of spaces indented on the left margin. If you import a data file containing conference proceedings records for which you have not defined a Reference Type template.. NOTE: For a quick and reliable way to count how many spaces are inserted on the left margin.perspective. Also.. you would enter “2” in the “Indent _ spaces” option.is the question of countertransference enactments. Simply enter the number of spaces in the left column next to the tag. In the example just given. You only need to enter a number for the tagged field with the inconsistent import. In the following example. you specify Journal Article as your default reference type.

The next tag is used to identify the database. In this case. The identifiers must also be entered into the appropriate filters in the Filters folder. there is no need for you to go through the extra steps of saving the information from the website to a text file. Identifiers Some information providers. The first identifier should be the tag that includes the name of the information provider. For this example it is “VN. such as Ovid Technologies. Inc.. provide a button on their website to allow EndNote users to send search results right from the Web page to the EndNote library. Enter the tag used for the database name. EndNote can import multisource files like that as long as each record in the data file has a vendor and a database tag at the start of the reference. and then using EndNote’s Import command to pick a filter and import the text file. Both identifiers must be used. be sure to choose the Multi-Filter import option in the Import dialog. such as Medline or BIOSIS. and then enter Chapter 18: Filters 549 . When you are ready to import a file that has data from multiple sources in it.” The exact text that follows that tag for each record should be entered into the corresponding box in the Identifiers section. These identifiers are also used to import data files that contain references from multiple databases.defining the reference types tag in a template. The way that EndNote is able to know which filter to use is by these Identifier tags entered into the filter.) NOTE: The default reference type is always indicated with bold text in the Reference Types list on the Templates panel. All of that happens behind the scenes.

the database name exactly as it appears in each reference. (For a list of reference type fields and their corresponding Generic field names. EndNote can convert the text to either Sentence. a title that appears in a data file as “COMPOST AS A HUMAN NUTRIENT AND HORMONE CARRIER” would import in Headline capitalization as: Compost as a Human Nutrient and Hormone Carrier 550 Chapter 18: Filters . Campbell. Ovid MEDLINE(R) Jacobson. S. Ovid Technologies. Headline or Lowercase format.) Then pick a capitalization option from the “Change UPPERCASE text to:” list. EndNote would know to use the filter shown above if the data file that it was trying to import contained those two tags and lines of text: <1> VN DB AU PY etc. R. 1999 Field Editing Converting Text from Uppercase to Lowercase If the text in your data file appears entirely in uppercase letters. select the appropriate field from the “Field Editing for:” list at the top of the window. The EndNote fields are listed here by their Generic names. depending on which option you specify in the Field Editing panel. Inc. To control the lowercasing of a field. see “Table of Predefined Reference Types” on page 463. For example.

*DISPLAY DEVICES. the option to change the case is not available in the Field Editing panel. You can apply lowercasing on any field as long as all the text in the field is uppercase. If any of the text in the field is in mixed case. The Author. Omitting Unwanted Characters Some lines of data have superfluous characters. choose the Do NOT Lowercase option. and there is an asterisk before each keyword: SODEAmerican-journal-of-preventive-medicine. Editor.or in Sentence capitalization as: Compost as a human nutrient and hormone carrier To keep a field’s text entirely in uppercase characters. these fields are automatically converted from uppercase to headline. Upon importing author fields into an EndNote library. EndNote will import it in mixed case. in the following lines of data there are dashes in the journal name. use the Field Editing panel to specify the characters that you want to omit: Chapter 18: Filters 551 . such as an asterisk (*) or a dash (-). *INTERFACES To prevent unwanted characters from being imported into your EndNote library. that you may not want to import. 12(9) *COMPUTER SYSTEMS DESIGN. Due to the special characteristics of these particular fields. For example. and Translator fields are treated differently from all other EndNote fields.

For example. You can omit up to 254 characters per EndNote field. select the EndNote field that contains unwanted characters. and then click Add to add it to the omission list. the longer it takes EndNote to import records into EndNote. NOTE: The more items added to the list. From the “Field Editing for:” list. if you omit a dash (-) from the journal name. and then add the forward slash. you may want to start by importing the data into an EndNote library without specifying any omissions. simply select the item and click Remove. To avoid slowing down the importing process. 2. while all other instances of underscores and forward slashes would end up in your keywords. You will find that the EndNote fields are listed by their Generic names. Therefore.1. the Secondary Title field corresponds to both the Journal field in a Journal Article reference type and the Series Title in a Book reference type. Then use the Change Text command in EndNote to delete the unwanted words and other text. First add the underscore. To remove an item from the list. let’s say that you wanted to omit both underscores (_) and forward slashes (/) from your records’ keywords. 552 Chapter 18: Filters . you are omitting the characters from the corresponding Generic field. You may select more than one item by holding down the SHIFT or CTRL key while clicking on multiple items. Type the unwanted text in the “Enter text to be omitted (one item per line)” box. Each item that you want to omit should be entered on a separate line. so the omission applies to every reference type field that corresponds to the particular Generic field. For example. Entering both items on the same line would cause EndNote to omit only instances of “_/”. see “Table of Predefined Reference Types” on page 463. When you prevent characters from being imported into an EndNote field. any dashes found in a Series Title for a Book reference type will also be omitted. For a list of reference type fields and their corresponding Generic field names.

it does not start a new reference unless it finds the same tag preceded by a blank or extraneous line. The remaining options in the Record Layout panel allow you to do this. Once you have determined the correct record termination. with the AU tag appearing two or more times in succession.D'Orazio. To determine how records are terminated. For example. provided that they are not separated by a blank line. creates a new record in EndNote each time a tag in the data file repeats out of sequence and is preceded by a blank or extraneous line. More Specific Record Layout Options A more precise way of identifying a new record is to specify in your filter exactly how the records are terminated in your data file. EndNote’s default setting for Record Termination. as in the following example: AU. TS When EndNote sees consecutive tags. Smart Record Identification Smart Record Identification. EndNote will not create a new record if the same tag appears in succession. MG AU. Check for the pattern consistently separating one record from another. open your data file in either a word processor or text editor.Tamura. some databases list authors one per tagged line.Record Layout Use the options in the Record Layout panel to modify how EndNote interprets the end of a reference in a data file. click the appropriate Chapter 18: Filters 553 .

button on the Record Layout panel to select the best option for your data file. Only one tag is required. You do not need to enter both a first and last tag. enter the text exactly as it appears in the data file. Each record starts with: Choose this option if your references consistently start with text that is not a tag. Before choosing this option as your record terminator. etc. verify that the first or last tag is consistently present in each record. Example The following example illustrates a data file that contains neither a blank line. You do not need to include these tags in the templates of your filter. You may choose only one option as a record terminator. Enter the tag exactly as it appears in the data file. it is common for some information providers to begin each reference with a counter such as: <1> or Record 1 of 53 In these cases. but substitute a number sign (#) for the actual number. including the delimiter (colon. However. there is 554 Chapter 18: Filters . nor text terminating each record. dash. unless you wish to import the associated data. EndNote treats these delimiters as part of their respective tags. Each record ends with: Choose this option if your references consistently end with a specific set of unique characters. you would enter “<#>” and “Record # of #”. Using “First Tag” and “Last Tag” Options This option lets you specify a first tag that starts the record and/ or a final tag that ends each record. This option will function correctly only if the chosen tag appears in every record. Blank line separates records Choose this option if the only blank lines in a data file are the ones in between references. Note that whatever you enter into this option needs to be unique enough that it does not appear elsewhere in your references. either tag will suffice to distinguish one record from the next. For example. One common set of characters that is used to terminate each record is “||”. For the examples above.) that follows the tag.

then EndNote provides you with additional options for how to handle that. if the source tag defined in your filter is something other than a “SO” or “JN”. As a result.a consistent first tag. “ND:” starting each record. EndNote automatically identifies this tag as the source tag. volume. Identifying the Source Tag If the source tag for the Journal Article reference type in the Templates section of a filter is SO or JN. and type “ND:” in the box. If a source line in a data file does not match any of the options in the templates. The tags and templates defined in the Templates panel are used first to import source data. you must choose the appropriate tag from the Journal Article Chapter 18: Filters 555 . Source Parsing The source line refers to the line in the data file that represents the source information for the journal (typically journal. issue. The first thing you need to do is to make sure that EndNote has correctly identified the journal article source tag. However. the EndNote filters provide a sort of safety net to catch inconsistently entered source data. pages. So for this example you would want to specify “ND:” as the record termination by clicking the “First Tag” button. and sometimes the year). It is most often the most complex and inconsistent line of data in your data file—and it is also the most important.

along with the comment “Using Smart Source Parsing. (All of the tags that have been defined in the Journal Article template will appear in the “Source Tag” list. and instead imports the entire unmatched source line into whatever field you have specified. the page numbers. EndNote imports the entire source line into the Notes field. or year is imported into the Notes field.) If you choose the other option to import the source data into a separate field. Any information that is not identified as a journal. pages. and import each into the corresponding EndNote field.” (After importing. Therefore. and the year. You may then check those specifically to see if EndNote correctly interpreted the data. unmatched source lines are automatically imported into the Notes field. if you have not defined an exact match for a source line found in a book record in your data file. volume. if you suspect that some references may not have matched the defined source template. the volume number. EndNote does not attempt to parse the source information. EndNote’s Smart Parsing does its best to distinguish the journal name. the issue number. you can choose how EndNote should treat the unmatched source line. The default option is Use Smart Parsing.) When source data and filter templates do not match If a journal article’s source line in your data file does not match a source line in your filter. issue. 556 Chapter 18: Filters . For any reference type other than a Journal Article.Source Tag list. it is helpful to use EndNote’s Search command to search for the text “Using Smart Source Parsing” in the Notes field of the imported references.

245 14$a The angel with a dirty mouth /$c Nick Steel . It is much more difficult to read than regular tagged data formats. A subfield typically consists of two consecutive characters. Examples of subfields are “$a” and “$x. Numeric tags typically consist of three digits followed by two spaces and two more digits. For example: 245 10$a When you realize you have too many kids: $b a guide / $c Hugh B Dunn. Unique Aspects of MARC Records MARC records differ from other bibliographic records in two important ways: Numeric Tags The primary way in which MARC records differ from nonMARC bibliographic records is in their reliance on numeric tags. It is a standardized format developed by the Library of Congress for producing machine-readable bibliographic records. When creating a new connection file. the instructions in this section would apply. you would have Chapter 18: Filters 557 . If you were creating a conventional filter for importing bibliographic records from a MARC database.Importing MARC Records What Are MARC Records? “MARC” stands for Machine Readable Cataloging format. Each numerically tagged line in a MARC record may contain any number of subfields. as in the second record in the example above. Subfields The second way in which MARC tags differ from other bibliographic records is the use of subfields.50 standard.” The subfields do not have to be consecutive. illustrated by Melissa Fips. The MARC Format and Connection Files Many connection files use the MARC format because it is specified as part of the Z39. but it can still be imported in much the same way using EndNote’s filters. the Templates and MARC Records portions of the connection file are automatically set up to import standard USMARC (MARC21) data. If you need to customize these parts of the connection file. the first of which is the subfield delimiter which denotes the start of a new subfield.

since this is the subfield delimiter in most cases. Click the “Process data file as MARC record” check box. and then alert you to the different rules that EndNote uses when importing MARC records into an EndNote library. Accession Numbers The Accession Number is a unique number assigned to each record in a database. select the MARC Records panel in the Filter window.to anticipate a vast number of possible combinations. delete the dollar sign and type in the appropriate delimiter. Creating a Filter for MARC Records Once you have created a new filter. Data Start Column The reference data in a MARC reference normally starts in column 8 (that is. both of tags and of subfields. If the MARC records in your data file start the actual reference data (as opposed to tags and subfield delimiters) in some other position. not 558 Chapter 18: Filters . If the subfield delimiter is something other than a dollar sign. enter that number in the text box for Data starts in column. EndNote provides you with a simplified way of creating filters for MARC records. The dollar sign ($) will appear in the “MARC Subfield Delimiter” box. The two sections that follow tell you how to create a filter specifically for MARC records. Because it is difficult to anticipate every possible combination of tags and subfields in MARC records. or you have opened an existing filter. (The information provider’s database. the sixth character from the left margin).

