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AUTHOR N.SOMASUNDARAM AERONAUTICAL DEPARTMENT, MOHAMED SATHAK ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KILAKARAI
TYPES OF PISTON ENGINE
Rotary- Type Radial Engines One type of engine that found very extensive use was the air-cooled rotary type radial engine. In this engine the crankshaft is held stationary, and the cylinders rotate about the crankshaft. Among the best-known rotary engines were the LeRhone, shown in Fig. 1-2, the Gnome-Monosoupape, shown in Fig. 1-3., And the Bentley, which has a similar appearance. In these engines, the crankshaft is secured to the aircraft engine mount, and the propeller is attached to the engine Case. Even though the rotary engines powered many World War I airplanes, they had two serious disadvantages: (1) The torque and gyro effects of the' large rotating mass of the engines made the airplanes difficult to control; (2) The engines used castor 'oil as a lubricant and since the castor oil was mixed with the fuel of the engine in the crankcase, the exhaust of the engines contained castor-oil fumes which were often nauseating to the pilots.
In-Line Engines. A number of in-line engines were also developed during World War I. Among these was the Hispano Suiza engine. The cylinders of an in-line engine are arranged in a single row parallel to the crankshaft. The cylinders are either upright above the crankshaft or inverted, that is, below the crankshaft. The inverted configuration is generally employed. A typical inverted in-line engine is shown in Fig. 1-5. The engine shown is a Menasco Pirate, model C-4. The number of cylinders in an in-line engine is usually limited to six, to facilitate cooling and to avoid excessive weight per horsepower. There are generally an even number of cylinders in order to provide· a proper balance of firing impulses. The in-line engine utilizes one crankshaft. The crankshaft is located above the cylinders in an inverted engine. The engine may be either air-cooled or liquid cooled; however, liquid-cooled types are seldom utilized at present. Use of the in-line-type engine is largely confined to low and medium horsepower applications for small aircraft. The engine presents a small frontal area and is therefore adapted to streamlining and a resultant low-drag nacelle configuration. When the cylinders are mounted in the inverted position, greater pilot visibility and a shorter landing gear are possible. However, the in-line engine has greater weight-to-horsepower ratio than those of most other types. When the size of an aircraft engine is increased, it becomes increasingly difficult to cool it if it is the air-cooled in-line type; therefore, this engine is not suitable for a high-horsepower output. V-Type Engines. World War I saw the development of several V-type engines, including the Rolls-Royce V-12 engine, the U.S.-made Liberty V-12 engine, shown in Fig. 1-6, and several German engines. The V-type engine has the cylinders arranged on the crankcase in two rows (or bank3), forming the letter V, with an angle between the banks of 90, 60, or 45°. There is always an even number of cylinders in each row. Since the two banks of cylinders are opposite each other, two sets of connecting rods can operate on the Sam crankpin, thus reducing the weight per horsepower as compared with the in-line engine. The frontal area is only slightly greater than that of the in-line type; therefore, the engine cowling can be streamlined to reduce drag. If the cylinders are above the crankshaft, the engine is known as the upright- Vtype engine, but if the cylinders are below the crankshaft, it is known as an inverted- V-type engine. Better pilot visibility end a short landing gear is possible
if the engine is inverted.
Post-World War I Engines After World War I, many different engine designs were developed. Some of those with rather unusual configurations are shown in Fig. 1-7. A popular U.S. engine was the Curtiss OX-5 engine manufactured during and after World War I. This engine powered the Curtiss Jennie (IN-4) trainer plane used for training U.S. military aviators. After the war, many were sold to the public, and the majority was used in the early barn storming days for air shows and passenger flights. An OX-5 engine is shown in Fig. 1-8. Other engines developed in the United States between World War I and World War 11 were the Wright Hisso Ca U.S.-built HispanoSuiza), the Packard V-12, the Curtiss Den-g1i2nes work or’s of military" and
commercial aircraft ever since the 1920s~\and dtiri.ng World. War I radial engines were used in all V.S. bombetscanej Transport aircraft and in most of the other categories of aircraft. They were developed to a peak of efficiency. And dependability; and even today, in the jet age, many are still in operation throughout ti1e world in all types of duty. A single-row radial engine has an odd number of cylinders extending radically from the centerline of the crankshaft. The number of cylinders usually ranges from five to nine. The cylinders are arranged evenly in the same circular plane, and all the pistons are connected to a single-throw 3600 crankshaft, thus reducing both the number of working parts and the weight. A double-row radial engine resembles two single row radial engines combined on a single crankshaft, as shown in Fig. 1-9. The cylinders are arranged radially in two rows and each row has an odd number of cylinders. The usual number of cylinders used is either 14 or 18, which means that the same effect is produced as having either two seven cylinder engines or two nine-cylinder engines joined on one crankshaft. A two-throw 180° crankshaft is used to permit the cylinders in each row to be alternately staggered on then common crankcase. That is, the cylinders of the rear row are located directly behind the spaces between the cylinders in the front row. This allows the cylinders in both rows to receive ram air for the necessary cooling. The radial engine has the lowest weight-to-horsepower ratio of all the different types of piston engines. It has the disadvantage of greater drag because of the area presented to the air, and it also has some problems in cooling. Nevertheless, the dependability and efficiency of the engine have made it the most
widely used type for large aircraft equipped with reciprocating engines.
Multiple-Row Radial Engine The 28-cylinder Pratt & Whitney R-4360 engine was used extensively at the end of World War 11 and afterward for both bombers and transport aircraft. This was the largest and most powerful piston-type engine built and used successfully in the United States. A photograph of this engine is shown in Fig. 1-10. Because of the development of the gas-turbine engine, the very large piston engine has been and most powerful piston-type engine built and used successfully in the United States. A photograph of this engine is shown in Fig. 1-10. Because of the development of the gas-turbine engine, the very large piston engine has been because of its flat shape it is very well adapted to streamlining and to horizontal
Cylinder Arrangement Although some engine designs have become obsolete. upright. The most satisfactory classification. including cylinder arrangement. I I. Aircraft engines may be classified according to cylinder arrangement with respect to the crankshaft as follows: (l) in-line. This is the method usually employed because it is more completely descriptive than the other classifications. and number of strokes per cycle. inverted. is by cylinder arrangement.installation in the nacelle. Page 8 . Gas-turbine engines are classified according to construction and function. Figure 1-11 illustrates a modern opposed engine for general aircraft nose. ENGINE DESIGN AND CLASSIFICATION’ Conventional piston engines are classified according to a variety of characteristics. cooling method. Another advantage is that it is reasonably free from vibration. however. these classification idols are discussed in Chap. (2) in-line. we mention the types most commonly constructed throughout the history of power plants.
5. were water-cooled and were of either in-line or V-type design. Water-cooled V-type engines. 2. 3. liquid-cooled V-type engines.or fan-type engine has not been in use for many years. A few V-type and in-line engines may still be in operation. double-row. Liquid-cooled in-line engines. followed by a numerical indication of displacement. (4) V type. 4.V. air-cooled engines Were developed. and the only piston engines in extensive us for aircraft in the United States at present are the oppose and radial types.V or fan type. they were classified in a similar manner (air-cooled-in-line. water-cooled in-line engines. etc. (8) Radial type. The double. 1-12 illustrate some of these arrangements. inverted. rotary types. for helicopter installation with the crankshaft in a vertical 9 . multiple-row or "corncob. These engines were often classified as 1. (6) X type. upright. single-row (9) Radial type. aircooled V-type. with the exception of the ." The simple drawings in Fig. (7) Opposed or flat type.(3) V type. Classification or Designation by Cylinder Arrangement and Displacement Page Current designations for reciprocating engines generally employ letters to indicate the type and characteristics of the engine. (5) double. The following letters usually indicate the type or characteristic shown: L Left-hand rotation for counter rotating propeller with turbine-operated device V Vertical. (10) Radial type. but these engines are no longer manufactured nin the United States for general aircraft use.). Early Designations Most of the early aircraft engines.
72 litt1rs (L)] is shown as 470 Continental 0-470 opposed engine. For example. Page A system of suffix designations has also been established to provide additional information about engines. the displacement number will end with a figure other than zero. The twoor three-digit numbers in the second part of t:le engine designation indicate displacement to the near fast 5 in3.position H Horizontal. cylinders arranged radically around the crankshaft However. The first suffix letter indicates the type of power 10 . whereas the A65. note that many engines are not designated by the foregoing standardized system. C-90.14 L]. Radial engines generally employ only the letter R lowed by the displacement. the technician working on an engine must interpret the designation correctly and utilize the proper information for service and maintenance. this is a special indication to reveal a characteristic such as an integral accessory drive. the R-985 is a single-row radial engine having a displacement of approximately 985 in3 [16. fuel and oil systems designed for sustained inverted flight I Fuel injected. For example. V type engines and inverted in-line engines have such designations as V and 1.m an example of the standard designation for an engine is as follows. In such a case. engine structurally capable of operating with high manifold pressure and equipped with either a turbine-driven supercharger or an engine driven Supercharger o opposed cylinders R Radial engine. the Continental W-670 engine is a radial type. An engine with a displacement of 471 in3 [7. ‘In some cases. continuous fuel injection system installed G Geared nose section for reduction of propeller revolutions per minute (rpm) S Supercharged. for helicopter installation with the crankshaft horizontal A Aerobatic. and E-225 are all opposed-type engines. In every case.
section and tile rating of the engine. 5. or 6. The final character in the designation suffix may be a indicating the type of magneto utilized with the engine. such as 4. The mode number is found on the counterweights or dynamic balances on the crankshaft. which gives the design type of the nose section. The letter D indicates a dual magneto. Following the nose-section number is a letter indicating the type of accessory section and after this letter is a number which tells what type of counterweight application misused with the crankshaft. This letter is followed by a number from I to 9. Page 11 . This number indicates the mode of vibration.
A frequency control device. In operation. an exhaust air aperture. when designed to operate on hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel grade fuel oils. is typically provided to control the action of the return piston and thereby control the speed of operation of the free piston engine. or another similar device. include a piston adapted to shiningly linearly reciprocate within a combustion cylinder provided with an intake air aperture. so as to ensure the action of the combustion cylinder piston. the compression device is actuated to provide pressure on the compression piston and act upon the combustion cylinder piston through the piston connecting rod to drive the combustion cylinder piston toward the top dead Page 12 . The piston is connected to a piston shaft extending from the piston through the combustion cylinder wall along the axis of movement of the piston. The piston shaft is further typically connected to linearly operate a plunger reciprocally in a power chamber. and a fuel injection device. This type of engine. Such a plunger is. The piston shaft is typically connected to a return piston operating coaxially with the combustion cylinder piston in a compression chamber. the piston moves within the combustion cylinder between a top dead centre position which is the position which provides the minimum volume of the combustion chamber defined by the piston and combustion cylinder. for example. either of a hydraulic or electronic nature.PISTON ENGINE OPERATION TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to internal combustion engines and more particularly to a method for operating a free piston-type internal combustion engines in such a manner as to provide for low NOx production. for example. and the bottom dead centre position at which the combustion chamber is at its maximum volume. The return piston slidably linearly reciprocates in the compression chamber under the influence of a compression device. as an air compressor. suitable for use as a fluid pump for the compression of hydraulic fluid. BACKGROUND ART Free piston engines are utilized to convert chemical energy to hydro-mechanical energy. During a typical two-cycle operation.
that the production of NOx increases as a function of the local flame temperature of the air-fuel mixture during combustion thereof. However. Because of the relatively high compression caused by the piston within the combustion chamber. the majority of the energy thus released is transmitted through the piston connecting rod to the plunger and thus to the fluid upon which the plunger acts. some jurisdictions disallow the operation of such engines until modifications or repairs have been completed thereon. The operating method according to the prior art typically provides only a short space of time for fuel-air mixing. As the piston continues to move toward bottom dead center. Also. according to the prior art. injection of atomized fuel into the combustion chamber requires a finite time period for the delivery of the desired fuel volume. the proportion of unburned hydrocarbon likewise tends to increase due to the irregularity of the flame temperature through the combustion chamber. Another undesirable feature of the two-cycle internal combustion engine has typically been the emission of undesirable quantities of unburned hydrocarbons. When the air-fuel mixture is inadequately mixed. Many legal jurisdictions now regulate the various emissions and have established laws and regulations which provide legal sanction for the operation of engines with emissions in excess of the allowable standards. the fuel-air mixture then auto-ignites. Therefore. the piston moves to open the exhaust aperture and the intake air apertures to permit the flow of exhaust gases from the combustion chamber and to permit a new inflow of intake air to be used in the succeeding engine cycle.center position. causing the combustion cylinder piston to subsequently reverse its direction and move toward the bottom dead center position. just as the entry of intake air and expunging of exhaust by-products requires a finite time period. Excessively high local flame temperature is typically a function of a failure to provide an adequate mixture of the air and fuel prior to combustion. has been the undesirable production of exhaust gas by-products such as NOx. It is therefore desirable to reduce the production of undesirable emission Page 13 . As the piston approaches the top dead centre position. It is well known. One primary disadvantage of the two-cycle free piston type engine. the fuel injector is actuated to spray a quantity of fuel into the combustion chamber. it is desirable to improve the performance of internal combustion engines in this respect. However.
providing a fuel injection device which selectively injects atomized fuel into the combustion chamber body to in the engine. It is also desirable to reduce the production of undesirable emission by-products by providing a lower and more uniform local flame temperature in the combustion chamber of the engine in which it is employed. a compression section. a control valve in flow communication with the compression section. The method includes providing a control valve in flow communication with the compression section. The present invention is directed to overcoming one or more of the problems set forth above. An exhaust passage is disposed in the combustion body. and a controller in communication with the control valve and the fuel injection device. and a compression chamber piston is disposed in the compression section. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In one aspect of the present invention. and actuating the control valve prior to actuating fuel injection device with the controller.by-products in a free piston-type internal combustion engine with out adversely affecting the performance of the engine in which it is employed. The piston element having a piston head in said combustion chamber body. providing a controller in communication with the control valve and the fuel injection device. In another aspect of the present invention a method of providing a homogeneous fuel-air mixture in a free-piston engine apparatus having a combustion chamber body and a compression section. a piston element for reciprocal operation in the engine including a piston head in said combustion chamber body and a compression chamber piston in said compression section. and a piston element. said controller actuating the control valve and the fuel injection device. It is also desirable to reduce the production of undesirable emission by-products without adding components or making modifications to the free piston engine. a fuel injection device being selectively actuatable to inject atomized fuel into the combustion chamber body. a method for operating a free-piston engine apparatus having a combustion chamber body. The Page 14 . The piston element is reciprocally movable in the engine.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. The first engine section includes a relatively larger diameter tubular combustion chamber body . The combustion chamber body also includes an intake bypass passageway 30 for permitting intake air to flow from adjacent the biteplate toward Page 15 . The engine apparatus has an engine block which includes three co-axial sections defining work spaces therein. The free piston engine apparatus is to be understood by those skilled in the art as representative and exemplary of free piston engines generally in which the subject invention may be applied.controller being adapted for actuating the control valve and the fuel injection device. the sole FIGURE. shows a representative single-cylinder free piston engine apparatus in a cross-sectional view. during the stroke "S". The method comprising the steps of actuating the control valve to reciprocate said piston element from a bottom dead center BDC position to a top dead centre TDC position through a stroke "S". 1. The combustion chamber body also includes and defines an intake aperture connected to a check valve for permitting intake air to flow only into the combustion chamber adjacent the combustion chamber base plate . and a combustion chamber head on the distal end of the combustion chamber body . 1 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view of a typical free piston engine apparatus including the present invention. and an exhaust aperture disposed between the base plate and head for permitting exhaust by-products to escape from the combustion chamber. for example. including a first engine section . and therefore is not to be taken as limiting the use of the present invention to any specific free piston engine apparatus. The subject invention may be applied as well to each of the cylinders in a dual-cylinder engine apparatus. a second compression section . DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FIG. and a third power section . a combustion chamber base plate on the proximate end of the combustion chamber body . at a location of the piston element between the top dead center TDC position and the bottom dead center BDC at which the piston element closes the exhaust aperture. and actuating the fuel injection device.
A piston element 90 is disposed co-axially within the engine block 12. and not to be taken as limiting. The compression chamber body is in flow connection with a first control line in which is disposed a selectively operable control valve which selectively permits and alternatively prevents a flow of fluid through the first control line and into the compression chamber body . and includes a control check valve 56 therein for permitting a flow through the second control line 52 to the accumulator 50 from the first aperture 44. A fuel injection device is disposed in the combustion chamber head for providing controlled fuel injection into the combustion chamber. The power line 78 is flowably connected to a hydraulic load 80 which in turn is connected to the return line 74. The piston element 90 includes a cylindrical piston head 92 operably disposed within the combustion chamber body 20 so as to permit linear sliding motion between the compression chamber base plate 22 and the compression chamber head 24. extending through a piston rod Page 16 . as there is a large variety of different types of applications and load which may be powered by the engine apparatus 10. The power takeoff device 70 will be understood by those skilled in the art as exemplary. A power takeoff device 70 is in fluid flow connection with the power section body 60. The second compression section includes a tubular compression chamber body extending from the combustion chamber baseplate to a partition plate . The control accumulator 50 is in further flow connection with a second control line 52 and a third control line 54 for receiving flow from the compression chamber body 40. The first control line is flowably connected to a control accumulator 50 for receiving a flow of pressurized fluid there from. A relatively small diameter cylindrical piston rod 94 is co-axially connected to the piston head 92. The third power section 18 includes a tubular power section body 60 with an endplate 62 for providing an enclosed power chamber. The third control line 54 is flowably connected to the compression chamber body 40 for permitting a flow to and from the control accumulator 50.the head . the second control line 52 is in flow connection with the work space in the compression chamber body 40. while preventing a flow from the accumulator 50 to the compression chamber body 40. As with the first control line 46. The power takeoff device 70 includes an inlet check valve 72 disposed in a return line 74 and an outlet check valve 76 disposed in a power line 78.
the piston head 92 is farthest removed from the combustion chamber head 24. When the compression chamber piston 98 is near the combustion chamber baseplate 22. Finally. 1. Piston rod 94 is operably connected to a compression chamber piston 98 slidably disposed for linear operation in the compression chamber body 40. This enables the controllers 110 to control the timing of the injection of fuel into the combustion chamber by controlling both the actuation of the fuel injection device 32 and the control valve 48. A piston element position sensor 112 is connected in signal communication with the controller 110 and mounted on the second compression section 16. The sensor 112 senses the position of the piston element 90 and delivers a responsive position signal to the controller 110. the combustion chamber is that space defined within the combustion chamber body 20 between the piston head 92 and the compression chamber head 24. A vent aperture 99 is provided in the compression chamber body to facilitate expelling entrapped fluid there from during a compression stroke of the piston head 92. and can selectively actuate the control valve 48 and the fuel injection device 32. Industrial Applicability With reference to FIG. The piston element 90 operates through a stroke S of a length determined by the length of the compression chamber body 40 less the axial length of the compression chamber piston 98. which is the maximum combustion chamber volume and also the bottom dead center BDC position. The controller 110 utilizes this position information during the controlling of the fuel injection device 32. and in operation. Fuel injector device 32 actuation is controlled to occur after closure of the exhaust aperture based on the position signal. Exhaust aperture 28 closure is directly related to piston element 90 position. A controller 110 is provided for controlling the operation of the free piston engine 10. and the control valve 48. The controller 110 is in communication with the control valve 48 and with the fuel injection device 32. a power displacement piston 100 extends from the compression chamber piston 98 opposite to and co-axially with the piston rod 94 into the power section body 60 through a partition plate aperture 102. the piston head 92 is in the top dead center TDC and the combustion chamber volume is at its Page 17 .aperture 96 in the combustion chamber baseplate 22. The compression chamber piston 98 is near the partition plate 42.
and also causes the power displacement piston 100 to displace fluid from the power section body 60 into the power line 78 to actuate the power takeoff device 70. and after a delay time at BDC. creates a highly homogeneous fuel-air mixture. as the piston element 90 travels toward the TDC position. Preferably. the air fuel mixture compressed within the combustion chamber ignites. This relatively long duration of fuel-air mixing time. the fuel injection device 32 is actuated by the controller 110 to initiate a spray of atomized fuel particles into the combustion chamber. opening the third control line 54 to further discharge the accumulator 50 while simultaneously accelerating the piston. the fuel-air mixture auto-ignites resulting in a relatively low local combustion flame temperature with relatively few Page 18 . This actuation begins when piston 90 closes the exhaust aperture 28. As the piston element 90 reaches the BDC position. the fuel injection device 32 is actuated by the controller 110 during the duration of the stroke from the time the exhaust aperture closes. the controller 110 actuates the control valve 48 to initiate another stroke "S" to the TDC position. This action drives fluid from the compression chamber body 40 through the second control line 52 and the third control line 54 back into the accumulator 50 to complete recharging thereof. forcing the piston head 92 toward the BDC position. air is drawn through the check valve 27 into the void between the piston head 92 and the combustion chamber baseplate 22 to be pre-compressed prior to passing through the intake bypass passageway 30 to enter the combustion chamber. Closure of the exhaust aperture 28 is determined by the controller 110 based on a signal received from the piston element position sensor 112. At or near the TDC position. As the piston head 92 approaches the TDC position. the control valve 48 is actuated to the flow position by the controller 110 to permit flow from the control accumulator 50 through the first control line 46 into the compression chamber body 40 so that the fluid acts on the compression chamber piston 98.minimum. The control valve 48 is actuated prior to actuation of the fuel injection device with the controller 110. Furthermore. To initiate the operation of the engine apparatus 10. This in turn drives the piston element 90 from the BDC position toward the TDC position. closing the exhaust aperture 28 and intake bypass passageway 30 so as to close the combustion chamber and cause compression of the gases therein. as the piston moves between exhaust aperture 28 closure and top dead center TDC. Subsequently.
the operating life of the engine apparatus 10 is extended by the reduction of the local combustion flame temperatures. These and other advantages of the present invention will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art. Furthermore. Also. Therefore. the improved homogeneity of the fuel-air mixture results in a lower and more uniform local combustion flame temperature. providing greater operating efficiency in terms of specific power generation and consequently in reduced fuel consumption. which results in a relatively low production of NOx. This method is then repeated for each two-stroke cycle of the engine apparatus 10. Page 19 . Advantages of the operation of the engine apparatus 10 are readily apparent. unburned fuel particles being released in the exhaust by-products. as there is a reduced likelihood of the development of hot spots which can damage the engine apparatus 10 and increase the maintenance requirements of the engine apparatus 10. it can be seen that the present invention presents substantial improvements over the prior art. which inhibits and reduces the production of undesirable pollutants such as NOx. The improved operating method according to the present invention is also readily and easily applied to and implemented in the typical free piston engine. with no requirement for additional components or other undesirable initial or operating costs imposed. The improved homogeneity of the fuel-air mixture reduces the likelihood of unmixed.areas of undesirably high local flame temperature.
The reciprocating engine developed in Europe during the 18th century. is a heat engine that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion. Page The largest reciprocating engine ever built is the Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine built by Japan’s Diesel United. It had a total engine capacity of 71. the steam engine which was the mainstay of the Industrial Revolution and the niche application Stirling engine History The earliest known examples of rotary to reciprocating motion were the crankdriven saqiya chain pump. One of the most advanced reciprocating engines ever made was the 28-cylinder. and the waterwheel-powered pump which were both engineered by al-Jazari in the 12th century. 3. the rotary motion of the waterwheel was converted into a reciprocating action to drive a pair of piston pumps that provided fountains for the kings of the Turkish Artuqid dynasty.5 liters. Ltd. Today the most common form of reciprocating engine is the internal combustion engine running on the combustion of petrol. It is 20 .FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF PISTON ENGINE A reciprocating engine. first as the atmospheric engine then later as the steam engine. In one of his piston-pump engines. also often known as a piston engine.500 hp (2610 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-4360 "Wasp Major" radial engine which powered the last generation of large piston-engined planes before the jet engine and turboprop took over from 1944 onward. These were followed by the Stirling engine and internal combustion engine in the 19th century. The main types are the internal combustion engine used extensively in motor vehicles. diesel or natural gas and used to power motor vehicles. This article describes the common features of all types.
either already hot and under pressure (steam engine). In some designs the piston may be powered in both directions in the cylinder in which case it is said to be double acting. Each piston is inside a cylinder.  It is five stories high (13.800 bhp).used to power the largest modern container ships such as the Emma Maersk. Page 21 .480 liters for the largest versions. Common features in all types There may be one or more pistons. Each cylinder has a capacity of 1820 liters. In most types the expanded or "exhausted" gases are removed from the cylinder by this stroke. The exception is the Stirling engine. and weighs over 2300 tonnes in its largest 14 cylinders version producing more than 84. The piston is returned to the cylinder top (Top Dead Centre) either by a flywheel or the power from other pistons connected to the same shaft. into which a gas is introduced. which repeatedly heats and cools the same sealed quantity of gas. pushing the piston to the bottom of the cylinder.5 m). making a total capacity of 25. The hot gases expand.42MW (114. or heated inside the cylinder either by ignition of a fuel air mixture (internal combustion engine) or by contact with a hot heat exchanger in the cylinder (stirling engine). 27 m long.
Page 22 . double-acting high pressure steam engine.Centrifugal governor.Eccentric valve motion 7 .Steam piston engine A labeled schematic diagram of a typical single cylinder.Piston 2 .Sliding valve 9 .Connecting rod 5 .Crank 6 . Power takeoff from the engine is by way of a belt.Piston rod 3 .Crosshead bearing 4 . simple expansion. 1 .Flywheel 8 .
The power of a 23 . A flywheel is often used to ensure smooth rotation. the more vibration-free (smoothly) it can operate. generally. The more cylinders a reciprocating engine has.Page In all types the linear movement of the piston is converted to a rotating movement via a connecting rod and a crankshaft or by a swashplate.
reciprocating engine is proportional to the volume of the combined pistons' displacement. horizontally opposite each other. in a V configuration. or radially around the crankshaft. The rings fit tightly in the groove and press against the cylinder wall to form a seal. and ships may have a dozen cylinders or more. It is common for such engines to be classified by the number and alignment of cylinders and the total volume of displacement of gas by the pistons moving in the cylinders usually measured in cubic centimeters (cm³ or cc) or liters (l) or (L) (US: liter). and the volume when the piston is at the top of its stroke. single and two-cylinder designs are common in smaller vehicles such as motorcycles. Cylinder capacities may range from 10 cm³ or less in model engines up to several thousand cubic centimeters in ships' engines. when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke. and locomotives. Opposed piston engines put 2 pistons working at opposite ends of the same cylinder and this has been extended into triangular arrangements such as the Napier Deltaic. Some designs have set the cylinders in motion around the shaft. A seal needs to be made between the sliding piston and the walls of the cylinder so that the high pressure gas above the piston does not leak past it and reduce the efficiency of the engine. For example for internal combustion engines. while automobiles typically have between four and eight. see the Rotary engine. Page Cylinders may be aligned in line. It is the ratio between the volume of the cylinder. The compression ratio is a measure of the performance in an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine. 24 . This seal is provided by one or more piston rings. These are rings made of a hard metal which are sprung into a circular grove in the piston head.
Page 25 .
Hot cylinder wall. These are worked by cams or cranks driven by the shaft of the engine. Light blue .Power piston.Displacer piston. to extract power from the steam at increasingly lower pressures. Internal combustion engines operate through a sequence of strokes which admit and remove gases to and from the cylinder. These engines are called Compound engines. In some steam engines the cylinders may be of varying size with the smallest bore cylinder working the highest pressure steam. 4-stroke or 6-stroke depending on the number of strokes it takes to complete a cycle.Stirling piston engine Rhombic Drive Beta Stirling Engine Design showing the second displacer piston (green) within the cylinder which shunts the working gas between the hot and cold ends . Green . This is then fed through one or more. These operations are repeated cyclically and an engine is said to be 2-stroke. increasingly larger bore cylinders successively. Dark blue . Other modern non internal combustion types Page 26 .Cold cylinder wall. Dark grey . but produces no power itself. Early designs used the D slide valve but this has been largely superseded by Piston valve or Poppet valve designs. Pink .Flywheels In steam engines and internal combustion engines valves are required to allow the entry and exit of gasses at the correct time in the piston's cycle.
the piston engine has been replaced by the more efficient steam turbine. is pressurized without the need of combustion and therefore oxygen. e. In torpedoes the gas. In most applications of steam power today. see Mark 46 torpedo. like that produced by high test peroxide or Otto fuel II. Page 27 . The Spanish designed Air car uses compressed air stored in a cylinder to drive a reciprocating engine in a pollution free urban vehicle.Reciprocating engines that are powered by compressed air. This allows propulsion under water for considerable periods of time and over significant distances.g. steam or other hot gases are still used in some applications such as to drive many modern torpedoes or as pollution free motive power.
A rod cap is the removable section of a two-piece connecting rod that provides a bearing surface for the crankpin journal. The small end of the connecting rod connects to the piston with a piston pin. or wrist pin. Connecting rods are commonly made from cast aluminum alloy and are designed to withstand dynamic stresses from combustion and piston movement. Spring clips. The rod cap is attached Page 28 . or piston pin locks.CONNECTING ROD & CRANK SHAFT AND ACCESSORIES A connecting rod A connecting rod is an engine component that transfers motion from the piston to the crankshaft and functions as a lever arm. provides a pivot point between the piston and connecting rod. The big end of the connecting rod connects to the crankpin journal to provide a pivot point on the crankshaft. The piston pin. Connecting rods are produces as one piece or twopiece components. are used to hold the piston pin in place.
and a power take-off (PTO). Features of a crankshaft include the crankpin journal. The throw is the measurement from the center of the crankshaft to the center of the crankpin journal. counterweights. or distance.to the connecting rod with two cap screws for installation and removal from the crankshaft. The crankshaft is the main rotating component of an engine and is commonly made of ductile iron. a piston travels. the greater the stroke. Page 29 . throw. crank gear. which is used to determine the stroke of an engine. The longer the throw. A crankpin journal is a precision ground surface that provides a rotating pivot point to attach the connecting rod to the crankshaft. Crankshaft The crankshaft is an engine component that converts the linear (reciprocating) motion of the piston into rotary motion. The throw is equal to one-half the stroke. bearing journals.
Bearing journals mate with bearing surfaces in the cylinder block. A counterweight is a protruding mass integrally cast into the crankshaft that partially balances the forces of the reciprocating piston and reduces the load on crankshaft bearing journals Cylinder Head A cylinder head is a cast aluminum alloy or cast iron engine component fastened to the end of the cylinder block farthest from the crankshaft. Some engines feature a lowfriction bushing or a ball or tapered roller bearing. Page 30 . Most bearing surfaces are machined integrally in the cylinder block.A bearing journal is a precision ground surface within which the crankshaft rotates. Head gaskets allow for even heat distribution between the cylinder block and cylinder head for efficient heat dissipation. A head gasket is the filler material placed between the cylinder block and cylinder head to seal the combustion chamber. Head gaskets are made from soft metals and graphite layered together.
the larger the displacement of the engine. The cylinder bore is a hole in an engine block that aligns and directs the piston during movement. A cooling fin is an integral thin cast strip designed to provide efficient air circulation and dissipation of heat away from the engine cylinder block into the air stream.Engine Block The engine block is the main structural component of an engine. An air-cooled cylinder block has cooling fins on the exterior. depending on the engine design. the crankcase also acts as an oil reservoir for lubrication of engine components. cooling fins on air-cooled engines. Bottom Dead Center (BDC) is the point at which the piston is farthest from the cylinder head. and valve train components. Air circulation dissipates heat generated during combustion to maintain optimum engine temperatures. An engine block can be produced as a one-piece or two-piece unit. the more power it can produce. The crankcase may be a part of the engine block or a separate component. Fins or vanes increase the surface area of the cylinder block contacting ambient air for cooling efficiency. The stroke of an engine is the linear distance that a piston travels in the cylinder bore from top dead center (TDC) to bottom dead center (BDC). Generally. Cooling fins cast into or bolted onto the flywheel act as fan blades to provide air circulation around the cylinder block and head. The cylinder block is the engine component that consists of the cylinder bore. The engine block consists of a cylinder block and a crankcase. It supports and helps maintain alignment of internal and external components. Top Dead Center (TDC) is the point at which the piston is closest to the cylinder head. A crankcase is an engine component that houses and supports the crankshaft. The bore of an engine is the diameter of the cylinder bore. In a four-stroke cycle engine. Displacement (swept volume) is the volume that a piston displaces in an engine when it travels from TDC to BDC during the same piston stroke. Page 31 .
crankshaft. aluminum. it is a property of matter. or zinc disk that is mounted at one end of the crankshaft to provide inertia for the engine. the flywheel. the crankshaft is accelerated rapidly by the sudden motion of the piston and connecting rod assembly.Flywheel The flywheel is a cast iron. During the operation of a reciprocating engine. . Inertia is the property of matter by which any physical body persists in its state of rest or uniform motion until acted upon by an external force. During the power event in a four-stroke cycle engine. Inertia is not a force. and other engine components are affected by fluctuations in speed and force. Page 32 During each stroke of an internal combustion engine. The flywheel supplies the inertia required to prevent loss of engine speed and possible stoppage of crankshaft rotation between combustion intervals. The flywheel smoothes out some of the rpm and force deviation by its resistance to acceleration. combustion occurs at distinct intervals.
Piston rings are commonly made from cast iron. The stationary end of the combustion chamber is the cylinder head. Excessive clearance can cause a loss of compression and an increase in piston noise. Thermal conductivity is the ability of a material to conduct and transfer heat. ring lands. and proper clearance must be provided to maintain free piston movement in the cylinder bore. A piston ring is an expandable split ring used to provide a seal between the piston an the cylinder wall. skirt. Page 33 . The piston acts as a movable end of the combustion chamber. Cast iron retains the integrity of its original shape under heat. Aluminum expands when heated. Piston ring size and configuration vary depending on engine design and cylinder material. Piston rings seal the combustion chamber. A piston pin bore is a through hole in the side of the piston perpendicular to piston travel that receives the piston pin.The inertia of the flywheel provides a dampening effect on the engine as a whole to even out radial acceleration forces and rpm deviations produced in the engine. Pistons are commonly made of a cast aluminum alloy for excellent and lightweight thermal conductivity. The skirt of a piston is the portion of the piston closest to the crankshaft that helps align the piston as it moves in the cylinder bore. piston pin bore. and return oil to the crankcase. conduct heat from the piston to the cylinder wall. and other dynamic forces. The piston head is the top surface (closest to the cylinder head) of the piston which is subjected to tremendous forces and heat during normal engine operation. Piston and Piston Rings A piston is a cylindrical engine component that slides back and forth in the cylinder bore by forces produced during the combustion process. piston pin. load. Piston features include the piston head. A ring groove is a recessed area located around the perimeter of the piston that is used to retain a piston ring. and piston rings. A piston pin is a hollow shaft that connects the small end of the connecting rod to the piston. Some skirts have profiles cut into them to reduce piston mass and to provide clearance for the rotating crankshaft counterweights. Insufficient clearance can cause the piston to seize in the cylinder. ring grooves. Ring lands are the two parallel surfaces of the ring groove which function as the sealing surface for the piston ring.
and an oil reservoir is not required. This occurs from the thermal expansion properties of cast aluminum alloy and the mass in the piston pin area. A wiper ring is the piston ring with a tapered face located in the ring groove between the compression ring and the oil ring. The wiper ring is used to further seal the combustion chamber and to wipe the cylinder wall clean of excess oil. The piston pin area is subject to more thermal expansion than other areas of the piston.Piston rings commonly used on small engines include the compression ring. When the air-fuel mixture is ignited. Excess oil is returned through ring openings to the oil reservoir in the engine block. Combustion gas pressure forces the piston ring against the cylinder wall to form a seal. The piston pin area is exposed to a significant amount of force due to rapid directional changes. pressure from combustion gases is applied to the piston head. Piston Design Pistons are designed with features which perform specific functions during engine operation. The oil ring is used to wipe excess oil from the cylinder wall during piston movement. forcing the piston toward the crankshaft. The piston head or crown receives the majority of the initial pressure and force caused by the combustion process. The compression ring seals the combustion chamber from any leakage during the combustion process. Two-stroke cycle engines do not require oil rings because lubrication is supplied by mixing oil in the gasoline. It is also subjected to thermal expansion caused by the transfer of heat from the head to the body of the piston. The pressurized gases travel through the gap between the cylinder wall and the piston and into the piston ring groove. Page 34 . wiper ring. An oil ring is the piston ring located in the ring groove closest to the crankcase. and oil ring. A compression ring is the piston ring located in the ring groove closest to the piston head. Combustion gases that pass by the compression ring are stopped by the wiper ring. Pressure applied to the piston ring is approximately proportional to the combustion gas pressure.
