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ABSTRACT

Organisational development is a main factor to change the organisational Growth. it involves several ideas and thoughts from several kind of peoples. it may used to identify the organisational problems and employee capacities. the development in a organisation brings a new ideas to organisational Growth and it uses to bring the organisation to good position. this article brings a lots of concept and development techniques to explain the organisational development and it is improvement.

This article explains


Meaning of organisation

Organisational System Organisation Charge Organisational Psychology Organisational development in India Organisational tools and techniques Organisational development in India

ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Introduction
To achieve the aimed goal and brings the organizational to a good position the organizational development is important. Organizational involves chain of employees. it may top level managers to lower level workers. So, for a organizational development brings a several kind of ideas and motivations.

Organization
Basically, an organization in its simplest form it is a person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall, common goal or set of goals. Business organizations can range in size from one person to tens of thousands.

Vision
Members of the organization often have some image in their minds about how the organization should be working, how it should appear when things are going well.

Mission
An organization operates according to an overall purpose, or mission.

Organizations as Systems
It helps to think of organizations as systems. Simply put, a system is an organized collection of parts that are highly integrated in order to accomplish an overall goal. The system has various inputs which are processed to produce certain outputs that together, accomplish the overall goal desired by the organization. There is ongoing feedback among these various parts to ensure they remain aligned to accomplish the overall goal of the organization. There are several classes of systems, ranging from very simple frameworks all the way to social systems, which are the most complex. Organizations are, of course, social systems. Systems have inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes. To explain, inputs to the system include resources such as raw materials, money, technologies and people. These inputs go through a process where they're aligned, moved along and carefully coordinated, ultimately to achieve the goals set for the system. Outputs are tangible results produced by processes in the system, such as products or services for consumers. Another kind of result is outcomes, or benefits for consumers, e.g., jobs for workers, enhanced quality of life for customers, etc. Systems can be the entire organization, or its departments, groups, processes, etc.

Feedback comes from, e.g., employees who carry out processes in the organization, customers/clients using the products and services, etc. Feedback also comes from the larger environment of the organization, e.g., influences from government, society, economics, and technologies. Each organization has numerous subsystems, as well. Each subsystem has its own boundaries of sorts, and includes various inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes geared to accomplish an overall goal for the subsystem. Common examples of subsystems are departments, programs, projects, teams, processes to produce products or services, etc. Organizations are made up of people -- who are also systems of systems of systems -- and on it goes. Subsystems are organized in an hierarchy needed to accomplish the overall goal of the overall system. The organizational system is defined by, e.g., its legal documents (articles of incorporation, by laws, roles of officers, etc.), mission, goals and strategies, policies and procedures, operating manuals, etc. The organization is depicted by its organizational charts, job descriptions, marketing materials, etc. The organizational system is also maintained or controlled by policies and procedures, budgets, information management systems, quality management systems, performance review systems, etc.

Example of Organisation Charts


The Following Chart explains that the communications of various departments in a organization.

Organizational Psychology Concepts in Business


Organizational psychology is an important part of an organization's productivity. This often overlooked area can have a direct impact on the success of any business. This essay will address organizational concepts which relate to employee motivation to increase productivity, how human behavior, cognition, and affect enhance relationships in the workplace, and how to reduce workplace stressors for employees. The Job Characteristics Theory can be used to increase productivity amongst employees through motivation. This theory is perfect for the situation presented in the simulation because it deals with the tasks an employee is required to complete (Britt & Jex, 2008, Ch. 8). The performers in this company were highly unsatisfied because of the tasks they were required to complete. Using this theory, the variety and importance of tasks could be analyzed and changed to effectively increase productivity (Britt & Jex, 2008, Ch. 8). This theory should be used because it will provide employees with the ability to gain from their tasks, and this is what they have been lacking in their jobs. Knowledge of human behavior, cognition, and affect can be used to enhance relationships in the workplace in several ways. Understanding how human behavior, cognition, and affect can enhance relationships in the workplace is important because it can help explain how people react to each other and react in situations. This also helps people understand

how to deal with each other and outside situations. Understanding human behavior, cognition, and affect is important because it helps enhance relationships in the workplace because conflicts can be avoided through preparedness and knowledge of the employees. Skills can be paired together in positive ways and teams can be put together in a means that is more effective. Organizations can reduce workplace stressors for employees in several ways. It is important to accurately determine what the stressors in the workplace are. Means of fixing these stressors are the next step. Helping employees find methods of dealing with stress in the workplace is also very important. Fixing the problem is the most important part, but providing the employees with means of dealing with stress is also important for avoiding problems in the future. Organizational psychology is an important aspect of any business. This form of psychology is effective in fixing many problems in business as well as increasing productivity. Organizational psychology can solve problems, promote stress free work environments, and assemble strong and productive teams. Organizational psychology is a necessary tool in business, and its theories should be used according to the type of business, employees, and problems at hand. Organizational psychology can be used to improve and business.

Organizational Development Meaning


Organization Development is an effort planned, organization-wide, and managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's 'processes,' using behavioral-science knowledge.

Organizational tools and techniques


Organizational change management
One of the most difficult parts of leadership is fostering and managing change. Only a small proportion of change efforts actually succeed, a fact which has led to an entire industry of fad change models and, for that matter, to the more productive practice of organizational development.

Involvement
One advantage of trying to gain the support of other people in a change effort is the way it focuses your own attention and helps you to formulate your thoughts. In gathering the information that supports your case for a change effort, and in discussing it with those who will be affected by it, you can clarify your vision, anticipate and resolve potential

problems, and sometimes even realize that the change is misguided, or that there are far better alternative solutions. (Hence the term "two heads are better than one.") Involving other people is also important because it helps to make the change their effort as well as yours. Generally, people won't care too much about your effort, but theirs will be a priority. The difference between success and failure is often how many people have a "this too shall pass" attitude, and how many have a "this is my project" attitude. The only way to give people a sense of ownership is to involve them.