Chapter 18: Filters 559 .the EndNote database. The tag for both of the following examples would be 245. EndNote includes an Import “001”tags as Accession Numbers check box which lets you import this number into EndNote’s Accession Number field. Accession numbers which appear in lines other than 001 often begin with a subfield. Since a common type of accession number often appears after the 001 tag. If this subfield delimiter is not present for the first field of each tagged line. Is it part of the real data of a reference or is it a field designator (such as “a” or “b”) that just happens to be missing the subfield delimiter? Rules for MARC Import Filters The Templates panel for a filter created for MARC records looks something like this: EndNote observes these rules when importing MARC records: EndNote allows you to specify only the first three digits of the tag when designing a filter for MARC records. PubMed uses PMID.” These numbers sometimes appear immediately after the numeric tag.) The provider may not call it an Accession Number. you will need to tell EndNote how to interpret the first character by checking the appropriate option under the MARC records dialog. If first field has no subfield delimiter: Normally the first character that precedes the record data is the subfield delimiter (commonly a dollar sign $). and some systems use “unique identifier. You can disregard spaces and digits appearing immediately after the first three digits. and without the two-digit subfield codes seen in other MARC fields. so you can set up the filter to import the number into the Accession Number field.

For example: 773 $gVolume(Issue). Be sure to enter all subfields after the same tag (do not repeat the tag for each). removing a tag or using {IGNORE} to omit unwanted data. 245 10$a Bob Dylan.Pages With the exception of the reference type tag. You do not have to define all the subfields in a tagged line. Pages$gVolume. EndNote allows you to define a tag only once.245 10 245 14 $a When you realize you have too many kids: $b a guide / $c Hugh B Dunn. You may. 245 00$a Down in the groove. enter multiple variations of the subfields in a source line. Source lines cannot take advantage of the “Smart Source Parsing” option. p. EndNote will ignore any subfields that are not defined in your filter. $a The angel with a dirty mouth /$c Nick Steel . therefore you should include all of the subfields that contain data you want to be imported. there are others who provide fairly consistent tags and organized data across their databases. p. For example. Common reasons for editing a filter include adding a tag to import additional information. The 560 Chapter 18: Filters . Example: Modifying an Existing Filter Modifying an existing filter is useful if you want to create a new filter for a different database by the same provider. There may be some subfields that contain information you do not want to import into your EndNote library. or fine-tuning the current settings for importing authors or journal source data. however. the following line in a filter for MARC records would successfully import any or all of the three lines that follow: Tag 245 Field(s) $a Title $b Title $c Notes 245 14$a The hollow horn : $b Bob Dylan's reception in the United States and Germany / $c by Dennis Anderson. and list the most complex subfield formats first. spellbinding songwriter / $c Nathan Aaseng. illustrated by Melissa Fips. Although some information providers offer radically different formats for their different databases.

This example is intended to provide a general overview of the process of editing a filter. 3. (The most recently used filter also appears as an option in the Import Filters submenu.specifics about how to work with templates and options are described earlier in this chapter. You may choose Edit <filter name> to edit that filter as well. Select the Templates option in the left pane of the window. To add the LA tag and direct its contents to the Notes field: 1. Adding a Tag and Field to a Filter Let’s say that you want to modify a filter to import the language of the publication into EndNote’s Notes field. choose Import Filters and select Open Filter Manager.) In the Filter Manager. From the Edit menu. the language is preceded by the tag “LA-”. select the filter that you want to edit and click Edit. In this particular database. Chapter 18: Filters 561 . 2.

562 Chapter 18: Filters . and click Save. you may enter a category for the filter (usually the information provider is used for the category). and press ENTER to create a new row.tag to the remaining Reference Type templates in the filter. Use the Reference Type list to switch to each reference type template in your filter and repeat the process described above. Doing so tells EndNote to import the language information into EndNote’s Notes field. 2. 6. and the templates portion of a filter to match it. It includes an example of a data file. give the modified version of the filter a new name. Insert the Notes field from the Insert Field list. From the Edit menu.4. 7. choose Import Filters and select New Filter. Creating a New Filter This section provides a general overview of how to create a new filter. If you would like. You can add the LA. Overview The basic steps to create a new filter are: 1. then press a TAB to move to the Field cell. Type LA. Click the mouse in any cell of the Journal Article template. 5. (Reference types with check marks next to them in the list are the ones that have templates defined for them. Choose Save As from the File menu. Specific instructions for configuring templates and filter options can be found in the earlier sections in this chapter.in the Tag cell.

empty library. see“Adding and Deleting Reference Types” on page 460. 6. From the Reference Types list choose the first reference type that you would like to define. 5. in which case an undefined tag appearing immediately after a continuation line will be read in as text.and any other comments about what the filter is based on or what data it is used to import. you may have entered enough information to use the filter successfully. but only want to import the information associated with certain tags.) Define additional reference types. Fine tune the filter as necessary (see “The Filter Options” on page 542). in which case you will need to define a separate source line in your template for each such Chapter 18: Filters 563 . provided that the contents of the corresponding field start on the same line as the tag itself. At this point. 3. Try it out by choosing it as the import option to import your data file into a new. NOTE: You do not need to specify all data fields. and enter the necessary tags and the corresponding fields into the reference type template. You might need to enter multiple variations of a source line. with the data starting below it on the next line. NOTE: If you need a reference type that does not appear in the Reference Type list. by selecting them from the Reference Types list and entering the tags and fields for them as well. and choose the default reference type for the filter. You will often find more than one variation of a source line for a given reference type in a database. 4. You may also want to specify all tags if the continuation lines in your records are flush left. Review the imported references to be sure that they imported correctly. There is no need to define every tag that appears in your data file. (See “Working with Filter Templates” on page 534. insert the {IGNORE} field from the Insert Field list where appropriate. If you need to define every tag that appears in a record. as necessary. and the records’ continuation lines are not flush left. Click on the Reference Type option in the list of panel names. unless each tag appears on a line by itself. Tips for Entering Tags and Fields Not every tag in your data file needs to be in your filter. Click on the Templates option.

Sample Record from a Data File FNANANTIAUCSJNCPPYSNJCCNLADTJASFABDIALOG MEDLINE file 155 08791562| <NLM> 94106562| Adaptive computer use for the visually impaired Buning ME. the use of readers) to computer technologies for typical reading | Case Report. U. Gov't. See page 559. Non-P. followed by source lines of decreasing complexity. these characters need to be included in the tag column of the filter for EndNote to find an exact match. A colon. If spaces are inserted within a tag. as in “SO<VO>.1 (Pyruvate Decarboxylase)|| GS- DEID- NOTE: The trailing vertical bars at the end of each line will be stripped out by EndNote. When defining tags in a filter. Gov't. In the case of Journal Articles.g.H. SERIAL| 9404| INDEX MEDICUS| A single-subject research design that used baselines across behaviors compared adaptations (e. The most complex source line should appear first.S. 564 Chapter 18: Filters . Hanzlik JR| School of Occupational and Educational Studies.S. Support. *Vision. Example Data File and Templates Below is a sample of a record in a data file and the filter Templates panel configured to import the data.S. Fort Collins. Activities | EC 4. Subnormal--Rehabilitation--RH.1.| Am J Occup Ther.” they need to be defined as part of the tag as well. dash. Do not include them in the filter... U. Support.variant.1. Male. P. MARC formats are an exception. Colorado. space or other character that appears along with a tag is treated as part of the tag. be sure to specify the appropriate Source Parsing option (refer to“Source Parsing” on page 555). 47 (11) p998-1008| UNITED STATES| Nov 1993| 0272-9490| 3O4| MCJ-009105| ENGLISH| ANALYTIC.S. Human.| *Microcomputers. See “Working with Filter Templates” on page 534 for details about configuring templates.H.

as outlined in “Source Parsing” on page 555. Here’s what the resulting Templates panel of the filter looks like: NOTE: It is important to remember that the source line in a filter (in this case the JN field) must exactly match the source line in the data file for EndNote to distinguish one field from another. Continue entering the rest of the tags and fields until all of the necessary information is covered by the filter. As a backup. select the appropriate Source Parsing option. Type the next tag to import and insert the corresponding field. You will often find more than one variation of a source line for a given reference type in a database. Skip any tags for data that you are not interested in importing.To create a template for the Journal Article reference type: 1. 2. Chapter 18: Filters 565 . starting with the most complex source line and ending with the least complex source line. in which case you will need to create a separate source line for each variant in your download.in the tag cell. Press ENTER to move to the next line. Type TI. then press TAB to move to the Field column. Insert the Title field using the Insert Field button. 3.

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Chapter 19 Connection Files

Contents
Introduction to Connection Files ..................................... 568 What is a Connection File? .................................... 568 The Connection Manager ....................................... 568 Installing Additional Connection Files ................. 570 Copying Connection Files ...................................... 571 Saving Connection Files ......................................... 572 Deleting Connection Files ...................................... 572 Basic Components of a Connection File ......................... 573 Editing a Connection File ....................................... 573 The Connection File Window ................................ 574 “About this Connection” Panel ............................. 574 The Connection Settings ........................................ 575 Search Attributes .................................................... 578 Filter Information ................................................... 580 Creating Connection Files ................................................. 581 Steps to Create a New Connection File ................ 581 Default Values for New Connection Files ............ 582 Using Z39.50 Command-Line Syntax .............................. 583 Tip for Modifying Search Attributes ....................584

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Introduction to Connection Files
The Online Search command on EndNote’s Tools menu connects you to online databases and library catalogs so that you can search them from within the EndNote program and retrieve references directly into EndNote. EndNote is able to make these connections using the information stored in the hundreds of individual “connection files.” This chapter describes how to edit and create these connection files. The process of using the Online Search command is described in Chapter 6. EndNote provides hundreds of connection files for a variety of sources. By default, the 100 most popular connection files are stored as individual files in the Connections folder in your EndNote program folder. To install additional connection files, see “Installing Additional Connection Files” on page 570.