As the engine reaches operating temperature. which matches the cylinder bore for improved sealing and combustion efficiency. Some Briggs & Stratton engines use a barrel-shaped piston skirt. Some pistons are designed with a taper. the piston shape becomes a circular shape. Thermal growth is the increase in size of a material when heated. These piston shapes provide an advantage in conforming to the everchanging dimensions of the cylinder bore. The taper design allows the piston to move freely in the cylinder bore regardless of the heat applied to the piston head. The piston is designed to be an elliptical shape when cold. the piston pin bore area expands more than other thinner areas of the piston. The taper shape compensates for thermal expansion and thermal growth. and reduces side loading on the piston skirt. The barrel shape provides a smoother transition during directional changes of the piston. with little or no change back to original dimensions. spreads the force of the directional change across a greater surface. This reduces noise. At operating temperature.Some pistons are cast and machined at the factory into a cam ground (elliptical shape). Page 35 . with the smallest diameter of the taper at the piston head. An elliptical shape is an oval shape in which one-half is a mirror image of the other half. The piston rolls into the cylinder wall when changing direction at the end of a stroke.
Piston Dynamics The piston head is exposed to over 500 psi when the engine is operating under load. The piston is also exposed to relatively high temperature fluctuations during operation. causes variable forces at the piston pin connection. allowing crankcase oil to contact the piston to remove combustion heat.Some piston designs have the piston pin offset from centre in the piston. Although the piston is subjected to this temperature for a very short amount of time. The temperature of the initial flame front during combustion exceeds 3000°F. The piston is cooled by the contact of crankcase oil to the underside of the piston head and by contact with the piston rings and cylinder wall. Piston ring contact with the cylinder wall also transfers heat from the piston. material selection. The proper orientation of the piston pin offset is marked by a notch or an arrow on the piston head. The force differentials caused by the expanding combustion gases and the flame front crossing the piston head can reach two to three times this force. The heat is then dissipated from the engine through cooling fins on the outside of the engine block Page 36 . the piston changes direction in the cylinder bore 120 times per second at 3600 revolutions per minute (RPM).and two-cylinder engines. The design. and manufacturing of the piston considers these operating conditions. The offset piston pin design offers a quieter running engine by reducing piston wobble and related noise. The underside of the piston head is designed to remain open. The changing of direction. The mark on all Briggs & Stratton pistons should be facing or closest to the flywheel on all one. with its inherent acceleration of mass from a static state. In addition to the forces and the thermal fluctuations incurred by the piston. the thermal stress and expansion of the piston head are significant. This results in truer linear movement of the piston in the cylinder bore.
Bearings can be subjected to radial. and camshaft. Page 37 . connecting rod. A radial load is a load applied perpendicular to the shaft.Bearings A bearing is a component used to reduce friction and to maintain clearance between stationary and rotating components of the engine. Friction bearings also have the ability to conform to slightly irregular mating surfaces. or a combination of radial and axial loads. axial (thrust). An axial load is a load applied parallel to the shaft. or bearing surfaces. A friction bearing consists of a fixed. are located on the crankshaft. Friction bearings. Friction bearing surfaces commonly consist of a material that is softer than the supported component. such as machined metal or pressed-in bushing that provides a low-friction support surface for rotating or sliding surfaces. or split-sleeve for easy installation and removal. Friction bearings commonly use lubricating oil to separate the moving component from the mated non-moving bearing surface. Bearings are classified as plain journal or antifriction bearings. Friction bearings can be integrally machines. Bearings. have the ability to embed foreign matter to prevent spreading in the engine. because of their soft consistency. one-piece sleeve. and also in the cylinder block. non-moving bearing surface.
A nonferrous metal is a metal that does not contain iron. Friction rod bearings are commonly made from nonferrous metals such as bronze. Antifriction bearings used for main bearings increase the radial and axial load capacity of the engine but also contributes to engine noise and are more costly than journal bearings. Rod bearings are usually journal bearings (integrally machined. and Babbitt. Main bearings are mounted in the crankcase and can be either friction or antifriction bearings. Antifriction bearings reduce lubrication requirements and decrease starting and operating friction. Bronze is a nonferrous metal 38 . Reduced friction results in less power required to rotate engine components and increases overall engine output. or split-sleeve) or antifriction bearings.. The small end of the connecting rod is connected to the piston pin. Small engines with three or more cylinders may require more than two main bearings to provide additional support to the crankshaft. A race is the bearing surface in an antifriction bearing that supports rolling elements during rotation. A rod bearing is a bearing that provides a low-friction pivot point between the connecting rod and the crankshaft and the connecting rod and piston. A main bearing is a bearing that supports and provides a low-friction bearing surface for the crankshaft. Most connecting rods for small engines use integrally machined friction bearings. one at each end of the crankshaft. Page Antifriction bearings used on connecting rods are precision ground from hardened steel and are commonly used on two-stroke cycle engines. Small engines commonly have two main bearings. A separator is an antifriction bearing component used to maintain the position and alignment of rolling elements.An antifriction bearing is a bearing that contains moving elements to provide a low friction support surface for rotating or sliding surfaces. aluminum. sleeve. Antifriction bearings are commonly made with hardened rolling elements (balls and rollers) and races. The crankshaft is supported by main bearings. The big end of the connecting rod is connected to the crankpin journal.
Austenitic steel used for valves offers similar heat and corrosion resistance at a lower cost than stainless steel. or two-piece-stem welded-stem valves. lead.alloy that consists of brass and zinc. Babbitt is a nonferrous metal alloy consisting of copper. and projected length of service. shape. Babbitt is commonly used on split-sleeve bearings consisting of a steel backing coated with multiple thin layers of Babbitt on the load bearing surface. and chromium. The type of valve train used for a reciprocating engine depends on the engine design and whether the engine is a four-stroke cycle or two-stroke cycle unit. Stainless steel is a ferrous alloy alloyed with consisting of chromium or nickel. Engineers determine the valve material. projection-tip welded. and evacuate exhaust gases when combustion is complete. Aluminum is a nonferrous metal commonly alloyed with zinc or copper. mechanical and thermal stresses during operation. Valves are exposed to various chemical. Austenitic steel is a heat-resistive metal alloy containing of cobalt. They must maintain their basic shape and dimensions throughout the expected life of the engine. Valve Train The valve train of an internal combustion engine includes components required to control the flow of gases into and out of the combustion chamber. Most exhaust valves used in Briggs & Stratton engines are made from austenitic steel. In addition. the integrity of the sealing surface of the valve and mating valve seat is critical to durability and performance. Page 39 . Valves allow the flow of air-fuel mixture into the cylinder. and tin or lead and tin. and the flow of exhaust gases from the cylinder. seal the combustion chamber during compression and combustion. and has properties similar to stainless steel. expected operating environment. This includes valves and related components required to allow the air-fuel mixture to enter the combustion chamber. Split-sleeve connecting rod bearing position in the large end of the connecting rod is maintained with an alignment tab. Valves commonly used in small engines are classified as one-piece. The alignment tab also prevents rotation of the bearing during engine operation. tungsten. and surface coatings to match the specific engine family. specifications.
The wound spiral wire of the valve spring initiates a small torque through the retainer into the valve stem. Rotation provides improved temperature distribution in the valve head and a mild scraping action that cleans the valve interface of any crushed combustion deposits. the retainer and valve spring apply pressure to the valve stem retainer groove. Valve systems equipped with the keyhole valve spring retainer produce minimal rotation. Each time the valve is lifted from the seat by the tappet.Valve Dynamics Each valve design utilizes components in the compression system to maintain proper valve and valve spring position in the cylinder block. the valve seat also removes a significant amount of the heat away from the valves. The motion of the valve is inhibited by the constant contact between the retainer and the valve spring. The valve spring it influences some rotation of the valve with a keyhole valve spring retainer. Most valves in an operating small engine rotate about the valve stem axis at varying rates. Although valve spring retainers come in different styles. Valve Seats The valve seat mates with the valve face to seal the combustion chamber. which causes some rotation. Two common types of valve seats are the integrally machine valve seat and the valve seat insert. Page 40 . The primary difference in valve spring retainer styles is most evident when considering valve rotation. all provide the essential requirements of maintaining valve spring contact and spring alignment. In addition to the sealing function. A valve spring retainer maintains spring contact with the valve stem and helps to align the valve spring. Valve rotation has an overall positive effect on valve life.
the oil can be mixed with the fuel manually each time fuel is added.com/honda/engines/gxseries/mini4/html/4stroke. Handheld devices using this method of lubrication have the advantage of operating in any orientation since there is no oil reservoir which would be dependent upon gravity for proper function (Honda has worked around this difficulty in their mini four-stroke engines Template:Http://www. Depending on the design of the engine system.LUBRICATION SYSTEM OF PISTON ENGINE Two-stroke engines often have a simple lubrication system in which a special twostroke oil is mixed with the fuel. Page 41 . (then known in the UK as 'petroil' from "petrol" + "oil") and therefore reaches all moving parts of the engine. or an oil pump can automatically mix fuel and oil from separate tanks.mayberrys. htm).
The engine uses cylinder port valves which are incompatible with piston ring seals. This research could potentially produce an engine having very valuable properties of both high specific-power and low pollution. Page 42 . Research has been conducted on designs that attempt to reduce the combustion of lubricant. This causes lubricant from the crank to work its way into the combustion chamber where it burns.
If this situation continues. In these situations without the freewheel the engine is turning at high RPM..e. preventing seizure. but due to the closed throttle only a very small amount of fuel/oil mixture is flowing through the engine's crankcase and cylinders. or simply slowing down with the throttle released). the engine may eventually overheat and seize. descending a hill in a low gear with a closed throttle. The freewheel allows the engine to return to its set idle speed. Page 43 .Cars and other vehicles fitted with two-stroke engines often need to have a freewheel mechanism fitted in the transmission to disconnect the engine from the rest of the drive train when the vehicle is on the over-run (i.
The main nozzle either has precisely machined orifices to set the ratio of air to gasoline in the mixture or has an adjustable needle valve for this purpose (not shown). The user throttle (speed) control adjusts the spring force against which the governor must act to close the throttle plate.CARBURETOR Basic operation of a float type carburetor The diagram below shows a schematic of a typical float type carburetor with the engine running at high speed. Increasing the spring force increases the engine speed.which is kept open just a small amount. Closing the choke forces more gasoline into the mixture and makes it richer. The lower pressure created by the faster moving air draws gasoline up through the main nozzle and into the air stream. Page 44 . The throttle plate is used to vary the amount of the air-fuel mixture to the engine but maintains nearly the same ratio of air to fuel over a wide range of engine speeds. The air bleed allows the pressure inside the float chamber to equalize as fuel it drawn off The float maintains a more or less constant level of liquid gasoline in the float chamber by opening the inlet needle valve when the level drops. The fuel supply is either above the level of the carburetor or there is a separate fuel pump (usually operated by crankcase pressure pulsations or a direct mechanical linkage). The choke plate is fully open and the throttle plate is opened the proper amount be feedback from the governor to maintain the speed set by the user throttle control. This aerosol of gasoline vaporized almost instantly. Air is sucked through the venturi by the intact stroke of the piston. Operation at idle speed depends on a separate system of an idle nozzle and idle speed adjustment (not shown) and does not depend on governor feedback to control the throttle .
|| .\_____________/. .. .| | Gas || .Float bowl plate | .---> ===> ==> ==> O ==> pipe to | -> -> -> -> -> __||__ ==> ==> / | ==> cylinder \____________________ ___/ || \_____________|__________________ || || | Fuel __________ Air bleed ->|| ||<. . |<. . Air+fuel: ==>) _____________ / \ Choke plate Throttle plate | ||||||||| | (Fully open) Venturi (Partially open) | ||||||||| |______________ v _______________________________ | ||||||||| \______/ | ||||||||| -> -> -> -> -> ==> ==> / ==> Intake | ||||||||| -> ----O---.Air filter (Air: -->.Main nozzle o---------+ Inlet ______ |____________||______||__ |--> Pull | |_ _| || \ Speed <--/\/\/--+ from Needle ->| __A_______________ || | control Spring governor Valve | |o__/ \ || | closes |-----| Float |-----||---| throttle |. | \______________________________/ Page 45 .
the purpose of the entire fuel system is to provide fuel to the engines. On the other hand. The vapor pressure of 100LL aviation gasoline is approximately seven pounds per square inch at 100 degrees F. The 46 . Therefore. Page Aviation gasoline is formulated to burn smoothly without detonating or knocking. in a piston engine. The engine section components. a fuel metering device. One of the most critical characteristics of aviation gasoline is its volatility. on the other hand. on the other hand. and any other fuel delivery components on the engine. This increases the chances for the formation of carburetor ice. Although several components in an aircraft fuel system are airframe components. Volatility is usually expressed in terms of Reid vapor pressure which represents the air pressure above a liquid required to prevent vapors from escaping from the liquid at a given temperature. a fuel's volatility is critical to its performance in an aircraft engine. which is a measure of a fuel's ability to change from a liquid into a vapor. Fuel that is only partially atomized leads to hard starting and rough running. Furthermore. the following section primarily discusses the components included in the airframe section to the extent that you must know to maintain and operate the aircraft engine. the fuel must vaporize readily in the carburetor to burn evenly in the cylinder. are discussed in the next section on fuel Metering. an airframe section and a power plant section. fuel which vaporizes too readily can evaporate in the fuel lines and lead to vapor lock. if installed.PISTON ENGINE FUEL AND FUEL SYSTEM Aircraft fuel systems are divided into two basic sections. Aircraft engines compound these demands because of the wide range of atmospheric conditions in which they must operate. in an aircraft carburetor. and fuels are numerically graded according to their ability to resist detonation. consists of an engine-driven fuel pump. The engine section. Therefore. RECIPROCATING ENGINE FUELS The dynamics of the internal combustion cycle Demand certain properties from gasolines. For obvious reasons. the ideal aviation fuel has a high volatility that is not excessive to the point of causing vapor lock or carburetor ice. For example. an excessively volatile fuel causes extreme cooling within the carburetor body when the fuel evaporates. The airframe section consists of all fuel system components from the fuel tanks to the engine-driven fuel pump.
These bromides actively combine with lead oxides produced by the tetraethyl lead allowing the oxides to be discharged from a cylinder during engine operation. The first number is the lean mixture rating while the second number represents the fuel's rich mixture rating. and 100LL. In addition. it has become common practice to designate different grades of fuel by their lean mixture performance number only. For example. and other control equipment are color coded according to the grade. grade 80 fuel has the same anti-knock properties as a mixture of 80 percent iso-octane and 20 percent heptanes. aviation gasoline’s are identified as Avgas 80. the "LL" indicates it has a lower lead content than the original 100/130 fuel. switches.Green o 100LL – Blue In addition to coloring fuels. Some fuels have two performance numbers. valves.Red o 100 . The most common grading system used for this purpose is the octane rating system. The octane number assigned to a fuel compares the anti-knock properties of that fuel to a mixture of iso-octane and normal heptanes. The fuel in piping is identified by name and by colored bands painted or decaled around the pipe at intervals along its length. For example. Therefore. each fuel grade is colorcoded with dye for easy visual identification. it has the drawback of forming corrosive components in the combustion chamber.higher the number. or type of fuel they dispense. One method petroleum companies use to help prevent engine detonation is to mix tetraethyl lead into aviation fuels. Page 47 . according to the kind and grade of fuel they contain. additional additives such as ethylene bromides are added to the fuel. such as 100/130. To avoid confusion and to minimize errors in handling different grades of aviation gasoline’s. a marking and coding system has been adopted to identify various airport fuel handling facilities and equipment. Although 100LL performs the same as grade 100 fuel. loading and unloading connections. For this reason. all aviation gasolines are identified by name using white letters on a red background. To aid in identifying the different grades of aviation fuel. The color code for the aviation gasoline’s currently available IS as follows: o 80 . the more resistant a fuel is to knocking. However. 100.
Some of the requirements listed in the FARs include: 1. In addition.75 cubic centimeters of free water per gallon of fuel at 80°F. Each fuel system must be constructed and arranged to ensure fuel flow at a rate and pressure established for proper engine and auxiliary power unit functioning under all likely operating conditions. (FAR 23. Each fuel system must be arranged so that no pump can draw fuel from more than one tank at a time. Turbine-powered aircraft must be capable of sustained operation when there is at least 0. and have a small decal on the dashboard in the cab. or provisions must be made to prevent air from being drawn into the fuel supply line. (FAR 23. or body.951) 2. FUEL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS All aircraft fuel systems must be designed to meet the specific operating requirements outlined in Part 23 of the Federal Aviation Regulations.951) 3. an Page 48 . the fixed ring around fueller dome covers and hydrant box lids are also painted in accordance with the color code. all parts of the fueling facility and equipment are identified and keyed into the same marking and color code. In addition. These decals utilize the same color code.Fuel trucks and hydrant carts are marked with large fuel identification decals on each side of the tank. In short.
955) Page 49 .953) 10.955) 13.engine must be capable of sustained operation when the fuel is cooled to its most critical condition for icing.995) 7.953) 5. each engine must have an independent tank outlet with a fuel shutoff valve at the tank. On multi-engine aircraft. The same requirement exists when the airplane is positioned in the attitude that is most critical for fuel flow.1189) 8. If a single tank or assembly of interconnected tanks is used on a multi-engine airplane. (FAR 23. (FAR 23. (FAR 23. A means of rapidly shutting off fuel in flight to each engine of a normal category aircraft must be provided to appropriate flight crewmembers. (FAR 23. The engine fuel shutoff valve cannot be located on the engine side of any firewall.954) 11. Tanks used in multi-engine fuel systems must have two vents arranged so that they are not likely to both become plugged at the same time. (FAR 23. (FAR 23. the system must not cause a loss of power for more than ten seconds for a single engine or twenty seconds for a multi-engine airplane. the closing of an individual fuel shutoff valve for any engine shall not affect the fuel supply to the other engines. All filler caps must be designed so that they are not likely to be installed incorrectly or lost in flight.955) 12. (FAR 23. between the time one tank is allowed to run dry and the time at which the required power is supplied by the other tank. The fuel flow rate of a gravity-feed system must be 150 percent of the takeoff fuel flow when the tank contains the minimum fuel allowable. If an aircraft is equipped with a selector valve that allows the engine to operate from more than one fuel tank.953) 9. (FAR 23. (FAR23. The fuel systems must be designed to prevent the ignition of fuel vapors by lightning. Each fuel system of a multi-engine aircraft must be arranged so that the failure of anyone component (except a fuel tank) will not result in the loss of power of more than one engine or require immediate action by the pilot to prevent the loss of power. (FAR 23.951) 4.953) 6. The fuel flow rate of a pump feed fuel system for each reciprocating engine must be 125 percent of the takeoff fuel flow required. (FAR 23.
The fuel system must be designed so that it is free from vapor lock when the fuel is at its critical temperature. If a gravity feed system has interconnected tank outlets. under the most critical operating conditions. Unusable fuel is the amount of fuel in a tank when the first evidence of malfunction occurs. (FAR 23. (FAR 23. and it must be at least one-half inch away from the firewall.967) 19. The aircraft must be in the attitude that is most adverse for fuel flow. However. with the minimum grade of fuel. The amount of unusable fuel in an aircraft must be determined and this must be made known to the pilot. if the tank vent discharges clear of the airplane.971) 22. No fuel tank can be on the engine side of the firewall. it should not be possible for fuel feeding from one tank to flow into another tank and cause it to overflow. (FAR 23. and the flow must not be interrupted as the fuel system automatically cycles through all of the tanks or fuel cells in the system.967) 20. (FAR 23.961) 18. with respect to vapor formation. each reciprocating engine fuel system must have a sediment bowl that is accessible for drainage and has a capacity of one ounce for every 20 gallons of fuel. Each fuel tank compartment must be adequately vented and drained so no explosive vapors or liquid can accumulate. Each fuel tank must have a drainable sump where water and contaminants will normally accumulate when the aircraft is in its normal ground attitude. Each fuel tank must have at least a 2 percent expansion space that cannot be filled "vith fuel. In addition. (FAR 23.955) 15. (FAR 23. for aircraft with reciprocating engines. (FAR 23. Provisions must be made to prevent fuel that is spilled during refueling from entering the aircraft structure. Turbine-powered aircraft must have a fuel system that will supply 100 percent of the fuel required for operation in all flight attitudes.14.959) 17. The filler opening of an aircraft fuel tank must be marked at or near the filler opening with the word "Avgas" and.957) 16. (FAR 23. (FAR 23.969) 21.973) 23. no expansion space is required. the tank must be marked Page 50 . For turbine-powered aircraft.
In addition.1001) RECIPROCATING ENGINE FUEL SYSTEMS Reciprocating engine fuel system must supply the proper amount of fuel to an engine at the right pressure and during all ground and flight operations. Each fuel tank must be vented from the top part of its expansion space.with the permissible fuel designation. For engines requiring fuel pumps. filtering devices. valves. pressure. All fuel tanks are required to have a strainer at the fuel tank outlet or at the booster pump. (FAR 23. If the filler opening is for pressure fueling. (FAR 23. and a primer. if more than one fuel tank has interconnected outlets. there must be one engine-driven fuel pump for each engine. (FAR 23. For a reciprocating engine. the strainer should have an element of 8 to 16 meshes per inch. the airspace above the fuel must also be interconnected. lines. many fuel systems also include at least one fuel pump as well as fuel flow.975) 26. the strainer should prevent the passage of any object that could restrict the flow or damage any of the fuel system components.999 29. there must be provisions in the fuel system for jettisoning fuel to bring the maximum weight down to the design landing weight. Two examples of light aircraft reciprocating engine fuel systems are the gravity.If the design landing weight of the aircraft is less than that permitted for takeoff. For turbine engines. There must be at least one drain that will allow safe drainage of the entire fuel system when the airplane is in its normal ground attitude. quantity gauges.975) 25. In addition.991) 28. all fuel systems must contain some basic components including one or more fuel tanks. Page 51 . If a carburetor or fuel injection system has a vapor elimination system that returns fuel vapors to one of the tanks.feed system and the pressurefeed system. (FAR 23. (FAR 23. (FAR 23. the maximum permissible fueling and defueling pressure must be specified. and temperature gauges. To do this.1557) 24.977) 27. (FAR 23. the returned vapors must go to the tank that is required to be used first.
GRAVITY-FEED SYSTEMS The simplest form of aircraft fuel systems is the gravity-feed system used on many high wings. PRESSURE-FEED SYSTEMS On low-wing aircraft. In addition. A typical gravity-feed system normally has two fuel tanks. or auxiliary pump is installed in case the engine-driven pump should fail. a primer. and a carburetor. the fuel metering device is above the fuel tanks. a backup. a fuel pump must be used to pressure-feed fuel to the fuel metering device.engine aircraft. a fuel selector valve. Page 52 . Therefore. High wing aircraft equipped with fuel-injection or pressure carburetors also require a fuel pump. a fuel strainer. single.
which spins the magnet quickly at the proper moment. snowblowers. Some older automobiles had both a magneto system and a battery actuated system (see below) running simultaneously to ensure proper ignition under all conditions with the limited performance each system provided at the time. lawnmowers. used a system which relied on non rechargeable dry cells. Magnetos were used in these engines because their simplicity and self-contained nature was more reliable. or a heated tube. It is best known in the field of internal combustion engines but also has other applications. etc. on older gasoline or distillate farm tractors before battery starting and lighting became common. for ignition but these were quickly replaced by systems using an electric spark. e. Magnetos are not used in modern cars. The earliest internal combustion engines used a flame. not what are usually thought of as automobile batteries today) to start the engine or for Page 53 . The spark plugs are connected directly from the magneto output. making easier starting at slow cranking speeds. Switchable systems The output of a magneto depends on the speed of the engine. chainsaws. and because magnetos weighed less than having a battery and generator or alternator. in oilfired and gas-fired boilers. Some magnetos include an impulse system. interrupting the current and causing the voltage to be increased sufficiently to jump a small gap. Some engines. such as aircraft but also the Ford Model T. and on aircraft piston engines. (like large flashlight batteries. but because they generate their own electricity they are often found on piston aircraft engines and small engines such as those found in mopeds. and also operates a contact breaker. the stationary "hit or miss" engine which was used in the early twentieth century. Magneto systems The simplest form of spark ignition is that using a magneto.g.IGNITION SYSTEM An ignition system is a system for igniting a fuel-air mixture. and therefore starting can be problematic. Aircraft engines usually have multiple magnetos to provide redundancy in the event of a failure. where there is no battery Magnetos were used on the small engine's ancestor. The engine spins a magnet inside a coil.
the high voltage was switched to the appropriate spark plug by the timer mounted on the front of the engine. however. however. the direct current passes through an electromagnetic coil which pulls open a pair of contact points. and long after the demise of the Model T as transportation they remained a popular self-contained source of high voltage for electrical home experimenters. The entire apparatus was known as the Model T spark coil (in contrast to the modern ignition coil which is only the actual coil component of the system). and the cycle repeats rapidly. which was essentially a larger version of the once widespread electric buzzer. In either case. the spring-loaded points close again. the maximum voltage produced was about 30 volts. and the concomitant availability of a large battery to provide a constant source of electricity. In order to provide high voltage for the spark from the low voltage batteries. In the UK these devices were commonly known as trembler coils and were popular in cars pre-1910. induces a high voltage across the coil which can only relieve itself by arcing across the contact points. producing a constant train of sparks.running at low speed. Battery-operated ignition With the universal adaptation of electrical starting for automobiles. although the coil would not "buzz" continuously in this case. the magnetic field collapses. magneto systems were abandoned for systems which interrupted current Page 54 . appearing in articles in magazines such as Popular Mechanics and projects for school science fairs as late as the early 1960s. The timing of the spark was adjustable by rotating this mechanism through a lever mounted on the steering column. The Model T (built into the flywheel) differed from modern implementations by not providing high voltage directly at the output. and also in commercial vehicles with large engines until around 1925 to ease starting. The rapidly collapsing magnetic field. then the operator would manually switch the ignition over to magneto operation for high speed operation. and therefore also had to be run through the spark coil to provide high enough voltage for ignition. the equivalent of the modern distributor. as described above. in the case of the ignition system this becomes the source of the high voltage to operate the spark plugs. the coil would "buzz" continuously. With this apparatus. interrupting the current. the circuit is reestablished. while in the case of the buzzer this is a problem as it causes the points to oxidize and/or weld together. only going through one cycle per spark. In this mode of operation. a "tickler" was used.
and a distributor to route the ensuing pulse to the correct spark plug at the correct time. when they are opened by a cam arrangement. used an ignition coil (a type of autotransformer) to step the voltage up to the needs of the ignition. the magnetic field collapses and a large (20KV or greater) voltage is produced. Modern ignition system Mechanically timed ignition Most four-stroke engines have used a mechanically timed electrical ignition system. a capacitor and a distributor set up to allocate the spark from the ignition coil timed to the correct cylinder. The coil was basically an autotransformer set up to step up the low (6 or 12V) voltage supply to the high ignition voltage required to jump a spark plug gap. The Kettering system became the primary ignition system for many years in the automotive industry due to its lower cost. The points allow the coil to charge magnetically and then. The capacitor is used to absorb the back EMF from the magnetic field in the coil to minimize point contact burning and maximize point life. It consisted of a single coil. (Delco) and introduced in the 1910 Cadillac.at battery voltage. points (the switch). This ignition was developed by Charles Kettering and was a wonder in its day. higher reliability and relative simplicity. The distributor contains a Page 55 Distributor cap . The heart of the system is the distributor. The first reliable battery operated ignition was developed by the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Co.
so does the cam inside the distributor. a set of breaker points. This steady current produces a magnetic field within the coil's core. At the same time. extends the high voltage pulse at the output of the secondary windings. which interrupt the current to an induction coil (known as the ignition coil). The engine operates contact breaker points.rotating cam running off the engine's drive. For an ignition coil. one end of windings of both the primary and secondary are connected together. through the current-limiting resistor. a high point in the cam causes the breaker points to open. and wires linking the spark plugs and ignition coil to the distributor. This rapid decay of the magnetic field induces a high voltage in the coil's secondary windings. A steady charge flows from the battery. The other end of the primary is connected to the points within the distributor. This LC circuit produces a damped. current exits the coil's primary winding and begins to charge up the capacitor ("condenser") that lies across the now-open breaker points. The other end of the secondary is connected. oscillating current which bounces energy between the capacitor’s electric field and the ignition coil’s magnetic field.the primary and secondary windings. This capacitor and the coil’s primary windings form an oscillating LC circuit. the spark plugs. As the engine turns. This common point is connected to the battery (usually through a currentlimiting resistor). This magnetic field forms the energy reservoir that will be used to drive the ignition spark. across the closed breaker points and finally back to the battery. The oscillating current in the coil’s primary. An alternating current in the primary induces alternating magnetic field in the coil's core. the coil is a step-up transformer which induces a much higher voltage across the secondary windings. a condenser. The ignition coil consists of two transformer windings sharing a common magnetic core -. to the spark plugs. via the distributor cap and rotor. The system is powered by a lead-acid battery. Because the ignition coil's secondary has far more windings than the primary. through the coil primary. which produces an oscillating magnetic field in the coil. which is charged by the car's electrical system using a dynamo or alternator. This breaks the primary winding's circuit and abruptly stops the current through the breaker points. The points ride on the cam so that as the engine turns and reaches the top of the engine's compression cycle. Without the steady current through the points. The ignition firing sequence begins with the points (or contact breaker) closed. External to the distributor is the ignition coil. This Page 56 . a rotor and a distributor cap. the magnetic field generated in the coil immediately begins to quickly collapse.
as in motor racing that demand higher rate and energy of sparks than the simple ignition circuit can provide may use either of these adaptations: Two complete sets of coils. High performance engines with eight or more cylinders that operate at high r. The extremely high voltage from the coil's secondary -– often higher than 1000 volts -. This limit can be overcome by substituting for the breaker a pair of breakers that are connected electrically in series but spaced on opposite sides of the cam so they are driven out of phase. Although the two ignition system halves are electrically independent. giving better efficiency and performance. which is typically arranged in V-8 or V12 configuration.high voltage thus continues beyond the time of the initial field collapse pulse. and a rotor with two isolated conducting planes for the two high voltage inputs. located on top of the breaker cam within the distributor cap. the position of the contact breaker points relative to the engine angle can be changed a small amount dynamically. in turn. sequentially connects the coil's secondary windings to one of the several wires leading to each cylinder's spark plug. Each breaker then switches at half the rate of a single breaker and the "dwell" time for current buildup in the coil is maximized since it is shared between the breakers. The Lamborghini V-12 engine has both these adaptations and therefore uses two ignition coils and a single distributor that contains 4 contact breakers. A single breaker driven by a cam and a return spring is limited in spark rate by the onset of contact bounce or float at high rpm. ignites the compressed air-fuel mixture within the engine. allowing the ignition timing to be automatically advanced with increasing revolutions per minute (RPM) and/or increased manifold vacuum. Page 57 . For example. A turning rotor.p. Except that more separate elements are involved. This. It is the creation of this spark which consumes the energy that was originally stored in the ignition coil’s magnetic field.m. The ignition coil's secondary windings are connected to the distributor cap. breakers and condensers can be provided one set for each half of the engine. a distributor-based system is not greatly different from a magneto system. they typically share a single distributor which in this case contains two breakers driven by the rotating cam. The oscillation continues until the circuit’s energy is consumed.causes a spark to form across the gap of the spark plug. There are also advantages to this arrangement.
In some models. which switches a large current through the coil. and breakers should be re-dressed or replaced when they have become pitted by electric arcing. sometimes known as COP or coil on plug. and poor sparking can lead to lower engine efficiency. when electronic ignition systems started to appear. and the opening of the contact breakers. The rest of the system (distributor and spark plugs) remains as for the mechanical system. there are individual coils on each spark plug. This allows the coil a longer time to accumulate a Page 58 . rather than one central coil. the spark voltage is also dependent on contact effectiveness. since this mechanical adjustment affects the "dwell" time during which the coil charges. however. is subject to mechanical variations. a modern distributor will fit into the older engine with no other modifications. the points are subject to mechanical wear where they ride the cam to open and shut. For older cars. and this may limit the power of the spark and ultimate engine speed. even these contact breaker points were replaced by an angular sensor of some kind . where a vaned rotor breaks a light beam. points were still used but they only handled a low current which was used to control the high primary current through a solid state switching system. The lack of moving parts compared with the mechanical system leads to greater reliability and longer service intervals. Other innovations are currently available on various cars. then used to trigger a switching device such as a thruster. In addition. or more commonly using a Hall effect sensor. it is usually possible to retrofit an EI system in place of the mechanical one. Electronic ignition The disadvantage of the mechanical system is the use of breaker points to interrupt the low voltage high current through the primary winding of the coil. In some cases. They require regular adjustment to compensate for wear. using a feeler gauge. This system was used almost universally until the late 1970s. Soon.However it is necessary to check periodically the maximum opening gap of the breaker(s). Electronic ignition (EI) solves these problems. as well as oxidation and burning at the contact surfaces from the constant sparking. which is responsible for spark timing. The sensor output is shaped and processed by suitable circuitry. A mechanical contact breaker system cannot control an average ignition current of more than about 3 A while still giving a reasonable service life. which responds to a rotating magnet mounted on a suitable shaft.either optical. In the initial systems.
and lawn mowers. Digital electronic ignition modules can be designed as either capacitive discharge (CDI) or inductive discharge ignitions (IDI). ignition timing and firing order. digital systems started to appear. During the 1980s. Other systems do away with the distributor as a timing apparatus and use a magnetic crank angle sensor mounted on the crankshaft to trigger the ignition at the proper time. on cylinders which are 360 degrees out of phase (and therefore reach TDC at the same time). a so-called "wasted spark" arrangement which has no drawbacks apart from faster spark plug erosion.charge between sparks. opens the requisite injector to deliver it. and therefore a higher energy spark. Early EMS systems used analogue computer circuit designs to accomplish this. This allows for greater timing flexibility. then causes a spark at the right moment to burn it. but as embedded systems became fast enough to keep up with the changing inputs at high revolutions. in the four-cycle engine this means that one plug will be sparking during the end of the exhaust stroke while the other fires at the usual time. leaf blowers. Digital Electronic Ignitions At the turn of the century digital electronic ignition modules became available for small engines on such applications as chainsaws. high speed. The circuitry determines which cylinder needs fuel and how much. string-trimmers. Page 59 . electronics control fuel delivery. airflow into the engine and throttle demand position. and engine performance. EI systems were developed alongside other improvements such as fuel injection systems. This was made possible by low cost. especially when designed handin-hand with the engine carburetor. Engine management In an Engine Management System (EMS). Capacitive discharge digital ignitions store charged energy for the spark in a capacitor within the module that can be released to the spark plug at virtually any time throughout the engine cycle via a control signal from the microprocessor. A variation on this has each coil handle two plugs. Primary sensors on the system are engine angle (crank or Top Dead Center (TDC) position). After a while it became logical to combine the functions of fuel control and ignition into one electronic system known as an engine control unit. the paired cylinders are 1/4 and 2/3. and small footprint microcontrollers.