Measurement as an organizational change tool


Measurement (including employee and customer surveys) can actually be used as a change tool:

The numbers or interview content provide evidence that change is needed It can help to clarify the purpose and direction of the change effort, by forcing people to consider its specific impact in unambiguous terms Measurement is a form of communication - it tells people what you care about o Tracking the effectiveness of the change effort both tells people that it is important and provides a way to judge how well it is being implemented, or how well it was designed The results can be used as a justification for future projects The measurement effort can be set up as a framework for expecting and anticipating change, making it seem more controllable and less threatening

A traditional top down approach doesn't work as well - you need to train people to cascade it (or cascade it yourself) so that people at all levels get their individual results along with corporate results, and have an opportunity to work with the data and implement solutions.

Organizational development is a necessary process that all organizations must undergo. There are many factors that make organizational development important for organizations to thrive and be successful. This article will explain the process of organizational development, identify theories associated with organizational development, and describe the necessary conditions for successful organizational change and development.

ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA


In today's highly turbulent business environment, 'change' has become an inevitable part of life. Organizations that do not change when needed or are not sensitive to the need for change do not survive long. The revolution in the form of IT is reshaping the core

competencies needed in a knowledge environment. Organizations, in order to be successful, need to place a high priority on proactivity and systematic understanding of organizational issues and on responding to current and future external customer needs. Workforce mobility and diversity are creating new employee needs along with new expectations about the work culture, and these needs, too, have to be systematically understood and responded to. HR leaders are challenged to become effective strategic partners in the creation of world class learning culture. Indian organizations are no exception to these compulsions. Today, they face numerous challenges and complexities, operating, as they do, in a highly volatile political and economic environment. For decades, the Indian mindset that has governed Indian organizations is less systems-driven and more people and relationship-oriented. With the opening up of the economy, standing up to global competition with borrowed technologies & insecure and relationship-driven employees, organizations need to bring in change rapidly; and hence the acute need for O.D. in Indian organizations. Evolution of O.D. in India In India, O.D. and planned change started in the early 1960s. A group of Indian professionals trained at the National Training Laboratories (NTL) at Bethel, Maine, USA, brought out a good deal of O.D. technology in India. Grid programs were initiated and widely used in the Small Industries Extension Training (SIET) Institute, Hyderabad, State Bank of India and in the Indian Institute of Management (UM) programs in the mid 1960s. Unfortunately these remained isolated efforts and did not take O.D. to its logical conclusions. In the mid-1970s, O.D. was first introduced in India in Larsen and Toubro as a formal and structured part of the HRD department. It was expected that the change process would get institutionalized and more O.D. specialists would be developed. Unfortunately, this did not happen as the corporate sector in the country has a very protected and secure environment and there were very few compulsions to change. Hence O.D. remained mostly in academic institutions - the forte of a few specialists and largely limited to Tgroup training and other training based interventions. That it has a slow growth is indicated by the fact that even after 25 years of existence, the Indian Society for Applied Behavioral Science (ISABS), an associate of NTL, produced less than 100 process specialists in the vast country. Experiences of Indian Organizations with Various O.D. Interventions Among available O.D. interventions and tools, the most prevalent ones and those that have met with reasonable success in effecting the desired change are: * Training * Action research

* Survey feedback * HRD and HRD Audit * Role focused interventions * Person focused interventions Training as an O.D. Intervention Training, today in organizations is viewed as continuously evolving, dynamic networks of interactions between different participants and interest groups within and around the organization. This doctrine is very much different from the past perception of training as an static and mechanistic activity to address deficiencies. Training raises the consciousness of participants, makes people aware of the gaps between reality and ideals, provides a common language to articulate shared problems and difficulties, generates ideas for change, and creates greater energy for change. As a consequence of such dynamic and multifaceted approach, training has proved to be an effective O.D. intervention. One finds that in house training programs are commonly held at various levels of the hierarchy, whether or not the organization has formally launched any O.D. efforts. Any O.D. process is initiated with a thorough diagnosis of the 'symptoms'. Training workshops can be effectively used to diagnose organizational issues without sacrificing the educational objectives of these programs. This is vividly demonstrated through the experience of two O.D. Indian consultants, V. Nilakant & S. Ramanarayan at Chemcorp, a large successful public sector unit in the chemical industry. In 1983, Chemcorp realized an urgent need to train staff (three groupssenior management, middle management and supervisory staff) throughout the corporation. The Tata Management Centre was approached for the same. Tata Management Center decided to first conduct a training needs assessment workshop to determine the scope and content of training followed by a workshop for the Chairman & Managing Director (CMD) and top management to agree on the strategic direction which would provide a basis for the training. Some of the observations that were made on the basis of the training needs assessment workshop were: * Senior management largely saw themselves as technical specialists rather than managers * Wide discontent regarding personnel polices * Lack of motivating & supervisory skills at the senior management level

* High parochialism with respect to one's function and department * Highly bureaucratic culture On the basis of the above observations, it was decided to conduct workshops consisting of a series of skill building exercises based on the themes of learning, interpersonal relations, teamwork and leadership. The workshops revolved around real task related issues in the organization and aimed at aiding the participants to reflect on their experiences, learn collaboratively, and work together to generate choices or options to solve key organizational problems.

Conclusion
Herewith we are isaly able to understant the organisation and organisational development and its various techniques to improve the organisational Growth.