What is a Connection File?

A connection file contains all the information necessary to connect to, search, and import references from an online database or online library catalog. Each connection file represents a different online database (such as the Library of Congress or PubMed from the National Library of Medicine). The connection files are located in the Connections folder in your EndNote folder. You can view all of the available connections by choosing Connection Files from the Edit menu and selecting Open Connection Manager.

The Connection Manager

EndNote provides hundreds of connection files for a variety of sources. By default, the 100 most popular connection files are stored as individual files in the Connections folder in your EndNote program folder. To install additional connection files, see “Installing Additional Connection Files” on page 570.

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To peruse the list of available connection files in EndNote’s Connections folder, choose Connection Files from the Edit menu, and select Open Connection Manager.

Click column headings to sort the list.

Click to display more or less information about the selected file.

Click to search for files by category.

The Connection Manager lists the names of all of the original connection files available in the Program Files\EndNote X3\Connections folder as well as any new or modified styles in your personal Connections folder, and gives you the options to edit them or select them as “favorites” for quick access when you use the Online Search command. You can click and drag the corner of the dialog to increase the size. Use these features to locate the connection file you want to use: If you know the name of the connection file that you want to use, start typing it to select the first file that matches what you type. Click the Find by button and choose an information provider’s name (such as Ovid or SilverPlatter) to find only the connection files for a specific information provider. Click the Find by button and choose All Connections to return all of the connection files to the displayed list. Click the column headings to sort the connection files by name or by information provider. Clicking the same column heading a second time will change the sort order from ascending to descending. Click again to set it back to ascending order. Click the More Info triangle button at the bottom of the dialog to display additional information about the selected

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connection file. Or, click Less Info to hide the additional information. Marking Your Favorite Connection Files When you have found a connection file that you will want to use in the future, click the check box to the left of it to mark it as a favorite. All connection files that are marked as favorites (up to 500) appear as an Online Search group in the Library window. This gives you easy access to the files you use most often.

An easy way to mark a whole category of connection files (such as all of the connections for Ovid databases) is to click the Find by button, choose a category from the list, and then when all of the files for that category are showing, click the Mark All button. Editing Connection Files If you would like to modify a connection file, select it in the list and click Edit. The remainder of this chapter goes into detail about how to work with connection files.

Installing Additional Connection Files

The EndNote team has developed thousands of different connection files. Because installing all of these files may slow performance, a typical EndNote installation includes only the 100 most popular connection files. You can install sets of connection files by provider with the EndNote installer, or you can download individual connection files from the EndNote website.

Using the EndNote installer to install additional connection files
First, make sure EndNote is closed and not running. You can run the EndNote installation program again, choose the option to Modify the installation, and then select sets of connection files to install. To install sets of connection files: 1. 2. 570 Log in to the machine with administrative rights or as a user with program installation privileges. Do one of these:

Chapter 19: Connection Files

Start the EndNote installation program as you would for a new installation. Or, from the Windows Start menu, select Control Panel, or choose Settings and then Control Panel. Then, choose Add or Remove Programs. In the list, click on EndNote X3 and then Change. 3. 4. 5. On the “Application Maintenance” dialog, select the Modify option and click Next. On the “Select Features” dialog, click the plus sign (+) next to Additional Connections. For each set of connection files you would like to install, click the triangle and select either "Will be installed on local hard drive" or "Entire feature will be installed on local hard drive." Click Next to continue with the installation.

6.

The filters will be copied to the EndNote Connections folder, which is typically Program Files\EndNote X3\Connections.

Finding individual connection files on the EndNote website
You can use the Connection Manager in EndNote to find and download individual filter files. To download individual connection files: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the Edit menu in EndNote, choose Connection Files and then Open Connection Manager. Click Get More on the Web to start your default browser and go to the appropriate page on the EndNote website. Click Accept to accept the Terms of Use. Browse through an alphabetical listing of the available connection files, and Download those files you want to install. Copy the downloaded files to your Connections folder, which is typically located at: Program Files\EndNote
X3\Connections.

Copying Connection Files

When you display a list of connection files in EndNote, the list is comprised of the installed connection files found in the Program Files\EndNote X3\Connections folder as well as new or modified connection files found in your personal Connections folder. For an explanation of where your files are stored, see “Folder Locations” on page 604. There are two ways to copy connection files. First, since each connection file is a separate file on your hard drive, you can copy Chapter 19: Connection Files 571

them as you would copy any file on your hard drive using the Windows desktop. Or, to make a copy of a connection file from within EndNote: 1. 2. 3. 4. From the Edit menu, choose Connection Files>Open Connection Manager to open the Connection Manager. Select the connection file you want to copy and click Edit. Without making any changes to the file, choose Save As from the File menu. Give this copy of the file a new name, and Save it.

The file is saved in your personal Connections folder. The new connection file will remain open. The original connection file will be left untouched.

Saving Connection Files

To save a new connection file that you have just created, or to save changes to a connection file you have just modified, choose Save or Save As from the File menu. If you have modified one of the original installed files in the Program Files\EndNote X3\Connections folder, you must use Save As to save a copy to your personal Connections folder. If you have modified a style that is already located in your personal Connections folder, you can choose either Save to directly modify the file, or Save As to make a copy with the changes. For a description of where your styles are stored, see “Folder Locations” on page 604. EndNote automatically saves new connection files to your personal Connections folder. You may also specify a different folder if necessary. For instructions see “Folder Locations” on page 604. EndNote connection files use the file name extension of “.ENZ”, as in “Medline (Ovid).enz”.

Deleting Connection Files

To delete a connection file from within EndNote: 1. 2. 3. From the Edit menu, choose Connection Files>Open Connection Manager. Select the connection file to be deleted. Choose Clear from the Edit menu, or right-click on the connection file and choose Delete from the shortcut menu.

You can also delete an unwanted connection file by switching back to the Windows Explorer or by opening “My Computer”, and opening the Connections folder in the EndNote folder. Then, 572 Chapter 19: Connection Files

select the file to delete and choose Delete from the File menu or drag the file to the Recycle Bin.
NOTE: You must have read/write access to the Connections folder in order to delete a connection file. If you do not have administrator access, you likely will not be able to delete a file located within the Program Files folder.

Basic Components of a Connection File
The basic components of a connection file are described in this section. This information is useful if you want to modify or create a connection file. To create a new connection file see “Creating Connection Files” on page 581.

Editing a Connection File

To edit a connection file: 1. 2. From the Edit menu, choose Connection Files and select Open Connection Manager. Select the file to edit and click Edit. The most recently used connection file can also be easily edited by selecting Connection Files from the Edit menu, and choosing Edit <connection file>. 3. 4. Make your changes to the connection file. If you are editing one of the original, installed connection files: a Go to the File menu and choose Save As (the Save command will not be available).

b. Name the file and click Save. If you are editing a connection file that you created or that you have already modified before: a. Go to the File menu and choose Save to save changes directly to the file.

EndNote saves the file in your personal Connections folder. For a description of where connection files are stored, see “Folder Locations” on page 604.

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The Connection File Window

After choosing the option to edit an existing connection file or create a new one, EndNote opens the Connection File window.

All of the different areas of the connection file are listed on the left side of the Connection File window. Click on an item to view the associated settings. You may switch between panels as needed while editing the file. No changes are saved in any of the panels until you choose Save or Save As from the File menu. To close the Connection Editor window, choose Close Connection from the File menu, or click the close button in the top right corner of the window.

“About this Connection” Panel

When the Connection Editor window opens, it displays the About this Connection information (shown in the preceding section). This panel contains descriptive information about the connection file, and has no impact on establishing the connection. Name: Displays the name of the file as it appears in the Connections folder in the EndNote folder. The file name extension (.ENZ) is not displayed. The name of the file cannot be changed here; you would need to close this window and switch back to the Windows desktop to rename the file. Based On: Enter any information about what documentation was used to create the connection file. Commonly the server documentation is available on the Web, so you could enter a URL here to make it easy to later retrieve that information. If this connection file is a modified copy of another connection file, it may be helpful to enter the name of the original file in this field for future reference.

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Category: The category is typically the information provider (such as Ovid or SilverPlatter), but you may enter anything that will help you categorize and organize your connection files. The category information is also listed in the Connection Manager window in the column next to the name of the file. In that window, you may sort connection files by category and also search for them by category. Created: The date the connection file was installed or created. Last Modified: The date the connection file was last modified. Comments and Limitations: Enter any useful comments here that would help you remember how to search the online database. Limitations to preconfigured connection files may be documented here as well. All of the information in this panel is visible in the Connection Manager if you click the More information option at the bottom of the Connection Manager window. This is helpful because you do not need to edit a connection file to view the comments or other descriptive information. You may simply scroll through the available connection files in the Connection Manager window and view the information there.

The Connection Settings

Click on Connection Settings to view the panel where all the data is stored to establish a connection. The Connection Settings information is required for EndNote to be able to connect to the

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online database. These terms and descriptions are part of the Z39.50 standard.

Server Description: The name of the information provider or institution. EndNote displays this name in the title of the Retrieved References window, and it is also listed in the Connection Manager window. This information is not used to establish the connection. Server Address: The server address for the online database. This can be either a numerical IP address or a domain name. Database Description: The name of the online database. This name is displayed in the Title bar of the Retrieved References window to help you identify the database to which you are connected. It is not used to establish the connection. Database Name: The command used to select the database on the remote server. This is often a four character code. Element Set Name: This is normally F for “Full” or B for “Brief.” The Element Set Name determines the amount of information that is provided by the server for each retrieved reference. Not all servers support both options, and the fields returned for each option also vary. Port ID: The TCP/IP port at the server that is used for a Z39.50 connection. For most Z39.50 connections this is port 210. Batch Download: EndNote typically retrieves references in batches, for speed and memory reasons. However, some servers are too slow, or their record data is too large, to support batch 576 Chapter 19: Connection Files

downloads. You will need to turn batch processing off for such sites. If you are having trouble downloading from a site, you can try deselecting this option. Record Syntax: Many formats used by Z39.50 servers are supported by EndNote, such as UNIMARC (Universal Machine Readable Cataloging), SUTRS (Simple Unstructured Text Record Syntax), and OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog). When you create a new connection file, it is set up for the MARC21 format. For other formats, the filter section for connection files must be constructed manually. UNIMARC and OPAC use variations of the MARC format (OPAC commonly adds holdings data). The SUTRS format, because it is “unstructured,” does not have a standard format among different databases. The SUTRS format often uses tags (such as “AU” or “Author”) to identify the reference data. Check with your database provider for the appropriate settings. Text: The Text option is used to specify how EndNote should interpret the incoming text characters. Options include ANSEL, Unicode (UTF-8), Unicode (UTF-16), and many other language choices. If you do not have the correct setting, extended characters may import as asterisks, or may be dropped completely. Check with your database provider for the appropriate setting. Login Information Required: This section is divided into four separate options: User ID, Password, Group ID, and Custom. Select the options required to login to the online database in order to have EndNote prompt you for that information when you connect. You can also store your password and/or IDs in the connection file so that you do not have to enter them each time you connect. Simply type the password or ID into the box provided.
NOTE: Passwords and IDs may be saved in the connection file for convenience, but do so at your own risk: passwords are not protected or encrypted. If someone else copies or uses your connection file, they will be able to use your stored password.