This allows them to control the engine to minimize sunburn or partially burnt fuel and other noxious gases. but are instead created at the point at which they are needed. Other systems dispense with the distributor and coil and use special spark plugs which each contain their own coil (Direct Ignition). leading to much cleaner and more efficient engines. distributor and spark plugs found on cars throughout history.Some designs using EMS retain the original coil. Page 60 . Modern EMS systems usually monitor other engine parameters such as temperature and the amount of uncombined oxygen in the exhaust. Such designs offer potentially much greater reliability than conventional arrangements. This means high voltages are not routed all over the engine.
Another device used for increasing the high-tension voltage of the magneto for start-up is called an impulse coupling. The impulse coupling installed on the drive shaft of a magneto is designed to give the magneto a momentary high rotational speed and to provide a retarded spark for starting the engine. a source of external high-tension current is required for ignition purposes. the engine turns over too slowly to permit the magneto to operate. This coupling is a spring like mechanical Page 61 . or a vibrator which supplies intermittent direct current from a battery directly to the primary of the magneto. Impulse Coupling When an aircraft engine is started. An ignition booster may be in the form of a booster magneto. In these instances. often the engine starter will not rotate the crankshaft fast enough to produce the required coming-in speed of the magneto. The various devices used for this purpose are called ignition boosters or auxiliary ignition units.IGNITION BOOSTERS When attempting to start an engine. a high-tension coil to which primary current is supplied from a battery.
These are illustrated in Fig. the shell of the coupling may the engine drive for a substantial portion of 1 r while rotating magnet remains stationary. and the hub is called the earn. thus supplying the high voltage necessary for ignition. At the point where the magneto must fire. therefore. The hub provided with flyweights which enable the assembly to accomplish its purpose. causes the magneto strong spark at the spark plug. the shell is referred to as the body.linkage between the engine and magneto shaft which "winds up" and "lets go" at the proper moment for spinning the magneto shaft. the flyweights are released by the action of the body contacting the trigger ramp. Magnetism is developed in the core until the magnetic force on 62 . This allows the spring to unwind. Page Booster Coil A booster coil is a small induction coil. This action causes the flyweights to rotate on the pivot point and disengage from the stop pin as shown . Its provide a shower of sparks to the spark plug until the magneto fires properly. When the engine has started. The coupling consists of a shell. they can be turned off together. the starter is no longer required. and hub. When voltage from a battery is applied to the booster coil. the spring in the coupling being wound up. spring. The booster coil is usually connected to the starter switch. giving the rotating magnet a rapid rotation in the normal direction. In some manuals. This. When the impulse coupling is installed on drive shaft of the magneto. as shown While this is taking place. of course.
Most modern aircraft employ the induction vibrator or an impulse coupling. sending an interrupted current through both the main and retard contact points of the magneto. Induction vibrator The function of the induction vibrator is to supply interrupted low voltage (pulsating direct current) for the magneto primary coil. This demagnetizes the core and permits the spring to again close the contact points and complete the circuit. thus reenergizing the coil. When the armature moves toward the core. The armature vibrates back and forth rapidly. the contact points and the primary circuit are opened.the soft-iron armature mounted on the vibrator overcomes the spring tension and attracts the armature toward the core. making and breaking the primary circuit as long as the voltage from the battery is applied to the booster coil. A schematic diagram of the circuit for an induction vibrator designed for use with light aircraft engine magnetos is shown. Thus the contact points of the vibrator continue to make and break contact many times per second. which induces a sufficiently high voltage in the secondary for starting. the breaker points open and interrupt the current flow. causing the points to open. Vc. battery voltage is applied to the vibrator coil through the vibrator contact points and through the retard contact points in the left magneto. The vibrator sends an interrupted Page 63 . Observe that when the starter switch is closed. The use of booster coils as described here is limited to a few older aircraft which are still operating. As the coil is energized. Through spring action the contacts points close and again energize the coil.
but a similar circuit would be used with each engine of a multiengine airplane. Engine starter is engaged. The battery current causes the relay points to close. sparks cannot be generated. This circuit applies to one engine only. the interrupted current will flow through the contact points to ground. Although the vibrator continues to send interrupted current impulses through the magneto contact points. distributor block. thus complete the circuit to the vibrator coil and causing the vibrator to produce a rapidly interrupted current. It is thus energized only during the time that the engines are being started. and cables to the spark plugs. The induction vibrator is energized from the same circuit which energizes the starting solenoid. the current from the battery is sent through the coil of a relay which is normally open. When the ignition switch is in the ON position. A circuit for an induction vibrator as used with a Continental Shower of Sparks high-tension magneto ignition is shown. Page 64 . These high-tension impulses are produced during the entire time that both sets of magneto contact points are open. The magneto coil then acts as a battery ignition coil and produces high-tension impulses. This is the path of least resistance for the current.battery current through the primary winding of the regular magneto coil. which are distributed through the distributor rotor. When the contact points are closed.
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If plugs run too hot the insulator may be damaged and electrodes will burn away rapidly. Basically. electrode. This reduces power. Normally a hotter plug is used in a cold engine where you have a lot of stop and start driving. Page 66 . AND MAINTENANCE Changes in engine design and fuel operating conditions place increased demands on spark plugs and the electrical system.000 volts without leakage to the ground at about 40 times per second at high engine speeds. and a threaded metal shell. wastes fuel. broken. In extreme conditions. SELECTION. It must also provide a gas-tight conducting path from the high tension lead wire to the electrode gap.000oF and under pressure that could reach 800 lb. the plug must be hot enough during operation to prevent fouling and cool enough to avoid pre-ignition and rapid erosion of the electrodes. hot plugs may cause premature burning (preignition) of the air fuel mixture. These products may cause misfiring at high speeds. Actual consumer cost of a spark plug is almost the same as it was 15 years ago. per square inch. These parts are assembled together with cement or dry powder to form an operational leak-proof unit. and may damage the engine under heavy load. and engine malfunctions will increase engine performance. In general. or damaged through abuse in removal or replacement. A colder range plug is used in a hot engine where you have continuous driving in hot climates or a problem with oil fouling. This will often cause excessive burning of the ground. The performance of the spark plug may determine the engine efficiency of the modern engine. serviceability. The optimum heat range of a plug is selected on the basis of engine design and the operating conditions. Spark plug fouling is due to combustion products which collect on the plug's insulator. thus it is aggravated by rich idle mixtures and excessive oil consumption that may bypass the rings or valve guides. and maintenance. This energy must provide approximately 20. The insulator tip will determine the heat range of the plug (hot or cold). a spark plug consists of three parts: the insulator. selection. Fuel costs have increased six-fold over the past three years. Being knowledgeable about spark plug operation. The spark plug provides an electrode gap for the spark that is necessary to ignite the compressed fuel-air mixture of vapor under compression in each cylinder. A spark plug can be a valuable indicator as to the condition of your engine because the plug extends into the combustion chamber. The electrode and insulator tip is exposed to extreme temperature change of cool fresh air to approximately 4. This part may be cracked.SPARK PLUG OPERATION.
inspect it carefully to determine the cause and use mechanical judgment in correcting a malfunction. Be sure to clean the insulator of paint. Replacement and tuneup would be recommended for proper performance. correcting engine timing. The gap clearance will be slight with very little deposits on the insulator tip. 8. Splashed fouling is applied to plugs that have splotchy deposits on the insulator. 5. 9. 4. breaker points or weak coil or condenser. and oxide that forms from fuel additives. This may be caused by faulty thermostat. a burned or blistered insulator nose and badly eroded electrodes. black. 2. When removing a spark plug use compressed air to blow out all foreign material around the base. Core bridging or gap bridging is caused by materials of combustion lodging between electrode and the ground. 6. These deposits have accumulated through misfiring or inefficient operation. 4. 3. 7. Normal operation will show a light tan or gray color. overheating of a plug is characterized by a white or yellow glaze. causing the plug to short out. Excessive deposits are most common when oil control is poor or when stop and start operation is prevalent. Remove rust and carbon from the threads with a steel brush. sludgy deposit on the plug. 2. plug heat range too hot or carburetor set too rich. Use some system to identify the wire with a certain plug. carbon. Do not pull on the wire itself but remove from the terminal boot. Service Work on Spark 1. Oil fouling is indicated by oily.When removing the plug. 6. 3. 5. If the electrode is rounded off it needs to be filed flat. check for sticking valves. Page 67 . Inspect the plug for cylinder malfunction as explained. These conditions usually mean that the next hotter plug should be used. Spark Plug Conditions 1. A plug that indicates replacement will show electrode and ground eroded away. A beginner may want to use a numbered clothespin to clip on the wire. A hotter plug would be recommended but will not replace a needed overhaul. If this condition is general on all plugs in the engine. Clean the plug in a solvent and dry with compressed air. Identify the plug with the correct cylinder. faulty ignition leads. Use a deep well socket with preferably a rubber or magnetic retainer inside.
This may vary from . Check gap setting even on new plugs. 3. Installing Spark Plugs 1.10. this will vary from 10 ft. Always install new gaskets (except on plugs that are tapered and do not require gaskets). lbs. 6. 2. 5. 4. Be sure cylinder head threads and plug threads are clean and free of dirt.000 miles.040. Be sure the spark plug cable fits the plug terminal snugly. Page 68 . on aluminum heads or cast iron heads. The gap width should be checked with a round wiretype gauge. Most manufacturers recommend checking plugs every 10. Adjust the gap between the ground and the electrode to proper specifications. lbs.022 inch to . to 35 ft. Tighten plugs down by hand as tight as possible then retorque with a torque wrench to manufacturer's recommendation.
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Types of supercharger There are two main types of supercharger defined according to the method of compression: positive displacement and dynamic compressors. Page 71 .SUPERCHARGER &TURBOCHARGER Supercharger A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of an internal combustion engine. or chain connected to the engine's crankshaft. which allows more fuel to be provided and more work to be done per cycle. whereas the latter deliver increasing boost with increasing engine speed. A supercharger can be powered mechanically by a belt. It can also be powered by an exhaust gas turbine A turbine-driven supercharger is known as a turbo supercharger or turbocharger. Pennsylvania in 1908 and reportedly reached a speed of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h). increasing the power output of the engine. Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in 1902. gear. The greater mass flow-rate provides more oxygen to support combustion than would be available in a naturally-aspirated engine. History The first functional supercharger can be attributed to German engineer Gottlieb Daimler who received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in 1885. An early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown. shaft. The former deliver a fairly constant level of boost regardless of engine speed (RPM).
mechanically moving the air into the engine bit by bit. The device divides the air mechanically into parcels for delivery to the engine. This makes this type of supercharger quite expensive. Page 72 . Lysholm screw rotors.] Positive displacement An Eaton MP62 Roots-type supercharger is visible at the front of this Ecotec LSJ engine in a 2006 Saturn Ion Red Line. Note the complex shape of each rotor which must run at high speed and with close tolerances.) Positive displacement pumps deliver a nearly fixed volume of air per revolution at all speeds (minus leakage which is nearly constant at all speeds for a given pressure and so its importance decreases at higher speeds). (This unit has been blued to show close contact areas.
Page Internal compression refers to the air being compressed within the supercharger itself and this compressed air. It is the back flow which actually compresses the incoming gas. This is a highly inefficient process and the main factor in the lack of efficiency of roots superchargers when used at high boost levels. 73 . can be delivered smoothly to the engine with little or no backflow. If the engine is running under boost conditions. When the boost pressure is equal to the compression pressure of the supercharger. If the boost pressure exceeds that compression pressure. All the other types have some degree of internal compression. which is what they were first invented for (hence the original term "blower"). Internal compression blowers must be matched to the expected boost pressure in order to achieve the higher efficiency they are capable of. Internal compression devices usually use a fixed internal compression ratio. The lower the boost level the smaller is this loss and roots blowers are very efficient at moving air at low pressure differentials. the backflow is zero. already at or close to boost level. This is more efficient than backflow compression and allows higher efficiency to be achieved.Major types of positive displacement pumps include: Roots Lysholm screw Sliding vane Scroll-type supercharger. backflow can still occur as in a roots blower. External compression refers to pumps which transfer air at ambient pressure into the engine. That causes a back flow from the engine into the supercharger until the two reach equilibrium. Roots superchargers are typically external compression only (although high helix roots blowers attempt to emulate the internal compression of the Lysholm screw). the pressure in the intake manifold is higher than that coming from the supercharger. otherwise they will suffer the same problems and low efficiency of the roots blowers. also known as the G-lader Piston as in Bourke engine Wankel engine Positive displacement pumps are further divided into internal compression and external compression types.
3. Roots Supercharger Efficiency Map. GMC has made 2-71. and the size of those cylinders. 4. From this you can see that a 6-71 is roughly twice the size of a 3-71. the GMC rating pattern is typical. This generalized roots blower efficiency map shows how a roots blower's efficiency varies with speed and boost. 3-71. a single point will fall on the map. A 6-71 actually pumps 339 cubic inches per revolution. In the case of the roots blower. 4-71. For any given roots blower running under given conditions.Positive displacement superchargers are usually rated by their capacity per revolution. The GMC types are rated according to how many two stroke cylinders. Aftermarket derivatives continue the trend with 8-71 to current 14-71 blowers. For example a 6-71 blower is designed to scavenge six cylinders of 71 cubic inches each and would be used on a two-stroke diesel of 426 cubic inches which is designated a 6-71 and the blower takes this same designation. 6 and 8-53 sizes as well as a “V71” series for use on engines using a V configuration. it is designed to scavenge. This point will rise with increasing boost and will move to the right Page 74 Roots Efficiency map . the actual displacement is less than the simple multiplication would suggest. and the famed 6-71 blowers. However because 6-71 is actually the engines designation. GMC also made -53 cubic inch series in 2.
The volumetric efficiency of the roots type blower is very good.with increasing blower speed. Usually. Replacing a smaller blower with a larger blower moves the point to the left. Boost is given in terms of pressure ratio which is the ratio of absolute air pressure before the blower to the absolute air pressure after compression by the blower. This is the area in which roots blowers were originally intended to operate and they are very good at it. Major types of dynamic compressor are: Centrifugal Multi stage axial flow Pressure wave supercharger Supercharger drive types Mechanical: Page 75 Superchargers are further defined according to their method of drive (mechanical—or turbine). using a larger blower and running it slower to achieve the same boost will give an increase in compressor efficiency. In drag racing applications where large volumes of fuel are injected with that hot air. If no boost is present the pressure ratio will be 1. 15 psi boost is marked for reference (slightly above a pressure ratio of 2. In most cases. Because of this. as the map shows. This functions as a kind of liquid after cooler system and goes a long way to negating the inefficiency of the roots design in that application. even a blower running at low efficiency will still mechanically deliver the intended volume of air to the engine but that air will be hotter. At 15 psi boost Roots blowers hover between 50% to 58%.0 (meaning 1:1) as the outlet pressure equals the inlet pressure. vaporizing the fuel absorbs the heat. usually staying above 90% at all but the lowest blower speeds. It can be seen that at moderate speed and low boost the efficiency can be over 90%. Dynamic Dynamic compressors rely on accelerating the air to high speed and then exchanging that velocity for pressure by diffusing or slowing it down.0 compared to atmospheric pressure). . this will moves it into higher efficiency areas on the left as the smaller blower likely will have been running fast on the right of the chart.
Flat belt) Direct drive Gear drive Chain drive Exhaust gas turbines: Axial turbine Radial turbine Other: Electric motor All types of compressor may be mated to and driven by either gas turbine or mechanical linkage. As a result. the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. at 5. Toothed belt.486 m (18. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitude. Dynamic compressors are most often matched with gas turbine drives due to their similar high-speed characteristics. all of the possible combinations have been tried with various levels of success.000 ft) the air is at half the pressure of sea level. Belt (V belt. Page 76 . the engine produces half as much power. Aircraft Altitude effects A Rolls Royce Merlin engine Superchargers are a natural addition to aircraft engines for operation at high altitude. However. but the airframe only experiences half the aerodynamic drag. while positive displacement pumps usually use one of the mechanical drives. For example.
Pilots were taught to watch their manifold pressure gauge and not push it past redline. the supercharger is over-sized for low altitude. Two-stage and two-speed superchargers In the 1930s two-speed drives were developed for superchargers. At low altitudes the low-speed gear would be used in order to keep the manifold temperatures low. where the air is both denser and warmer than at high altitudes. With the reduced aerodynamic drag at high altitude and the engine still producing rated power. or even much higher. The altitude at which the throttle reaches full open and the engine is still producing full rated power is known as the critical altitude. the pilot would retard the throttle and Page 77 . a supercharged airplane can fly much faster at altitude than a naturally aspirated one. These provided more flexibility for the operation of the aircraft although they also entailed more complexity of manufacturing and maintenance. At around 12. when the throttle was full forward and the manifold pressure started to drop off. The pilot controls the output of the supercharger with the throttle and indirectly via the propeller governor control. When a supercharger is used on an aircraft. This caused a problem at low altitudes. yet the manifold pressure gauge ignores the effect of temperature on engine performance and life. Several solutions to this problem were developed: intercoolers and after coolers. anti-detonant injection. The gears connected the supercharger to the engine using a system of hydraulic clutches which were manually engaged or disengaged by the pilot with a control in the cockpit. the pilot must continually open the throttle in small increments to maintain full power. Extreme temperatures will cause pre-ignition and/or detonation of the fuel-air mixture and damage to the engine.000 feet.A supercharger compresses the air back to sea-level pressures. The pilot must be careful with the throttle and watch the manifold pressure gauge to avoid overboosting at low altitude. Effects of temperature The downside of supercharging is that compressing the air increases its temperature. two-speed superchargers and two-stage superchargers. Since the size of the supercharger is chosen to produce a given amount of pressure at high altitude. As the aircraft climbs and the air density drops. manifold air temperature becomes a major limiting factor in engine performance. in order to make the engine produce just as much power at cruise altitude as it does at sea level.
switch to the higher gear. The increased charge density increases the engine's specific power and power to weight ratio. On the other hand. Yet the benefits outweigh the costs. A supercharger inevitably requires some energy to be bled from the engine to drive the supercharger. for that 150 hp (110 kW). and this difference increases with altitude. the engine is delivering 1. a net gain of 250 hp. but also increases the engine's specific fuel consumption. then readjust the throttle to the desired manifold pressure. After the air was compressed in the low pressure stage the air flowed through an intercooler radiator where it was cooled before being compressed again by the high pressure stage and then aftercooled in another heat exchanger.000 hp (750 kW) when it would otherwise deliver 750 hp (560 kW). This increases the cost of running the aircraft and reduces its overall range. This is where the principle disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent: The engine has to burn extra fuel to provide power to turn the supercharger. providing another way to control temperature. The size of the piping alone is a serious issue. involved extra piping. allowing a turbocharger to compensate for changing altitude without using up any extra power. but these were found to be prohibitively costly and complicated. Comparison to turbocharging It is interesting to compare all of this complexity to the same system implemented with a turbocharger. Yet the vast majority of WWII engines used superchargers. and required exotic high-temperature materials in the turbine and pre-turbine section of the exhaust system. The amount of power in the gas is proportional to the difference between the exhaust pressure and air pressure. because they maintained three significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers. Ultimately it was found that for most engines a singlestage two-speed setup was most suitable. Some systems had a cockpit control to open or close a damper to the intercooler/aftercooler. which were larger. Another way to accomplish the same level of control was the use of two compressors in series. the supercharger uses up about 150 horsepower (110 kW). In these systems damper doors could be opened or closed by the pilot to bypass one stage as needed. On the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls Royce Merlin engine for instance. The most complex systems used a two-speed. a turbocharger is driven using the exhaust gases. consider that the Vought F4U Page 78 . two-stage system with both an intercooler and an aftercooler.
the engine could respond to both. Using these techniques. The change in thinking is largely due to economics. Engines from around the world were designed to work with this grade of fuel. the amount of boost supplied by the superchargers could be increased. Aviation gasoline was once plentiful and cheap. and was therefore the cheapest possible fuel. In 1940 a batch of 100 octane fuel was delivered from the USA to the RAF. which set a limit to the amount of boosting that could be provided by the supercharger. Turbocharged engines also require frequent inspections of the turbocharger and exhaust systems for damage due to the increased heat. But the additives did not have to simply make poor quality oil into 87 octane gasoline. Supercharging by itself could not have achieved these improvements. Research into "octane boosting" via additives was an ongoing line of research at the time. This allowed the boost on Merlin engines to be increased to 48 inHg (160 kPa) and the power to rise by more than 10% (from 1030 to 1160 hp. Higher octane fuel burns slower at the same temperature than low octane fuel. increasing maintenance costs. however. with additional water injection. By mid-1940 another increased boost yielded 1310 hp (980 kW). which made it a valuable economic process. or 770 to 870 kW). favoring the simple but fuel-hungry supercharger. As a result. The small number of modern aviation piston engines designed to run at high altitudes generally use a turbocharger or turbo-normalize system rather than a supercharger. Turbocharged piston engines are also subject to many of the same operating restrictions as gas turbine engines. less valuable crude could still supply large amounts of useful gasoline. Page 79 .and Republic P-47 used the same engine but the huge barrel-like fuselage of the latter was. As the cost of fuel has increased. Today. This was the rating that was achieved by the simple distillation of "light crude" oil. in part.700 hp and. all automobile and aviation fuel was generally rated at 87 octanes. when married with fuel improvements. Effects of fuel octane rating Prior to the opening of WWII. needed to hold the piping to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the plane. the supercharger has fallen out of favor. most general aviation aircraft are naturally aspirated. By the end of the war fuel was being delivered at a nominal 150 octane rating. the same additives could also be used to boost the resulting gasoline to much higher octane ratings. reducing the risk of detonation. as high as 2000 hp. on which the Merlin could reach about 1.
The result was that late in WWII. British aircraft engines generally had higher critical altitudes than their German counterparts. Their only solution was to build much larger engines. and spent very little effort on octane boosting techniques. This limited the amount of boost they could use with their supercharger. or turbo. thereby constantly disrupting their assembly lines in order to introduce new models. By 1941 the altitude advantage they had at the beginning of the war was erased. a turbocharger differs in that the compressor is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's own exhaust gases Page 80 Nomenclature . or the slightly higher 96 octane "C3". Turbocharger A turbocharger. is an air compressor used for forced-induction of an internal combustion engine. the purpose of a turbocharger is to increase the mass of air entering the engine to create more power.In comparison the German oil industry had ready access to light crude from Romania and other European sources. leading to a chronic shortage of engines throughout the war. As a result their engines were all rated to use "B4" fuel at 87 octane. which initially were of a higher level of development than their English counterparts. Like a supercharger. which meant that British airplanes were generally able to outperform German ones in most situations. However. and as the war progressed their engines fell further and further behind.
a greater mass of air will be forced in as the inlet manifold pressure increases. Because the pressure in the atmosphere is no more than approximately 14. Page 81 . resulting in a greater amount of the air entering the cylinder. Working principle A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor linked by a shared axle. which routes some of the exhaust flow away from the exhaust turbine. This rotation drives the compressor. adding a turbine to turn the supercharger would yield a "turbo supercharger". to improve upon the size-to-output efficiency of an engine by solving one of its cardinal limitations. This controls shaft speed and regulates air pressure in the intake manifold. The objective of a turbocharger is the same as a supercharger. compressed air is routed through an intercooler before introduction to the intake manifold. Because the turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is entering the cylinder. The turbine inlet receives exhaust gases from the engine causing the turbine wheel to rotate. Some companies such as Teledyne Continental Motors still use the term turbo supercharger in its original sense. Because the pressure in the cylinder must not go too high to avoid detonation and physical damage. This is now a source of confusion. In some instances. there ultimately will be a limit to the pressure difference across the intake valves and thus the amount of airflow entering the combustion chamber.Early manufacturers of turbochargers referred to them as "turbo superchargers". compressing ambient air and delivering it to the air intake manifold of the engine at higher pressure.7 PSI. A naturally aspirated automobile engine uses only the downward stroke of a piston to create an area of low pressure in order to draw air into the cylinder through the intake valves. Logically then. The additional air makes it possible to add more fuel. However. the intake pressure must be controlled by controlling the rotational speed of the turbocharger. the more modern terms turbocharger and turbo are used. as the term "turbo supercharged" is sometimes used to refer to an engine that uses both a crankshaft-driven supercharger and an exhaust-driven turbocharger. the term was soon shortened to "turbocharger". A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of an engine. increasing the power and torque output of the engine. The control function is performed by a wastegate. For the purposes of this article. This ability to fill the cylinder with air is its volumetric efficiency.
The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14. which must be provided from some of the engine's total output.000 feet (4. by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude.300 m) to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Republic P-47 all used turbochargers to increase high altitude engine power. Centrifugal superchargers compress air in the same fashion as a turbocharger. Diesel ships and locomotives with turbochargers began appearing in the 1920s. This energy would otherwise be wasted out the exhaust. on the other hand. His patent for a turbo charger was applied for use in 1905.The application of a compressor to increase pressure at the point of cylinder air intake is often referred to as forced induction. Aircraft such as the Lockheed P-38. Turbochargers. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1930s before World War II. the energy to spin the supercharger is taken from the rotating output energy of the engine's crankshaft as opposed to normally exhausted gas from the engine. Page 82 . The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplane can fly. This means that a turbocharger is a more efficient use of the heat energy obtained from the fuel than a supercharger. Superchargers use output energy from an engine to achieve a net gain. History The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi. Aviation One of the first applications of a turbocharger to a non-Diesel engine came when General Electric engineer Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine. However. Production Automobiles The first Turbo-Diesel truck was produced by the "Schweizer Maschinenfabrik Saurer" (Swiss Machine Works Saurer) 1938 . convert some of the piston engine's exhaust into useful work.
Today. The A-body Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire and Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder were both fitted with turbochargers. 83 . The world's first production turbodiesel automobile was also introduced in 1978 by Mercedes-Benz with the launch of the 300SD turbodiesel. On the right are the braided oil supply line and water coolant line connections. nearly all automotive diesels are turbocharged. the brass oil drain connection. The turbo. located at top right. The first production turbocharged automobile engines came from General Motors in 1962.The Corvair's innovative turbocharged flat-6 engine. Design details Components Page On the left. feeds pressurized air into the engine through the chrome T-tube visible spanning the engine from left to right.
Compressor impeller side with the cover removed Turbine side housing removed. The turbine (almost always a radial turbine) and impeller/compressor wheels are each contained within their own folded conical housing on opposite sides of the third component. The housings fitted around the compressor impeller and turbine collect and direct the gas flow through the wheels as they spin. A wastegate installed next to the turbocharger. Often the same basic turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple Page 84 . The size and shape can dictate some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. The turbocharger has four main components. the center housing/hub rotating assembly (CHRA).
and efficiency to application or preference. boost refers to the increase in pressure that is generated by the turbocharger in the intake manifold that exceeds normal atmospheric pressure. Generally. the turbo is only designed to hold a pressure in the intake manifold equal to sea-level pressure as the altitude increases and air pressure drops. and detonation. allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction.92 inches of mercury at sea level. In contrast. response. The center hub rotating assembly houses the shaft which connects the compressor impeller and turbine. the larger the flow capacity. This is called turbonormalizing. The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust that can be flowed through the system. The level of boost may be shown on a pressure gauge. Atmospheric pressure is approximately 14. pre-ignition. Most modern aviation turbochargers are not designed to increase manifold pressures above this level. avoiding possible oil coking from the extreme heat found in the turbine. Pressure increase In the automotive world. usually in bar. and the relative efficiency at which they operate. in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil. It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft. as well as curvature and number of blades on the wheels. psi or possibly kPa This is representative of the extra air pressure that is achieved over what would be achieved without the forced induction. the instruments on aircraft engines measure absolute pressure in inches of mercury.housing choices for the turbine and sometimes the compressor cover as well. Absolute pressure is the amount of pressure above a total vacuum. and anything above this level is considered to be boost.7psi or 1.0 Bar. Instead. The CHRA may also be considered "water cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant to be cycled. For instance. as aircraft engines are commonly air-cooled and excessive pressures increase the risk of overheating. The ICAO standard atmospheric pressure is 29. This allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between performance. Water cooled models allow engine coolant to be used to keep the lubricating oil cooler. Manifold pressure should not be confused with the volume of air that a turbo can flow. Page 85 . Measurements and shapes can vary. the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel.
right air/fuel ratio. Anti-Surge/Dump/Blow Off Valves Turbo charged engines operating at wide open throttle and high rpm require a large volume of air to flow between the turbo and the inlet of the engine. This causes a surge which can raise the pressure of the air to a level which can be destructive to the engine (e. Passenger cars have wastegates that are integral to the turbocharger. Since a turbo can spin to RPMs far beyond what is needed. all elements have to be upgraded such as larger fuel pump. Premium gasoline or racing gasoline can be used to prevent detonation within reasonable limits. because of these fuels' combustion characteristics. and head-gasket. The maximum possible boost depends on the fuel's octane rating and the inherent tendency of any particular engine towards detonation. The main function of a wastegate is to allow some of the exhaust to bypass the turbine when the set intake pressure is achieved. The speed at which the assembly spins is proportional to the pressure of the compressed air and total mass of air flow being moved. and is often further augmented by an electronic or manual boost controller.Boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system. the speed must be controlled. Wastegate By spinning at a relatively high speed the compressor turbine draws in a large volume of air and forces it into the engine. inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range. As the turbocharger's output flow volume exceeds the engine's volumetric flow. liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and diesel fuels allow higher boost than gasoline. Ethanol. To obtain high boost levels.g. including the turbo. The speed and thus the output pressure of the turbo is controlled by the wastegate which shunts the exhaust gases away from the exhaust side turbine.e. bigger injectors. Page 86 . When the throttle is closed compressed air will flow to the throttle valve without an exit (i.) The surge will also decompress back across the turbo as this is the only path that the air can take. methanol. damage may occur to the throttle plate. the air has nowhere to go). or of what it is safely capable of. A wastegate is the most common mechanical speed control system. lower compression. air pressure in the intake system begins to build. induction pipes may burst. This sudden flow of air will often cause turbulence and a subsequent whistling noise as the air moves past the compressor wheel.
Even with the benefits of intercooling. blow-off (BOV) or dump valve. Recycling back into the turbo causes the venting sound to be reduced and is required on an engine that uses a mass-airflow fuel injection system (as opposed to a speed-density system). it is common practice to introduce extra fuel into the charge for the sole purpose of cooling. the engine will be over fueled until the BOV closes again. The reason for this is that the airflow sensor is normally located before the turbo and the ECU will inject enough fuel for the amount of air that flows through it.The reverse flow back across the turbo acts on the compressor wheel and causes the turbine shaft to reduce in speed quicker than it would naturally. Instead. The Page 87 . because it is more dense than the other inert substance in the combustion chamber. the engine will also produce increased amounts of heat this can sometimes be a problem when fitting a turbocharger to a motor that was not designed to cope with high heat loads. The primary use of this valve is to maintain the turbo spinning at a high speed. They are normally operated by engine vacuum. The benefits of venting to the atmosphere are simply the ease of installation (because there is no need to run an extra hose to plumb the charge back into the system) and that it makes a sound considered desirable by some. This thermodynamic property allows manufacturers to achieve good power output with common pump fuel at the expense of fuel economy and emissions. this fuel is not burned. nitrogen. When the throttle is opened again. It "holds" this heat until it is released in the exhaust stream. These are known as an anti-surge. Since a turbocharger increases the specific horsepower output of an engine. it absorbs and carries away heat when it changes phase from liquid mist to gas vapor. The air is usually recycled back into the turbo inlet but can also be vented to the atmosphere. If some of the air that has gone through the sensor is dumped into the atmosphere. as turbo speed is proportional to boost/volume flow. While this seems counterintuitive. (This is known as Turbo Lag) In order to prevent this from happening. preventing destructive knock. It is another form of cooling that has the largest impact on fuel efficiency: charge cooling. a valve is fitted between the turbo and inlet which vents off the excess air pressure. Also. bypass. the turbo will have to make up for lost momentum and will take longer to achieve the required speed. it has a higher specific heat and more heat capacitance. A dump valve will shorten the time needed to respool the turbo after sudden engine deceleration. To avoid knock while still extracting maximum power from the engine. the total compression in the combustion chamber is greater than that in a naturally-aspirated engine.
Because boost is related to engine load. resulting in higher fuel consumption. A common A/F in a turbocharged engine while under full design boost is approximately 12:1. Lastly. vans and other commercial vehicles. Variable vane and ball bearing technologies can make a turbo more efficient across a wider operating range. has boost relating solely to engine speed.7:1. The volume. A supercharger. which regulates the supply of fuel in relation to the boost being generated. The same vehicle maintaining the same speed up a hill will place the engine under a greater load. and fuel consumption will be close to that of a naturally-aspirated vehicle. An engine under a heavy load has higher internal pressures and temperatures than an engine running under a light load at the same speed. extra fuel is only delivered when the engine is under load and boost pressures are high. Richer mixtures are sometimes run when the design of the system has flaws in it such as a catalytic converter which has limited endurance of high exhaust temperatures or the engine has a compression ratio that is too high for efficient operation with the fuel given. generating a greater exhaust pressure. the efficiency of the turbocharger itself can have an impact on fuel efficiency. other problems have prevented this technology from appearing in more road cars (see Variable geometry turbocharger).stoichiometric Air-to-Fuel ratio (A/F) for combustion of gasoline is 14. but is especially true for diesel engines. Because the turbocharger is connected to the engine's fuel system. A vehicle with a turbocharged engine travelling at a constant speed on a flat road is placing a relatively small load on its engine. but can choke the engine on the exhaust side and generate huge amounts of pumping-related heat on the intake side as RPMs rise. Turbochargers also provide more direct fuel savings when compared to a supercharger. the turbocharger only runs at full capacity when the engine is under load. the Porsche 911 (997) Turbo is the only gasoline car in production with this kind of turbocharger. however. because they can greatly enhance the diesel engine Page 88 . although in Europe turbos of this type are rapidly becoming standard-fitment on turbodiesel cars.exhaust pressure. Currently. increasing boost pressure and thus causing more fuel to be delivered and more power to be produced. speed and pressure of exhaust gases flowing out of the engine are not only related to engine speed. This effect is found on all internal combustion engines. raising turbocharger speed. boost and fuel delivery is therefore low. but also to engine load. A large turbocharger will be very efficient at high RPMs. An engine that requires an overly rich fuel mixture is an indication of a poorly engineered turbo system. Using a small turbocharger will give quick response and low lag at low to mid RPMs. directly geared to the engine. but is not a realistic application for a street driven automobile.
allowing it to use a stratified charge with excellent atomization. One way to take advantage of the different operating regimes of the two types of supercharger is sequential turbocharging. which tend to flow more readily when cold and do not break down as quickly as conventional oils. and most manufacturers recommend more frequent oil changes for turbocharged engines. causing rapid bearing wear and failure Page 89 . The new 2. Some systems are more sophisticated and aim to deliver fuel even more precisely based on combustion quality. For example. which uses 2 smaller turbochargers. Many owners and some companies recommend using synthetic oils. with one operating at low RPM while the other is added in at higher RPM. This lets the turbo rotating assembly cool from the lower exhaust gas temperatures. among other factors. The direct injection also has a tremendous charge cooling effect enabling engines to use higher compression ratios and boost pressures than a typical port-injection turbo engine. and altitude. the Trionic-7 system from Saab Automobile provides immediate feedback on the combustion while it is occurring by using the spark plug to measure the cylinder pressure via the ionization voltage over the spark plug gap. This allows the engine to have excellent response while still having top end power.0L TFSI turbo engine from Volkswagen/Audi incorporates lean burn and direct injection technology to conserve fuel under low load conditions. Properties and applications Reliability Turbochargers can be damaged by dirty or ineffective oil. Vehicles such as the 1993-1998 Toyota Supra Twin Turbo and the 1993-1995 RX-7 Twin Turbo use this system. It is a very complex system that involves many moving parts and sensors in order to manage airflow characteristics inside the chamber itself. fuel quality. and ensures that oil is supplied to the turbocharger while the turbine housing and exhaust manifold are still very hot. many recommend letting the engine idle for one to three minutes before shutting off the engine if the turbocharger was used shortly before stopping (most manufacturers specify a 10-second period of idling before switching off to ensure the turbocharger is running at its idle speed to prevent damage to the bearings when the oil supply is cut off). The engine management systems of most modern vehicles can control boost and fuel delivery according to charge temperature. Because the turbocharger will heat when running.s characteristic low-speed torque. otherwise coking of the lubricating oil trapped in the unit may occur when the heat soaks into the bearings.