Custom ID Authentication String
Sometimes a database server requires a custom format for presenting the password and IDs. For these situations, you may skip the regular password or ID option, check the “Custom” option, and enter the text specified by your server’s Z39.50 documentation. You may either enter your actual password and ID along with the text, or use one of the following placeholders Chapter 19: Connection Files 577

to have EndNote prompt you for the necessary items: ?PASSWORD, ?USERID, ?GROUPID. For example, a system may require that passwords be presented by Z39.50 clients in the following manner: pass=?PASSWORD/dla_ui=yes If you wanted to store your password (“abc123” for this example) it would look like this: pass=abc123/dla_ui=yes

Search Attributes

The Search Attributes section of a connection file contains a table that defines the various search options for a particular database.

Search Field Name: The first column identifies the name of a search. This is the word or phrase that appears in the menus in the Search dialog. Use EndNote’s Generic field names as the search field names whenever possible. Doing so makes it easier to have a search apply to various online sources and local EndNote libraries. EndNote’s preconfigured connection files often use parenthetical text after the search field name to help describe the search, if necessary. This parenthetical text is not considered part of the search field name when you change the focus of the search and EndNote looks for a matching search field name. (See “Changing the Focus of the Search” on page 192. Generic field names are listed on page 463.)

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Attributes: The rest of the items in a particular row are the various search attributes that control what index is being used for the search, and how the search term is interpreted.

What is an “attribute”?
A Z39.50 search attribute is a value used to define the characteristics of a search term. For example, if your search term is “ebola virus,” the various attributes would be sent to the server along with that term to tell the server where to look for “ebola virus” and what qualifies as a matching reference. Available attributes, as defined by the Z39.50 standard, are: 1. Use 2. Relation 3. Position 4. Structure 5. Truncation The index to be searched (such as Keywords) The relation of the search term to the index (such as equal, greater than, or less than) The position of the search term in the MARC record field (first, last, anywhere, etc.) The structure of the term, such as a word or phrase Available truncation options used to interpret the search term (for example: right truncation, wildcards, no truncation)

6. Completeness Indicates whether or not the search term should be the complete subfield in the MARC record corresponding to the field searched The “Use” attribute is the most important here, indicating which index will be searched to find the search term. The other attributes will all have varying default values for each online database. These options are most often left blank to use the server’s defaults, but the default attribute values can be overridden by entering another value for the attribute. Each database has its own supported subset of Use attributes and associated combinations of the other attributes. Consult the configuration information for the online database to determine which values for these attributes are supported. Thomson Reuters does not provide this information. You will need to obtain it from the organization (or “information provider”) that maintains the server.

Tip for Editing Search Attributes
When modifying the search attributes in a connection file, it is useful to first test the search with the new attribute combination before actually changing the connection file. You can do this by entering the new attribute values using the command-line search Chapter 19: Connection Files 579

method (see page 583). This lets you test new attribute combinations without having to edit and save the connection file, and reconnect to the server every time you want to test a modification.

Filter Information

The Filter section of the connection file contains the information used to import each reference and get the reference data into the correct EndNote fields. For most connection files, the filter is set up to interpret references in the MARC format. When you create a new connection file, the Filter section will be set up to interpret references in a standard MARC21 format.

This part of the connection file is identical to the regular Filter window. For more information about editing a filter consult Chapter 18. If the retrieved references are not importing the way you would like, you should compare the filter settings of the connection file to the original text that EndNote receives from the online database. To do so, choose Show Connection Status from the Window menu when retrieving references. Set the view in the Status window to show Record Data and compare the record data to what is in the filter. This record data is also stored in the log file, Connect.log. By default, the Connect.log file is stored in the folder: Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\Application
Data\EndNote

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Windows Vista: C:\Users\[UserName]\App Data\Roaming\EndNote This file is simply a text file and may be opened in any word processor to view it. To change the location of the Connect.log file, see “URLs & Links” on page 611.

Creating Connection Files
Before you begin actually creating or modifying a connection file, you must obtain the Z39.50 client configuration instructions for the database you want to access. Contact your librarian or information provider for this information. If the database is not available on a Z39.50 server, you will not be able to use EndNote’s Online Search feature to access it directly. Follow the instructions in Chapter 7 instead to import references that have been downloaded to text files.

Steps to Create a New Connection File

Once you have the Z39.50 client configuration information in hand, follow these steps to create a new connection file: Create the File and Enter the Basic Information 1. 2. From the Edit menu choose Connection Files and select New Connection File. The new Connection File window opens to display the About this Connection information panel. Enter any comments or descriptions here for your own use. (These comments do not affect how the connection functions.) Click on the Connection Settings option and enter the connection information (see “The Connection Settings” on page 575). Click on the Search Attributes option to modify the default search attributes if necessary (see “Search Attributes” on page 578). Choose Save As from the File menu. Name the new connection file and save it in your Connections folder. From the Tools menu, choose Online Search>New Search and select your new connection file. If the connection cannot be established, check the settings in the Connection Settings panel of the connection file, save your changes, and try again.

3.

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This log file is replaced the next time you run EndNote. Enter a simple search to see if the search attributes were correctly configured. you’ll need to compare the downloaded data to the filter templates in your connection file.log file. If the Search does not work correctly or it returns an error. Test the Filtering of Reference Data 8. Note that if you are paying for the references you retrieve. so they are not lost. Make changes as necessary. as each database may only support its own subset of the Z39. (See “The Log File” on page 196 for information about the Connect. the Search tab should open automatically. It is not guaranteed that these will work.50 attributes. If the reference data is not being correctly filtered into the appropriate fields in the EndNote references. so it is best to retrieve only a few. See Chapter 18 for information about modifying filters.) From the Edit menu. See “The Log File” on page 196.50 client configuration instructions from your information provider or your librarian to set up the connection file correctly for the online database you want to access.) Once you are able to connect and search. Double-click a retrieved reference to open it to verify that the data are in the correct fields. retrieve a dozen or so references to test how accurately they are filtered into EndNote references. Consult the Z39. a few basic search attributes are entered by default. check the Search Attributes settings in the connection file.7. Look at the Templates panel of the connection file and compare the templates there to the reference data in the Connect. choose Connection Files and select Edit <Connection File> to edit the newly created connection file. All references retrieved are saved to a connection log file. Default Values for New Connection Files When creating a new connection file. If the connection was established. Close the Retrieved References window and open the Connect. you must save the connection file. these may not come through correctly. (If you modify the connection file at this point.log file in a word processor to view the original format of the retrieved references.log file. 582 Chapter 19: Connection Files . then close the Retrieved References window and reconnect in order for your changes to take effect. 9.

See “Filter Information” on page 580 to import into additional reference types. or “Not” connectors (just like any other search). Filter: MARC21 filter settings are used. EndNote ignores the search menu for that item when it detects that you have entered an advanced search. Author (1003). enter them into the subsequent search lines and select the appropriate “And”. The next part. All references import into the “Book” reference type. An advanced search uses the following format: \\search term&/ATTRIBUTE TYPE/ATTRIBUTE VALUE The first two characters (\\) tell EndNote this is an advanced search of an online database. If other search terms are needed. This lets you use searches that are not already supported by your connection file and is useful for testing various search attribute combinations when creating or modifying a connection file.50-client configuration information for their online databases. Chapter 19: Connection Files 583 . These command-line searches do not work with PubMed or the Web of Science.50 attributes supported by the online database. Keywords (21). It is possible to set up a search of an online database that is not supported by the EndNote Search tab or the connection file you are using. For instance. Using Z39.Default settings for a new connection file are: Port ID: 210 Element Set Name: F (Full) Record Syntax: MARC21 Text: ANSEL Search Fields (Use Attributes): Any Field (1016).50 Command-Line Syntax NOTE: This section is intended only for people who are familiar with Z39. without any translation. and Abstract (62). The advanced search strategies are documented here only for more technical EndNote users. Title (4). this knowledge is not required for basic searching of online databases. if you know about the Z39. up to the ampersand.50 terminology and have access to the Z39. These advanced searches are entered directly into the search line just as you would enter a search term.50 search which EndNote passes directly to the server. you can enter a Z39. “Or”. Year (31).

1. A Position attribute (3) of 1 further narrows the search by having the search term be found as the first word in the field. search for “stress” in the Title field. Start with a basic search using the Search tab (without the command-line syntax).” A Use attribute (1) of 4 has been specified.) The following is a common example that should work for most servers. so the search will be restricted to the Title for this database. For example. (See “Search Attributes” on page 578. 584 Chapter 19: Connection Files .is the search term. Tip for Modifying Search Attributes If you wanted to test how variations of the search attribute settings would impact your search. then a slash. and words such as “children” and “childhood” will not. Repeat that pattern for as many attributes as you want to specify. With the connection already established. Not all attributes need to be included. and the attribute’s value. 2. Set the view to Status Messages. This should find all references in which the title begins with “child. They are entered first with a slash and the number for the attribute type. A Truncation attribute (5) of 100 specifies no truncation at all so only “child” will be seen as a match.50 attribute type and values follow. The numbers of the Z39. choose Show Connection Status from the Window menu. here’s an easy way to do it— without having to edit your connection file.

Look in the Status window. 6. and you’ll see which attributes are being used: Search command using the command-line syntax (note that the “\\” prefix is not included here. you can try out other attribute configurations to see how it would change the search. and paste it onto the Search tab (remember to add the “\\” prefix to identify it as a command-line search). 4. You can copy the search command out of the Status window. Now.3. When you have found a combination of search attributes that does what you need. Click Search to try out your new combination of attributes. 5. Chapter 19: Connection Files 585 . then add or modify the attribute values as necessary.) Each item is listed separately as well. edit your connection file and make those changes to the Search Attributes panel.

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.............. and Shortcuts Contents EndNote Preferences . Related EndNote Preferences ............................................... Showing Word Processor Codes ........................................... Sorting.............................. Folder Locations ............................................................................... Duplicates ............................. Temporary Citations .............................................................. Spell Check .. Library Preferences.... 622 General Preferences ............... EndNote Application for CWYW ..... Microsoft Word Cite While You Write Preferences ............................................................................................ Keyboard Commands........................................................ Figures and Tables in Word......... Term Lists ...................... 623 Shortcuts to Make Using EndNote Easier............................................................................ Find Full Text .................. Toolbars ............................................................. General Preferences ............................................................................................ 622 Related EndNote Preferences ....................org Writer Cite While You Write Prefs .................. Shortcut Menus ................................ URLs & Links ........................................................................................................................................................................................ Reference Types ..Chapter 20 Preferences....................................... EndNote Web ................................................................................... 624 624 624 625 587 .. Formatting ........ 588 589 591 593 594 597 599 600 602 603 604 606 607 611 614 615 616 616 618 619 620 621 622 OpenOffice.................................................................................................................................. Display Fields ................... Keyboard Shortcuts in Word ................. Toolbars............. Change Case ................................................................. Display Fonts ..........................

Apply: Saves and applies all changes to the preferences. and other options are organized in the Preferences section of the EndNote program. formatting preferences. 2. 588 Chapter 20: Preferences. and keeps the Preferences window open so that you can continue to modify the preferences as necessary. choose Preferences.EndNote Preferences The settings for configuring EndNote’s display. Toolbars. A list of the available preference panels appears on the left side of the window. Revert Panel: Removes any changes made to the current panel since it was last saved. To access EndNote preferences: 1. From the Edit menu. Cancel: discards all changes to the preferences and closes the Preferences window. Click on the name of a panel in the list that corresponds to the setting you would like to change. Saving or Discarding Your Changes All of the preferences panels have the following options: EndNote Defaults: Reverts the settings for just the current panel to the original EndNote settings. and Shortcuts . OK: saves all changes to the preferences and closes the Preferences window.

If the library is not already open. and Cite While You Write settings. and a Search folder that contains saved search strategies: Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\Application Data\EndNote Windows Vista: C:\Users\[UserName]\App Data\Roaming\EndNote Library Preferences Choosing a Library to Open Use the Libraries preferences section to specify which libraries should open by default when you start EndNote. To add a library to the list: 1.log file created during an online search. Some preferences are stored in user-specific folders.” you must list those specified libraries here. the RefTypeTable. Toolbars. Chapter 20: Preferences.xml file that contains reference type definitions. this allows multiple users to access a single library while saving each user’s preferred settings. This includes many EndNote Preferences. and Shortcuts 589 .Where Preference Settings are Saved Most general preferences are saved in the Windows registry. close the preferences dialog and open the library. The preferences folders listed below store files such as the connect. subject bibliography settings. First. use the drop-down list to choose from these options: Open the most recently used library Open the specified libraries Prompt to select a library Do nothing If you opt to “Open the specified libraries. Do this by choosing Open from the File menu and selecting the desired library.

To remove a library from this list. you can always open a library by choosing Open from the File menu. Toolbars. 590 Chapter 20: Preferences. once EndNote is started. Of course. and click Add Open Libraries to add all open libraries to the list. Return to the Libraries section of the Preferences dialog. as shown below. Displaying the Library Name with Each Reference Click the option to “Show Library Name in Reference Window” if you want the library name to appear at the top of each Reference window. select it in the Libraries panel and click Remove Library. and Shortcuts .2.

programs. However. as well as for bibliographies that are printed or copied directly from EndNote.Display Fonts The Display Fonts panel gives you the option of changing the font that EndNote uses to display much of the text throughout the program. so that data can be easily translated between platforms. The General Display Font is also used for most of the previews and information panels in EndNote. They do not affect the font used when you are formatting bibliographies in a word processing document. and languages. You can control the following display font settings: Library: The Library setting determines the font and size of the references listed in the Library window. we recommend switching the display font to a Unicode font or installing the appropriate language pack (see “Displaying Extended/Special Characters” on page 693). Labels: The Labels setting determines the font and size used for the Reference window field labels. EndNote uses Unicode to encode special characters. Changes made to the display fonts apply to all EndNote libraries opened on that computer. If some characters do not display correctly in your EndNote library. Toolbars. Search: The Search setting determines the font and size applied to user-entered text on the Search tab. and Shortcuts 591 . General: The General setting changes the font and size used to display most text that is typed into EndNote (such as in the Reference or Style windows). The normal font of the document is used for that. Chapter 20: Preferences. some fonts do not include certain Unicode characters.

5. Click OK to close the font selection dialog and return to the Display Fonts preferences panel. or Search. General. and select a different display font and/or size from the Font and Size lists. Labels. Click OK to save the changes and close the Preferences dialog.To change the library display fonts: 1. 4. Toolbars. Click the tab to indicate which display font setting you want to change: Library. and Shortcuts . Click the Display Fonts option in the list. 2. Click the Change Font button. From the Edit menu. 3. choose Preferences. 592 Chapter 20: Preferences.

Toolbars. and Title) and reference types (such as Journal Article or Book) that are used by EndNote. Defining Reference Types If you need to modify any of EndNote’s fields or reference types. the new reference is set up for a journal article by default. patents. change the “Default Reference Type” setting: Click the Default Reference Type list and choose from one of the available reference types. you will need to create a new reference type for it and define it yourself (see “Adding and Deleting Reference Types” on page 460). and rename EndNote’s reference types and fields. Year. or some other reference type. delete. If you would rather have new references automatically appear as books. Any changes that you make in this panel apply to all of the libraries that open on the computer. click the Modify Reference Types button. Chapter 20: Preferences. This opens the EndNote Reference Types preference where you can modify.Reference Types Use the Reference Types preferences panel to customize your settings for the fields (such as Author. Reference Types Default Reference Type When you create a new reference in your EndNote library (by choosing New from the References menu). If you need a reference type that is not in the list. and Shortcuts 593 .

and where this information is stored. 1999 #24} 594 Chapter 20: Preferences. Toolbars. See “Sharing Your Reference Type Table” on page 462 for step-by-step instructions. enclosed in curly braces: {Smith.” By default a temporary citation includes the first author’s last name. and the EndNote record number. Temporary Citations A “temporary citation” is an unformatted citation that EndNote inserts into your word processing document when you use the Find Citation(s) or Insert Citation(s) command from Word’s Tools menu. or when you Copy and Paste a citation into a document.See Chapter 16 for more information about reference types. how to customize them. Reference Type Table You can use the Export and Import buttons to share a customized reference type table with another EndNote user. and Shortcuts . The temporary citation is a placeholder that EndNote later changes to a “formatted” citation. 1999). the year. You can also type temporary citations into your document. NOTE: Replacing another user's reference type table overwrites all changes to his/her current reference types table. such as “(Smith & Jones.

If necessary. Record Number Marker The number sign (#) always precedes the record number in an EndNote temporary citation. select the “Use Chapter 20: Preferences. you can change the temporary citation delimiters using the settings in this panel. Toolbars. you might find it easier to replace the Record Number in the temporary citation with something that uniquely identifies the reference but is not specific to your EndNote library. NOTE: If you will be using EndNote Web to Cite While You Write. Enter the desired markers into the appropriate boxes at the top of the Temporary Citations preferences panel. If you are collaborating with other writers who have their own EndNote libraries (or do not have an EndNote library at all). Temporary Citation Delimiters Curly braces are used by default to indicate the start and end of each temporary citation. and Shortcuts 595 . To do so. The number is specific to that reference in that particular library. The EndNote record number is a unique number assigned to each reference as it is added to a library. you might want to select a different pair of markers for EndNote to use as Temporary Citation Delimiters. If you commonly use curly braces in your writing. You may change this by entering another character in the Record Number Marker box. you must use the default curly braces as citation delimiters.

The Accession Number field is designed to contain the unique record number assigned to a reference from an online database. NOTE: If you have selected the Label. Accession Number. or the Pages field. the Accession Number field.field instead of record number” option and select from the Label field. The Label field can be used to manually enter any unique code that you would like to use for each record. Citation Prefix Marker The Citation Prefix Marker separates prefix text in a citation from the citation itself. the Citation Prefix Marker is automatically inserted as part of the temporary citation. The Pages field can contain a unique page number or another unique number for each record. In such a system. Toolbars. Including Notes in the List of References Some journal styles (such as Science) permit you to include notes with the list of works cited at the end of the document. letters. numbers. if you wanted a citation formatted as: (see also Smith. 1999 #24} If you prefer to use a different character as the Citation Prefix Delimiter. 1999) you would enter the text into the temporary citation as follows. and characters already used as other delimiters may not be used for the Citation Prefix Delimiter. 596 Chapter 20: Preferences.). and Shortcuts . just like the references. Semicolons (. with the “\” indicating the end of the prefix text and the start of the citation: {see also \Smith. the notes are numbered just like the citations. you may enter it in this preferences panel. the Record Number will appear in the temporary citation. For example. and included in the reference list in the order of appearance. or Pages field. and that field is empty in a particular reference. NOTE: When you use Cite While You Write’s Edit Citation command to add prefix text.

} When the paper is formatted by EndNote using a numbered style. you can simply go to Word’s Tools menu. Do not attempt to insert graphics. go to the EndNote X3 submenu. Chapter 20: Preferences. 2. They should be cited separately—each in its own set of brackets. Other markers. Sorting When EndNote sorts author names and titles. the text is assigned a number and listed along with the references at the end of the paper. These types of notes cannot be combined with regular temporary citations within the same set of brackets. Do not use the temporary citation delimiters as part of the text of the note.. For example: {NOTE: The authors would like to acknowledge the support of. Toolbars. and choose Insert Note. Type the text into the body of your document where you would want the number for the note to appear. the note will be left as it was entered in the body of the text. To remove a term from either list: Select the term and click Remove. and begin it with “NOTE:”. such as the record number marker and the prefix marker and the multiple citation separator may be used. and Shortcuts 597 . Enter a prefix that you would like to use to signal that the text should be treated as a note. you can identify what words or names to ignore for sorting purposes. Be sure to surround the entire section of text with your Temporary Citation Delimiters (curly braces by default). or symbols as note text. NOTE: With Cite While You Write. otherwise. equations.. The way that these notes are identified may be changed in the Temporary Citations preferences. and click Add.To identify text to be included as a numbered note in the reference list: 1. Enter text only. Important Restrictions on the Use of the “NOTE” Feature This feature requires that a numbered style be used for the formatting. To add words to be ignored for sorting: Enter the term in the text box below either the “Author Fields” or “Title Fields” prompt.

” For contractions. and Subsidiary Author. Authors The Author Fields list is designed so that you may enter parts of author names that may be omitted for sorting purposes. and will be used for sorting. the word “the” can be entered (lowercase) and still apply to “The. For example. for the author name “D’Angelo. without the apostrophe.” you could enter “D” to the stop list. do not enter the apostrophe in the stop list. NOTE: If the term you enter appears as the only word in an Author or Title field.” 598 Chapter 20: Preferences. the sorting routine ignores them when they appear at the start of the title. but not considered part of the name for sorting purposes. and Shortcuts . No names are entered by default. Titles When terms are added to the Title Fields list.” These settings apply to the Generic fields for Author. prepositions in names such as “von. it will not be ignored as a stop word in that case.” “van. Tertiary Author. that is.” and “de” are included as part of the last name. to sort the name as “Angelo. The entries in the Author Fields list are case sensitive. That is. Secondary Author. Capitalization does not matter for these words.Click EndNote Defaults to revert both lists to the default settings. So. Toolbars. if you enter “von” it applies only to “von” and not “Von.