Lag A pair of turbochargers mounted to an Inline 6 engine (2JZ-GTE from a MkIV Toyota Supra) in a dragster. Even small particles of burnt oil will accumulate and lead to choking the oil supply and failure. it is not a good idea to shut the engine off while the turbo and manifold are still glowing. (Centrifugal superchargers do not build boost at low RPMs like a positive displacement supercharger will). In custom applications utilizing tubular headers rather than cast iron manifolds. This is symptomatic of the time taken for the exhaust system driving the turbine to come to high pressure and for the turbine rotor to overcome its rotational inertia and reach the speed necessary to supply boost pressure. The water boils in the cartridge when the engine is shut off and forms a natural recirculation to drain away the heat. Oil coking is also eliminated by foil bearings. to automatically provide this cool-down period. A lag is sometimes felt by the driver of a turbocharged vehicle as a delay between pushing on the accelerator pedal and feeling the turbo kick-in. This problem is less pronounced in diesel engines.when the car is restarted. The directly-driven compressor in a supercharger does not suffer this problem. Conversely on light loads or at low RPM a turbocharger supplies less boost and the engine is less efficient than a supercharged engine. Page 90 . A turbo timer can keep an engine running for a pre-specified period of time. A more complex and problematic protective barrier against oil coking is the use of watercooled bearing cartridges. the need for a cooldown period is reduced because the lighter headers store much less heat than heavy cast iron manifolds. due to the lower exhaust temperatures and generally slower engine speeds. Nevertheless.
for example by using lighter parts to allow the spool-up to happen more quickly. from a stop-light. the RPM would either not start to rise for a short period of time after the throttle was increased. the term lag is used erroneously for boost threshold by many manufacturers themselves. their relative fragility limits the maximum boost they can supply. e. Page 91 . Putting your foot down at 1200 engine RPM and having no boost until 2000 engine RPM is an example of boost threshold and not lag. Lag is not to be confused with the boost threshold. it uses a high speed electrical motor to drive the turbocharger to speed before exhaust gases are available. The amount of turbine wheel clipping is highly application-specific. The boost threshold of a turbo system describes the minimum engine RPM during full-throttle operation at which there is sufficient exhaust flow to the turbo to allow it to generate significant amounts of boost. Another way to reduce lag is to change the aspect ratio of the turbine by reducing the diameter and increasing the gas-flow pathlength.g. This imparts less impedance onto the flow of exhaust gases at low RPM. Another common method of equalizing turbo lag is to have the turbine wheel "clipped". This reduces friction and contributes to faster acceleration of the turbo's rotating assembly. Lag is also reduced by using a foil bearing rather than a conventional oil bearing. Lag can be reduced with the use of multiple turbochargers. however. However. Unfortunately. Turbine clipping is measured and specified in degrees. or increase slowly for a few seconds and then suddenly build up at a greater rate as the turbo become effective. Electrical boosting ("E-boosting") is a new technology under development. If lag was experienced in this situation. Newer turbocharger and engine developments have caused boost thresholds to steadily decline to where day-to-day use feels perfectly natural. less restriction is imposed upon the escaping exhaust gases. but also pushes the effective boost RPM to a slightly higher level.Lag can be reduced by lowering the rotational inertia of the turbine. By clipping a minute portion off the tip of each blade of the turbine wheel. Ceramic turbines are a big help in this direction. or to reduce the surface area of the turbine wheel's rotating blades. many publications still make this basic mistake. Increasing the upper-deck air pressure and improving the wastegate response helps but there are cost increases and reliability disadvantages that car manufacturers are not happy about. allowing the vehicle to retain more of its low-end torque. Variable-nozzle turbochargers (discussed above) eliminate lag. The electric motor is about an inch long.
since the charge in the cylinders is being pushed in by this air pressure. this problem is virtually eliminated by utilizing a variable geometry turbocharger. When the aircraft is at low altitude the wastegate is usually fully open. The speed of the turbocharger is controlled by a wastegate. but a naturally aspirated engine will not produce enough power at the same altitude to do so. The altitude at which the wastegate is full closed and the engine is still producing full rated power is known as the critical altitude.000 ft) the air is at half the pressure of sea level. However. or even much higher. Pilots would like to take advantage of the low drag at high altitudes in order to go faster.486 m (18. the turbocharger is over-sized for low altitude. As the aircraft climbs and the air density drops. The downside of turbocharging is that compressing the air increases its temperature. Aircraft A more natural use of the turbocharger is with aircraft engines. the wastegate must continually close in small increments to maintain full power. controlled either manually by the pilot or by an automatic hydraulic or electric system. Altitude effects A turbocharger remedies this problem by compressing the air back to sea-level pressures. Since the size of the turbocharger is chosen to produce a given amount of pressure at high altitude. Later systems utilized an adjustable wastegate. venting all the exhaust gasses overboard. the most common solution to this problem is to add an aftercooler.Race cars often utilize an Anti-Lag System to completely eliminate lag at the cost of reduced turbocharger life. On modern diesel engines. and the airframe only experiences half the aerodynamic drag. Early systems used a fixed wastegate. Page 92 . resulting in a turbocharger that functioned much like a supercharger. it means that the engine will normally produce only half-power at full throttle at this altitude. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. As with diesel engines. At 5. in order to produce rated power at high altitude.
introducing the possibility of human error which could damage the engine and endanger the aircraft. The increased charge density increases the engine's specific power and power to weight ratio. the supercharger uses up about 150 horsepower (110 kW). This is where the principle disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent: The engine has to burn extra fuel to provide power to turn the supercharger. Turbocharged piston engines are also subject to many of the same operating restrictions as gas turbine engines.Comparison to supercharging A supercharger inevitably requires some energy to be bled from the engine to drive the supercharger. a net gain of 250 hp. the pilot must continually adjust the throttle to maintain the required manifold pressure during ascent or descent.000 hp (750 kW) when it would otherwise deliver 750 hp (560 kW). With a supercharged aircraft engine. especially during emergencies such as go-arounds. Yet the benefits outweigh the costs. consider that the Vought F4U and Republic P-47 used the same engine but the huge barrel-like fuselage of the latter was. slow throttle adjustments to avoid overshooting their target manifold pressure. needed to hold the piping to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the plane. This increases the cost of running the aircraft and reduces its overall range. The fuel mixture must often be adjusted far on the rich side of the peak exhaust gas temperature to avoid overheating the turbine when running at high power settings. The size of the piping alone is a serious issue. in part. and required exotic high-temperature materials in the turbine and pre-turbine section of the exhaust system. but also increases the engine's specific fuel consumption. The amount of power in the gas is proportional to the difference between the exhaust pressure and air pressure. which were larger. On the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls Royce Merlin engine for instance. involved extra piping. as long as the control system is working properly and the pilot's control commands are smooth and deliberate. In contrast. Yet the vast majority of WWII engines used superchargers. for that 150 hp (110 kW).Another key disadvantage of supercharged engines is that they are controlled entirely by the pilot. On the other hand. The pilot must also take great care to avoid overboosting the engine and causing damage. and this difference increases with altitude. the engine is delivering 1. a turbocharger will not overboost the engine and damage it. because they maintained three significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers. allowing a turbocharger to compensate for changing altitude without using up any extra power. a turbocharger is driven using the exhaust gases. In systems using a Page 93 . For these systems. modern turbocharger systems use an automatic wastegate which controls the manifold pressure within parameters preset by the manufacturer. Pilots must make smooth.
However. as a turbocharged piston engine is still far cheaper than any turbine engine. Page 94 . As the cost of fuel has increased. The increased maintenance costs of a turbocharged engine are considered worthwhile for this purpose. most general aviation aircraft are naturally aspirated. particularly in the area of materials. for example. The cross over between the two has been shown in an episode of the TV show Scrapheap Challenge where contestants were able to build a functioning Jet Engine using an ex-automotive turbocharger as a compressor. Turbocharged engines require a cooldown period after landing to prevent thermal shock from cracking the turbo or exhaust system. Today. Aviation gasoline was once plentiful and cheap. increasing maintenance costs. the supercharger has fallen out of favor. that General Electric manufactured turbochargers for military aircraft and held several patents on their electric turbo controls during the war. Those early turbine engines were little more than a very large turbocharger with the compressor and turbine connected by a number of combustion chambers.Turbocharged aircraft often occupy a performance range in between that of normally-aspirated piston-powered aircraft and turbine-powered aircraft. favoring the simple but fuel-hungry supercharger. initial progress was slow. the pilot must be careful not to exceed the turbocharger's maximum RPM. Turbocharged engines require frequent inspections of the turbocharger and exhaust systems for damage due to the increased heat. The demands of the war led to constant advances in turbocharger technology. then used that expertise to very quickly carve out a dominant share of the gas turbine market which they have held ever since. Sir Frank Whittle started his experiments on early turbojet engines. Consider also.manually-operated wastegate. This area of study eventually crossed over in to the development of early gas turbine engines. turbochargers were used extensively in military aircraft during World War II to enable them to fly very fast at very high altitudes. The change in thinking is largely due to economics. Due to a lack of sufficient materials as well as funding. The small number of modern aviation piston engines designed to run at high altitudes generally use a turbocharger or turbo-normalize system rather than a supercharger. Relationship to Gas Turbine Engines Prior to World War II.
If throttle is applied in a turn. on boost). Fuel Economy. contributes some of the work required to compress the air. Heavily modifying OEM turbocharger systems also require extensive upgrades that in most cases requires most (if not all) of the original components to be replaced. This means a turbocharged engine can achieve more power from same engine volume. Weight/Packaging. The sudden surge of power could overwhelm the tires and result in loss of grip. Even an engine under only light Page 95 . which would normally be wasted.Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages More specific power over naturally aspirated engine. turbochargers require numerous additional systems if they are not to damage an engine. power may unexpectedly increase when the turbo winds up. depending on the drivetrain and suspension setup of the vehicle. which can induce wheelspin. A turbocharger starts producing boost only above a certain rpm due to a lack of exhaust gas volume to overcome inertia of rest of the turbo propeller. Disadvantages Lack of responsiveness if an incorrectly sized turbocharger is used. which could lead to understeer/oversteer. This is because without boost. Further to cost. only the normal amount of fuel and air are combusted. This results in a rapid and nonlinear rise in torque. Smaller and lighter than alternative forced induction systems and may be more easily fitted in an engine bay. Although adding a turbocharger itself does not save fuel. Turbocharger parts are costly to add to naturally aspirated engines.e. it will allow a vehicle to use a smaller engine while achieving power levels of a much larger engine. Boost threshold. Better thermal efficiency over both naturally aspirated and supercharged engine when under full load (i. If a turbocharger that is too large is used it reduces throttle response as it builds up boost slowly otherwise know as "lag". This is because the excess exhaust heat and pressure. doing this may result in more peak power. Cost. and will reduce the usable power band of the engine. Complexity. while attaining near normal fuel economy while off boost/cruising. However. Lag can be disadvantageous in racing.
boost regulation. but very highly recommended). and breathing systems. while reinforcing internal engine and transmission parts. application specific downpipe. while highly tuned turbocharged engines will require extensive upgrades to their lubrication. turbo-specific exhaust manifold. Page 96 . and proper gauges (not intrinsically necessary. In addition inter-cooled turbo engines require additional plumbing. cooling.boost requires a system for properly routing (and sometimes cooling) the lubricating oil.
For an engine to operate at its maximum efficiency. it is imperative that the system be inspected and mainted according to the manufacturer’s recommendations Types of exhaust system The short stock or open system The collector systems The short stocks Early in-line and v-engine often used straight stacks which were simply short sections of steel tubing welded to a flange and bolted to the cylinder exhaust port It is relatively simple. In addition .PISTON ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM The purpose of exhaust system is to remove the spent gases of combustion and safely outer them overboard. Propeller produce a large portion in the exhaust also account for an appreciable amount. and its removal and installation consist essentially of removing and installing the hold-down nuts and clamps Collector system Opposed engine exhaust manifold Radial engine exhaust collector rings Mufflers and heat exchangers Noise is a problem in aviation engines and studies have been made to find practical way of increasing the frequency and reducing the intensity of the noise. Exhaust augmentors On some engines. these systems must function properly. Page 97 . exhaust agumentors are installed to aid cooling. because a failure of this system could have disastrous results such as fires or introducing toxic gases into the cabin.
in doing this. However. only about one-third of the heat produced is converted.PISTON ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM Aircraft are designed to convert heat energy into mechanical energy. cooling system is designed to remove the unused heat energy produced by combustion and allow an engine to operate at its peak efficiency Types of cooling systems Air cooling Liquid cooling Page 98 . The remaining two-thirds of the energy are wasted and must be removed from an engine. Therefore.
. OIL PRESSURE GAUGE: 99 . They are: 1 Oil Pressure gauge 2 Oil temperature gauge 3 Fuel Pressure gauge 4 Fuel quantity Indicator 5 CHT Gauge 6 CAT (or)OAT Gauge 7 Tachometer 8 MAP Gauge (or)Boost Pressure gauge 9 EGT Gauge They are described as follows: Page 1. Connecting Rods: Attach the pistons to the crankshaft.PISTON ENGINE INSTRUMENTATION The Basics of a Piston engine: Intake Valve: Opens to allow the fuel-air mixture into the cylinder. Spark plugs: Provide the electrics park that ignites the fuel-air mixture Pistons: The controlled burning forces the piston to move within the cylinder. The motion of the pistons turns the crankshaft. Exhaust Valve: Opens to allow hot exhaust gasses to leave the cylinder. Cylinders: The controlled burn of the fuel-air mixture occurs in the cylinders. There are various types of gauges used in the instrumentation of piston engine. Crankshaft: Attaches to the connecting rods and the propeller. Rings: Piston rings encircle the piston and seal the combustion chamber.
One bellows capsule is connected to the fuel pressure line and other one is vented to ambient pressure in the airplane. A fuel system may use an engine-driven pump or an electric fuel pump. FUEL PRESSURE GAUGE Several different types of fuel pressure gauges are in use for aircraft engines to meet the requirements of particular engine fuel systems. the mechanism includes two bellows capsules joined end to end. The actuating mechanism is either a diaphragm or a pair of bellows. This movement is transmitted to the indicating needle by means of conventional linkage. On some engines.An oil pressure gauge is an essential component of any engine oil system. the temperature probe (sensor) is installed in the oil filter housing. is filled with low viscosity oil in cold weather to obtain a true indication of the oil pressure during engine warm-up. The advantages of the bellows are that it provides a greater range of movement than does a diaphragm. The oil gauge line. which is connected to the system near the outlet of the engine pressure pump. from no pressure up to above the maximum pressure which may be produced in the system. These gauges are usually of the Bourdon-tube type and are designed to measure a wide range of pressures. Fuel pressure gauges are similar in construction to other pressure gauges used for relatively low pressures. Page 100 . In a typical fuel gauge. A restricting orifice is placed in the oil gauge line to retain the low-viscosity oil and to prevent damage from pressure surges. 3. 2. The most common type of oil temperature gauge is operated electrically and may either utilize either a Wheatstone bridge circuit or a ratio meter circuit. the oil pressure reading will lag behind the actual pressure developed in the system. OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGE: The temperature probe for the oil temperature gauge is located in the oil inlet line or passage between the pressure pump and the engine system. If high-viscosity oil is used in cold weather. Temperature instruments are usually of the electrical or electronic type. The fuel pressure causes the fuel bellows to expand and move towards the air capsule.
"speed". For this reason. A thermocouple is the junction of two dissimilar metals which generates a small electric current that varies according to the temperature of the junction. and metron. For reading CHT on reciprocating engines. CHT GAUGE: CHT or cylinder head temperature is the temperature of the cylinder head of an air-cooled reciprocating engine. "to measure”. CAT (or) OAT GAUGE: CAT or Carburetor Air Temperature is the temperature of the air as it enters the carburetor. This can assist the driver in selecting appropriate throttle and gear settings for the 101 . 6. Tachometers on automobiles. Page 7. particularly when a float-type carburetor system is turbocharged. The device usually displays the revolutions per term come from Ôá÷ïò. It is usual practice to find which cylinder operates at the highest temperature and to attach the thermocouple to this cylinder.4. aircraft. and other vehicles show the rate of rotation of the engine's crankshaft. and typically have markings indicating a safe range of rotation speeds. it does not require an external power source. as in a motor or other machine. TACHOMETER: A tachometer is an instrument that measures the rotation speed of a shaft or disk. tachos. One per fuel tank 5. The CAT gauge is important as a means of directing ice conditions and regulating engine performance. the thermocouple is metallically bonded to a copper spark plug washer or is designed to be secured by a screw in a special well in the head of one of the cylinders. For this purpose thermocouple is used. CHT gauge is used in measuring of very high temperatures. FUEL QUANTITY INDICATOR: Indicates the amount of fuel remaining in the identified tank.
Tachometers driven by a rotating cable from a drive unit fitted to the engine (usually on the camshaft) also exist. Diesel engines with traditional mechanical injector systems have an integral governor which prevents over-speeding the engine. the tachometer is driven by the RMS Voltage waves from the low tension (LT) side of the ignition coil. and the electrical potential difference is directly proportional to engine speed. The red zone is superfluous on most modern cars. Tractors fitted with a power take off (PTO) system have tachometers showing the engine speed needed to rotate the PTO at the standardized speed required by most PTOdriven implements. In vehicles such as tractors and trucks. This is more applicable to manual transmissions than to automatics. To save fitting a second dial. Aircraft tachometers have a green arc showing the engine's designed cruising speed range. Tractors with multiple 'road gears' often have tachometers with more than one speed scale. the vehicle's tachometer is often marked with a second scale in units of speed. Page 102 . while on others (and nearly all diesel engines. This is a special circuit inside the alternator to convert from rectified sine wave to square wave. usually a green arc showing the speed range in which the engine produces maximum torque. the tachometer often has other markings. tractors are required to have a speedometer for use on a road.driving conditions. which is of prime interest to operators of such vehicles. which have no ignition system) engine speed is determined by the frequency from the alternator tachometer output. This scale is only accurate in a certain gear. but since many tractors only have one gear that is practical for use onroad.usually on simple diesel-engined machinery with basic or no electrical systems. so the tachometers in vehicles and machinery fitted with such engines sometimes lack a redline. On analog tachometers the maximum safe operating speed is typically indicated by an area of the gauge marked in red. since their engines typically have a rev limiter which electronically limits engine speed to prevent damage. giving rise to the expression of "redlining" an engine—revving the engine up to the safe limit. Prolonged use at high speeds may cause excessive wear and other damage to engines. In older vehicles. this is sufficient. In many countries.
some use a MAF (mass air flow) sensor. EGT GAUGE: An EGT(Exhaust gas Temperature) gauge shows the exhaust gas temperature of a combustion engine in conjunction with a sensor and is a thermocouple pyrometer. The amount of fuel required is directly related to the mass of air entering the engine. This is necessary to calculate air density and determine the engine's air mass flow rate. (See stoichiometry. (Engine Mass Airflow Rate) ˜ RPM × (Air Density) or equivalently (Engine Mass Airflow Rate) ˜ RPM × MAP / (absolute temperature) 9. MAP GAUGE(or) BOOST PRESSURE GAUGE: A manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP) is one of the sensors used in an internal combustion engine's electronic control system. The manifold absolute pressure sensor provides instantaneous manifold pressure information to the engine's electronic control unit (ECU). or rate.) Engine speed determines the frequency. the exhaust gas temperature is lower than Page 103 . If the sensor is installed at the turbine inlet.) The mass of air is proportional to the air density. at which air mass is leaving the intake manifold and entering the cylinders. Engine speed (RPM) and air temperature are also necessary to complete the speed-density calculation. which is proportional to the absolute pressure and inversely proportional to the absolute temperature. Several makes use the MAP sensor in OBD II applications to test the EGR valve for functionality. Not all fuel-injected engines use a MAP sensor to infer mass air flow. (See stoichiometric.8. the exhaust temperature can be monitored. (See ideal gas law.The manifold absolute pressure measurement is used to meter fuel. If the sensor is installed after the turbo. the turbine inlet temperature can be monitored. This meter is most used in turbo equipped cars. At a balanced air fuel ratio.) An engine control system that uses manifold absolute pressure to calculate air mass uses the speed-density method. Most notably General Motors uses this approach. which in turn is used to calculate the appropriate fuel flow. it results in higher temperatures and it reacts faster to the engine's condition compared to a installation after the turbo. If the sensor is installed at the manifold collector before the turbo. Engines that use a MAP sensor are typically fuel injected.
EGT gauges are sometimes used at engine tuning.in a lean or rich air fuel ratio. Page 104 .
PISTON ENGINE STARTING PROCEDURES Starting of an aircraft engine is a relative simple procedure. move the fuel shutoff lever to the off position Continue cranking or motoring the engine until the fire has been expelled from the engine Do not discharge 2co directly into the engine exhaust. idle cut off Check for loose items in propellers Ground engine fire: In an engine fire occurs while the engine is being started. because it may damage the engine If the fire cannot be extinguished. certain precaution procedures should be taken in order to avoid damage to the engine Aircraft service personnel should acquire the following safety habits: Treat all propellers as though the ignition switches were on Chock airplane before working around the engine Ignition test is carried before shutting down the engine Before moving a propeller or connecting an external power source to an aircraft. throttle closed. be sure that the aircraft us chocked. secure all the switches and leave the aircraft Page 105 . the ignition off.
Among the conditions which must be checked during the operation of an engine are the following Engine oil pressure Oil temperature Cylinder head temperature Engine rpm Manifold pressure Exhaust gas temperature Oil pressure and temperature: No engine should be operated be operated at high power settings unless its oil pressure and temperature are within satisfactory limits If no oil pressure is indicated within 30s after starting. the engine must be shut down and the malfunctioned satisfactory Check of constant speed propeller pitch: The propeller is checked to ensure proper operation of which control and pitch change mechanism. The operation of a controllable pitch propeller is checked by the indications Page 106 .Starting procedures: Engine starting procedures will vary for different fuel metering devices Specific starting procedures are set forth in the operators manual Operating requirements: The operation of any piston engine requires that certain precautions be observed and that all operations be kept within the established by manufacturer.
of the tachometer and manifold pressure gas when the propeller governor control is moved from another position 2000rpm is approx speed Operator should also make sure that the brakes are on and that the elevator is pulled back. if the airplane has convention landing gear Page 107 .
1. 5]. The electronic control by injection. The efficient functioning of the catalytic reactor at a temperature level of the emission gases of over 3000C implies the maintaining of a very narrow window of the ratio control around the stoichiometric value. at industrial scale. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION It is well known the fuelling method of spark ignition engines by which the classic gasoline supply is performed by sequential injection into the intake port valve at the beginning of each intake stroke. of some alternative energy sources relative to fossil fuels. of the fuelair ratio has a principal goal of maintaining in a range close to the unit value which allows the efficient treatment of burned gases. Thus. which can be used for automotive vehicles. For the past decade. see Fig..METHOD OF USING LEAN FUEL-AIR MIXTURES AT ALL OPERATING REGIMES OF A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FIELD OF INVENTION The invention refers to a method of using lean fuel-air mixtures at all operating regimes of a spark ignition engine.fuel stoichiometric ratio. the air. Page 108 .. HC and NO? [1. has been approached at the level of its real importance. New concepts and concerns such as emissions gas management and combined heat and power generation come to draw the attention on the necessity to intensify research on burning processes for the efficient optimization of internal combustion engines.01. the attempt to identify and promote..fuel ratio the engine operates for all types of operating regimes. it is also necessary to use a three way catalytic reactor and a closed loop control system fitted with a lambda sensor and with an electronic control unit. meaning the limiting of pollutant emissions CO. This method presents the disadvantage that for maintaining the pollutant emissions within the legal admissible limits. namely 1 ± 0. and the relative coefficient of the air. the actual fuel consumption of the engine is determined by the air intake.. as well as to cut down the combustion process related emissions.
There is known a method for the addition of a combustible gas, as hydrogen, to the internal combustion engines (JP Patents no. 2004076679, 2004239138). The hydrogen addition is accomplished directly in the engine cylinders, separately from the regular fuel (gasoline) with the purpose to create a burning mixture with superior qualities which has improved burning efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. The hydrogen addition extends the flammability limits and increases the burning speed of the charge mixture trapped inside the combustion chambers. The known technical solutions for the hydrogen addition inside the engine as supplementary fuel have been conceived especially to solve detonation phenomenon, this being the primary objective. These known methods have the disadvantage that they do not ensure the CO2 quantity reduction. As concerns the effort to obtaining a non-pollutant gas fuel for industrial use, there has been obtained an oxy-hydric gas produced using equipment disclosed in US Patent No. 6,689,259 Bl and in the international request published under no. WO2005/076767 A3, both in the name of Klein. This gas is obtained by a controlled dissociation, in an electromagnetic field, of alkaline water. This fuel gas, electrochemically active, obtained through the water electrolysis reaction is a mixture of 63-66% hydrogen, 30-35% oxygen and other compounds of these ones such as the hydrogen peroxide. The oxy-hydric gas obtained can be classified in the oxy-hydric gas group and commonly named as the HHO oxy-hydric gas. An example of the electrolyzer equipment used in the disclosures of US Patent No. 6,689,259 and more particularly, in publication WO2005/076767 A3, is an electrolysis chamber such that a gas reservoir region is fopned above the aqueous electrolyte solution, two principal electrodes comprising an anode electrode and a cathode electrode, the two principal electrodes being at least partially immersed in the aqueous electrolyte solution, a plurality of supplemental electrodes at least partially immersed in the aqueous electrolyte solution and interposed between the two principal electrodes wherein the two principal electrodes and the plurality of supplemental electrodes are held in a fixed spatial relationship, and wherein the supplemental electrodes are not connected electrically to a power source, and for each supplemental adjacent electrodes, one is made of high porosity foam based material made substantially of a nickel material (preferably greater than 99% nickel in a foam material where the high porosity electrode results in a composite
lattice-like configured electrode due to the use of foam and nickel fibers or powder) and the opposing electrode is made substantially of a stainless steel material, wherein said supplemental electrodes results in a (+) and (-) electrical (ionic) current flow that causes the formation of a single combustible gas over an entire surface area of both sides of all electrodes within the electrolyzer. Other configurations of electrodes are permissible however the above configuration has been found to be very effective in producing the desired gas. In a still more preferred embodiment for the electrodes, the supplemental electrodes may be made from a high porosity foam based material made substantially of a nickel material (preferably greater than 99% nickel in a foam material where the high porosity electrode results in a composite lattice-like configured electrode due to the use of foam and nickel fibers or powder). Such material for the electrodes can be obtained as INCO® Nickel Foam, C.A.S. No. 7440-02-0 from Inco Special Products in Wyckoff, New Jersey. Typically, the nickel content of this product can vary between 25% and 85% with densities ranging from 1.0 to 2.70 g/cc. Preferably, a nickel content of greater than 99% nickel in the foam plate and about 14% nickel in the stainless steel plates (see below) provides for excellent results in producing the novel oxy- hydric combustible gas. The supplemental electrodes can further be configured so that one of the adjacent supplemental electrodes is made from the foam material and the opposing supplemental electrode is made substantially of a stainless steel material, wherein said supplemental electrodes results in a (+) and () electrical (ionic) current flow that causes the formation of a single combustible gas over an entire surface area of both sides of all electrodes within the electro lyzer. Other configurations of electrodes are permissible; however, the above configuration has been found to be very effective in producing the desired oxyhydric gas.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The technical problem that the invention solves consists in leaning the fuel-air mixture further to passing from the present used quasi-stoichiometric ratio (the d e - f curve) to lean ratios (the a - b - c curve) for partial and high load operating
regimes, however at the same time assuring the safe ignition as well as the stable and efficient combustion of the fuel-air mixture, see Fig. 2. According to the invention, the method assures the elimination of the disadvantages of the known fuelling method, namely by the fact that for the efficient burning of the lean mixture, the FIHO oxy-hydric gas injection is provided at a pressure level of at least 10 bars inside the cylinder, during the compression stroke, after the intake valve closing, so that the hydrogen volumetric fraction in the fuel mixture should be around of 15% - 25%. These conditions determine a less sensitive combustion process to the fuel-air quality modification and to the compression ratio modification than the pure hydrogen injection. This aspect is highly amplified by the presence, in the HHO oxy-hydric gas composition, of the oxygen molecule, besides hydrogen, in a ratio that is quite close to the stoichiometric one. The lowering-down of the initial combustion stage duration by approximately 15%, in case of the hydrogen injection, is amplified, and becomes approximately 25% in case of the HHO oxyhydric gas injection. Further to applying the invention, the below listed advantages can be obtained: the cut-down of the average fuel consumption of the motor by 5 - 20% the cut-down of the average level of the CO emission by 60 - 80%; the cut-down of the average level of the HC not-burned hydrocarbon emissions by 20 - 30%; the cut-down of the average level of nitrogen oxide emissions by 50 - 70%; and the cut-down of the CO2 level by 5 - 20%.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The invention refers to a method of using lean mixtures for all operating regimes of a spark ignition engine provided with a gasoline multipoint fuel injection system into the intake valve ports, and with a direct injection system for the HHO oxyhydric gas.
According to the invention, the method relies in the fact that, besides the classical gasoline, the hydrogen enriched HHO oxy-hydric gas, containing oxygen, too, is also injected into the engine cylinders. The method allows the use of lean mixtures that are characterized by a relative airfuel ratio increased from the actual values, namely 0.99 - 1.01, in case of three-way catalytic reactor engines, to higher values of 1.6 - 1.8, while increasing the compression ratio from 10.0 - 10.5 to 12 - 14. The performances restoration of the engine power is possible by managing the HHO oxy-hydric gas quantity injected into the engine cylinders so that the hydrogen volumetric fractions in the fuel mixture being about 15% - 25%. The decreasing of the burning speed (in the initial stage of the flame kernel formation and development, and in the main stage of flame propagation) which inevitably occurs by mixture leaning, as well as the incomplete combustion tendency, the failed ignition, or the misfire occurrence situations, which particularly leads to the increase of the unburned hydrocarbons concentration in the exhaust gases, are compensated by injecting into the cylinder, after the intake valve closing, the HHO oxy-hydric gas that is rich in hydrogen and contains oxygen, too. The hydrogen enriched HHO oxy-hydric gas, which has a complex composition, is kept in an auxiliary tank 1 , at a maximum pressure of about 15 bars, so that its temperature should not exceed 695 K, and, therefore, the explosion risk, Fig. 3, shall be avoided. The HHO gas flow is electronically controlled so that to maintain the volumetric hydrogen/gasoline fraction in the range 15%-25%. By means of an additional fuelling system provided with an auxiliary tank 1 , a pressure regulator 2, a oneway electromagnetic valve 3 and a flame arrestor 4, the gas is directly supplied into the cylinder 5 (Fig. 4) during the compression stroke, after the intake valve closing, so that to avoid loss of fresh charge from the cylinder.
The original cylinder head of the multipoint port fuel injection spark ignition engine containing the gasoline injector 6, placed on the intake port 7, the spark
plug 8 and the exhaust port 9, is equipped with the HHO direct in cylinder injector 10 (Fig. 5). The HHO gas injection is performed in electronically controlled quantities at the pressure of at least 10 bars; it is achieved for the engine cylinder 5 by means of the injector 6 whose nozzle gets directly into the combustion chamber. Depending on the engine geometry and operational regime, the initial moment of the HHO oxyhydric gas injection shall be placed between 100 and 60 CAD (Crank Angle Degrees) before the top dead centre at the end of compression stroke in view of avoiding the gas self-ignition and uncontrolled combustion. The stabilized burning of the lean fuel-air mixtures can be achieved due to hydrogen combustion characteristics that involve wide flammability limits, high burning laminar speed and reduced minimum ignition energy. The HHO oxyhydric gas, rich in hydrogen, contains, besides this hydrogen, the necessary oxygen for the extremely rapid combustion process, and no additional oxygen consumption, from the existing air trapped inside the engine is necessary. The injected HHO gas quantity operates like a pilot and it ignites firstly promoting the combustion inside the whole combustion chamber over a lean gasoline-air mixture. The avoidance management of the knock phenomenon, which may occur in the compression ratio increasing, shall be achieved both by combustion stage decreasing, equivalent to an early stage combustion acceleration, and also by diminishing effect of the appearance of hydroxyl radicals further to fuel decomposition during the burning process. The avoidance management of the increasing cyclic variability that occurs when using lean mixtures shall be achieved by the correct positioning, inside the cylinder-head, of the HHO oxy-hydric gas injector, and also by the adequate gas distribution inside the cylinder. Due to the hydrogen diffusivity, approximately 10 times higher than gasoline, it becomes possible to get the ignition of certain generally lean mixtures that, however, contain hydrogen and oxygen within the flammability limits.
The carbon dioxide (CO2) emission quantity from the spark ignition engine, under the circumstances of applying the new method of using lean mixtures, can be, thus decreased by at most 45%, in other words, approximately by the average relative value of the deviation between the relative fuel-air ratios (1-1/1.7)/l=41%. The method can be associated with constructive solutions for spark ignition engines with downsized cylinder displacement volume, which are provided with supercharging equipments and with performance ignition systems of high power or energy. The method is applied in view of using lean fuel-air mixtures for partial or high load operating regimes related to a spark ignition engine, by also assuring a stable burning process of these mixtures by means of an additionally injection, directly into the cylinder, of some HHO oxy-hydric gas containing hydrogen and oxygen. The lean fuel-air mixtures have, as compared to the rich fuel mixtures, at the same temperature and pressure levels, a narrower range of the flammability limits and a more reduced burning velocity. The compensation of these effects, in order to facilitate ignition and make the combustion process more stable and more efficient, can be achieved by introducing, inside the cylinder, the HHO oxy-hydric electronically controlled gas quantities that would, thus, grant the hydrogen/gasoline volume fractions within the range of 15 - 25%. At the same time, the method makes possible the modification of the spark timing characteristics upon the occurrence of the electric discharge that must go from the usual domain of 12 - 40 RAC, which is characteristic for the stoichiometric engines with intake valve port injection, to the 15 - 50 CAD area which is necessary for the lean mixtures operated engines. All these are due to the large flammability limits and to the high burning speed that is close to that of the molecular hydrogen-oxygen stoichiometric mixture, and that is characteristic of the HHO oxy-hydric gas, which determines the initiation and the rapid development of the flame kernel even for lean fuel mixtures that are improper to the normal operation of the spark ignition engines. According to the invention, it is very important for the method, that rapid and efficient burning process is achieved without any oxygen consumption from that
corresponding in the air trapped inside the cylinders after the intake valve closing, for the hydrogen combustion. So that, for the method being applied according to the invention, has to be noticed, that besides the knock phenomenon and cyclic variability management, a set of improvement measures on the combustion parameters is achieved, and there has also been noticed that the HHO oxy-hydric gas injection leads to the following:
The use of lean fuel-air mixtures;
The use of high compression ratios, from 10 to 10.5 which are the normal values for the spark ignition stoichiometric engines, to ratios from the diesel engine area, from 12 to 14 It should be understood that the preceding is merely a detailed description of one or more embodiments of this invention and that numerous changes to the disclosed embodiments can be made in accordance with the disclosure herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The preceding description, therefore, is not meant to limit the scope of the invention. Rather, the scope of the invention is to be determined only by the appended claims and their equivalents.