Tertiary Title. to sort as “avenir. do not enter the apostrophe in the stop list. Change Case The EndNote styles can be configured to change the capitalization of the author names or titles. without the apostrophe.” and “the” are entered as defaults.” These settings apply to the Generic fields for Title.” “an. Use the Change Case preferences to list the words that should not be modified when EndNote changes the case of titles or authors. For author names. Secondary Title (includes the Journal field).” To add words to the list: Enter the term in the text box at the top of the dialog. You can do this by clicking on a column header. this preference is used when the output style applies a capitalization option other than “As Is. you must resort your references to build a new sort that uses your revised list. or compound names that require consistent capitalization. Toolbars. and click Add. for the term "l'avenir” you would enter “L” to the stop list. equations. Chapter 20: Preferences. For titles. or by using the References>Sort References command. NOTE: When you close the Preference panel and return to your library list. The words “a. proper nouns. and Shortcuts 599 . This can be used for special acronyms. and Subsidiary Title.For contractions. So. this preference is used only when an output style is set up to apply “Headline style capitalization” or “Sentence style capitalization” (rather than “Leave titles as entered”).

“{. a message will appear recommending that you use Cite While You Write. You can still use Format Paper if you wish. When this item is selected. 1999 #24}” would format as just “(1999)” when using a style that creates (Author. we recommend that you always use Cite While You Write for Microsoft Word documents. It is much easier and allows more control and options to give you the exact output you want. Toolbars.To remove an item from the list: Select the term and click Remove. For example. Omit Author and/or Year from Formatted Citation if Removed from Temporary Citation EndNote’s default behavior is to remove the author or year from the formatted citation if you remove either of those items from a temporary (unformatted) citation. If you prefer to type just the record number into your papers as the temporary citation. you should 600 Chapter 20: Preferences. Formatting The Formatting preferences panel contains the following options: Suggest formatting with EndNote’s Cite While You Write if the document type is supported While the Format Paper feature for RTF files can be used on most word processor files. Year) citations. and Shortcuts . and you attempt to use Format Paper on a document that could be formatted with Cite While You Write.

turn this preference off so EndNote will not remove the author and year from all of your formatted citations. EndNote automatically omits duplicate references from a bibliography. EndNote will not identify the records as duplicates unless you have this option set to merge duplicates. and Shortcuts 601 . and Pages. Secondary Title (Journal. the same journal article reference might appear in two libraries and would have two different record numbers. If duplicates are found. Conference Name. The criteria for determining duplicates is fixed for the “Merge Duplicates in Bibliography” setting. Toolbars. etc. they are removed. Magazine. Volume. References are considered duplicates if they are the same reference type (such as Journal Article or Book) and the following fields are identical: Author. It is a good idea to use this option if you are citing references from multiple EndNote libraries in one paper. In this situation. Title. Merge Duplicates in Bibliography When this option is selected. NOTE: The Duplicates preference settings do not apply to this feature. Book Title. When this option is selected. EndNote checks the bibliography for duplicate references during the formatting process. Year. Newspaper. Series Title.). Issue. Chapter 20: Preferences.

602 Chapter 20: Preferences. the journal name or secondary title. rather than just the first author. select [Do not display] instead of a field name. which is indicated by a paper clip icon). the first author’s last name. the title. If you would like to change the name for the Library window display. the reference type. and Shortcuts . If you would like to display all author names under the Author heading in the library reference list. heading. Toolbars. Then. the year. These settings apply to all libraries opened on the computer. the URL. Initially. Choose the desired field from each Field list. the column heading in the Library window is the same as the Generic name of the field (exceptions include the Figure field. In most cases. To show fewer than eight fields. the first column displays a paper clip icon for references that include an attached file in the File Attachments field. enter a new name in the Heading column next to the chosen field. select the check box next to Display all authors in the Author field.Display Fields Use the Display Fields preferences to choose which fields to display in EndNote’s Library window. which is indicated by afig. and the File Attachments field. You may select up to eight fields to be displayed in the Library window. and the Last Updated date are displayed for each reference. You must choose at least one field for display in order to save your changes.

For details about what the Generic field names correspond to for each reference type. Use this panel to customize the way EndNote identifies duplicate references. EndNote identifies duplicate references in a library as references of the same reference type with matching Author. and Title fields. Year.Duplicates The Duplicates preferences panel sets criteria for the Find Duplicates command on the References menu (that command is described on page 248). Chapter 20: Preferences. The “Generic” names of the fields are used here. Criteria You may also set the “Criteria” to have EndNote compare the fields and look for an exact match or be more lenient in the comparison and ignore spacing and punctuation. click in the check boxes to the left of the field names. Compare References By default. You may select as many fields as you want to make the duplicate detection more or less stringent. see “Reference Types and Fields” on page 711. and Shortcuts 603 . To select the fields that EndNote should compare when finding duplicate references. These settings are also used to highlight or discard duplicate references when retrieving references from an online database. Toolbars.

see “Changing the Default Content File Location” on page 680. but must choose Save As. filters. filters. but the file is saved to your personal Styles folder. they are created once you create a new file or save changes to an existing file. Toolbars. Why do we bother with personal folders? Why not simply change or add to the installation folders? We implemented personal folders so that: If you reinstall EndNote for some reason. The next time you view a list of output styles. you will see your modified style. You can give the file the same name or a modified name. although it still resides in the program folder. when you open an existing style and make changes.Online Search Results Select the check box to automatically discard duplicate references when retrieving references from an online database. and connection files. (We know you 604 Chapter 20: Preferences. you will see the modified style listed. The many styles. C:\Program Files\EndNote X3\Styles C:\Program Files\EndNote X3\Filters C:\Program Files\EndNote X3\Connections When you display a list of styles. and your personal folders. Initially. Filters. Folder Locations The Folder Locations preferences panel is where you set the personal folder locations for new or modified styles. The duplicates are never inserted into the library. If you gave the file a different name than the original file. That specific comparison of reference data is used only to remove identical references from bibliographies. and Shortcuts . For example. your personal folders do not exist. and not the original file. If you gave the file the same name as the original. NOTE: To change the default installation folder for the provided styles. and Connections folders which are located in the EndNote program folder. or connection files in EndNote. filters. you cannot Save. an connection files. NOTE: These settings do not apply to the “Merge Duplicates in Bibliography” setting (page 601). you will not overwrite a modified file with the same name. both are listed. the list is compiled from two locations: the installation folders listed above. and connection files provided with EndNote are installed in the Styles. import filters.

) When you upgrade to a newer version of EndNote. yet still use your own customized styles. you will not delete a new or modified file.may have spent hours getting your file just right. For users running Windows Vista. You can write protect a shared program folder. this is not an option. your personal folders are set to: Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\My Documents\EndNote\ Styles C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\My Documents\EndNote\ Filters C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\My Documents\EndNote\ Connections Windows Vista: C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote\Styles C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote\Filters C:\Users\[UserName]\Documents\EndNote\Connections Users:[Your Folder]:Documents:EndNote:Styles Users:[Your Folder]:Documents:EndNote:Filters Users:[Your Folder]:Documents:EndNote:Connections Chapter 20: Preferences. you will not overwrite a modified file. making changes to files in the Program Files folder is restricted. For many users. or not easily done. When you download EndNote program updates. You must have administrative rights to modify files in the Program Files folder. and do not want to risk losing your work. and Shortcuts 605 . filters. By default. Toolbars. and connection files.

The terms in these lists are also used to facilitate data entry using the “Suggest Terms as You Type” feature. Journals. Toolbars. and click Select Folder. When you enter a new term that is not currently in the associated term list. as you type into the Author field (typing the surname first). 2. and Shortcuts .To change your personal folder locations: 1. 606 Chapter 20: Preferences. EndNote suggests author names from your Authors term list to help you with data entry. Click on Folder Locations. This can point out typing mistakes or the use of an incorrect keyword if you thought you were entering a name or a term commonly used in your library. Filter. every new EndNote library has three term lists associated with it: Authors. 3. From the Edit menu. it appears in red text to indicate that it is a new term. Any of the term list settings described above can be turned off using the settings for the Term Lists preferences. choose Preferences. click the Select Folder button. This feature suggests terms as you type into fields with term lists linked to them. The term lists are automatically updated as you enter references into your library. For example. Term Lists By default. or Connection folder. open the folder that you would like to designate as the new Style. and Keywords. More information about working with term lists is provided in Chapter 10. To change a folder location.

you can always manually update your term lists by selecting Define Term Lists from the Tools menu. If you turn this option off. you may still insert terms into a field by opening the desired term list from the Tools menu and doubleclicking the desired term. Update lists when importing or pasting references When this option is selected. you can always manually update your term lists by selecting Define Term Lists from the Tools menu. If you turn this feature off. or Paste references in to your library. the term lists are automatically updated as you type in new reference data. If you turn this option off. and clicking Update List (see “Manually Updating Term Lists” on page 277). the term lists are automatically updated as you import references (using the Import command from the File menu). you can set general spell check Options and select or modify Dictionaries. see “Spell Checking” on page 168. and clicking Update List (see “Manually Updating Term Lists” on page 277). highlighting a term list. EndNote will automatically complete matching terms when you are typing into a field that is linked to a term list (see page 281).Suggest Terms as You Type (Auto-Completion) When selected. and Shortcuts 607 . Toolbars. For general information about how to start spell checking a record. drag-and-drop references. Update lists during data entry When this option is selected. highlighting a term list. Spell Check On the Spell Check preferences panel. Chapter 20: Preferences.

Click OK to save the changes. Select a Main Dictionary language from the list of available dictionaries. Select the check box next to each item you want to apply during spell checking. NOTE: For a complete description of each item on the Options dialog. and Shortcuts . Decide how fast and accurate you want spell checking to work. “Modifying Dictionaries. 4.” 3. 2.General Options You can access these Spell Check Options from the EndNote Preferences Spell Check panel or from the dialog that appears when you run Spell Check. Click the Options button. click the Help button on the dialog or press F1. EndNote uses a combination of dictionary files located in EndNotes’s Spell folder. 1. 608 Chapter 20: Preferences. see the next section. For each language. If you want to apply additional language dictionaries. Toolbars. Select your primary language.

To remove a dictionary. but does not delete the actual disk file. If you need to locate an existing file to use. click New File. Under Files. dictionaries are kept in EndNote’s Spell folder. use the Add File button to locate the file on your computer and add it to the list. If it is already in the list. Toolbars. select the dictionary file you want to view or modify. and Shortcuts 609 . display the file name in the list and click Remove File. to add existing dictionaries for use. The dictionaries listed under Files are currently in use (in addition to the Main Dictionary selected under Options). Use this dialog to view or edit the content of existing dictionaries. Chapter 20: Preferences. to create new dictionaries. This removes a dictionary from use.Modifying Dictionaries You can access the Dictionaries preferences from the EndNote Preferences Spell Check panel or from the dialog that appears when you run Spell Check. NOTE: For a complete description of each option on the Dictionaries dialog. simply select it. Click the Dictionaries button. To modify dictionaries: 1. By default. To create a new dictionary. and to remove dictionaries. click the Help button on the dialog or press F1.

If your terms contain extended characters. Importing/Exporting a Dictionary The Dictionaries dialog includes Import and Export buttons. with each term on its own line. Use Import to locate and import a plain text file of terms into the current dictionary. Adding an Existing Dictionary You may have selected English (or a different language) as your Main Dictionary Language. 610 Chapter 20: Preferences. including the last term in the list. Toolbars. including files not listed here. When you want to add additional languages. If you are typing the list into a text file. When you Add a dictionary. click the Add File button. find the Dictionary you want to use from the left column. but want to apply an additional language during spell checking. a combination of files are loaded. Dictionaries Supplied with EndNote These dictionaries are supplied with EndNote. see “Dictionaries Supplied with EndNote” on page 610. On the Dictionaries dialog. make sure to use Save As to save the file as plain text. save with the Unicode (UTF-8) encoding option. select the word and then pick the new Action from the list. The words in the selected dictionary appear in the top list. and Shortcuts . locate the dictionary file you want to use and Open it. 2. To delete a word from the selected dictionary. 1. The text file should contain a list of terms. make sure each term is followed by a carriage return. type it under Words and click Add Word. In EndNote’s Spell folder. look for the appropriate File Name in EndNote’s Spell folder. Use Export to save all terms from a dictionary to a plain text file. The dictionary is added to the list under Files. When you select the main dictionary language. NOTE: For a list of supplied dictionaries with corresponding file names. To add a word to the selected dictionary. select the word and click Delete Word.2. To change the Action applied to a word. then look for the corresponding File Name. where each term starts on a new line. If you are creating the list in a word processor.

tlx sscemb.tlx sscebr.tlx sscege.tlx ssceam. We recommend keeping the option turned on because in the event that the references were not correctly retrieved or filtered Chapter 20: Preferences.tlx sscesp.tlx sscenb.tlx sscepo.tlx sscesw. but you may turn this option off by clearing the “Use Log File” option.tlx sscefr.tlx sscedu.tlx userdic.tlx correct.tlx ssceit.Dictionary User Dictionary: Contains English words that include non-ASCII characters User Dictionary: Contains common English misspellings and their correct replacements for auto correction User Dictionary: Sample user dictionary American English American English Medical British English British English Medical Danish Dutch Finnish French (European and Canadian) German Italian Norwegian (Bokmal) Portuguese (Brazilian) Portuguese (Iberian) Spanish Swedish File Name accent. EndNote keeps a copy of all of the retrieved references for that session in the connection log file (the file name is Connect.tlx sscefi.tlx sscepb.tlx sscema. This happens by default. Toolbars.tlx URLs & Links Connection Log File When you use the Online Search command to connect to an online database.log). and Shortcuts 611 .tlx ssceda.

By default.log file by clicking the Choose button.into EndNote. 612 Chapter 20: Preferences. It connects to an OpenURL standard syntax server and uses these OpenURL preferences along with data in your EndNote record to find related online references. Otherwise. In the dialog that appears. Toolbars.log file is stored in the folder: Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\[UserName]\Application Data\EndNote Windows Vista: C:\Users\[UserName]\App Data\Roaming\EndNote You may change the name and the location of the Connect. the Connect. times cited. EndNote creates a “Go to ISI” link in the URL field of each reference. you can always adjust the filter in the connection file. the links in references downloaded from Web of Science will take you to the main Web of Science server where you might not have access.log file instead of redoing the search and download (see page 198). ISI Base URL When you export references from the Web of Science to EndNote. NOTE: This command has no relation to the URL field found in EndNote references or the URL>Open Link command on the References menu (which opens the specific URL found in the URL field). and other information. enter a new name for the file (if desired). and select the new location for the file. If you have upgraded from an earlier version of EndNote. you may need to click EndNote Defaults to update the ISI Base URL to the latest setting. These links take you back to the ISI source record where you can find related references. OpenURL Arguments The URL>OpenURL Link command on the References menu starts your default web browser and displays the full text article (if available) plus a list of links to similar articles. you should enter the URL for that server here in EndNote’s ISI Base URL preference. and import the Connect. If your institution uses a locally mounted version of Web of Science. and Shortcuts .

those changes will not be reflected in EndNote.We include a default argument to search for related online records. EndNote makes a copy of the original file and places it in the . Toolbars. EndNote will always look in the original folder for the inserted file. You would need to clear the file from your EndNote reference and reinsert it. you have two options available to you. You can: Insert the file as a relative link. if you ever move the file from the original folder. This can be helpful if you plan to edit the original file. Insert the file with an absolute path. Attached Files When you choose File Attachments>Attach File from the References menu to insert a link to a file. if you edit the original file on your computer. and Shortcuts 613 . In this case. even when you share your library with a colleague. However. EndNote will always be able to access the file. You can use this argument as a syntax example if you wish to enter your own arguments here. and you want those changes reflected when you access the file from within EndNote. EndNote will not be able to access it unless you clear the file from your EndNote Chapter 20: Preferences.DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote library. However. In this case. you can revert back to the EndNote defaults at any time by clicking EndNote Defaults. Remember.

the file will not be available. You can always override this default setting on the file dialog when you are inserting a file.reference and reinsert it from the new folder location. Toolbars. Enter your EndNote Web subscription details: The address of your EndNote Web site. To activate a new EndNote Web account. You can deselect this box in order to save absolute paths. By default. the check box titled “Copy new file attachments to the default file attachment folder and create a relative link” is selected. EndNote Web This panel saves subscription details for connecting to EndNote Web. You do not need to save your Email Address and Password. or to link to an existing EndNote Web account.com 614 Chapter 20: Preferences. you can opt to enter this information each time you connect to EndNote Web. such as: http://www.myendnoteweb. use the Register Online button to launch your browser and go to the appropriate Web page. Find Full Text always saves files to the default attachment folder and creates relative links. See Chapter 21. so that EndNote will copy linked files to the DATA\PDF folder. “Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries” for detailed information about connecting to EndNote Web. If you send your library to a colleague. and Shortcuts .

If the site requires authentication to verify that you are allowed access. Toolbars. Find Full Text This panel allows you control over which sites. and technology EndNote uses when attempting to find the full text for a reference. you can configure this panel to allow EndNote access to the site. and enter the OpenURL path to direct to the online site. and Shortcuts 615 . you will not have to enter it again. Chapter 20: Preferences. services. To learn more about using the Find Full Text feature and about adding access to your institution’s library. When you attempt to Find Full Text. The check boxes determine which pieces of information will be used from your EndNote references. Select the OpenURL check box. which is your user identification Your EndNote Web password Once you save this information with Apply or OK. If your institution allows access to an OpenURL server. The Authentication URL simply directs to the site’s login page. you can enter an Authentication URL. These represent unique identifiers for locating exact reference matches.Your email address. You can limit the options in order to speed up the Find Full Text operation. see “Finding Full Text for a Reference” on page 200. it is saved until you change EndNote Web preferences again. you will be directed to that page to enter authentication information (typically a user ID and password).

Toolbars. NOTE: Microsoft Word must be open in order to access CWYW Preferences from the Tools menu in EndNote. click Preferences.Microsoft Word Cite While You Write Preferences You can access the Cite While You Write preferences in one of several ways: Word 2003: From the Tools>EndNote X3 menu in Microsoft Word. select Cite While You Write Preferences. Several EndNote preferences also directly affect Cite While You Write. General Preferences General preferences are useful when you always use your EndNote library along with your word processor. and Shortcuts . select CWYW Preferences. 616 Chapter 20: Preferences. click the EndNote Prefs icon. and you always use your word processor along with your EndNote library. From the Tools>Cite While You Write menu in EndNote. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab in Word. On the EndNote toolbar in Word. in the Tools group.

If this preference is turned off so that the Word document remains in the background. Toolbars. you can also determine how often EndNote scans for temporary citations and whether it checks for citation changes in existing citations. This works only when the EndNote program was launched with one of the Cite While You Write commands from within Word or if the Open EndNote When Starting Word preference is selected. It turns Instant Formatting on or off for new Word documents. and Shortcuts 617 . Enable Instant Formatting on new Word documents This option is available for Cite While You Write. Chapter 20: Preferences. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. go to Word’s Tools>EndNote X3 menu and select Cite While You Write Preferences. Return to Document After Inserting Citations Select this item to always make your document the active window after inserting citations with EndNote’s Insert Selected Citation(s) command. Open EndNote When Starting Word Select this item to always open EndNote when you start Microsoft Word. Close EndNote When Leaving Word Select this item to always close EndNote when you leave Microsoft Word. you will not see the inserted citation in the Word document until the document becomes the active window. click Preferences. When you enable Instant Formatting. in the Tools group.To access General preferences.

When field codes are displayed. 3. in the Tools group. 2. This option ensures that you will see appropriate text in your document. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. To add or change a keyboard shortcut: 1. and Shortcuts . 618 Chapter 20: Preferences. select Cite While You Write Preferences. We recommend that you not view field codes in Word.” enter the new shortcut key combination on the keyboard. your document can look confusing! See “Field Codes in Word” on page 304 for more information and an example. see “Instant Formatting” on page 335. Toolbars. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools>EndNote X3 menu. Click the Keyboard tab. click Preferences. select the command for which you would like to add (or change) a shortcut. From the list of commands. Keyboard Shortcuts in Word Keyboard shortcuts for EndNote’s Cite While You Write commands are available in Word. Turn off Word’s “Show field codes instead of their values” option when opening or updating documents that include citations EndNote uses extensive Word field codes in order to identify and format citations. Under “Press new shortcut key. 4.To turn instant formatting on or off in an existing Word document.

Chapter 20: Preferences. in the Tools group. See “Figure and Table Placement and Captions” on page 519. the settings on this tab are ignored. Click Assign to assign the new shortcut. and Shortcuts 619 . The figures and tables settings in Microsoft Word override settings from the current output style.Keyboard shortcuts work in both EndNote and Microsoft Word. you can use this tab to override settings when you have moved figures around in your document and want to retain their placement. However. click Preferences. select Cite While You Write Preferences. where captions and labels are located. Click Reset All to remove custom key assignments. Follow the same steps to remove an assigned shortcut key. 5. Figures and Tables in Word Use settings in the output style to determine whether images are placed in-text or at the end of the document. To customize the in-text placement of EndNote figures and tables in Word. if your output style is set to print figures and tables in-text. and separation and punctuation around images and captions. Toolbars. except click Remove instead of Assign. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools menu. 1. If your output style is set to print figures and tables in a list at the end of the document. Word 2007: On the EndNote tab.

EndNote Application for CWYW Use the Application tab to indicate which product to use when you Cite While You Write: EndNote (desktop). 620 Chapter 20: Preferences. or When re-generating figures.2. For more information about EndNote Web. select Cite While You Write Preferences. see Chapter 21. keep each figure or table in its current position. Select the appropriate radio button to: Place each figure or table directly after the paragraph where it is first referenced. Word 2003: From Word’s Tools>EndNote X3 menu. 3. Select the Figures and Tables tab. and Shortcuts . Toolbars. This allows you to move images around in your document and have them stay there when you Generate Figure List again. “Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries. or Reference Manager.” To select the appropriate application: 1. EndNote Web.