A word about wet weather operation: Many Traxxas vehicles can be damaged by exposure to moisture. Cold weather can have an effect on any remote control Traxxas model. #2056 high-torque waterproof servos. The new E-Maxx can be operated safely in cold. as the cold weather makes parts more brittle. Running non water-proof Traxxas models in the snow is not a good idea for many reasons. water and electronics DO NOT mix. most is not waterproof. This article will cover the basic precautions of cold and wet weather operation. and give tips for a successful winter outing. however. the water will find its way into these components shorting out the vulnerable circuits inside. etc.. Consult your owners’ manual for more information regarding water resistance. dirt. electronic speed control.e. such as hinder proper nitro engine break-in. battery. This can lead to permanent damage. Cover your receiver. Snow can build up inside your chassis. use extreme caution. Traxxas does not recommend operating certain models in the snow or rain. and debris. servos.WINTER OPERATION Winter Operating Tips Cold weather is here. require retuning of nitro engines. as well as increased risk of damage to plastic parts. Although some Traxxas electronics are watertight and do a good job keeping out water. such as the EVX-2 Electronic Speed Control. If you insist on running your non water-proof Traxxas model in the snow or any wet environment. and surround your on-board electronics i. Traxxas manufactures special waterproof electronics made specifically for wet environments. and many people will be running their Traxxas models in very cold and wet weather conditions. Traxxas does not warranty waterdamaged electrical components. Snow is frozen water. DO NOT allow your speed control Page 116 . and some nitro models can be made to withstand wet weather with certain preparation. wet environments when properly maintained. we do know that there will be many owners eager to run their high-performance Traxxas models regardless of winter's fury. As soon as the snow starts to melt. and the #3924 sealed receiver box that come equipped in the new E-Maxx (model #3905). and other radio gear with a balloon or a waterproof bag. receiver.
Do not run any Traxxas model completely submerged underwater.to get wet. If you've installed brand new batteries into your battery box. bring the vehicle inside to warm-up to room temperature before heading back out. Page Winter Break-in 117 Always remember to drive with care. causing them to be down on power. and are still having response problems. and spray a light mist of a moisture inhibitor like WD-40 over the vehicle to prevent rust. . Use extra care when driving your vehicle in cold weather. the water will damage it. 4: The AA batteries that power your nitro vehicle's on-board electronics can also be affected by the cold temperatures. be sure to clean the car. providing sluggish performance. and use good judgment when operating your Traxxas model in cold winter conditions. warm your engine up to room temperature before taking it out to run. 2: Remember that plastic. There are a few things to remember when operating your model in extremely cold weather: 1: To make starting your nitro engine easier in the cold weather. causing them to break easily. and even the metal parts on your model can become brittle in extremely cold weather conditions. A very cold engine can be difficult to start. 3: If you return from operating in a wet environment. dry it off.
This will decrease lubrication as well. These tips will inform you of what you should know. A precise fit between these two components is critical for proper compression. and the engine is operated under warmer running conditions. the piston and sleeve wear into each other to form a precise fit. In weather below 45 degrees. but the life span of the piston and sleeve can be shortened significantly. Proper engine temperature and break-in is especially important during the colder winter months. This includes 'post' break-in as well. Note! Do not bring the model indoors with fuel in it. and optimum performance over a long period of time. The engine may run fine for a short while. The engine can become difficult to start in cold weather. The life of your engine solely depends on how it is treated through its entire life. the engine's piston and sleeve cannot properly expand. Do not lean the engine to get a hotter temperature. they will continue to provide the best possible performance and wear. Always remove fuel when storing or transporting the model. what could have been a five-gallon engine could quickly turn into a two-gallon engine due to improper break-in temperatures (of course this is just a scenario).Breaking in your Traxxas engine correctly is crucial for long engine life and proper performance. so that when winter has past. Page 2: After the engine is running. it is important to keep the temperature of the engine up around 200 to 215 degrees during break-in. TRX Racing Engines will not want to run over 160 to 180 degrees (when tuned at proper break-in mixture settings). During the break-in process. and will also cause 118 . in the form of proper tuning and maintenance. Cold-weather break-in 1: Warm the engine to approximately room temperature by keeping it indoors. If the engine is too cold during break-in. The engine needs to heat up to a certain minimum temperature (at least 200 to 215 degrees) to allow the piston and sleeve to achieve this fit properly. For instance. This is too cool for break-in. and what you should do during this very important process. resulting in excessive wear and requiring premature component replacement.
exposing more or less cooling fins is a convenient way to regulate engine temps. we recommend using a temperature probe for more precise measurement if you want to break in your engine in cold weather.5R Racing Engine shown. Page 119 . of course.your piston and sleeve to wear prematurely. This is highly generalized. (Below: TRX 2. If the water sizzles for only a few seconds. and this can be harmful to the engine. and needs to cool down. Adjusting the cover up and down. procedures for TRX 3. then it is likely that it is over 220 degrees.) 3: You can wrap the cooling head with a paper towel. Also know that below freezing. a drop of water on the cooling head (around the glow plug area) should slowly sizzle for approximately 6 to 8 seconds around 200 to 210 degrees. just make sure you are aware that nitro engines may be very difficult to start and tune at those extremely cold temperatures. 6: We do not recommend that you operate your engine below 35 degrees Fahrenheit. it's too cool. 4: You can also run an uncut body on the vehicle to block the airflow across the engine to help keep the engine temperature where it needs to be. if too much heat is contained. 5: For owners that do not have access to a temperature probe. The idea is to reduce the efficiency of the cooling fins to allow the engine temperature to rise to an acceptable level.3 are the same. Make sure that you monitor the engine's temp closely for the first couple of tanks until you get the right amount of cover for the cooling head. depend on your current weather conditions. nitro fuel can actually begin to gel up. clean rag or sock to help keep the engine running around the recommended 200 to 215 break-in temp. If the water takes a long time or does not evaporate at all. This will. then of course. If you insist on running your vehicle below 35 degrees. the engine can actually run too hot. Be careful though.
. 3. . . when engines are fitted on aircraft and being in use): 1. 5. 500 hours. 2. . 3.INSPECTION SCHEDULE OF PISTON ENGINE Inspection and maintenance of piston engines IN – SITU(i.. 2. . 1000 hours as per FAR 43 APPENDIX “D”. 2. B Engine group 1.No Nature of inspection A Propeller group 1. 3. Procedure related to: Opening and cleaning Servicing of fuel filters Servicing of oil filters Servicing of fuel pipelines Servicing of oil pipelines Compression testing of cylinder Direct compression check Differential pressure compression check Manufacturers inspection list: S. Periodical inspections and maintenance practices for 50 hours.e. 50 X X 100 X X 500 X X 1000 X X Page 120 . . Typical manufacturers check list. 100 hours.
x. xiv. xv. vii. ix. viii. Opening and cleaning Servicing filters Compression testing on cylinders Magneto inspection Cleaning of spark plug Hardness testing Inspection and maintenance of induction system. Inspection of float type carburettors Inspection of fuel injection system Inspection of firewall seals Inspection and maintenance of engine mounts Inspection of exhaust system Inspection of engine control Inspection and maintenance of engine instruments. xii. iii. v. Page 121 . xiii. iv. Inspection schedule: i. xi. air filters. ii. ducting Inspection of fuel systems.5. vi.
Clean the castings thoroughly when you are through grinding. The next step is determining where to mount the oil filters. When finished. The finished assembly should look like the photo below which was taken from the right side of the car. Be careful not to damage the threads. The extra oil improves engine cooling and dilutes the effects of oil break down and contaminates that build up during the oil’s service interval. all of the oil ports should look like the photo below. Lube the oil filter gaskets with clean engine oil and install the oil filters. Choices are limited since the engine compartment is so crowded in 4 th generation Firebirds. Also. Page 122 . Tighten the filters the same as you would when installing one on the engine block. Use a die grinder and clean up all the ports in both the by-pass adapter and the dual oil filter mount to reduce the restrictions and remove any loose flash. examine the o-ring groove in the by-pass adapter for defects that could cut the o-ring and cause a leak. Moving the oil filter off the engine block and away from the exhaust system helps cool the oil and makes it easier to access the filters during oil changes.SERVICING OF OIL FILTERS: This modification will increase engine oil capacity by approximately one quart.
then place the larger end of the filter towards the fuel tank. Most use either a mesh screen or pleated paper. which should point towards the carburetor. expressed in microns. The size of the holes in the filter will determine the largest particles that can get through the filter. with diminished performance and uneven operation. when installing an in line fuel filter to an engine for the first time (engine never had a fuel filter to begin with) its always best to install the filter as close to the carburetor fuel inlet as possible.SERVICING OF FUEL FILTERS: A clean fuel filter strains the fuel before it reaches the carburetor and prevents foreign particles from clogging your engine. and white for 75 microns. but the fuel supply is one of the easiest to check. if you would like to copy our production line. A dirty fuel filter can make the engine run too lean. Also. Filters contain either a mesh screen or a pleated-paper element. If no arrow is present. Other factors can cause these problems. Some filters are located inside the tank. and the number of holes will affect the amount of fuel that can flow through the filter. Installation of an inline fuel filter is based on an arrow. Page 123 . Briggs & Stratton mesh screen filters are color-coded red for 150 microns. and are rated by the size of the holes in the filtering material. others are fitted into the fuel line between the tank and the fuel pump. the direction really does not matter. to an area that is not obstructed in any way and is away from any potential source of heat. designed for use in the fuel tank. They consist of multiple folds that strain out particles suspended in the fuel. Pleated-paper filters. However. are typically contained in a clear plastic casing and rated 60 microns.
using needle nose pliers. remove the metal clips on each side of the filter. If the filter is installed inside the tank. using a fuel line clamp. Have a dry cloth handy to hold the filter and catch and dripping fuel. Shut the fuel valve. and slide the filter out of the fuel line Shake the filter over a clean cloth to displace any remaining fuel. If debris is clogging the mesh screen or pleated paper or the inside of the casing. if equipped. then use the cloth to wipe away any residue from the outside of the filter. you will need to drain the tank before you can remove the filter for inspection or replacement. clamp the fuel line. It's located at the base of the fuel tank. where the fuel line is attached. replace the filter. Keep the filter a safe distance from your face and look through one end . If your filter is installed in the fuel line. If your tank is not equipped with a fuel valve. You should be able to see light shining through clearly from the other side. Page 124 .INSPECTING A FUEL FILTER Wear safety eyewear whenever removing or inspecting a filter to protect our eyes from liquid fuel or fuel vapors.
3. 5. This system includes apparatus to determine the quantity of oil pumped to any one engine so that a quantity gauge is not required on the engine. A pipeline connecting said reserve tank to each said main tank. The system is designed to be powered from the existing on board hydraulic power system. and A force pump to assure the flow of oil from said reserve tank to said container and to each said main tank when free to do so upon the operation of said valuing. The supplemental oil system of claim 4 including a signal generating contact at Page 125 . 6. The supplemental oil system of claim 1 wherein said reserve tank has a filler opening accessible from the interior of said airplane.SERVICING OF OIL PIPELINES: An oil replenishment system provides a remote reserve oil tank and the plumbing necessary to fill the main oil tank or tanks of engines. 4. especially aircraft engines during flight. A container having a measured capacity less than that of said reserve tank located in said pipeline. of a supplemental oil system to replenish oil in each main oil tank. 2. The supplemental oil system of claim 1 wherein said container is a cylinder and said force pump is a piston operable in said cylinder under the power of a reciprocating differential motor. The combination with an airplane having a wing with multiple turbo-jet engines and each having an associated main oil tank mounted thereon. 1. said system comprising: A reserve tank of oil located internally of said airplane. valuing in said pipeline operable to permit the flow of oil from said reserve tank to said container and a distribution valve to control the flow of oil from said container to a selected one of said main tanks. The supplemental oil system of claim 1 including a control panel located proximate said reserve tank and connections between said panel and said valving for the operation of the latter from the former. The supplemental oil system of claim 4 wherein said reciprocating differential motor is a hydraulic cylinder controlled by valve means located between it and a source of fluid pressure. A selector valve located on the reserve tank which may be remotely controlled directs replenishment oil to the selected engine tank.
Page 126 .opposite ends of said cylinder engageable by said piston to thereby indicate the location of said piston at each cylinder end.
a flexible hose. air pressure is indicated on the second pressure gauge. Engine manufactures publish leak down limits according to what they consider an acceptable leakage rate. we test both the top (end of the compression stroke at the top dead center position) and the bottom (just before the exhaust valve opens at the end of the power stroke) of the piston movement. At Little Flyers we use two types of cylinder compression checks. and the cylinder. leaks are due to excessive air passing by the rings. a lower pressure (leak) is indicated on the second gauge. On a less than perfect cylinder. a second indicating gauge. The drop in air pressure is due to the restriction of air flow limited by the orifice. and piston. The difference between the regulator indicator gauge and the second gauge is the differential pressure. In our shop. a shut off valve (our version). differential and direct. The compression gages / orifice can be verified for accuracy by connecting the compression tester to a master test orifice which indicates the maximum allowable leakage rate (drop in 127 .COMPERSSION CHECK The condition of the engine cylinders is important to performance of the engine. and cylinder . and the compression test equipment is then attached to the adapter via a flexible hose. When the leak of the cylinder is greater than that of the orifice. As the air enters the cylinder. rings. We use special differential compression test gauges for this cylinder check. An adapter is installed in either the top or bottom spark plug hole (which ever is more accessible). a cylinder adapter. Regulated air pressure (normally 80 PSI indicated by gauge ported to regulator) is sent through the following: a calibrated orifice (restrictor). Differential Compression Check Page We use the differential compression cylinder test to check the sealing of the piston. valves.
and a 60-degree approach angle. Page 128 .040-inch orifice diameter. Combined results Together the cylinder checks give us a good indication of the cylinders condition. The engine is turned with the starter (with the ignition system off) until the gauges stop increasing in pressure.13-1B paragraph 8-14b. Direct Compression Check The direct compression check (like the automotive version) verifies the actual pump action of the cylinder.00-inch bore.00 inch bore and over: 0. A pressure gauge is connected to each cylinder which incorporates a check valve at the cylinder end to retain the pumping pressure. The publication specifies a reading of 60/80 with this internal orifice. The direct compression test indicates two things: the actual pumping pressure of the cylinder and the relationship of the pressure with respect to the other cylinders. For an engine cylinder having less than a 5. The specifications for the orifice size in the compression tester can be found in the FAA's publication Advisory Circular 43. 0. 60 degree approach angle.pressure). The indicated pressures on the gauges are the direct compression pressures. Our differential compression tester indicates 65PSI when attached to this orifice. Any spread of more than 20% on the readings is suspect.060 inch orifice diameter. .250 inch long. Often a cylinder problem can be detected about 100 to 150 hours in advance of when the cylinder may need repair or replacement.250 inch long. For an engine cylinder with 5. .
We also verify grounding of BOTH magnetos with ignition switch(es) “OFF” for personal safety and to prevent inadvertent engine firing. Some cylinders are manufactured with the top bore of the cylinder slightly smaller. otherwise the compression test may be unreliable. An assistant turns the prop in the normal direction of rotation until he feels the resistance of compression. A ground run is necessary due to the difference in co-efficient of expansion of aluminum (piston) and steel (cylinder). The differential compression tester is connected to shop air and to one of the previously installed compression adapters. Cowling. the piston is stopped just short of it’s full travel. We quiet the shop environment as much as possible as to detect additional fault clues by sound. The unexpected firing could damage our direct compression test equipment. Page 129 . it is called choke. See TCM SB 89-9 for Continental specifications. Compression checks are conducted as soon as possible after shut down to maintain cylinder / piston / ring operating temperature and clearances. The engine warm up is usually accomplished as part of the pre-inspection run-up. the most accessible spark plug is removed from each cylinder. Cylinders are choked because the top of the cylinder operates at a higher temperature. Differential Compression Differential compression adapters are installed into each open spark plug hole.Preparations The engine is ground operated until cylinder and oil temperatures stabilize. High and increasing case pressure readings will be manifested long before any decay in compression test readings are noticed. selected cooling baffles. during this time crankcase pressures are taken. extra time involved in removing and replacing in other cylinders results in less reliable data. and intercooler are removed as required. Oil filler cap is removed from filler neck to observe residual vapors and hear possible ring leakage. The technician turns on the compression tester air valve while assistant holds prop in position. The “out” gauge (second) on the down streamside of the calibrated orifice is read and recorded. Tracking case pressures over a period of time will give a savvy technician additional clues as to cylinder / piston / ring conditions. Using one adapter will result in progressive cooler cylinders. The technician adjusts the “in” gauge to indicate 80 PSI with the air regulator. When the cylinder expands at operating temperature the bore becomes the same dimension from top to bottom.
we check our compression tester with Burrough’s Test Orifice TCM pn: 646953. Page 130 . If all readings are low. 2. Air noise / vapors from oil filler neck indicating leakage past piston rings.Now. Ring snap on applying air pressure that may indicate worn rings and piston ring lands. 7. Air leakage between head and barrel cooling fins. 5. A differential of 6 PSI or more between top and bottom usually indicates cylinder bore / ring problems. the assistant continues to turn the prop in normal direction of rotation always keeping some air pressure against piston and rings. We recheck any low cylinder. Any suspected leakage between cylinder head and barrel is checked with a soap solution (that will bubble if seal is defective). the assistant stops turning just before exhaust valve opens. 6. Compression readings are taken at both top and bottom of the piston stroke for more data. We are alert for following when taking differential readings: 1. Air noise from exhaust system opening(s) indicating exhaust valve leakage. The test proceeds on to the remaining cylinders. The “out” gauge is then read and recorded. with piston toward bottom of stroke indicates cylinder barrel cracks. 3. 4. Skill and experience are required to properly interpret excess leakage. we DO NOT condemn cylinders (unless cracked) on the basis of only one test. Air noise from induction system opening indicating intake valve leakage. Static leakage normally requires immediate repairs / replacement before continuing in service. The differential test equipment is then removed from the engine.
Page 131 . Expect high compression engines to be 140-170 PSI. An engine with good compression on all cylinders will crank with consistent rhythm and sound. techniques. Rocking the prop can usually increase differential readings. Evaluating Readings Readings will vary with test equipment. Cylinders having low readings with both differential and direct compression should be carefully checked out before returning to service. A higher than normal direct compression reading (with normal differential reading) may indicate a high compression piston installed or excess head welding that was not properly profiled. Sticking / stuck rings can cause erratic readings. sticky valve. Excess build-up of carbon from rich mixture or excess upper cylinder oil will result in higher than normal readings.Direct Compression We install direct compression adapters and gauges on all cylinders as single cylinder checks do not reveal as much useful data. Engines with equal direct readings tend to run smooth. Magnetos are grounded to prevent cylinder firing during direct compression test. 80 Octane engines 120-140 PSI and Turbo-charged engines 100-130 PSI. mixture of standard and oversize bores. engine temperatures and type / grade of oil. Lycoming engines generally seal better and have higher readings than Continental. A direct compression test (even cold) on a cylinder replacement will alert you to possible wrong piston configuration and excess remaining head welding material. Subsequent tests may result in varied readings. Direct readings are then recorded. A low direct reading with good differential reading may indicate a lower compression piston. Nearly equal top and bottom differential figures reflect desirable bores. Direct readings should be proportional to compression ratios. or severely worn cam lobe(s).Throttle is open. Oversize bores may indicate slightly higher pressures. mixture control is selected to “idle cut off” The engine is cranked using auxiliary power if required) until gauges cease to rise in pressure (about 12 revolutions). Continental engines with steel inserted piston ring lands generally exhibit more normal ring leakage. Excess spreads may be caused by a mixture of high and low compression pistons. A 20% spread between low and high cylinders is considered normal.
Dead Cut and Live Mag Checks There appears to be some confusion between the dead cut check and the live mag check. Magneto checks are normally carried out only on the ground.MAGNETO CHECK BASICS Now for some standardization of terminology – an important aspect because we are certain this is where some of the Confusion arises. Mag drop check – Each magneto is switched off in turn to ascertain and compare the drop in rpm that occurs when running on each individual magneto. at neither of these times. Live mag check – Both magnetos are switched off momentarily in order to ensure that the engine does cease Running. Before Run up The primary purpose of the dead cut check after start up is to ensure that both magnetos are delivering sufficient electrical energy to the spark plugs an important fact to establish before carrying out the mag drop check. and again just before shutdown. and there are three distinct types. There are different opinions on this. so consult the information supplied by the engine/aircraft manufacturer. or the owner/ operator of the aircraft you are using. the result will be a dead cut. Dead cut checks and live mag checks are usually done around 1000 rpm. If not. or just during the pre-shutdown check. and also because the live mag check should in fact produce a “dead cut’. Why is it important? Page 132 . If it continues to run then one of the magnetos must be continuously electrically live. This may be because both are usually done at the same point in the aircraft checklist. Live mag checks are carried out at both these times. Dead cut checks are normally carried out at some stage before the engine run up. Dead cut check – One magneto is switched off in order to see if the engine will run on the other one.
you carry out a mag drop check and instant silence! Now this is not the way to treat an engine. LEFT. if one magneto is live. then the flight must not proceed. OFF. In addition. it is surprising how much misunderstanding exists. Even though you may treat the propeller as ‘live’ at all times (and you do. The type of switch varies from aircraft to aircraft. each set supplied with electrical power by its own associated magneto (which is normally designated ‘left’ or ‘right’). This would be the case if the switch was held too long in the OFF position or the check was done at an rpm setting that was too high. don’t you?) there are others Who may not? A typical key magneto switch used in many light aircraft. For one thing. but they could also include a loose lead. These may be benign. The rotary switch has four settings. The engine controls will include some form of switch system with which the magnetos can be switched on and off. but is usually either a set of toggle switches (one for each magneto) or a rotary switch (which may be key operated). which could arc and start a fire. Some manufacturers may advise against the live mag check. Practically all current piston-engine aircraft have dual ignition systems. For something as basic to piston-engine operation as magneto checks. A live mag check after start up can uncover more subtle dangers. there is a good safety reason for the live mag check before shutdown. With the engine at high power. it will not be possible to carry out a meaningful mag drop check during the run up. but if you are a normal human being you are probably about to do something worse to it. eg. then the propeller can be lethal until the fault is rectified. The real danger. ie. two sets of spark plugs. Here is a reminder of the basics Page 133 . stating that it could cause damage to the engine. The usual reaction to the silence is to immediately switch the magnetos back on. individually or together. however. and this is when the engine can suffer substantial damage. and BOTH. and if one magneto is found to be live when switched off. lies in the possible causes of the magneto being live. It is essential that pilots understand aircraft magneto systems. Before Shutdown The main purpose behind both dead cut and live mag checks before shutting the engine down is to enable early discovery of any fault that may have developed during the flight.Imagine for a moment that one magneto is completely dead and that this was not discovered before the run up. RIGHT. Such a fault is better discovered at this stage than during the prerun up check on the next flight.
when we refer to a rotary type switch. . if the drop is smooth. How much variation can you accept between the two rpm drops? The answer will vary – and you should check the manufacturer’s handbook but 50 rpm difference. for example. the important aspect is that the check on any particular aircraft should be done consistently at the same rpm. (In the following discussion. Magneto Checking Techniques The dead cut and live mag checks are done at low rpm setting and should do no harm to the engine.) Dead Cut and Live Magneto Checks Combining both dead cut and live mag checks.. would be a typical figure. Once the desired effect (continued running for dead cut. A drop of 175 rpm on each should be of no concern. has R and L in the opposite sequence. and is within the range stated by the manufacturer. but other engine handling considerations will usually mean a recommendation from the engine or aircraft manufacturer for an rpm setting from the low end of the cruise power range. Once again. in comparing today’s 150 rpm drop at 2000 rpm with yesterday’s 100 rpm drop at 1700 rpm. For horizontally opposed engines. we assume it to have the layout shown in our illustration of a key-operated switch. The lever-operated switch illustrated. however. if one magneto is found to be live when switched off. engine cutting for live mag) has been noted. There is little to be gained. then the flight Must not proceed. from a Super Cub. is similar for each magneto. at most. trend monitoring may give a better guide to the health of the two ignition systems.. From the magneto checking point of view.The Mag Drop Check The mag drop check is carried out to ascertain if either magneto is equally capable of sustaining ignition at typical in-flight power settings. proceed without undue delay to the next switch setting. and our comments would need to be transposed. The particular rpm setting at which the check is done is not very important for the purposes of the check. so that any trend can be monitored. is consistent with previous engine runs. the amount of rpm drop is not as important as the difference in the drop between the two magnetos. the sequence for a rotary type switch should be: • BOTH (normal) • LEFT (no dead cut – engine runs on left mag) • RIGHT (no dead cut – engine runs on right mag) • OFF – momentarily (engine stops – there are no live mags) Page 134 .
It is done at a higher rpm setting – and at no stage are both magnetos switched off. In this case. Magneto Drop Check The mag drop check must be done differently from the other checks. remember to check for a live Magneto when doing the mag drop check. after a few seconds note reading) • BOTH (back to normal) Page 135 .caa. after a few seconds note reading) • BOTH (pause) • RIGHT (rpm drops. The other major difference between a mag drop check and the other two checks is in the sequence of switching.govt.nz 15 Continued over. VECTOR – Pointing to Safer Aviation March / April 2008 www. there will be a tendency – and a need – to run the engine for a longer period on each individual magneto. At the other end of the scale.• BOTH (back to normal) A rotary type magneto switch used in a Piper Super Cub. Also. but again do the checks without undue delay: • First magneto OFF (no dead cut – engine runs on second mag) and ON (back to normal) • Second magneto OFF (no dead cut – engine runs on first mag) and ON (back to normal) • Both magnetos OFF – momentarily (engine stops – there are no live mags) and ON (back to normal) The live mag check may be omitted if it is against manufacturers Recommendations. as the fouling of the dead set of spark plugs with fuel and oil may reach an unacceptable level. do not run on one magneto for extended periods. as the size of the rpm drop is being noted and remembered by the pilot for comparison. Toggle switches For toggle switches.. indeed the time should be sufficient for the rpm to stabilize. however. it doesn’t matter which mag you test first. This is fine.. For a rotary type switch it should be: • BOTH (normal) • LEFT (rpm drops.
after a few seconds note reading) and ON (back to normal) The reason for returning to BOTH with a rotary switch (and an equivalent pause with both magnetos ON for a toggle switch system) is primarily to let the engine stabilize at normal rpm. a caution for those who carry out mag drop checks using rotary switch systems. This gives each magneto a common starting point. Having to restart the engine is not as embarrassing as having to rebuild it. after a few seconds note reading) and ON (back to normal) Pause • Second magneto OFF (rpm drops. If you do inadvertently overshoot to the OFF position during runup. try to overcome the natural reaction of immediately switching it back on.For toggle switches: • First magneto OFF (rpm drops. Page 136 . the switch must pass through the LEFT position. Finally. the short period on BOTH lets the oil and fuel burn off the first set of spark plugs that were shut down. making comparison of the two rpm drops valid. it is easy to overshoot to OFF. When moving from BOTH to RIGHT. Also. Our advice is that you practice the switching sequence with the engine not running until you get the feel of the switch installation.
while a carburetor relies on low pressure created by intake air rushing through it to add the fuel to the airstream. With the advent of electronic fuel injection (EFI). Autogas (LPG. A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will handle: gasoline (petrol). carburetors were the predominant method to meter fuel before the widespread use of fuel injection. However. methanol. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process. ethanol. It has become the primary system used in automotive engines. For gasoline engines.FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an internal combustion engine. The majority of fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel applications. but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. hydrogen or diesel. EFI's programmable firmware has permitted common hardware to be used with multiple different fuels. a wide variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine. the diesel and gasoline hardware has become similar. also known as propane). There are several competing objectives such as: Page power output fuel efficiency emissions performance ability to accommodate alternative fuels reliability driveability and smooth operation initial cost maintenance cost 137 . having almost completely replaced carburetors in the late 1980s. methane (natural gas). Objectives The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. The primary functional difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small nozzle under high pressure.
sometimes this is inferred with a MAP sensor Exhaust Gas Oxygen: Oxygen sensor.) Page Crank/Cam Position: Hall effect sensor Airflow: MAF sensor. includes a digital computer and circuitry to communicate with sensors and control outputs. The modern digital electronic fuel injection system is far more capable at optimizing these competing objectives than a carburetor. Injectors Fuel Pump Fuel Pressure Regulator ECM . EGO sensor. In practice. Typical EFI components Animated cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector. diagnostic capability range of environmental operation Certain combinations of these goals are conflicting.Engine Control Module. UEGO sensor 138 . and it is impractical for a single engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. automotive engineers strive to best satisfy a customer's needs competitively. Wiring Harness Various Sensors (Some of the sensors required are listed here.
intake manifold. Most of these components were later redesigned for the next phase of fuel injection's evolution. Audi. Volkswagen. Lamborghini. Ford. K-Jetronic was used for many years between 1974 and the mid 1990s by BMW. The fuel distributor is mounted atop a control vane through which all intake air must pass. On cars equipped with an oxygen sensor. which in turn is determined by the volume flowrate of air past the vane. Continuous injection Bosch's K-Jetronic (K for kontinuierlich. and by the control pressure. fuel sprays constantly from the injectors. The induction mixture passes through the intake runners like a carburetor system.Throttle body injection Throttle-body injection (called TBI by General Motors and Central Fuel Injection (CFI) by Ford) or single-point injection was introduced in the mid1980s as a transition technology toward individual port injection. rather than being pulsed in time with the engine's intake strokes. The TBI system injects fuel at the throttle body (the same location where a carburetor introduced fuel). The control pressure is regulated with a mechanical device called the control pressure regulator (CPR) or the warm-up regulator (WUR). and the system works by varying fuel volume supplied to the injectors based on the angle of the air vane. the CPR may be used to compensate for altitude. German for "continuous") was introduced in 1974. Mercedes-Benz. which separates the single fuel supply pipe from the tank into smaller pipes. TBI was used extensively on American-made passenger cars and light trucks in the 1980 to 1995 timeframe and some transition-engined European cars throughout the early and mid 1990s. The injectors are simple spring-loaded check valves with nozzles. and is thus labelled a "wet manifold system". Depending on the model. Ferrari. the fuel mixture is adjusted by a device called the frequency valve. and Volvo. and/or a cold engine. In this system. Many of the carburetor's supporting components could be reused such as the air cleaner. commonly known as MPFI or "multi-point fuel injection". Gasoline is pumped from the fuel tank to a large control valve called a fuel distributor. full load. There was also a variant of the system called KE-Jetronic with electronic instead of mechanical control of the control pressure. once fuel system pressure becomes high enough to overcome the counterspring. which is individual port injection. Porsche. Saab. The justification for the TBI/CFI phase was low cost. Page 139 . one for each injector. This postponed the redesign and tooling costs of these components. and fuel line routing. the injectors begin spraying.
The TCM system is even more simple. aircraft continuous flow fuel injection is all mechanical. The Bendix system is a direct descendant of the pressure carburetor. The 2 variants were CPFI from 1992 to 1995. batched. requiring no electricity to operate. or single point fuel injection. In contrast to automotive fuel injection systems. MPFI (or just MPI) systems can be sequential. without precise synchronization to any particular cylinder's intake stroke. and no discharge valve. and CSFI from 1996 and  . Central port injection (CPI) General Motors implemented a system called "central port injection" (CPI) or "central port fuel injection" (CPFI). Page 140 . in which fuel is injected to all ports on simultaneously. CPFI is a batch-fire system. It has no venturi. in which fuel is injected to the cylinders in groups. From the control unit. referred to as SPFI. and the TCM system. it uses a flow divider mounted on top of the engine. continuous-flow fuel injection is the most common type. no diaphragms. in which injection is timed to coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke. All modern EFI systems utilize sequential MPFI. It simply uses a butterfly valve for the air which is linked by a mechanical linkage to a rotary valve for the fuel. which controls the discharge rate and evenly distributes the fuel to stainless steel injection lines which go to the intake ports of each cylinder. or Simultaneous. in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders. Inside the control unit is another restriction which is used to control the fuel mixture. instead of having a discharge valve in the barrel. no pressure chambers. then through the lines to the injectors. fuel flows to the flow divider. Two common types exist: the Bendix RSA system. The 1996 and later CSFI system sprays fuel sequentially Multi-point fuel injection Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake port just upstream of the cylinder's intake valve. Some Toyotas and other Japanese cars from the 1970s to the early 1990s used an application of Bosch's multipoint L-Jetronic system manufactured under license by DENSO. However.In piston aircraft engines. It uses tubes with poppet valves from a central injector to spray fuel at each intake port rather than the central throttle-body . rather than at a central point within an intake manifold.
The injection nozzle is placed inside the combustion chamber and the piston incorporates a depression (often toroidal) where initial combustion takes place. Saturn. Hyundai (GDI). Nissan.Direct injection Main article: Gasoline Direct Injection Many diesel engines feature direct injection (DI). BMW. Page 141 . Some recent petrol engines utilize direct injection as well: Ford. Direct injection diesel engines are generally more efficient and cleaner than indirect injection engines. This is the next step in evolution from multi port fuel injection and offers another magnitude of emission control by eliminating the "wet" portion of the induction system. Mazda(DISI). Subaru. See also Highpressure Direct Injection (HDi). Saab. Kia (GDI). Volkswagen and Audi (FSI) (for Fuel Stratified Injection). Lexus. GM(SIDI). Mitsubishi(GDI).
side-by-side portions to the cylinder head intake passages. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 1. said crankcase member having a first surface facing a surface of said cylinder head that faces said cylinder block and an outer surface facing away from said cylinder block. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 2 wherein the intake pipes have portions that extend in parallel. said discharge portions diverging from each other in the direction toward said cylinder head intake passages. 4. EXHAUST SYSTEM. wherein there are a plurality of cylinder bores and intake passages and wherein there is provided a plurality of intake pipes each serving a respective one of said intake passages from said surge tank. An internal combustion engine comprised of a cylinder block forming at least one cylinder bore. a cylinder head affixed at one end of said cylinder block and closing one end of said cylinder bore. 2. said intake pipes having inlet portions extending from said parallel side-by-side portions to the surge tank which inlet portions enter the surge tank at different locations so as to maintain Page 142 . and an induction system comprised of a surge tank juxtaposed to said outer surface of said crankcase member so that said surge tank is disposed at the opposite end of said cylinder bore from said cylinder head and an intake pipe extending from said surge tank to said cylinder head intake passage. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 3.INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF ENGINE CONTROLS. 3. side-by-side relationship along a substantial portion of the cylinder block. a crankshaft rotatably journaled within said crankcase chamber and driven by a piston reciprocating in said cylinder bore. AND INDUCTION SYSTEM & AIR FILTERS 1. an intake passage formed in said cylinder head and extending from one side of said cylinder head to said cylinder bore. a crankcase chamber formed at the other end of said cylinder block and closed by a crankcase member affixed relative to said cylinder block. wherein the intake pipes have discharge portions that extend from the parallel.
wherein there are a plurality of cylinder bores and intake passages and wherein there is provided a plurality of intake pipes each serving a respective one of said intake passages from said surge tank. Page 143 . An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 11. 11. 9. 8. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 8.substantially the same length from said surge tank to said cylinder head intake passages for each of the intake pipes. 6. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 10. wherein the fuel supply system includes a vapor separator formed in the surge tank and separated therefrom by an integral wall of the surge tank. 7. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 9. further including a return conduit for returning fuel to the vapor separator through an exterior wall of the surge tank. 12. wherein there are additionally formed at least one fuel conduit passing through an exterior wall of the surge tank. 5. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 1 further including a fuel injector for injecting fuel into the intake passage. wherein the conduits further have portions that are nested within an area encompassed by the intake pipes. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 6. when the fuel supply system further includes a high-pressure fuel pump contained within the vapor separator. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 7. 10. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 5 further including a fuel supply system for supplying fuel to the fuel injector and including at least one portion of said fuel supply system passing through the surge tank.
said surge tank feeding the engine cylinders through a plurality of inlet pipes that extend along said one side of said cylinder block. wherein the cylinder is horizontally disposed. Page 144 . 15. and inlet portions extending from the other ends of said parallel side by side intermediate portions and entering said surge tank in staggered locations in the direction of said cylinder bore axes so that the lengths of said inlet pipes are substantially equal. said induction system including a surge tank disposed along one side of said cylinder block at a distance from said cylinder head in the direction of said cylinder bore axes such that said surge tank is closer to said crankcase member than said cylinder head. discharge portions that extend from one end of the parallel side by side intermediate portions to the engine cylinders and which diverge from each other. 17. 18. wherein the intake pipes communicate with the combustion chambers through intake ports formed in a cylinder head of the engine. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 1. wherein the inlet pipes enter the surge tank at different locations so as to maintain substantially the same length for each of the inlet pipes. An induction system as set forth in claim 16. said inlet pipes having intermediate portions extending in parallel side by side relation to each other and to said cylinder bore axes. 16. wherein the engine is utilized in combination with an outboard motor for driving a propulsion device of said outboard motor and wherein said engine is contained within a powerhead of said outboard motor and is encircled by a protective cowling of said powerhead. An induction system as set forth in claim 17. An induction system as set forth in claim 15. 14. An induction system for an a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine having a cylinder block with a plurality of in line cylinders defined cylinder bores having parallel axes. wherein the intake ports are all spaced the same distance from the surge tank. a cylinder head closing one end of said cylinder bores and a crankcase member closing the other end of said cylinder bores.13. An internal combustion engine as set forth in claim 13.
This is that the individual induction passages that extend to the individual cylinders should have substantially the same length. the engine may be tuned to provide optimum performance at the desired running conditions. It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved induction system for a marine propulsion engine and particularly having multiple cylinders and utilized in the powerhead of an outboard motor. a principal object to this invention to provide an improved induction system for an internal combustion engine. Generally. This plenum chamber then serves the cylinders of the engine through an inlet tracts or runners which extend from the surge chamber to the combustion chamber. it is not always practical to utilize multiple surge chambers. This latter factor is particularly important when the engine is employed in a marine propulsion system such as an outboard motor. In addition.19. Where the engine has multiple cylinders. the engine in an outboard motor is surrounded for the most part by a protective cowling to protect the engine from the water. therefore. the charging efficiency for the engine can be improved under at least some running conditions by employing a plenum or surge chamber into which atmospheric air is inducted. wherein the inlet pipes entry into the surge tank lie at different distances from the intake ports. It is. An induction system as set forth in claim 18. some economies of size and can be obtained. With the space constraints in outboard motors and other applications having restricted space availability this is an not insignificant problem. another design factor is important. By appropriately sizing the volume of the surge chamber and the length and diameter of the runners. therefore. the ability of the engine to induct air and also further dictates the design of the induction system. by providing a common surge chamber and if all other factors are appropriately designed. It is. The induction system for an internal combustion engine is obviously a very important factor in determining the performance of the engine. At times this length also should be relatively substantial. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an induction system for an engine and more particularly to an improved induction system for a marine propulsion engine. In addition to being relatively compact. When a single surge tank is used for a multiple cylinder engine. another principle object of the invention to provide a compact and Page 145 . outboard motors provide a significant challenge for engine designers because of their compact nature. Obviously. This further limits however.
fuel injection systems. In the form of both improved power output and also better fuel economy and exhaust emission control. the induction system feeds the intake charge to the combustion chambers generally through the cylinder head. With four-cycle engines. With a four-cycle engine. this minimizes the space available in this area for the induction system. It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved and compact fuel injection and induction system for an outboard motor. on the other hand. the air is basically inducted into the crankcase chamber which is at a position spaced from the cylinder head. therefore. A crankcase is rotatably journaled in the crankcase chamber and is driven by a piston that reciprocates in the cylinder bore. a still further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel injection system for an outboard motor. However. It is. particularly in the design of the induction system. there is considerable emphasis on applying four-cycle engines for the power plant of an outboard motor to replace the more conventionally employed two-cycle engines. An intake pipe extends from the one side of the cylinder head from the intake passage and terminates at a surge tank that is positioned at a side of the crankcase Page 146 . therefore. It is. A crankcase chamber is formed at the other end of the cylinder block and is closed and formed by a crankcase member that is also fixed relative to the cylinder block. Fuel injection permits greater control over the fuel flow and particularly under transient conditions. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A first feature of this invention is adapted to be embodied in an internal combustion engine that is comprised of a cylinder block that forms at least one cylinder bore. Because of the other ancillaries associated with the cylinder head. particularly as utilized in outboard motors require a number of components which also raise space problems due to the compact nature of outboard motors. A cylinder head is affixed at one end of the cylinder block and closes one end of the cylinder bore. For a variety of reasons. An intake passage is formed in the cylinder head and extends from one side of the cylinder head.high efficiency induction system for a multiple cylinder engine. This presents additional problems. yet another object of this invention to provide an improved induction system for a four-cycle outboard motor engine. the utilization of fuel injection is considered.
indicated generally by the reference numeral 15. Yet another feature of the invention is also adapted to be embodied in an internal combustion engine. The engine is provided with an induction system that includes a surge tank or plenum chamber that feeds the engine cylinders through a plurality of inlet pipes. It will be apparent. however. a crankshaft. An upper main cowling portion 17 is detachably connected to the tray 16 in a known manner. The main cowling portion 17 is preferably formed from an even lighter weight material than the tray 16 such as a molded fiberglass reinforced resin or the like. The invention is described in conjunction with an outboard motor such as the outboard 11 because the invention has particularly utility and marine propulsion systems such as outboard motors because of their compact construction and spacial requirements.number that is spaced from the cylinder block. Another feature of the invention is also adapted to be embodied in a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine. to those skilled in the art that certain facts of the invention may be utilized with other types of applications for internal combustion engines. the engine 14 is mounted in the powerhead so that its output shaft. The outboard motor 11 is comprised of a powerhead that consists of powering internal combustion engine 14 and a surrounding protective cowling. A fuel injection system is provided that injects fuel into the combustion chamber or chambers of the engine. 1. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION Referring now in detail to the drawings and initially to FIG. This cowling includes a lower tray portion 16 which is formed from a rigid lightweight material such as aluminum or aluminum alloy. indicated generally by the reference numeral 13 and which is shown in phantom. an outboard motor constructed in accordance with an embodiment of the invention is identified generally by the reference numeral 11 and is shown as attached to a transom 12 of a watercraft. As will become apparent by reference to the remaining figures. The engine is provided with an induction system that includes a surge tank or plenum chamber that feeds the engine cylinders through one or more inlet pipes. The inlet pipes enter the surge tank in staggered locations so that their lengths are substantially equal. The fuel injector is supplied with fuel from a fuel supply system that is formed at least in part integrally in the surge tank. rotates about a Page 147 .
further details of the construction of the outboard motor 11 will not be described. In the illustrated embodiment. The engine 14 is comprised of a cylinder block 32 which is preferably formed from a lightweight material such as aluminum or aluminum alloy in which cylinder bores 33 are formed. reference may be had to any known prior art construction for an appropriate construction that can be utilized to practice the invention. certain features of the invention have particularly utility in conjunction with multi-cylinder four-cycle engines. Because the invention deals primarily with engine 14 and the induction and charge forming system for it. Although the number of cylinders employed in the engine may vary and certain features of the invention may be utilized with two-cycle engines. In the illustrated embodiment. Pivotal movement about the pivot pin 29 permits tilt and trim movement of the outboard motor 11 as is well known in this art. The cylinder bores 33 are formed so that their axes extend in a horizontal direction with one being positioned vertically above the other. journaled within a swivel bracket 27 for steering of the outboard motor 11 about a vertically extending steering axis defined by this steering shaft. the construction of the engine 14 will be described in more detail. the cylinder bores 33 are formed by pressed cast or plated thin wall liners although other types of constructions obviously can be employed for forming the cylinder bores 33. A pivot pin 29 connects the swivel bracket 17 to a clamping bracket 31. the engine 14 is of the four-cylinder inline type and which operates on a four-cycle principal. There the drive shaft 18 drives a propeller shaft 22 through a conventional bevel gear reversing transmission 23. in turn.vertically extending axis. The cylinder bore axis lie in the common vertical plane. One end of the cylinder bores 33 is closed by a cylinder head assembly 34 that is Page 148 . The drive shaft 18 depends from the powerhead through a drive shaft housing 19 and into a lower unit 21. as is typical with outboard motor practice. Referring now in detail primarily to the remaining figures. This steering shaft is. A propeller 24 is affixed to the propeller shaft 22 for propelling the watercraft 13 in a well known manner. This is done so as to facilitate connection between the engine output shaft and a drive shaft 18. The clamping bracket 31 is. Where any component is either not shown or has not been described. A steering shaft (not shown) is connected by means of an upper bracket assembly 25 and lower bracket assembly 26 to the drive shaft housing 19. in turn. affixed to the watercraft transom 12 in a manner known in the art. A tiller 28 is affixed to the upper end of the steering shaft for steering of the outboard motor 11 in a known manner.
These intake passages 45 terminate in a vertically extending side of the engine 14 and specifically the cylinder head assembly 34. These intake valves 48 are urged to their closed position by coil compression springs 49 acting through keeper retainer assemblies 51 in a known manner. Although the invention is described in conjunction with an embodiment when the cylinder head assembly 34 is detachable. The lower or big ends of the connecting rods 43 are journaled on individual throws 44 of the crankshaft 39 in a well known manner. indicated generally by the reference numeral 47 in a manner which will be described later. The flow through the exhaust passages 52 is controlled by exhaust valves 56 that are slidably supported in the cylinder head assembly 34. Poppet type intake valves 48 are supported in the cylinder head assembly 34 in a known manner. Any type of exhaust system known in the art may be employed for this purpose. The cylinder head assembly 34 has individual recesses 35 that cooperate with the cylinder bores 33 to form in part the combustion chambers therefore. These passages 52 curve downwardly toward the cylinder block 32 so as to meet and discharge into runner sections 54 of an exhaust manifold 55 that is formed integrally within the cylinder block 32. A crankshaft 39 is rotatably journeyed in the crankcase chamber 37 in any known manner. Piston pins 42 connect the pistons 41 to the upper or small ends of connecting rods 43. A crankcase chamber 36 is formed at the end of the cylinder block 32 opposite the cylinder head 34 by a skirt 37 of the cylinder block and a crankcase member 38 that is detachably connected thereto. Coil compression springs 57 urge these exhaust valves 56 to their closed position through cooperation with keeper retainer assemblies 58 that are affixed to the stems of the valves 56 in a Page 149 . This exhaust manifold 55 extends downwardly to meet with an exhaust system (not shown) formed in the drive shaft housing 19 and lower unit 21 for the discharge of exhaust gases to the atmosphere. A plurality of exhaust passages 52 extend from exhaust ports formed by exhaust valve seats 53 in the cylinder head recesses 35. A plurality of intake passages 45 are formed in the cylinder head assembly 34 and extend from valve seats 46 which form the intake ports in the cylinder head recess 35. These exhaust passages 52 extend on the side of the engine opposite the intake passages 45. Pistons 41 reciprocate in each of the cylinder bores 32. They are served by an induction system. It will be also understood that the invention can be employed in conjunction with engines having integral cylinder head and cylinder block assemblies.detachably connected to the cylinder block 32 at one end thereof.
This sprocket drives a toothed timing belt 64 which. spark plugs are also mounted in the cylinder head assembly 34 for firing the combustible charge delivered to the combustion chambers 35. 2. Although they do not appear in the figures. The camshaft 63 is driven by a timing drive at one-half crankshaft speed. This system includes a combined plenum chamber. The intake and exhaust valves 48 and 56 are opened by means of respective intake and exhaust rocker arm assemblies 59 and 61. 4 and 5 and is comprised of a first or driving sprocket 63 that is affixed to an end of the crankshaft 39 that extends vertically upwardly through the upper end of the cylinder block 32 and crankcase member 38. These spark plugs are fired by an ignition system that includes a flywheel magneto assembly 69 that is affixed to the upper end of the crankshaft 39 above the timing case 67. In a like manner. The flywheel magneto 69 is provided with a ring gear 72 that cooperates with a starter motor (not shown) for electric starting of the engine 14. A camshaft 63 is journaled in the cylinder head assembly 34 also in a known manner and has individual lobes that cooperate with followers of the rocker arms 59 and 61 for opening the intake and exhaust valves 48 and 56. This includes a pair of side housing pieces 74 and 75 that are affixed to each other via an intermediate dividing wall 76 so as to form a plenum chamber volume 77 and a vapor separator volume 78. Although a toothed belt drive is depicted and described.known manner. the camshaft 63 and rocker arm assembly contained at the upper portion of the cylinder head assembly 34 is enclosed by a cam cover 68. it will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that other types of camshaft drives may be employed. respectively in a manner known in this art. indicated generally by the reference numeral 73. This assembly 73 is mounted on the crankcase chamber side of the engine by means of a pair of mounting posts 79 formed either integrally with or detachably connected to the crankcase member 38 with an air space formed there between so Page 150 . These rocker arm assemblies 59 and 61 are journaled on a vertically extending rocker arm shaft 62 that is fixed to the cylinder head assembly 34 in a known manner. This timing drive is shown best in FIGS. A flywheel cover 71 is affixed to the engine in an appropriate manner and encloses the flywheel magneto 69. vapor separator outer housing assembly. 2-5. This system appears in FIGS. in turn. drives a driven sprocket 65 that is fixed to the camshaft 65 in a known manner. A timing case cover 67 is affixed to the upper end of the engine and at least partially encloses the timing drive and specifically the belt 65 and sprocket 64 and 66. The induction and charge forming system for the engine 14 will now be described beginning initially with the air induction system.
These runner sections are comprised of a pair of outer runner sections 81 and 82 that extend to the upper and lower cylinder head intake passages 45.as to avoid heat transfer between the crankcase chamber 36 and the housing assembly 73. This offset is indicated by the dimension e 1 in FIG. The fuel injectors 86 can be of any known type but preferably are electronically controlled and must have electric solenoids that operate their injectors valve for controlling the timing and duration of fuel spray through the passage 87 into the cylinder head intake passages 45. The runners further include a pair of side-by-side inner runners 83 and 84 which are nested between the runners 81 and 82 and serve the no. these runners are disposed transversely outwardly relative to the runners 81 and 82 by a distance e 2 as seen in FIG. as has been previously noted. In order to maintain a compact assembly. This is done so that each of the runners 81. Fuel injectors 86 are mounted in these portions and are disposed so as to spray fuel through discharge passages 87 formed therein which register with the cylinder head intake passages 45 at their inlet openings. indicated generally by the reference numeral 85 which is disposed adjacent the side where the runners meet the cylinder head inlet passages 45. 2 and 3 cylinders. counting from top to bottom. 82. The system for supplying fuel to the fuel injectors 86 will now be described and this includes. The manifold body formed by the runners 81. 4. 83 and 84 which forms the major portion of the induction system 47 is also formed with a injector receiving body portion. The fuel supply system for supplying fuel to the fuel injectors 86 includes a number of components mounted on the side of the engine Page 151 . Either affixed to or forming a portion of the housing 74 are a plurality of runner sections of the induction system 47. This assembly is affixed to the upper end of the assembly 73. Also. 82. the vapor separator chamber indicated by the reference numeral 78. the sections 81 and 82 are disposed relatively close to each other along the major side of the length of the cylinder block 32 where they then bend outwardly so as to meet up with and join the upper and lower cylinder head intake passages 45. It should be seen that these runners 83 and 84 are spaced further in the direction of the cylinder bore axis from the entry of the runners 81 and 82 into the plenum chamber volume 77. 83 and 84 will have substantially the same length while accommodating the difference in their configuration so as to permit them to be configured so as to keep a compact configuration while still maintaining the desired equal length for each runner. 5. Atmospheric air is admitted to the plenum chamber volume 77 through atmospheric inlet 80 in which a throttle valve is positioned. respectively.
2. the air flow through the manifold runners 81-84 will cool the fuel. It has been noted that spark plugs are fired from the magneto generator 69 and also that the fuel injectors 87 are electronically controlled. This conduit 96 terminates at a fitting 97 that delivers the fuel to a delivery passage 98 formed in the body 85. As may be seen in FIG. That is. Also. This protects these conduits and also assists in controlling the fuel temperature. 83 and 84. in turn. A return fitting 99 is provided at the upper end of the body 85 and supplies a return conduit 101 which extends transversely back across a passage 102 formed in the body 73 where it is supplied to a conduit in which a fuel pressure sensor 103 is provided. the plenum housing 74 insulates the ECU from the high heat of the engine. Fuel is drawn through the fuel filter 88 through a pair of conduits 91 and 92 to a low pressure pump 93. A number of sensors are incorporated in the engine for outputting signals to an ECU. Page 152 . Mounted within the cavity 78 is a high-pressure electrically driven pump 95 that pressurizes the fuel and then causes the fuel to flow through a conduit 95 which passes through the body 73 and which. 82. The upper end of the vapor separator cavity 78 and specifically the wall 76 is provided with a restricted opening 104 that permits the vapor that is accumulated to be mixed with the induction air and delivered to the engine so that it will not be discharged to the atmosphere. then delivers the fuel to a pressure conduit 96. This fuel enters the cavity 78 and is maintained at a suitable level by a float-operated valve (not shown). These components include a main fuel filter 88 that receives fuel from a remotely positioned fuel pump through a conduit 89. Fuel is then pumped to the vapor separator cavity 78 through a supply conduit 94. for example. Fuel pressure is regulated by a pressure regulator which may be a part of the sensor 103 or another element by dumping excess fuel back to the fuel supply system at an appropriate location. indicated generally by the reference numeral 105. This passage intersects the fuel injectors 86 and supplies fuel to them. to the vapor separator cavity 78. The ECU 105 is conveniently mounted in a cool location on the plenum chamber housing 74 on a pair of posts 106 so as to provide a cooling air gap there between.14 adjacent the fuel vapor separator cavity 78. The low pressure pump 93 is mounted on the crankcase 38 and may be driven by the crankshaft in any suitable manner. the conduits 96 and 101 are nested within the area beneath the manifold runners 81. The engine 14 is provided with a lubricating system of any known type and this lubricating system includes an oil filter 104 that is mounted on the side of the engine opposite the induction system 47 so as to facilitate access and servicing.
There is also provided as seen in FIG. 3 a knock sensor 108 and a cooling jacket temperature sensor 109 that is mounted in proximity to a cooling jacket 111 of the engine. as is well known in this art. 3 that communicates with one of the exhaust passages 52 so as to provide a signal indicative of the air fuel ratio of the engine. There also may be provided an intake air temperature sensor 115 and intake air pressure sensor 116 (FIG. from the foregoing description it should be readily apparent that the described construction provides a very compact and effective induction system for an engine which also permits its utilization as a vapor separator for the fuel injection system and its fuel supply circuit. A sensor 113 senses manifold temperature. Page 153 . 2) that is mounted on the belt case 67 in proximity to a magnetic portion 107 or other marker on the camshaft sprocket 66 so as to emanate a pulse signal indicative of the angular position of the camshaft and its number of revolutions in a given time. Other sensors may also be provided for engine control and those skilled in the art will readily understand where such sensors may be placed. In addition. the foregoing description is that of preferred embodiment of the invention and various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Liquid coolant is circulated through this cooling jacket and through a manifold cooling jacket 112. Of course. Also provided is an oxygen sensor 114 also shown in FIG. Thus. as defined by the appended claims. by passing some of the conduits through the plenum chamber volume the fuel can be cooled or at least prevented from becoming heated. 4) which are both mounted in the plenum chamber portion 77 of the housing 73.As noted a number of sensors are provided for sensing engine conditions and these include a timing sensor 106 (FIG.
Page 154 . PART III MODIFICATION: At any point in time when either the left or right engine is removed from the aircraft. Note: Modifications are allowed only if no cracks are found. replace cracked engine mount. APPROVAL: The technical content of this Service Bulletin has been shown to comply with the applicable Federal Aviation Regulations and is FAA approved. and each one-hundred (100) hours time in service there after until Part II or PART III of this service bulletin is accomplished. replacement with a new engine mount or modifications must be performed prior to returning the aircraft to service. PART II REPLACEMENT: If cracks are found during the inspection of PART I.ENGINE MOUNT INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE COMPLIANCE TIME: PART I INSPECTION: To coincide with the next regularly scheduled maintenance event. Note: Compliance with PART II at any time will relieve the repetitive inspection b requirement of PART I of this Service Bulletin for that particular engine mount. Compliance with PART III at any time will relieve the repetitive inspection requirement of PART I of the Service Bulletin for that particular engine mount.
To remedy this condition. It has been determined that cracks in the engine mount may develop at locations not addressed in Service Bulletin 1033. Comparative analysis demonstrates that the modifications described in this Service Bulletin should substantially improve the service life of the engine mount. gussets have been designed to reinforce the engine mount tubes in the area where cracks could potentially develop. It has been determined that cracks may develop at each of the engine mount flexible isolators. Service bulletin 1033 addressed inspection and repair of the upper left support tube near the engine mount flexible isolator. PART III of this service bulletin requires the installation of either a new engine mount or reinforcement gusset kit to the left and right engine mounts. If this condition exists and is left undetected. Remove upper and lower cowlings from the left and right engines and locate the four flexible isolators on each engine mount. 2. Page 155 . An investigation into the service history of the aircraft confirms that cracks may develop in high time aircraft at these locations. PART II of this service bulletin requires replacement of the engine mount(s). INSTRUCTIONS: PART I INSPECTION: 1. integrity of the engine mount may be compromised.PURPOSE: Computer-aided analysis techniques have identified specific locations on the engine mount that are fatigue critical. Clean the engine mount tubing in the area of the flexible isolators. PART I of this service bulletin requires repetitive inspection of both left and right engine mount tubes in the area of the flexible isolators.
Repeat this process at all solator locations described above for a total of eight locations. Install additional gussets in accordance with New Kit Note: If either right or left engine is removed from the aircraft for any reason. Make appropriate entry of compliance with PART II of this Service Bulletin. 2. compliance with either Part II or Part III of this Service Bulletin is mandatory prior to returning the aircraft to service. PART III MODIFICATION: 1. Note: Compliance with PART II at any time will relieve the repetitive inspection requirement of PART I for that particular engine mount. replace the affected engine mount with Piper Part Number 89361-016. 6) Make an appropriate logbook entry of compliance of PART I with this service bulletin for each repetitive inspection. Inspect the welded engine mount tubing at a point just aft of the flexible isolator. Using a 10x powered magnifying glass examine the circumference of the tubing for evidence of cracks. including overhaul. If no cracks are found. Part II REPLACEMENT: 1. If any cracks are noted on the tube at any point. remove the paint and perform a dye penetrant inspection. the engine mount must be replaced before further flight. This constitutes compliance with PART II of this Service Bulletin. 5. If the paint has chipped or peeled in this area.3. Page 156 . continue with repetitive one hundred (100) hours time in service inspection per the Compliance Time above. If any cracks are found on either engine mount. 4.
1 2 Engine Mount Assembly EFFECTIVITY DATE: This Service Bulletin is effective upon receipt. 2. Note: Compliance with PART III at any time will relieve the repetitive inspection requirement of PART I for that particular engine mount.Do not modify or install engine mounts that have cracks or that are not airworthy for any other reason. MATERIAL REQUIRED: PART II Piper Part Number Nomenclature Qty per engine Qty per aircraft Engine mount 1 2 PART III Piper Part Number Nomenclature Qty per engine Qty per aircraft Gusset Installation. Make an appropriate logbook entry indicating compliance with PART III of this Service Bulletin. Page 157 .
003 to 0. Positioning the tip of the indicator against the shaft will allow you to measure free play while the shaft is turned. Up and down shaft movement should be no more than 0. A turbo is a very delicately balanced assembly. The turbo may still spin freely. End play should be 0. To check bearing clearances. the damaged parts must be replaced. Turbos spin at speeds that are often in excess of 100. nicks or chips in the turbo wheel blades. the next step is to find out what is wrong with the turbo. Any sign of scraping on either the turbo blades or the housing means the bearings are shot and the turbo needs to be replaced or rebuilt.006 inches. and/or "eroded" (worn) blades. If it doesn't turn freely. One of the most common causes of poor turbo performance is bad shaft bearings which often results in rubbing or binding between the compressor and turbine wheels and their housings. if the turbocharger has varnished or coked bearings.001 oz.003 inches. The best way to check for bearing problems or contact between the housing and turbo wheels is to remove the intake or exhaust plumbing from the turbo (which ever is easier) for a peek inside. There's no way you can rebalance the rotating assembly. Most automotive turbocharger wheel assemblies are balanced to within . Another thing to check for is the presence of oil in either the compressor or exhaust housing. The added friction prevents the turbo from spooling up normally. This test may not reveal excessive clearances. An alternate technique for checking bearing clearances is to use a dial indicator with an offset probe that can be inserted into the turbo center housing through the oil supply or return port.001 to 0. worn blades or even nicked blades can be enough to throw the assembly out of balance. there's usually no need to remove or disassemble the turbo. Shaft seals at both ends of the wheel shaft normally keep the oil where it Page 158 .000 rpm.! A broken blade. If there is excessive play in the shaft bearings. the shaft will wobble allowing the wheels to scrape against their housings. so if there is any indication of damage. You should also spin the turbo by hand to feel for any roughness or binding. repairs are in order. Other problems to watch for are cracks. but the imbalance will prevent it from reaching maximum rpm and eventually pound the shaft bearings out-of-round.TURBOCHARGER INSPECTION Assuming the engine shows normal vacuum readings but the turbo shows low or no boost. reducing the turbo's speed and effective boost delivery. however. This technique will also allow you to peek inside the housing to check for fried oil on the shaft or housing. A dial indicator can be positioned against the shaft hub to check for bearing free play.
The oil oxidizes and forms coke deposits in the housing that then act like an abrasive to wear the bearings. Heavy grooving or pitting of the bearing surface usually indicates dirty oil. remove the oil return line and check it for obstructions by passing a stiff wire through it. TURBOCHARGER FAILURE: THE POST MORTEM If the turbo is bad. Oil leaks can also be caused by residue plugging up the oil return line. wobble or rubbing. inside the housing as the turbo undergoes a period of heat soak. oil starvation or oil coking. If oil is present in both housings. possibly due to inadequate oil filtration. installing an auxiliary oil cooler. Using a high temperature "turbo" oil or synthetic oil. Check for a low oil level. and during normal operation temperatures don't get hot enough to cause oil coking. unfiltered oil flows to the turbo and the rest of the engine. The bearings are oil cooled. In water-cooled turbos.belongs. The first thing to check is the condition of the shaft bearings. Once an oil filter becomes clogged and it's bypass valve opens. You need to determine the cause of death so the problem doesn't repeat itself. or by installing an aftermarket pressure reservoir that automatically maintains oil pressure for up to a minute after the engine is turned off. but the turbo shows no signs of binding. If the inside of the bearing housing resembles the bottom of a frying pan and is coated with black crusty deposits. oil coking was the cause of failure.000 miles can avoid oil breakdown and coking problems. The bearings are usually destroyed by either oil contamination. or low oil pressure (30 psi is the recommended minimum for most turbos). Melted or glazed bearings with metal transfer onto the shaft point to oil starvation. So if you find an accumulation of black crud inside the housing. coking is less of a problem provided the oil is changed regularly and you use a quality motor oil. and changing the oil every 3. oil can be pulled out of the bearing housing. Check for a plugged oil filter. But when the engine is shut off. The oil Page 159 . Oil starvation when the engine is shut off can be avoided one of two ways: by letting the engine idle for a minute or so after a hard run so the turbo has time to spool back down. Oil leaks are more common on the compressor side because that side of the turbo is constantly exposed to intake vacuum. But if either seals goes bad. better check the coolant hoses for a kink or restriction. you should always tear it down regardless of whether you're going to replace it or rebuild it. oil leaks or a restriction between the turbo and engine. temperatures can rise to 600 to 700 degrees F.
The shaft itself can be cleaned in solvent. Besides the possibility of leaving sand residue inside the housing where it could later damage the bearings. If the compressor blades are badly eroded. warped or scored. A bearing that's been pounded out-of-round. Taking the housing to a machine shop to have it "boiled out" in a hot solvent or caustic tank is probably the best way to clean it. Check for a missing. Doing so will only weaken it further. The bearing surfaces must be highly polished. The exhaust housing should be of nickel alloy to resist high temperature operation. sand blasting changes the surface texture which can lead to lubrication problems. Avoid using abrasives and don't sand blast. Do not attempt to straighten a bent wheel blade. or excessive bearing clearances. If you do decide to overhaul the turbo yourself. Cracks can be the result of metal fatigue. Ordinary engine degreaser won't remove the baked on oil deposits but spray-on gasket remover will. reducing Page 160 . not rough. Beware of cheap replacement housings made of ordinary cast iron. replacement will be necessary. Not only do you avoid the pitfalls of do-it-yourself rebuilding but you also get a warranty. badly corroded. so sand blasting is out. Glass beading is okay provided a fine bead is used and the housing is thoroughly cleaned afterwards. TURBOCHARGER OVERHAUL Installing a new or remanufactured unit is probably the safest way to repair a sick turbo. unfiltered air has been entering the intake system. Lastly check the condition of the housings. round and blemish free. One thing the experts recommend NOT doing is having the center housing sand blasted. torn or poor fitting air filter. If cracked. Dirty turbo wheels can be cleaned with solvent and a wire brush.reservoir will also pre-pressurize the turbo oil line to prevent dry starts. A bent blade upsets the aerodynamics of the wheel. one of the most difficult aspects of the job is getting the inside of the center housing spotless clean. The next thing to note is the condition of the compressor and turbine wheels. plan on replacing the shaft and turbine wheel. If the shaft bearing surfaces are not perfectly smooth. causing the wheel to explode when the turbo hits high rpm. but nicked bent or damaged blades can only be caused by foreign objects. cracked or broken is usually the result of an out-of-balance shaft and wheel assembly.
Worn turbine shafts can sometimes be repaired by grinding the shaft journal down and installing an oversized shaft bearing. When reassembling the turbo. Page 161 . Observing these simple precautions can make the difference between a successful repair and the embarrassment of making a second trip to the parts store. If this is the case. grit or unremoved crud can become the cause of a future relapse. and checked for proper fit and alignment. and priming the turbo oil supply before starting the engine. Some of the things that should always be done after rebuilding or replacing a turbo include changing the oil and oil filter. If the lip of either turbo wheel has been rubbing against the seal area on the center housing. cleanliness is absolutely essential. you may find a groove worn into the housing. it is cheaper to buy a new "turbo cartridge" (the center housing with both wheels and shaft preassembled) than it is to try to rebuild a damaged unit. A new compressor wheel may set you back $80 to $100 while a turbine wheel and shaft may run $180 to $200 or more. There's also the problem of rebalancing a repaired turbo wheel. or by building up the worn shaft journal with hard chrome and remachining it back to its original dimensions. so always replace any wheel that doesn't have perfect blades. checking the air filtration system for leaks or obstructions. spin the wheels to make sure the shaft turns freely and nothing rubs. In many instances. Regrinding and using an oversized bearing is cheaper than hard chroming. which if not done correctly. Cranking the engine for 10 to 15 seconds with the ignition coil disabled will pump oil to the turbo.pumping efficiency. Once the unit is together. If the compressor or turbine wheels are damaged. Any dirt. they must be replaced. plan on buying a new center housing. The shaft bearings must be lubricated with assembly lube.especially when you consider the "downside" risks of what might happen if a patched compressor wheel were to fail and spew shrapnel into your engine. There are a few experts who claim they can successfully repair damaged wheels by welding but for the do-it-yourselfer welding is out of the question -. New seals are another must as is torquing the compressor wheel to specs. A final check of clearances with the dial indicator is advised before reinstalling the unit on the vehicle. will flake off and cause a repeat failure.
Could be worn internal governor parts but this is rare. iii. 3..FLOAT TYPE CARBURETOR TROUBLESHOOTING All tests and settings for RPM. proper assembly or linkages and linkages are not bent. If the engine RPM stabilizes the gov or gov adjustment should be checked or reset or sensitivity adjustment changed. weak gov spring or bent or worn linkages. Surging A. Gov. and Compression are by the book. by holding steady. NO GUESSING. If variable speed carburetor . Try to stabilize engine RPM. If RPM does not stabilize. Leak Down. not “just about right” 1. If 2 Stroke. Set by good tachometer. check for proper linkage assembly.change both idle and top RPM 2. 1. 1. Governor i. make sure air vane is not binding. If constant speed carburetor – raise and lower within range Page 162 . the solid link between the gov arm and the carburetor throttle using your fingers or pliers. Change RPM up or down 50-100 RPM’s. 2. ii. Set RPM to proper setting according to spec. Valves.
damaged. Fresh fuel – proper fuel/oil mixture on 2 cycles 2. Engine Condition 1. Check for poor or intermittent spark with inline spark tester 6.use gravity feed 3. Warm up Time – 3 to 5 minutes 3. Is there outside air leaking into intake system? Gaskets and sealing surfaces 5. Check idle restrictor jet. Does using the choke help? Try hand choking if engine has primer 4. Inspect for clean drillings and if has tag material still on drilling.B. 8. replace carburetor or bowl kit Page 163 . Proper bowl nut. Fresh Fuel – proper fuel/oil mixture on 2 cycles 2.009 – exhaust . Check shutdown wires and connections for shorting C.012 5.. Fuel and Carburetion 1.008-. O-rings could be leaking on emulsion tube 9. Lastly. May need to check leak down and compression 4.011-. 7. (Has carburetor been updated?) 10. Proper Valve Clearance – right on not just close. bad drillings and clean. If has low oil shut down – unhook and retest 7. a. Is intake tube (if used) obstructed? Look inside 6. Proper fuel flow to carburetor . Proper carburetor. HM80-100 best set intake .
choking in warm weather in needed. LEV Engine with electric start ii. g. Below 70 not good. Getting spark. (Identified by squared off look andsilver manufacturing numbers on it (IE 1A 502) used only during production.004 on both valves Page 164 . Throttle must be opened when priming i. or poor spark. i. Not just spark. j. Fuel delivery to carburetor– try gravity feed procedure c. Engine condition (new or old) Leak down and compression. but good spark consistently d. Valve clearance must be . Unhook low oil shut down (when used) and retest h. Hard or no start a. If no spark. Compression should be 70 to 100 psi.2. Hand choke carburetor f. Make sure shut down system in not shorting out. could be Brazilian coil. Two cycles with primer. TVT Cold Hard or No Start i. Check spark during turn over with electric starter iii. Yes. Fresh fuel – proper fuel/oil mixture for 2 cycles b. Proper Priming ii. 60 bad e. Proper choking and priming.
Try manual choke with hand or fingers v. Are choke plates closing all the way? iv.ii. Are carburetor synchronized correctly – see manual vi. If no spark – disconnect ground out wires to each coil. Check compression – Should be 80 – 100 psi. Try with low oil shut down disconnected (if used) viii. 60-65 psi is not acceptable vii. Check proper RPM settings according to specs iii. (one at a time) Page 165 .