Microsoft Word’s Field Shading Formatted citations and bibliographies in Word documents are Microsoft Word fields. then click Advanced. Word 2007: Click the Office icon in the top left corner of Word. click Word Options. To do so. Showing Word Processor Codes The formatted citations and bibliography in your document are not plain text. When you click on a field in Word (such as a formatted EndNote citation or the bibliography). If you select EndNote Web. Click the Application tab. (This tab is available only when EndNote Web files are installed. You may opt to remember the email and password for future sessions. EndNote Web is the online Web version of EndNote. in the Tools group. it becomes shaded. and Shortcuts 621 . 2.Word 2007: On the EndNote tab. or never shaded. This gives EndNote the ability to uniquely identify them. Chapter 20: Preferences. click Preferences. your email address. you must also enter your subscription details. and your password. which include the appropriate URL. Select the appropriate application: EndNote is your desktop version of EndNote.) 3. they contain hidden data that make it possible for EndNote to unformat and reformat citations and bibliographies. choose Options from Word’s Tools menu and select the View option. You can change this behavior so that the fields are always shaded. There you will see options for field shading. shaded only when selected. Toolbars.

NOTE: OpenOffice.org Writer. go to the Edit menu in EndNote and select Preferences.org Writer. General Preferences General preferences are useful when you always use your EndNote library along with your word processor. and you always use your word processor along with your EndNote library. On the EndNote toolbar in OpenOffice. described on page 600 These settings are stored with the EndNote program’s preferences because they apply to formatting papers with Cite While You Write for Microsoft Word files.org Writer. go to the EndNote menu and select Cite While You Write Preferences. To access EndNote preferences. and Shortcuts . From the Tools>Cite While You Write menu in EndNote.and scroll down to "Show document content" to find field shading options. described on page 594 Formatting. The related preference dialogs include settings for: Temporary Citations. click the EndNote Prefs icon. Cite While You Write for OpenOffice. or Format Paper for RTF files. Toolbars.org Writer must be open in order to access CWYW Preferences from the Tools menu in EndNote. Related EndNote Preferences Several other EndNote preferences directly affect Cite While You Write.org Writer Cite While You Write Preferences You can access the Cite While You Write preferences in one of several ways: In OpenOffice. select CWYW Preferences. 622 Chapter 20: Preferences. OpenOffice.

org Writer.org Writer or if the Open EndNote When Starting Writer preference is selected. The related preference dialogs include settings for: Temporary Citations.To access General preferences in OpenOffice. Close EndNote When Leaving OpenOffice.org Writer. described on page 600 These settings are stored with the EndNote program’s preferences because they apply to formatting papers with either Cite While You Write for Microsoft Word files. and Shortcuts 623 .org Writer Select this item to always close EndNote when you leave OpenOffice. described on page 594 Formatting. go to the EndNote menu and select Cite While You Write Preferences.org Writer. To access EndNote preferences. Toolbars.org Writer. go to the Edit menu in EndNote and select Preferences. Related EndNote Preferences Several other EndNote preferences directly affect Cite While You Write. This works only when the EndNote program was launched with one of the Cite While You Write commands from within OpenOffice. Open EndNote When Starting OpenOffice.org Writer Select this item to always open EndNote when you start OpenOffice. Chapter 20: Preferences. Cite While You Write for OpenOffice. or Format Paper for RTF files.

click elsewhere. Shortcut menus appear when you right-click on something in the EndNote program (such as a reference. or an Author field). To add or change Cite While You Write keyboard shortcuts in Microsoft Word. these are intended to represent the most commonly used functions for the selected target. and toolbars can streamline your database building and citation processes. It remains open until you choose a command from the list. The contents of the menu depend on where you click and what options are available for that particular item. Only a subset of possible commands are displayed. 624 Chapter 20: Preferences. Keyboard Commands See Appendix E. or press ESC. Shortcut Menus As a convenience. Toolbars. or shortcut. a group name. contextual menus. menus for some of the most commonly used features.Shortcuts to Make Using EndNote Easier Keyboard commands. Choosing a command from a shortcut menu has exactly the same result as choosing the command from the main menu or a toolbar A shortcut menu appears wherever you click. EndNote provides contextual. and Shortcuts . “Keyboard Commands” for a table of keyboard commands. see “Keyboard Shortcuts in Word” on page 618.

exporting. printing. and Shortcuts 625 . Local Library Mode. and connections). and Managers (styles. and displays the one that is currently selected to be used for the Library window preview. and Online Search Mode displays only groups and commands for online searching. Chapter 20: Preferences. If you do not see the style that you want in this menu. New Reference: This opens a new reference for data entry. It is as though you had used the Tools menu to select Online Search>New Search. Copy to Local Library: This command is available only in Online Search Mode. References will appear in a temporary Copied References group. the commands on the Library toolbar include (from left to right): Integrated Library & Online Search Mode. term lists. Copy Formatted. and Online Search Mode: Choose one of these display modes. each is described below. retrieved references. or any formatting. It copies highlighted references to the active local library. libraries. filters. Import: This is the same as though you had used the File menu to select Import. There are several toolbars (Library. Library (and CWYW) Toolbar By default. See also “The Style Manager” on page 468. Reference. Local Library Mode suppresses commands and groups for online searching. Output Styles menu: The Bibliographic Output Style menu lists all the styles you have marked as “favorites” in the Style Manager. Online Search: This allows you to select a connection file for an online search. and Text). Integrated Library & Online Search Mode allows local library operations as well as online searches.Shortcut menus are available for the following windows: references. It is as though you had used the References menu to select New Reference. you can choose Select Another Style from the bottom of the menu to pick a new style. search. Toolbars Toolbars are available in EndNote to give you quick access to some of the commonly used commands. Toolbars.

The bottom line of the toolbar includes Open Link. Help: This brings up the EndNote Help system. Format Bibliography. It is as though you had used the Help menu to select EndNote X3 Help. where you assign a reference type to the current reference.Export: This is the same as though you had used the File menu to select Export. and Shortcuts . A complete CWYW toolbar is available within Word. Open File. 626 Chapter 20: Preferences. It is as though you had double-clicked on the file in the Windows folder. The system will attempt to launch the associated program to open the file. Find Full Text: This commands searches online for the full-text article for the selected references. this command attempts to launch your default browser and display the URL location. and a Hide Empty Fields button that toggles between showing and hiding the empty fields in a reference. and Return to Word Processor: These commands are available only when Microsoft Word is running and Cite While You Write support is installed. Toolbars. Return to Word Processor. Open File: This is available only when the selected reference has an attached file. Format Bibliography. Attach Figure. Insert Citation. See “Notes about Microsoft Word” on page 299. Reference Toolbar The top line of the Reference toolbar includes arrows that display the previous or next reference in the current reference list (in the current sort order). Open Link: For references that contain a URL. Quick Search text box: Type a single word or phrase into the Quick Search text box and press E NTER to quickly search the library. Spell Check. and then a Text toolbar as described below. It also includes the Reference Type menu.

Underline. Subscript. Chapter 20: Preferences. Plain Text. Superscript. and Symbol font. and Shortcuts 627 . If a button is “pressed” that indicates that the text style represented by that button has been applied to the text that is selected (or where the cursor blinking). Italic.Text Toolbar The Text toolbar displays EndNote’s text font and text size menus to change the font and size of the text in a reference or output style. The buttons on the toolbar are (from left to right): Bold. Toolbars.

628 Chapter 20: Preferences. and Shortcuts . Toolbars.

..................................................................... 631 Important Points about Transferring References ......................... Remembering Connection Details.............................. Important Points about Cite While You Write and EndNote Web ................................................................................................................................................ 630 Setting Up a New EndNote Web Account ........................ 632 Transferring References ................................... 631 Duplicate References .......... Using Cite While You Write with EndNote Web .......... Transferring References between EndNote Web and Desktop ............................................................... Regularly Updating a Transferred Reference List ...... 630 Before You Begin ......................Chapter 21 Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries Contents Overview of EndNote Web. 632 632 633 635 636 636 637 637 638 629 .............................. The EndNote Toolbar ........................................................ Saving EndNote Web References to a Custom Group........... Selecting the EndNote Application ......................................................................................

see the Help file available in EndNote Web. Each EndNote Web library can store thousands of records and create bibliographies in over 3. and hundreds of online library catalogs to help build a personal reference collection. The desktop version of EndNote includes an option to transfer references between EndNote desktop and EndNote Web.Overview of EndNote Web EndNote Web provides a full range of bibliographic management on the Web. You can also use EndNote Web to Cite While You Write in Microsoft Word. PubMed. An EndNote Web subscription serves as an essential resource for everyone on campus—from students to teaching faculty. For information about using EndNote Web.700 publishing styles. giving you one-click access to the latest information on a reference article. NOTE: This chapter explains only how to use EndNote Web in conjunction with the desktop version of EndNote. Setting Up a New EndNote Web Account You may set up an EndNote Web account for each valid EndNote desktop installation—one account for each unique EndNote serial number. For institutions with a site license. This chapter describes both processes. so you must have one of the following browsers installed on your computer: Microsoft® Internet Explorer® 6 or later Firefox 2. It can provide you with an online storage option when you are away from your desktop library—references can be transferred between EndNote Web and EndNote easily and without the need to export and import files. and then cite the references in papers and create bibliographies. the site serial number will allow the appropriate number of EndNote Web accounts. EndNote Web can search ISI Web of Knowledge.3 or later 630 Chapter 21: Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries .0 or later Safari™ 1. EndNote Web includes unique integration for ISI Web of Knowledge subscribers with dynamic links to "Times Cited" and related records. You can import and edit references via a personal Web account. EndNote Web is accessed through a browser. Cite While You Write is also available for anyone using Microsoft Word to create bibliographies instantly.

go to the EndNote Web section in the Groups pane and select Configure. If you attempt to transfer more than the limit. and make sure it is not on a read-only CD or a locked partition. the original references are left intact. The process does not move references. If you need more general information about EndNote Web. Then. but copies them to the new location. When you transfer references. You cannot edit these fields in EndNote Web. click on EndNote Web. Figures and linked files will not transfer to an EndNote Web library. although existing link paths will appear for the Figure and File Attachments fields.endnoteweb. Click Register Online. You must have an active Internet connection in order to transfer references between the desktop version of EndNote and EndNote Web.com or contact the Thomson Reuters sales team. In the left column. go to http://www. If you plan to transfer references into an EndNote desktop library. you are given the option of setting up a new EndNote Web account. Due to server resources. or from an EndNote desktop library to an EndNote Web library. Follow the instructions to create a new EndNote Web account. Chapter 21: Transferring Between EndNote Desktop and EndNote Web Libraries 631 . go to the Edit menu and choose Preferences. In EndNote. Set up a new EndNote Web account in one of these ways: The first time you start EndNote after installing or upgrading. Important Points about Transferring Ref