Probable cause No fuel to engine Corrective action Page 166 . Probable cause No fuel to engine Corrective action Reset throttle. clear engine of excess fuel and try another start. auxiliary pump on and operating. Probable cause Engine will not start Corrective action Check mixture control for prober position. Troubles No gauge flooded. Troubles With gauge pressure. tank fuel level. feed valves open.TROUBLES SHOOTING OF FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Troubles Pressure. fuel filters open.
Improper idle mixture adjustment. idle mixture too lean 2. replace worn elements of linkages Troubles Engine runs rough Page 1. 2. Remove nozzle and clean. restricted nozzle 2. linkage worn Corrective action 1. improper mixture 167 Probable cause . Nozzle air screens restricted. Readjust as described under adjustment system. if no fuel flow shows with metered fuel pressure on gauge. Troubles Rough idle. 2. Troubles Poor acceleration Probable cause 1. Corrective action 1. Probable cause 1. readjust as described under adjustments 2.Loosen one line at nozzle. replace the fuel manifold valve.
Check for restricted nozzle or fuel manifold valve. or call an authorized representative to adjust Troubles Low gauge pressure Probable cause 1. improper pump pressure replace. restricted flow to metering valve 2. May be worn fuel pump or sticking relief valve. remove and clean all nozzle 2.Corrective action 1. replace pump assembly Troubles Fluctuating gauge pressure Page 168 . replace the fuel pump assembly 3. check for possible contact with cooling shroud Troubles High gauge pressure Probable cause 1. clean or replace as required 2. restricted flow beyond metering valve 2. restricted recirculation passage in pump Corrective action 1. Check mixture control for full travel. mixture control level interference Corrective action 1. check mixture control setting 3. check for clogged fuel filters 2. inadequate flow from pump 3.
Drain the gauge line and repair the leak. Check auxiliary pump to be off. check for clogged ejector jet in yhe vapour separator cover. Clean nozzle assemblies or replace. Troubles Poor idle cut off Probable cause Engine getting fuel Corrective action 1. Replace manifold valve. no wires 2. clean only with solvent. Page 169 . fuel in gauge line leak at gauge connection Corrective action 1. If not cleared with auxiliary pump. check mixture control to be in full idle cut off 2.Probable cause 1. vapour in system excess fuel temperature 2. 3.
TROUBLE SHOOTING OF FUEL SYSTEM Page 170 .
Page 171 .
A good situational awareness is a great asset in this phase of troubleshooting. the same problem can give different symptoms in different conditions. A common mistake is to rely on unclear or vague descriptions of the symptom. This is different from hypothesizing. The person experiencing the symptom. Often. there are subtle events or symptoms which occur that someone else may miss. The best way to get a good read on the symptom is to experience it yourself. You don’t need to have mastery of all systems to be effective at this. This way you will find the problem and not create a different one. the old one will come back to haunt you. experienced personnel. especially if they are otherwise occupied flying the aircraft. Whereas. Do your best to emulate the same conditions and duplicate the problem. sit down with your systems knowledge (whatever the source) and go through the system operation step by step. This brings up the next important principle . Maintenance manuals. It is important to get information on as many other parameters as possible. hypothesizing is based upon educated guesses that presupposes that one is well educated. needs clear and definite instructions to troubleshoot when the symptom occurs again (provided safety of flight is not compromised). Accurate systems information can come from any number of sources. usually the pilot. Many things are better sorted out later. Sometimes it will be necessary to rely on secondhand descriptions of the symptons. SYSTEMS KNOWLEDGE Systems knowledge is somewhat similar to clarity of information in that good system information is a must when diagnosing a symptom. Speculation is where your mind sort of goes off without you and causes you to start working on things before a test has confirmed that what you are doing will actually fix the problem. if you end up creating a different one. training materials. It is then imperative that clear and concise information is exchanged both ways. Remember. in the shop.PISTON ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING CLARITY OF INFORMATION This is the first and most important principle. even ones that seem unrelated. Page 172 . or manufacturer customer service Y By DIAGNOSIS At this point. Avoid wasteful speculation.
A slight fuel smell in the exhaust pipe can usually tip you off that you need more prime. three Page 173 . One exception here is a totally sealed off induction. one of these things is missing. Use as specific of a test as possible. a group of problems that are generally the most common. the process will be much cheaper. and fire (timed spark). Start with the most inexpensive ones first. Fuel is a much more common culprit. Over priming an engine will prevent it from firing even once. Fuel may be running out the induction drains but the engine often still does not have enough fuel to start. This source of the no start problem is. however. List these possible causes and move to the next step. Lack of fuel can be just as puzzling. If no test indicates the source of the symptom then the dreaded shotgun may be pulled out. If you have access to these components without having to purchase them. 1. TESTING Start with the most likely and simple causes first and test to eliminate or confirm them. Don’t apply a test that involves too many components or you won’t narrow your field of suspects. Again. This would most likely occur after the engine has been removed from storage and someone forgot to remove the intake plug. Best method: one. Use wide openthrottle and mixture idle cutoff while cranking. rarely encountered. There are innumerable problems that can and do occur in piston engines.Note which component and situation would cause the symptoms you’re experiencing.Letting the engine sit for awhile also helps get rid of excessive fuel. NO START/HARD STARTING: There are three requirements to get an engine to start — fuel (in the right proportion). oxygen (air). The presence of a strong fuel smell in the exhaust pipe indicates a flooded engine. A note on the Teledyne Continental TSIO-360. limit the replacement of components to those which will affect your symptom. Moving the mixture to idle cutoff and throttle to wide open while cranking will solve this one whether you have a carbureted or injected engine. If the engine won’t run. is a time eater. Reevaluation may be needed after testing a suspected cause. This one. Even with a significant intake obstruction there will be at least enough air getting into the engine to get it to fire at an idle speed. There is. or have the ability to return them if not needed. What follows is an aid to help quickly troubleshoot six frequently encountered problems. Tests should be limited in effect to the suspect component. It may take a lot of shop time and shipping charges if it starts to go very far. however. Air is almost a given. one that will eliminate possible causes. We’ll call them the top six. Accurate information is essential throughout this process. however. These engines take a seemingly excessive amount of prime to start.
This is because of the grounding of the right and left main breaker points by the start switch when in the start position. This problem requires removal of the magneto(s) with the impulse coupling for repair. probably a broken main or flyweight return spring. Another common problem encountered is magneto timing. but you know the magneto is firing (don’t use your tongue). The engine employing the Shower of Sparks system will have a buzzing sound in the cabin whenever the starter switch is activated. A thorough preheat solves this one. These requirements are commonly achieved in two ways— the impulse coupling and the Bendix “Shower of Sparks. Know which system the aircraft has before attempting to start the engine. The magneto on a piston engine is designed with a start feature that retards the timing to prevent “kick back” and provides additional energy to the spark event. Consult the Pilots Operating Handbook or engine operators manual for specifics. If the Shower of Sparks unit is not buzzing. The absence of buzzing in the shower of sparks system. the probable cause is the magneto-to-engine timing 180 off. When the “flower pot” method is used 174 .Page second shot of prime and small bursts of the same while cranking. Hot starts can be troublesome if you’re not experienced with the procedures for the particular engine fuel system. If no firing by the engine is observed at any time. The last starting requirement can be a little more troublesome. This additional energy is required because of the slow cranking of the engine during starting. or the malfunction of the retard points in the magneto. The R & L main breaker points ground with the start switch engaged. The absence of the clicking in an impulse coupling engine denotes a problem with the impulse coupling. the mags are back in the “both” position. check the continuity and points in the retard system. When the start switch is returned to the normal position. a cylinder at or slightly after normal firing position may fire and even allow the engine to start. If the engine is very cold. Space doesn’t allow for the discussion of this problem here. The usual causes here are: improper retard point timing (Shower of Sparks system) or improper magneto to engine timing (Shower of Sparks and impulse couplings).) Since the engine is still turning at this instant. stiff oil can also prevent the flyweights from returning to “snap” the coupling. is accompanied many times by the occasional firing of the engine when you let up on the start switch but no firing when the start switch is engaged. before the piston reaches top center. look for these symptoms and their source problems. the unit needs repair or replacement. If there’s “buzz” but no spark. Kickback is caused by the start firing event happening too soon.” The engine with an impulse coupling will have a snapping sound while starting. If the engine has just shown up from the overhaul shop or maintenance has just been performed on the magneto. (This is also true of Shower of Spark systems with separate mag switches.
or tower in the distributor block) has a short or open. MISS/ROUGH RUNNING: The two most common sources of this symptom are ignition misfire and clogged fuel injector. (On the multiple point EGT check for a very early peak and a higher head temperature on one cylinder. Inaccurate timing can give excessive mag drops or high cylinder head temperatures. That plug circuit (plug. The miss is always apparent if the injector is fully clogged (or nearly so). A clogged injector will act very similar to the misfire. fine stream of water on each exhaust collector approximately one inch from the cylinder exhaust port. If the aircraft has the four or six point EGT/CHT. “Bullet plug” used to set top center with the “flower pot. While running with the noted miss or immediately after engine shutdown.” A cold cylinder exhaust stack just after shutdown indicates the malfunctioning plug or injector. Clean. note the cold cylinder. use a squirt gun or bottle and squirt a small. If not. the miss will show up while leaning the engine for cruise. The most common culprit is large plug gaps. A small amount of water squirted on the stack will steam and possibly boil. high tension lead. run the engine in the configuration with the noted miss (rich or leaned out) and note the cold cylinder the same as you would for a misfire. The cylinder with the miss will show up with a much colder exhaust collector at this point. Another common malfunction that is difficult to troubleshoot on the ground is the altitude miss. Trace the ignition lead back to the magneto with the miss. This is where a plug circuit will misfire only when the aircraft is at or above a certain altitude.it is not too difficult to set timing to before top center on the exhaust stroke instead of the compression stroke. shows up on the preflight mag check. run the engine in the configuration with the noted miss. the “shotgun” method should be used on the ignition system. Page 175 . The most common cause here is a dirty/bad spark plug or a chaffed ignition lead. you can find this one in the air. If the injector is partially clogged. The misfire most usually “Flower pot” for checking magneto to engine timing. Hint: If the aircraft is not equipped with a four or six point EGT/CHT or some of the probes aren’t working. and test all the plugs. This is also the preferred timing check method for Continental engines per TCM. run the engine on the magneto with the bad drop. 2. gap. If a four or six point EGT/CHT system is installed. To find the offending plug.) In either case.
This is because of the poor fuel atomization in very cold air. try these other sources. expect higher head temps on that cylinder for the next 30 to 50 hours of operation. HIGH CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE: You may have run into this with a partially clogged injector. Rough running of these engines during cruise in coldweather can sometimes be cured by flying with carb heat on to bring induction air temperatures back up to normal. Crossfire is when the electrical energy from a miss-fire finds a path of least resistance in one of the electrodes next to it. Another. A mag check while attempting to diagnose which magneto is miss/crossfiring can literally blow the exhaust system into pieces. can be magneto to engine timing. A carb air temp gauge is perfect for this malady. The classic birds’ nest is often a common culprit here too.Also. If all the head temps are high look for a more generalized problem. Advanced timing is generally characterized by smaller than normal mag drops and higher than normal cylinder head temperatures. Also. tracking. Some models of aircraft have different cowl flap rigging for different years and engines in the same model. Try pulling the carb heat on. Very often high altitude misses turn into crossfires. and cracks. Check for stiff or loose baffle seals. Page 176 . This is especially true of turbo-charged engines. other but less common sources are things such as improper E-gap (magneto internal timing) and weak rotating magnets or coils. A simple timing check will confirm or eliminate this one. Check the distributor block for cleanliness. check the cowl flaps for proper rigging. but less common cause of high cylinder head temps. Mag checks at even low cruise power settings will over temp most cylinder and exhaust components. Check for numerous gaps and holes in the baffling. If none of these are the problem. releaning (if altitude requires) and rechecking. 3. Baffling: Bad inter-cylinder or cylinder head baffling can cause localized cooling air loss. For these internal mag problems. If not. In very cold weather the O-470 will show bad mag checks (200-300 rpm drop). the magneto( s) must be removed and troubleshot on a test bench. A healthy starling can build a very effective air block in 15 to 30 minutes. A small air leak goes a long way in dropping the cooling air pressure and causing temperatures to rise. If a cylinder has recently been changed. test the ignition high tension lead harness with a high tension lead tester. Note of caution: Do not attempt to do in-flight mag checks for high altitude miss diagnosis. A note on bad mag checks for Cessna 180/182s.
Without an external damage indication. or cooling air blockage. cowl flap rigging. forcing more oil through the cooler. Loss of expanding medium is harder to pin down. In this case look for the common causes of both: bad or damaged baffling or its seals. External damage to a magneto caused by chaffing screw and aggravated by internal arcing and burning of the coil. and immediately fall off stack. As the oil gets hotter. HIGH OIL TEMP: High cylinder head temperatures and high oil temps often go together. The valve seat may also be in need of refacing. look for these common sources: Birds are culprits here. Rags or other debris also lodge here easily. the valve closes harder. When a congealed oil cooler does free up a near instantaneous rise in oil pressure and fall in oil temperature will be noted. The oil will get thick enough when bitterly cold to obstruct flow through the cooler. The easiest way to find out is replacement with one that is known to work properly. such as that pictured here. The oil cooler to baffling seal is also important. these can usually be found best by disassembly or bench check of the mags. A small amount of water squirted on firing cylinder’s exhaust stack will ball. the fix is replacement of the whole unit. or loss of the expanding medium (some sort of wax).3. If just the oil temp is high and cylinder head temps are normal. too. The fix here is the proper Page 177 . sizzle. In the winter the problem may be nothing more than a congealed oil cooler. This will cause the oil temperature to rise and the oil pressure to fall. Air going around instead of through the cooler cuts down on the volume and velocity of the flow through the cooler as well as the cooling air pressure in front of it. Dirty or excessive paint on the fins will slow heat conductivity and allow the temperature to rise more than normal also. This unit is a thermostatic valve that works much the same as the coolant thermostat in your car or truck. This one will be seen mostly on hot summer days where the cooler needs all the help it can get. A favorite spot for nests is the pockets formed above or in front of the oil cooler. The culprits here are abnormal wear of the valve face and seat. With either problem. A quick visual inspection will cue you to this culprit. mag timing. Another common source here is what’s called the “Vernatherm” or temperature bypass valve. The face will be worn on high time units but shouldn’t be gouging into the seat. An abnormal pattern for the valve face on the unit is obvious contact or wear on one side and not the other. Removal of the vernatherm is required to check. will often show up only at altitude as altitude misses. Cracked and burned coils.
This may be an indication of larger problems as noted in the next section. worn valve lifter bores. In these engines. and oil viscosity. The wrong oil grade for ambient temperatures or high oil temperatures will often cause low oil pressure. Excessive piston ring blowby will also elevate oil temperatures because of the hot gases escaping into the crankcase. Oil viscosity is affected by oil grade. This is most common on naturally aspirated engines that have been turbo-normalized by someone other than the engine manufacturer. engine internal clearances/ leakage. temperature and oil damage. The most common culprit here is debris under the oil pressure relief valve. An oil analysis and a look at the oil filter will usually cue you to internal engine problems from worn parts as the cause of this symptom. aggravated by hot turbochargers). Excessive clearances from worn bearings. Remove the valve and clean the face and seat. See the section on low cylinder compression for tips to troubleshoot this source. dropping the pressure. Oil can be damaged by excessive heat and/or excessive operating time before oil change.grade engine oil for ambient temperatures (consult the engine operators manual) and winter baffling for the oil cooler or possibly the whole engine. The two most common causes of this symptom are oil viscosity and internal clearances/leakage. or missing/loose internal oil passage plugs (just back from the engine shop) will cause a drop in oil pressure. but is an aggravating factor on some engines. Engines with standard volume oil pumps but high flow demands are very sensitive to viscosity and clearance/leakage factors. any change in flow demand. 4. bad prop oil transfer collars. All these factors will tend to thin the oil and cause a pressure drop. Any excessive internal leakage in the engine will also cause a drop in pressure even at normal operating temperatures. Page 178 . or leakage is directly reflected in the oil pressure when at normal operating temperature. worn oil pump gears. the oil pump may be hard pressed to deliver normal pressure when the viscosity gets lower (higher temperatures. This acts to hold the valve off it’s seat and bleed off oil. Oil pump volume is not something that we can change in the field usually. Some aircraft have flow restrictor orifices in the turbo supply line just to keep the oil pressure up. LOW OIL PRESSURE: The three most important factors that determine oil pressure in any given engine are: oil pump volume. Note the type of debris that was caught in the valve. clearance. If a higher volume oil pump is not a part of the package.
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The gas is passed through a nozzle to produce thrust for the turbojet.TYPES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES To move an airplane through the air. we have to use some kind of propulsion system to generate thrust. they share some parts in common. a compressor (cyan). The core is also referred to as the gas generator since the output of the core is hot exhaust gas. Turbine engines come in a variety of forms. While each of the engines are different. Because the compressor and turbine are linked by the central shaft and rotate together. and turbine are called the core of the engine. The most widely used form of propulsion system for modern aircraft is the gas turbine engine. The compressor. Page This page shows computer drawings of four different variations of a gas turbine or jet engine. this group of parts is called the turbomachinery. Each of these engines have a combustion section (red). 216 . burner. while it is used to drive the turbine (green) of the turbofan and turboprop engines. a turbine (magenta) and an inlet and a nozzle (grey). since all gas turbines have these components.
trucks and military tanks. The first and simplest type of gas turbine is the turbojet. gas turbine engines are also used in a wide variety of applications not related to aeronautics. Gas turbines can also be used to power ships. Connecting the main shaft of the engine to an electro-magnet will generate electrical power. In the late 1960's. turbofan. turboshaft powered race cars competed at the Indy 500. Because of their high power output and high thermal efficiency. TURBOJET ENGINE Most modern passenger and military aircraft are powered by gas turbine engines. In these applications. and turboprop engines are described on separate pages. the main shaft is connected to a gear box (much like the turboprop) and the resulting power plant is called a turboshaft engine. which are also called jet engines. How does a turbojet work? Page 217 . afterburning turbojet.The operation of the turbojet.
Most of the hot exhaust has come from the surrounding air. 100 pounds of air/sec is combined with only 2 pounds of fuel/sec. they call this part the intake. like one you would see on an airliner. (In England. In the burner a small amount of fuel is combined with the air and ignited. The compressor acts like many rows of airfoils. Instead of needing energy to turn the blades to make the air flow. But inlets come in many shapes and sizes depending on the aircraft's mission. the air enters the compressor. At the rear of the inlet. The turbine works like a windmill. At the exit of the compressor. A compressor is like an electric fan. the hot exhaust is passed through the turbine. (In a typical jet engine. The parts of the engine are described on other slides. with each row producing a small jump in pressure. Large amounts of surrounding air are continuously brought into the engine inlet.) We have shown here a tube-shaped inlet. the air is at a much higher pressure than free stream. which is probably a more accurate description.Page On this slide we show a computer animation of a turbojet engine. Here.) Leaving the burner. We have to supply energy to turn the compressor. the turbine extracts energy from a flow of gas by making the blades spin in 218 . we are concerned with what happens to the air that passes through the engine. since the compressor pulls air into the engine.
For a jet engine. Page A turbofan engine is the most modern variation of the basic gas turbine engine.the flow. In a jet engine we use the energy extracted by the turbine to turn the compressor by linking the compressor and the turbine by the central shaft. On this page. The fan and fan turbine are composed of many blades. thrust is created as described by the thrust equation. whose parts and operation are discussed on a separate page. In the turbofan engine. As with other gas turbines. since very little fuel is added to the stream. As with the core compressor and turbine. like the core compressor and core turbine. but there is enough energy left over to provide thrust to the jet engine by increasing the velocity through the nozzle. and are connected to an additional shaft. Most modern airliners use turbofan engines because of their high thrust and good fuel efficiency. we will discuss some of the fundamentals of turbofan engines. TURBO FAN To move an airplane through the air. All of this additional turbomachinery is colored green on the schematic. some of the fan 219 . Because the exit velocity is greater than the free stream velocity. there is a core engine. the exit mass flow is nearly equal to the free stream mass flow. the core engine is surrounded by a fan in the front and an additional turbine at the rear. thrust is generated by some kind of propulsion system. The turbine takes some energy out of the hot exhaust.
Page 220 How does a turbofan engine work? The incoming air is captured by the engine inlet. The air that goes through the fan has a velocity that is slightly increased from free stream. one "spool" for the core. where it is mixed with fuel and combustion occurs.blades turn with the shaft and some blades remain stationary. So a turbofan gets some of its thrust from the core and some of its thrust from the fan.) Some advanced engines have additional spools for even higher efficiency. Some of the incoming air (colored orange) passes through the fan and continues on into the core compressor and then the burner. as in a basic turbojet. The fan shaft passes through the core shaft for mechanical reasons. The hot exhaust passes through the core and fan turbines and then out the nozzle. The rest of the incoming air (colored blue) passes through the fan and bypasses. or goes around the engine. This type of arrangement is called a two spool engine (one "spool" for the fan. just like the air through a propeller. The ratio of the air that goes around the engine to the air that goes through the core is called the bypass ratio. .
Because the fuel flow rate for the core is changed only a small amount by the addition of the fan. the airplane inlet slows the air down from supersonic speeds. In fact. a turbofan generates more thrust for nearly the same amount of fuel used by the core. it can operate efficiently at higher speeds than a simple propeller. the air going into the engine must travel less than the speed of sound for high efficiency. Low bypass ratio turbofans are still more fuel efficient than basic turbojets. Because the fan is enclosed by the inlet and is composed of many blades. Therefore. Many low speed transport aircraft and small commuter aircraft use turboprop propulsion. On this page we will discuss some of the fundamentals of turboprop engines. That is why turbofans are found on high speed transports and propellers are used on low speed transports. thrust is generated with some kind of propulsion system. As Page 221 . The turboprop uses a gas turbine core to turn a propeller. They can then cruise efficiently but still have high thrust when dogfighting. Many modern fighter planes actually use low bypass ratio turbofans equipped with afterburners. Even though the fighter plane can fly much faster than the speed of sound. high bypass ratio turbofans are nearly as fuel efficient as turboprops. This means that a turbofan is very fuel efficient. TURBO PROP To move an airplane through the air.
a gas turbine core is used. High speed 222 There are two main parts to a turboprop propulsion system. which is connected to a drive shaft. There may be an additional turbine stage present. turboprops are used only for low speed aircraft like cargo planes. also shown in green. The exhaust velocity of a turboprop is low and contributes little thrust because most of the energy of the core exhaust has gone into turning the drive shaft.mentioned on a previous page. most of the energy of the exhaust is used to turn the turbine. The drive shaft. In the turboprop. . The core is very similar to a basic turbojet except that instead of expanding all the hot exhaust through the nozzle to produce thrust. is connected to a gear box. Propellers are very efficient and can use nearly any kind of engine to turn the prop (including humans!). The gear box is then connected to a propeller that produces most of the thrust. the core engine and the propeller. as shown in green on the diagram. How does a turboprop engine work? Page Because propellers become less efficient as the speed of the aircraft increases. propeller engines develop thrust by moving a large mass of air through a small change in velocity.
as well as tanks.transports usually use high bypass turbofans because of the high fuel efficiency and high speed capability of turbofans. A variation of the turboprop engine is the turboshaft engine. and even race cars in the late 1960's. the gear box is not connected to a propeller but to some other drive device. boats. Turboshaft engines are used in many helicopters. Page 223 . In a turboshaft engine.
JET ENGINE A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid to generate thrust in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets. pulse jets and pumpjets. In general. but noncombusting forms also exist. ramjets. Page 224 . most jet engines are internal combustion engines. rockets. turbofans.
In common usage, the term 'jet engine' generally refers to a gas turbine driven internal combustion engine, an engine with a rotary compressor powered by a turbine ("Brayton cycle"), with the leftover power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle. These types of jet engines are primarily used by jet aircraft for long distance travel. The early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use high-bypass turbofan engines which help give high speeds as well as, over long distances, giving better fuel efficiency than many other forms of transport. About 7.2% of the oil used in 2004 was ultimately consumed by jet engines.In 2007, the cost of jet fuel, while highly variable from one airline to another, averaged 26.5% of total operating costs, making it the single largest operating expense for most airlines Water jet For propelling boats; squirts water out the back through a nozzle Can run in shallow water, high acceleration, no risk of engine overload (unlike propellers), less noise and vibration, highly maneuverable at all boat speeds, high speed efficiency, less vulnerable to damage from debris, very reliable, more load flexibility, less harmful to wildlife Can be less efficient than a propeller at low speed, more expensive, higher weight in boat due to entrained water, will not perform well if boat is heavier than the jet is sized for Motorjet Most primitive airbreathing jet engine. Essentially a supercharged piston engine with a jet exhaust. Higher exhaust velocity than a propeller, offering better thrust at high speed Heavy, inefficient and underpowered. Examples include: Coandã-1910 and Caproni Campini N.1. Turbojet A tube with a compressor and turbine sharing a common shaft with a burner in between and a propelling nozzle for the exhaust. Uses a high exhaust gas velocity to produce thrust. Has a much higher core flow than bypass type engines Simplicity of design, efficient at supersonic speeds (~M2) A basic design, misses many improvements in efficiency and power for subsonic flight, relatively noisy. Low-bypass Turbofan
One- or two-stage fan added in front bypasses a proportion of the air through a bypass chamber surrounding the core. Compared with its turbojet ancestor, this allows for more efficient operation with somewhat less noise. This is the engine of high-speed military aircraft, some smaller private jets, and older civilian airliners such as the Boeing 707, the McDonnell Douglas DC-8, and their derivatives. As with the turbojet, the design is aerodynamic, with only a modest increase in diameter over the turbojet required to accommodate the bypass fan and chamber. It is capable of supersonic speeds with minimal thrust drop-off at high speeds and altitudes yet still more efficient than the turbojet at subsonic operation. Noisier and less efficient than high-bypass turbofan, with less static (Mach 0) thrust. Added complexity to accommodate dual shaft designs. More inefficient than a turbojet around M2 due to higher cross-sectional area. High-bypass Turbofan First stage compressor drastically enlarged to provide bypass airflow around engine core, and it provides significant amounts of thrust. Compared to the lowbypass turbofan and no-bypass turbojet, the high-bypass turbfan works on the principle of moving a great deal of air somewhat faster, rather than a small amount extremely fast. Most common form of jet engine in civilian use today- used in airliners like the Boeing 747, most 737s, and all Airbus aircraft. Quieter due to greater mass flow and lower total exhaust speed, more efficient for a useful range of subsonic airspeeds for same reason, cooler exhaust temperature. Less noisy and exhibit much better efficiency than low bypass turbofans. Greater complexity (additional ducting, usually multiple shafts) and the need to contain heavy blades. Fan diameter can be extremely large, especially in high bypass turbofans such as the GE90. More subject to FOD and ice damage. Top speed is limited due to the potential for shockwaves to damage engine. Thrust lapse at higher speeds, which necessitates huge diameters and introduces additional drag. Rocket Carries all propellants and oxidants on-board, emits jet for propulsion Very few moving parts, Mach 0 to Mach 25+, efficient at very high speed (> Mach 10.0 or so), thrust/weight ratio over 100, no complex air inlet, high compression ratio, very high speed (hypersonic) exhaust, good cost/thrust ratio, fairly easy to test, works in a vacuum-indeed works best exoatmospheric which is kinder on vehicle structure at high speed, fairly small surface area to keep cool, and no turbine in hot exhaust stream. Needs lots of propellant- very low specific impulse — typically 100-450 seconds. Extreme thermal stresses of combustion chamber can make reuse harder. Typically requires carrying oxidiser on-board which increases risks. Extraordinarily noisy.
Ramjet Intake air is compressed entirely by speed of oncoming air and duct shape (divergent), and then it goes through a burner section where it is heated and then passes through a propelling nozzle Very few moving parts, Mach 0.8 to Mach 5+, efficient at high speed (> Mach 2.0 or so), lightest of all air-breathing jets (thrust/weight ratio up to 30 at optimum speed), cooling much easier than turbojets as no turbine blades to cool. Must have a high initial speed to function, inefficient at slow speeds due to poor compression ratio, difficult to arrange shaft power for accessories, usually limited to a small range of speeds, intake flow must be slowed to subsonic speeds, noisy, fairly difficult to test, finicky to keep lit. Turboprop (Turboshaft similar) Strictly not a jet at all — a gas turbine engine is used as powerplant to drive propeller shaft (or rotor in the case of a helicopter) High efficiency at lower subsonic airspeeds (300 knots plus), high shaft power to weight Limited top speed (aeroplanes), somewhat noisy, complex transmission Propfan/Unducted Fan Turbojet engine that also drives one or more propellers. Similar to a turbofan without the fan cowling. Higher fuel efficiency, potentially less noisy than turbofans, could lead to higher-speed commercial aircraft, popular in the 1980s during fuel shortages Development of propfan engines has been very limited, typically more noisy than turbofans, complexity Pulsejet Air is compressed and combusted intermittently instead of continuously. Some designs use valves. Very simple design, commonly used on model aircraft Noisy, inefficient (low compression ratio), works poorly on a large scale, valves on valved designs wear out quickly Pulse detonation engine Similar to a pulsejet, but combustion occurs as a detonation instead of a deflagration, may or may not need valves Maximum theoretical engine efficiency Extremely noisy, parts subject to extreme mechanical fatigue, hard to start detonation, not practical for current use Air-augmented rocket Essentially a ramjet where intake air is compressed and burnt with the exhaust from a rocket Mach 0 to Mach 4.5+ (can also run exoatmospheric), good efficiency at Mach 2 to 4 Similar efficiency to rockets at low speed or exoatmospheric, inlet difficulties, a relatively undeveloped and unexplored type, cooling difficulties, very noisy, thrust/weight ratio is similar to ramjets. Scramjet Similar to a ramjet
without a diffuser; airflow through the entire engine remains supersonic Few mechanical parts, can operate at very high Mach numbers (Mach 8 to 15) with good efficiencies Still in development stages, must have a very high initial speed to function (Mach >6), cooling difficulties, very poor thrust/weight ratio (~2), extreme aerodynamic complexity, airframe difficulties, testing difficulties/expense Turborocket A turbojet where an additional oxidizer such as oxygen is added to the airstream to increase maximum altitude Very close to existing designs operates in very high altitude, wide range of altitude and airspeed, Airspeed limited to same range as turbojet engine, carrying oxidizer like LOX can be dangerous. Much heavier than simple rockets. Precooled jets / LACE Intake air is chilled to very low temperatures at inlet in a heat exchanger before passing through a ramjet and/or turbojet and/or rocket engine. Easily tested on ground. Very high thrust/weight ratios are possible (~14) together with good fuel efficiency over a wide range of airspeeds, mach 0-5.5+; this combination of efficiencies may permit launching to orbit, single stage, or very rapid, very long distance intercontinental travel. Exists only at the lab prototyping stage. Examples include RB545, SABRE, ATREX. Requires liquid hydrogen fuel which has very low density and heavily insulated tankage.
FUNCTION OF JET ENGINE COMPONENTS
The major components of a jet engine are similar across the major different types of engines, although not all engine types have all components. The major parts include:
Cold Section: o Air intake (Inlet) — The standard reference frame for a jet engine is the aircraft itself. For subsonic aircraft, the air intake to a jet engine presents no special difficulties, and consists essentially of an opening which is designed to minimise drag, as with any other aircraft component. However, the air reaching the compressor of a normal jet engine must be travelling below the speed of sound, even for supersonic aircraft, to sustain the flow mechanics of the compressor and turbine blades. At supersonic flight speeds, shockwaves form in the intake system and reduce the recovered pressure at inlet to the compressor. So some supersonic intakes use devices, such as a cone
or ramp, to increase pressure recovery, by making more efficient use of the shock wave system. Compressor or Fan — The compressor is made up of stages. Each stage consists of vanes which rotate, and stators which remain stationary. As air is drawn deeper through the compressor, its heat and pressure increases. Energy is derived from the turbine (see below), passed along the shaft. Bypass ducts much of the thrust of essentially all modern jet engines comes from air from the front compressor that bypasses the combustion chamber and gas turbine section that leads directly to the nozzle or afterburner (where fitted).
Common: o Shaft — The shaft connects the turbine to the compressor, and runs most of the length of the engine. There may be as many as three concentric shafts, rotating at independent speeds, with as many sets of turbines and compressors. Other services, like a bleed of cool air, may also run down the shaft. Diffuser section: - This section is a convergent duct that utilizes Bernoulli's principle to decrease the velocity of the compressed air to allow for easier
The various components named above have constraints on how they are put together to generate the most efficiency or performance. The performance and
ignition. And, at the same time, continuing to increase the air pressure before it enters the combustion chamber. Hot section: o Combustor or Can or Flameholders or Combustion Chamber — This is a chamber where fuel is continuously burned in the compressed air. o Turbine — The turbine is a series of bladed discs that act like a windmill, gaining energy from the hot gases leaving the combustor. Some of this energy is used to drive the compressor, and in some turbine engines (ie turboprop, turboshaft or turbofan engines), energy is extracted by additional turbine discs and used to drive devices such as propellers, bypass fans or helicopter rotors. One type, a free turbine, is configured such that the turbine disc driving the compressor rotates independently of the discs that power the external components. Relatively cool air, bled from the compressor, may be used to cool the turbine blades and vanes, to prevent them from melting. o Afterburner or reheat (chiefly UK) — (mainly military) Produces extra thrust by burning extra fuel, usually inefficiently, to significantly raise Nozzle Entry Temperature at the exhaust. Owing to a larger volume flow (i.e. lower density) at exit from the afterburner, an increased nozzle flow area is required, to maintain satisfactory engine matching, when the afterburner is alight. o Exhaust or Nozzle — Hot gases leaving the engine exhaust to atmospheric pressure via a nozzle, the objective being to produce a high velocity jet. In most cases, the nozzle is convergent and of fixed flow area. o Supersonic nozzle — If the Nozzle Pressure Ratio (Nozzle Entry Pressure/Ambient Pressure) is very high, to maximize thrust it may be worthwhile, despite the additional weight, to fit a convergentdivergent (de Laval) nozzle. As the name suggests, initially this type of nozzle is convergent, but beyond the throat (smallest flow area), the flow area starts to increase to form the divergent portion. The expansion to atmospheric pressure and supersonic gas velocity continues downstream of the throat, whereas in a convergent nozzle the expansion beyond sonic velocity occurs externally, in the exhaust plume. The former process is more efficient than the latter.
e.. Air intakes Subsonic inlets Pitot intakes are the dominant type for subsonic applications. At low airspeeds.85. A subsonic pitot inlet is little more than a tube with an aerodynamic fairing around it. rest). The highest fuel efficiency for the overall vehicle is thus typically at Mach ~0. overall size. Beginning around Mach 0. important here is air intake design. amount of bypass air used. for example fuel/distance efficiency of a supersonic jet engine maximises at about mach 2. At zero airspeed (i. and many other factors. shock waves can occur as the air accelerates through the intake throat. radially.85. let us consider design of the air intake. number of exhaust stages. air approaches the intake from a multitude of directions: from directly ahead. metallurgy of components. At high flight speeds the streamtube is smaller. Careful radiusing of the lip region is required to optimize intake pressure recovery (and distortion) throughout the flight envelope. number of compressor stages (sets of blades).efficiency of an engine can never be taken in isolation. the streamtube approaching the lip is larger in cross-section than the lip flow area. fuel type. or even from behind the plane of the intake lip. with excess air spilling over the lip. For the engine optimisation for its intended use. where the bypass air is introduced. whereas at the intake design flight Mach number the two flow areas are equal. For instance. cases Page 232 . whereas the drag for the vehicle carrying it is increasing as a square law and has much extra drag in the transonic region.
Basically. the greater the loss in stagnation pressure across the shock wave). 2) Conical (3-dimensional) and oblique shock waves (2D) are angled rearwards. like the bow wave on a ship or boat. A sharp-lipped version of the pitot intake. they are weaker than the equivalent normal shock wave and. For a given inlet Mach number. it remains supersonic throughout. Normal shock waves tend to cause a large drop in stagnation pressure. Microscopically the air molecules smash into the subsonic crowd of molecules like alpha rays. A detached Page 233 . performs quite well at moderate supersonic flight speeds. the higher the supersonic entry Mach number to a normal shock wave. which continues in the new direction. until another flow disturbance is encountered downstream.e. These form sharp fronts and shock the flow to subsonic speeds. and radiate from a flow disturbance such as a cone or a ramp. the lower the subsonic exit Mach number and the stronger the shock (i. Conical and oblique shock waves turn the flow. described above for subsonic applications.Pitot intake operating modes thin round intake lip with thick round intake lip with internal compression due mostly external compression to space constrains of the nacelle Supersonic inlets Supersonic intakes exploit shock waves to decelerate the airflow to a subsonic condition at compressor entry. There are basically two forms of shock waves: 1) Normal shock waves lie perpendicular to the direction of the flow. although the flow slows down.
An early US supersonic fighter. The more reflections before the flow gets subsonic. below the shock-on-lip flight Mach number. excluding pitots: a) exploit a combination of conical shock wave/s and a normal shock wave to improve pressure recovery at high supersonic flight speeds. thereby reducing the resultant overall shock losses. Consequently. b) have a design shock-on-lip flight Mach number. However. Conical shock wave/s are used to reduce the supersonic Mach number at entry to the normal shock wave. which reduces the intake airflow. the intake capture area is less than the intake lip area.normal shock wave forms just ahead of the intake lip and 'shocks' the flow down to a subsonic velocity. which is reflected multiple times in the inlet. the better pressure recovery More advanced supersonic intakes. An unswept lip generate a shock wave. causing the streamline approaching the lip to be deflected by the presence of the cone/ramp. Page 234 . the F-100 Super Sabre. Depending on the airflow characteristics of the engine. thus enabling the streamtube capture area to equal the intake lip area. it may be desirable to lower the ramp angle or move the cone rearwards to refocus the shockwaves onto the cowl lip to maximise intake airflow.e. causing a larger percentage decrease in stagnation pressure (i. where the conical/oblique shock wave/s intercept the cowl lip. poorer pressure recovery). the shock wave becomes stronger. the shock wave angle/s are less oblique. However. used such an intake. as flight speed increases.
because it is determined by the flight Mach number and intake incidence/yaw. This discontinuity is overcome by the normal shock moving to a lower cross-sectional area in the ducting. This weakens the shockwave. there is a reduction in the corrected airflow of the LP compressor/fan. improving the overall intake pressure recovery. Many second generation supersonic fighter aircraft featured an inlet cone. However. which was used to form the conical shock wave. but (at supersonic conditions) the corrected airflow at the intake lip remains constant. if the engine is throttled back. so that the flow at compressor/fan entry is always subsonic. Page 235 . the absolute airflow stays constant. to prevent the conical/oblique shock waves being disturbed by the normal shock being forced too far forward by engine throttling. to decrease the Mach number at entry to the shockwave. for example. whilst the corrected airflow at compressor entry falls (because of a higher entry pressure). Excess intake airflow may also be dumped overboard or into the exhaust system. So. This type of inlet cone is clearly seen at the very front of the English Electric Lightning and MiG-21 aircraft.c) are designed to have a normal shock in the ducting downstream of intake lip.
Compressors Page 236 .
the airflow around the stalled compressor can reverse direction violently. As with aeroplane wings in some conditions the blades can stall. Many compressors are fitted with anti-stall systems in the form of bleed bands or variable geometry stators to decrease the likelihood of surge. Unfortunately. If this happens. the compressor operates somewhere along the steady state running line. this operating line is displaced during transients.Axial compressors Compressor stage GE J79 Axial compressors rely on spinning blades that have aerofoil sections. At a given throttle condition. Another method is to Page 237 . similar to aeroplane wings. Each design of a compressor has an associated operating map of airflow versus rotational speed for characteristics peculiar to that type (see compressor map).
g. these stages are often replaced by a single centrifugal unit. connected in series. Another design consideration is the average stage loading.split the compressor into two or more units. Page 238 . impeller stress considerations limit the pressure ratio that can be employed in high overall pressure ratio engine cycles. operating on separate concentric shafts. Although in isolation centrifugal compressors are capable of running at quite high pressure ratios (e. Very small flow compressors often employ two centrifugal compressors. the rear stages on smaller units are too small to be robust. Although large flow compressors are usually all-axial. This can be kept at a sensible level either by increasing the number of compression stages (more weight/cost) or the mean blade speed (more blade/disc stress). 10:1). Consequently.
however. Combustor configurations include can. Since the turbine cannot withstand stoichiometric temperatures (a mixture ratio of around 15:1). Air used for combustion is considered to be primary airflow. Great care must be taken to keep the flame burning in a moderately fast moving airstream. If the metal were Page 239 . The secondary airflow is ported through many small holes in the burner cans to create an blanket of cooler air to insulate the metal surfaces of the combustion can from the flame. as efficiently as possible. while excess air used for cooling is called secondary airflow.05. causing the original compressor to throttle-back aerodynamically to a lower pressure ratio than datum. whereas airflows through jet engines are considerably faster than this. Stress considerations. annular. Combustors typically employ structures to give a sheltered combustion zone called a flame holder. may limit the shaft speed increase. and can-annular. This implies a higher high pressure shaft speed. Combustors Combustion chamber GE J79 Flame fronts generally travel at just Mach 0. to maintain the datum blade tip Mach number on the rear compressor stage. some of the compressor air is used to quench the exit temperature of the combustor to an acceptable level (an overall mixture ratio of between 45:1 and 130:1 is used).Increasing overall pressure ratio implies raising the high pressure compressor exit temperature. at all throttle conditions.
These engines generally lack flame holders and combustion occurs at much higher temperatures. The turbine needs fewer stages than the compressor. However. there is no such thing as turbine surge or stall. there being no turbine downstream. being a non 'duct engine' have quite different combustor systems. mainly because the higher inlet temperature reduces the deltaT/T (and thereby the pressure . it would eventually burn through. and the mixture ratio is usually much closer to being stochiometric in the main chamber. liquid rocket engines frequently employ separate burners to power turbopumps. Rocket engines.subjected to the direct flame for any length of time. and these burners usually run far off stochiometric so as to lower turbine temperatures in the pump Turbines Turbine Stage GE J79 Page 240 Because a turbine expands from high to low pressure.
ratio) of the expansion process. The discs must be specially shaped to withstand the huge stresses imposed by the rotating blades. Other solutions are improved materials and/or special insulating coatings. Engines intended for extended use with afterburners often have variable nozzles and other details. prevent the turbine blades and vanes from melting in a very high temperature and stress environment. Consequently bleed air extracted from the compression system is often used to cool the turbine blades/vanes internally. or combination impulse-reaction shapes. jet engines do not consume all the oxygen in the air ('run stoichiometric'). They take the form of impulse. however this gains significant thrust. however. Improved materials help to keep disc weight down Afterburners (reheat) Turbofan fitted with afterburner Due to temperature limitations with the gas turbines. Afterburners burn the remaining oxygen after exiting the turbines. which can be useful. Designers must. but usually do so inefficiently due to the low pressures typically found at this part of the jet engine. reaction. Page 241 . The blades have more curvature and the gas stream velocities are higher.
Many military combat engines incorporate an afterburner (or reheat) in the engine exhaust system. resulting in some of the expansion to atmospheric pressure taking place downstream of the throat (i.Nozzles Afterburner GE J79 The primary objective of a nozzle is to expand the exhaust stream to atmospheric pressure. Simple convergent nozzles are used on many jet engines. and use the heat of combustion to accelerate the jet to high speed so as to efficiently propel the vehicle. For airbreathing engines. the nozzle throat area must be increased. then there is a net rearward momentum gain to the air and there will be a forward thrust on the airframe. if the fully expanded jet has a higher speed than the aircraft's airspeed. additional (pressure) thrust will come from the imbalance between the throat static pressure and atmospheric pressure. Although much of the gross thrust produced will still be from the jet momentum. to Page 242 . in the jet wake.e.8:1) a convergent nozzle will choke. If the nozzle pressure ratio is above the critical value (about 1. When the system is lit. smallest flow area).
At high nozzle pressure ratios. Some modern Page 243 . Concorde. to allow most of the expansion to take place against the inside of a nozzle to maximise thrust. As such. though is also used in high-speed bombers such as the B-1B. to cope with the wide variation in nozzle pressure ratio encountered in flight and engine throttling. which allows the exhaust to form a convergent-divergent shape. the two nozzles dilate. Advantages of the ejector nozzle are relative simplicity and reliability. F-15. F-111. some jet engines (notably rockets) incorporate a convergent-divergent nozzle. Disadvantages are average performance (compared to the other nozzle type) and relatively high drag due to the secondary airflow. As the aircraft speeds up. the airflow constricts the exhaust to a convergent shape. Although more complex than the ejector nozzle. Notable aircraft to have utilized this type of nozzle include the SR-71. Variable Exhaust Nozzle. the exit pressure is often above ambient and much of the expansion will take place downstream of a convergent nozzle. Consequently. it is employed primarily on high-performance fighters such as the F-14.accommodate the extra exhaust volume flow. it has significantly higher performance and smoother airflow. This further increases the weight and cost of such an installation. on the GE F404-400 low-bypass turbofan installed on a Boeing F/A-18 Hornet The simpler of the two is the ejector nozzle. which creates an effective nozzle through a secondary airflow and spring-loaded petals. A variable throat area is achieved by moving a series of overlapping petals. so that the turbomachinery is unaware that the afterburner is lit. which approximate the circular nozzle cross-section. and Saab Viggen For higher performance. which is inefficient. This type uses overlapping. However. F-16. At subsonic speeds. speeding the exhaust gasses past Mach 1. More complex engines can actually use a tertiary airflow to reduce exit area at very low speeds. hydraulically adjustable "petals". when such a device is used on a turbojet engine it has to be a complex variable geometry device. unlike the fixed con-di nozzle used on a conventional rocket motor. it is necessary to use an iris nozzle.
the ram rise in the intake increases nozzle pressure ratio to the point where the throat becomes choked (M=1. to control the fan working line. nozzle on the bypass (or mixed exhaust) stream. Under these circumstances.01 area ratio). the throat area dictates the fan match and being smaller than the exit pushes the fan working line slightly towards surge. convergent-divergent. rocket motor con-di nozzles have a much greater area ratio (exit/throat) than those fitted to jet engines. pulls the fan working line slightly away from surge.0). At higher flight speeds. At low flight speeds the nozzle is unchoked (less than a Mach number of unity).iris nozzles additionally have the ability to change the angle of the thrust (see thrust vectoring). but these are usually of fixed geometry. Iris vectored thrust nozzle Rocket motors also employ convergent-divergent nozzles. as part of its overall design specification as a aerospace interceptor for high-altitude bomber interception. so the exhaust gas speeds up as it approaches the throat and then slows down slightly as it reaches the divergent section. At the other extreme. Because of the much higher nozzle pressure ratios experienced. the nozzle exit area controls the fan match and. Consequently. Page 244 . being larger than the throat. since fan surge margin is much better at high flight speeds. This is not a problem. The nozzle acts as if it has variable geometry. some high bypass ratio civil turbofans use an extremely low area ratio (less than 1. The Convair F-106 Delta Dart has used such a nozzle design. to minimize weight. where conventional nozzle design would prove ineffective.
which is even lighter and stronger. To improve its malleability titanium is often alloyed with other metals such as nickel and aluminum. Often. is utilized in the most critical engine components. while the outer exhaust duct is made from composites—synthetic fibers held together with resins. first created in sufficiently pure form for commercial use during the 1950s. it is thus made of a titanium alloy. lightweight. corrosion-resistant. All three metals are prized by the aerospace industry because of their relatively high strength/weight ratio. which must endure the most intense heat of the engine. and certain materials have been developed to provide these and other desirable traits. thermally stable components are essential to the viability of any aircraft design. while the high pressure section nearer the intense heat of the combustor is made of nickel and titanium alloys better able to withstand extreme temperatures. The intake fan at the front of the engine must be extremely strong so that it doesn't fracture when large birds and other debris are sucked into its blades. Although fiberglass was used for years. consist of nickel-titaniumaluminum alloys. The intermediate compressor is made from aluminum. its extreme hardness renders it strong when subjected to intense heat. The Manufacturing Page 245 Process . The combustion chamber is also made of nickel and titanium alloys. While it is very difficult to shape. The thrust reverser consists of titanium alloy. and the turbine blades. Titanium. The inner duct of the exhaust system is crafted from titanium.MATERIALS USED FOR GT ENGINE COMPONENTS Strong. it is now being supplanted by Kevlar. both the combustion chamber and the turbine receive special ceramic coatings that better enable them to resist heat.
then heating and stamping it to precise specifications (in addition to rendering the metal malleable.000 parts. Called powder metallurgy. When removed. Building components—fan blade In jet engine manufacture. notched wheel. Today.Building and assembling the components of a jet engine takes about two years. It must be extremely strong and free of even minute imperfections. this cavity is filled with a titanium honeycomb. Compressor disc The disc. a more sophisticated method of producing discs is being used by more and more manufacturers. To increase the strength of the final product. situated at the front of the engine. heat also helps to fuse hairline cracks). it consists of pouring molten metal onto a rapidly rotating turntable that breaks the metal into millions of microscopic droplets that are flung back up almost immediately Page 246 Turbine blades are made by forming wax copies of the blades and then immersing the copies in a ceramic slurry bath. The research and development phase is so protracted because the engines are so complex: a standard Boeing 747 engine. as these could easily develop into fractures under the tremendous stress of engine operation. the various parts are made individually as part of subassemblies. . however. For a long time. After each copy is heated to harden the ceramic and melt the wax. for example. after a design and testing period that can take up to five years for each model. with a hollow cavity in the center. molten metal is poured into the hollow left by the melted wax. the subassemblies then come together to form the whole engine. the most popular way to manufacture the disc entailed machine-cutting a metal blank into a rough approximation of the desired shape. One such part is the fan blade. Each fan blade consists of two blade skins produced by shaping molten titanium in a hot press. resembles a big. each blade skin is welded to a mate. contains almost 25. the solid core to which the blades of the compressor are attached.
the blades are machined to their final shape. The resulting powder is very pure because it solidifies too quickly to pick up contaminants.000 pounds per square inch). To accomplish this. Turbine disc and blades The turbine disc is formed by the same powder metallurgy process used to create the compressor disc. In the next step. mixing it with fuel and burning it in the combustion chamber. The case is then sealed and heated under high pressure (about 25. This combination of heat and pressure fuses the metal particles into a disc. titanium is alloyed to increase its ductility—its ability to formed into shapes. Vibrated.A jet engine works by sucking air into one end. the alloy from which the blades will be formed is poured into a ceramic mold. the droplets' temperature suddenly plummets (by roughly 2. and cooled. the powder is packed into a forming case and put into a vacuum. As they leave the table. the vacuum guarantees that no air pockets develop. and then expelling it with great force out the exhaust system. It is then heated before being poured into several discrete.120 degrees Fahrenheit—1. Combustion chamber Combustion chambers must blend air and fuel in a small space and work for prolonged periods in extreme heat. compressing it. is still used to form the compressor blades. because they are subjected to even greater stress due to the intense heat of the combustor that lies Page 247 . are made by a somewhat different method than that used to form compressor blades. Compressor blades Casting. In this process. heated in a furnace. and very complex. an extremely old method.000 degrees Celsius—in half a second). The disc is then shaped on a large cutting machine and bolted to the fan blades. segment molds. however. due to the table's spinning. When the mold is broken off. causing them to solidify and form a fine-grained metal powder. and welded together before being mounted on the engine. allowed to cool. Molds. Turbine blades. the powder sifts down until it is tightly packed at the bottom of the case.
it is removed from the mold and immersed in a ceramic slurry bath. copies of the blades are formed by pouring wax into metal molds. the entire engine is ready to be put together. Next. on a fixture that will allow the operator to manipulate the engine easily during build up. An engine is typically built in a vertical position from the aft end forward. parallel lines of tiny holes are formed in each blade as a supplement to the interior cooling passageways. if the grains are aligned correctly. The next and final stages in preparing turbine blades are machine-shaping and either laser drilling or spark erosion. while the outer duct and the nacelle (the engine casing) are formed from Kevlar. forming a ceramic coating about . The metal grains in the blade are now aligned parallel to the blade by a process called directional solidifying. The internal air cooling passages within each blade are also formed during this stage of production. First.25-inch (. desired shape through a machining process. the blade is much less likely to fracture. in which carefully controlled sparks are permitted to eat holes in the blade. Exhaust system The inner duct and the afterburners of the exhaust system are molded from titanium. The metal grains assume the correct configuration as they cool following their removal from the ovens. Assembly begins with bolting the high pressure turbine (that Page 248 . Molten metal is now poured into the hollow left by the melted wax. the blade is honed to the final. Once each wax shape has set.just in front of them. The holes are formed by either a small laser beam or by spark erosion. Each cluster is then heated to harden the ceramic and melt the wax. The grain direction is important because the turbine blades are subjected to so much stress. After these three components have been welded into a subassembly. Final assembly Engines are constructed by manually combining the various subassemblies and accessories. First. The solidifying process takes place in computer-controlled ovens in which the blades are carefully heated according to precise specifications.63centimeter) thick.
components and assemblies are inspected for dimensional accuracy. Throughout the entire process of building an engine. One method is to apply a fluorescent liquid over the entire surface of a part. wiring. Dimensional inspections are undertaken in many different ways. it will never fly commercially. This robot can determine the weight of a blade and place it appropriately for a balanced assembly. analyzing. accessories. The first engine built is always dedicated to quality testing. the engine is ready to be shipped to the aircraft manufacturer. and joining a turbine blade to its hub. airborne debris (such as birds). The main drive shaft connecting the low pressure turbine to the low pressure compressor and fan is then installed. lengthy flights. Next. the first one built is designated a test engine. After the final subassembly. the exhaust system. One common method is CNC inspection. One process that is used to build a balanced turbine assembly utilizes a CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) robot capable of selecting. Quality Control As production begins on a newly designed engine. where the plumbing. Once the turbines and combustion chamber have been assembled. After the liquid has migrated into any cracks or marks. has been attached. These include extreme weather conditions. thus completing the engine core. Page 249 . the excess is removed. Under an ultraviolet light any surface imperfections that could cause premature engine failure will illuminate. the high and low pressure compressors are attached. Parts are also inspected for material flaws. and material integrity. and numerous experiments are run to test its response to the various situations the engine model will encounter during its service life. and repeated starts. the combustion chamber is fastened to the turbines.closest to the combustor) to the low-pressure turbine (that furthest from the cumbustor). A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) will inspect key features of a part and compare them to the designed dimensions. The fan and its frame comprise the forward most subassembly. responsible workmanship. and they are connected next. and aerodynamic shell of the plane will be integrated.
and flight tests. previously tested or not. A static test checks the systems (such as electrical and cooling) without the engine running. Stationary operating tests are conducted with the engine mounted on a stand and running. all rotating subassemblies are dynamically balanced. The balancing process is much like spin-balancing the tire on your car. Flight testing entails a comprehensive exam of all the systems. stationary operating tests. Page 250 . in a variety of different conditions and environments. Functional testing of a finished engine takes place in three stages: static tests. Prior to final assembly. The rotating subassemblies and the completed engine core are computer "spun" and adjusted to insure that they rotate concentrically.All rotating assemblies must be precisely balanced to insure safe extended operation. Each engine will continue to be monitored throughout its service life.
rocket motors do not have ram drag. a combination of the two sources. as the net engine thrust is the same as if the gas were emitted with the velocity c-v. the thrust characteristics of a rocket motor are different from that of an air breathing jet engine. (In practice parts of the exhaust may be faster than others. a vehicle gets the same thrust if it outputs a lot of exhaust very slowly. Therefore.c here. do not have an intake. Thrust The motion impulse of the engine is equal to the fluid mass multiplied by the speed at which the engine emits this mass: I=mc where m is the fluid mass per second and c is the exhaust speed. or more commonly. v. In other words. So the thrust is actually equal to Page 251 . Jet engines make their jet from propellant from tankage that is attached to the engine (as in a 'rocket') or from ingesting an external fluid (very typically air) and expelling it at higher speed.) However. the fluid moves towards it. which provides the bulk of the fluid exiting the exhaust. creating an opposing ram drag at the intake: mv Most types of jet engine have an intake. The forces on the inside of the engine needed to create this jet give a strong thrust on the engine which pushes the craft forwards. when a vehicle moves with certain velocity v. c. the oxidizer and fuel both being carried within the vehicle. but it's the average momentum that matters. Conventional rocket motors. however. Consequently.PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF GT ENGINES All jet engines are reaction engines that generate thrust by emitting a jet of fluid rearwards at relatively high speed. the gross thrust of the nozzle is the net thrust of the engine. and thrust is independent of speed. The jet engine with an intake is only useful if the velocity of the gas from the engine. or a little exhaust very quickly. and thus the important quantity is called the effective exhaust speed . is greater than the vehicle velocity.
Energy efficiency Dependence of the energy efficiency (ç) upon the vehicle speed/exhaust speed ratio (v/c) for air-breathing jet and rocket engines Energy efficiency (ç) of jet engines has two main components. even though overall energy efficiency ç is simply: ç = çpçc For all jet engines the propulsive efficiency is highest when the engine emits an exhaust jet at a speed that is the same as.S = m (c-v) This equation implies that as v approaches c. but all engines have a designed limit on this. cycle efficiency (çc). and also that the vehicle can't accelerate past its exhaust velocity as it would have zero thrust. a greater mass of fluid must go through the engine to continue to accelerate. the vehicle velocity as this gives the smallest residual kinetic energy. or nearly the same as. and propulsive efficiency (çp)-how much of the energy ends up in the vehicle body rather than being carried away as kinetic energy of the jet.how efficiently the engine can accelerate the jet. The exact formula for airbreathing engines moving at speed v with an exhaust velocity c is given in the literature as: is Page 252 .
And for a rocket:  In addition to propulsive efficiency. Although efficiency plummets with speed. Heat engine efficiency is determined by the ratio of temperatures that are reached in the engine to that they are exhausted at from the nozzle. greater distances are covered. Cycle efficiency is highest in rocket engines (~60+%). Page Fuel/propellant consumption 253 Specific impulse as a function of speed for different jet types with kerosene fuel (hydrogen Isp would be about twice as high). however airframes become inefficient at supersonic speeds . it turns out that efficiency per unit distance (per km or mile) is roughly independent of speed for jet engines as a group. another factor is cycle efficiency. essentially a jet engine is typically a form of heat engine. the practical combustion temperatures and nozzle efficiencies are much lower. Cycle efficiency in turbojet and similar is nearer to 30%. which in turn is limited by the overall pressure ratio that can be achieved. as they can achieve extremely high combustion temperatures and can have very large. energy efficient nozzles.
the less fuel is used to compensate for drag due to the lift needed to carry the engine weight.587 29.A closely related (but different) concept to energy efficiency is the rate of consumption of propellant mass. specific impulse and effective exhaust velocity are strictly proportional.2 (wet) RollsConcorde Royce/Snecma M2 cruise Olympus 593 CF6-80C2B1F Boeing 747turbofan 400 cruise General Electric sea level CF6 turbofan Thrust-to-weight ratio 11.696 330 453 800 1900 3012 5950 Effective exhaust velocity (m/s) 3240 4423 7877 18. since the propellant is a fuel and the source of energy.307 SFC in Isp in g/(kN·s) s 309 225 127 53.553 58.9 7. They all measure the same thing. but mostly is a function of engine construction technology.195 0. whereas specific fuel consumption is inversely proportional to the others. and this means that a high energy propellant gives better propellant efficiency but lower energy efficiency. . In rocketry.5 1. SFC in lb/(lbf·h) 10.000 Engine Thrust-to-weight ratio Page 254 The thrust to weight ratio of jet engines of similar principles varies somewhat with scale.605 0. the propellant is also the exhaust.8 17.9 1.700 115. Specific impulse or Effective exhaust velocity. the lighter the engine.400 Engine type NK-33 rocket engine scenario vacuum Space SSME rocket engine Shuttle vacuum Ramjet M1 SR-71 at J-58 turbojet M3.8 33. the better the thrust to weight is.1 8.95 4. Clearly for a given engine. Propellant consumption in jet engines is measured by Specific Fuel Consumption. For airbreathing engines such as turbojets energy efficiency and propellant (fuel) efficiency are much the same thing.
12 RD-180 rocket engine 73. but are useful for comparison.66 Comparison of types Comparative suitability for (left to right) turboshaft.0 with reheat J-58 (SR-71 Blackbird jet engine) 5. When the plane speed exceeds this limit. Turboprops obtain little thrust from jet effect.speed. m/s. This low speed limits the speed of any propeller driven airplane. Vertical axis displays engine efficiency.Concorde's Olympus 593 4. They are gas turbine engines that have a rotating fan that takes and accelerates the large mass of air but by a relatively small change in speed. Horizontal axis . low bypass and turbojet to fly at 10 km altitude in various speeds.4 NK-33 rocket engine 136. Page 255 .2 Space shuttle's SSME 73.
Rocket engines have extremely high exhaust velocity and thus are best suited for high speeds (hypersonic) and great altitudes. the thrust and efficiency of a rocket motor improves slightly with increasing altitude (because the back-pressure falls thus increasing net thrust at the nozzle exit plane). than the pure jets. Low bypass turbofans have the mixed exhaust of the two air flows. At any given throttle. but they emit it at the much higher speeds possible with a de Laval nozzle.4 (0. at the 10 km altitude. This is why they are suitable for supersonic and higher speeds. The thrust of such engine is S = m1 (c1 . Page 256 . For instance. but at higher speeds than the turboshafts and propellers in general. Such engines are effective at lower speeds. However.4 times the speed of sound).v) + m2 (c2 . turboshafts are most effective at about Mach 0. being blown from the both exhausts. turboprops are very efficient. low bypass turbofans become more effective at about Mach 0.propellers no longer provide any thrust (c-v < 0). because they accelerate a large mass of air. Rocket engines are more efficient than even scramjets above roughly Mach 15. turbojets and other similar engines accelerate a much smaller mass of the air and burned fuel.75 and turbojets become more effective than mixed exhaust engines when the speed approaches Mach 2-3.v) Where m1 and m2 are the air masses. running at different speeds (c1 and c2). whereas with a turbojet (or turbofan) the falling density of the air entering the intake (and the hot gases leaving the nozzle) causes the net thrust to decrease with increasing altitude.
In computer modeling terms noise from a moving aircraft can be treated as a line source. This of course later breaks down into turbulence. even modest reduction s in exhaust velocity will see a large reduction in Jet Noise. the lower speed exhaust jets emitted from engines such as high bypass turbofans are the quietest. military jets and rockets inherently need to have supersonic exhaust at top speed. so these vehicles are especially noisy even at low speeds. The high velocity jet leaving the back of the engine has inherent shear layer instability (if not thick enough) and rolls up into ring vortices. Noise is due to shockwaves that form when the exhaust jet interacts with the external air. However.although high bypass-ratio turbofans do have considerable Fan Noise. The intensity of the noise is proportional to the thrust as well as proportional to the fourth power of the jet velocity. Aircraft Gas Turbine engines (Jet Engines) are responsible for much of the aircraft noise during takeoff and climb. with advances in noise reduction technologies .ENGINE NOISE Much of the noise in propeller aircraft comes equally from the propellers and aerodynamics. The mechanical sources produce narrow band high intensity peaks relating to the rotational speed and movement of the moving parts. Helicopter noise is aerodynamically induced noise from the main and tail rotors and mechanically induced noise from the main gearbox and various transmission chains. The majority of engine noise is due to Jet Noise . Therefore since engines for supersonic vehicles such as Concorde.the airframe is typically noisier during landing. whereas the fastest jets are the loudest. The SPL associated with engine noise is proportional to the jet speed (to a high power) therefore. Generally then. Although some variation in jet speed can often be arranged from a jet engine (such as by throttling back and adjusting the nozzle) it is difficult to vary the jet speed from an engine over a very wide range. Page 257 .
As Aerojet downsized. leading to the designation of a Superfund site. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets. ramjets. located 15 miles (24 km) east of downtown Sacramento. pulse jets and pumpjets. groundwater sampling data revealed a plume of contamination extending northwest under Carmichael. The remaining research and development sections of Aerojet are currently organized into the Aerospace and Defense division (ADS). notably pharmaceutical companies. or selling off undeveloped land. In 2003. testing and disposal methods led to toxic contamination of both the land and groundwater in the Rancho Cordova area. Solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform and rocket fuel by-products such as NNitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and perchlorate were discovered in drinking water wells near Aerojet in 1979. MANUFACTURING PROCESS: Aero jet’s manufacture. Aerojet Real Estate was "more direct". It owns approximately 12. Their massive investment in chemical mixing equipment used to build their solid fuel rockets was later leased to third parties. under the name Aerojet Fine Chemicals. solid. and air-breathing engines for strategic and Page 258 . leasing buildings. The division was later sold. They continue to develop and produce liquid. turbofans. Under state and federal enforcement orders. many of their industrial plants were idled. Aerojet has also conducted a number of removal actions for onsite soils. and sludges. Since then. In general. liquids. Aerojet installed several systems on the borders of its property to pump out and treat contaminated groundwater.600 acres (51 km²) of land. and the company looked for ways to capitalize them. two State agencies and the Environmental Protection Agency have been working with Aerojet to ensure that the company cleans up pollution caused by its operations at the site.JET ENGINE ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESS A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid to generate thrust in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. rockets. most jet engines are internal combustion engines but noncombusting forms also exist.
5 kW Hall effect thruster electric propulsion system based on technology licensed from the Busek Corporation. is now certified for flight for a variety of commercial and Page 259 Aerojet. Aerojet is under contract to Lockheed Martin to provide the first two shipsets of the new thruster system for the next generation Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) system. and integrated propulsion subsystems. large solid boosters. attitude control systems. upper stage engines. a popular choice for improving spacecraft efficiency in orbit. satellite propulsion.for use on large. Most recently. and interceptors required for missile defense. Aerojet Qualifies High Power Electric Propulsion System: The electric propulsion system. a GenCorp company.tactical missiles. and warhead assemblies used in precision weapon systems and missile defense.5 kW Hall Thruster electric propulsion system . as well as airframe structures required on the F-22 Raptor aircraft and fire suppression systems for military and commercial vehicles. high-power communications satellites. precision strike missiles. Product applications for defense systems include strategic and tactical missile motors. an Air Force program. Aerojet successfully qualified a 4. Their space-related products include liquid engines for expendable and reusable launch vehicles. .the highest power flightqualified Hall propulsion system in the world . maneuvering propulsion systems. has announced the successful qualification test of its 4.
000 lbs. Page 260 . Those savings could exceed 2. vice president and general manager of Aerojet Redmond Operations. Electric propulsion test facility." said Robert Peha. Aerojet is under contract to Lockheed Martin to provide the first two shipsets of the new thruster system for the next generation Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) system. Aerojet qualified the Hall System during a 5.600 hour life test at its Redmond.greatly improving launch vehicle flexibility and spacecraft on-orbit capability. Aerojet will ensure dramatic cost savings for spacecraft.government programs. By demonstrating such significant gains in performance and operational life. an Air Force program. "The successful qualification of the Aerojet Hall Thruster means the highest powered. Wash.while conventional chemical thruster performance is measured in minutes. of fuel . most efficient Hall propulsion system is now available in the United States and is ready for flight. The Hall Thruster is an electric propulsion system that provides operational lifetime somewhat similar to a light bulb measured in thousands of hours .
TURBINE FUEL SYSTEMS The purpose of a turbine engine fuel system is basically the same as a reciprocating engine fuel system. a fuel heater is having an approved landing weight that is less than the takeoff weight. filter devices. A turbine fuel system consists of tanks. a fuel control unit. Most large turbine aircraft fuel systems include central refueling provisions. valves. Page Most turbine fuel systems also include a warning annunciate for low fuel quantity and low fuel pressure conditions. In addition. turbine fuel systems require a few additional components. transfer. and a means of transferring fuel between tanks. because of the type of fuel used. pumps. a special valve is installed to allow emergency fuel dumping. However. Such a fuel system is known as a cross feed system and it allows fuel to be 261 . lines. gauges. and fuel nozzles. and meter fuel to a turbine engine in the proper amount and at the right pressure. A turbine fuel system must store.
On the other hand. Pretties a commonly used additive which contains both anti-icing and anti-microbial agents. the high viscosity also allows turbine fuels to hold water and solid material that does not easily settle out. the additives are poured into the fuel tanks just before refueling. and bacteria which tend to form slime or matted waste inside fuel tanks. fuel additives are premixed in the fuel by the distributor. However. the appropriate quality of additives is metered into the fuel while refueling the aircraft. Except for very low temperatures. If metering is not available. is identified by name and by colored bands painted or decaled around the pipe at intervals along its length.fed to any engine from any tank. the potential for fuel icing or microbial growth exists. However. Quite often. Any time water is present in fuel. Because of this. anti-microbial agents kill the microbes. Approved fuel and fuel Additives for each turbine engine are found in the aircraft operator's manual or Type Certificate Data Sheet. These micro-organisms Can accumulate and clog filters and fuel lines as well as create corrosive compounds that corrode fuel cells. fungi. Page 262 . when fuels are supplied without additives. a cross feed system provides a means of balancing the fuel load and maintaining aircraft stability. As a general rule. anti-icing additives help prevents water that is entrained in fuel from freezing. This way. In addition. This allows the fuel to act as a lubricant in pumps and fuel control units. The type and amount of additive used must be approved by the aircraft manufacturer in order to maintain the fuel system's airworthiness. the turbulence created by the refueling process sufficiently mixes the additive with the fuel. many aircraft and engine manufacturers recommend the use of anti-icing and anti-microbial fuel additives. turbine fuels are much more viscous than reciprocating fuels.
a turbine engine fuel metering device. The main components of a typical turbine engine fuel metering system include a fuel control unit and fuel nozzles. Due to the inertia of the main turbine and the large changes in airflow associated with power changes. a rich blowout can occur. the power output of a turbine engine varies with the amount of air that is drawn into the compressor and the amount of heat that is generated in the combustion section. Must schedule the proper amount of fuel to the engine to obtain a given power output. For example. On the other hand. Page 263 . Based on this. if an engine is accelerated too rapidly. and an excessive amount of fuel is scheduled into the combustors before the main turbine has time to accelerate. If you recall from your earlier studies on turbine engines. when an engine is decelerated and the fuel flow is decreased more rapidly than the airflow through the engine. a turbine engine fuel metering device must control fuel flow and engine acceleration and deceleration rates. turbine engines do not respond rapidly to abrupt power lever movements. You should also recall that the amount of heat produced in the combustors is determined by the amount of fuel that is scheduled into the engine. In other words. they must meter fuel to a turbine engine for reliable ground and air operations. an incombustible fuel/air mixture could result and cause what is known is a lean die-out. For these reasons.TURBINE ENGINE FUEL METERING: Turbine engine fuel metering devices have the same purpose as their reciprocating engine counterparts.
This ratio represents 15 pounds of combustor primary air to one pound of fuel. In order to perform its fuel metering functions. The reason for this is that the heat energy per pound of fuel is a constant value regardless of fuel temperature. responds by adjusting fuel flow to the engine. engine rpm. as the temperature of turbine fuel increases. The FeU meters fuel in accordance with the power lever position to provide the precise amount of fuel necessary for the desired thrust. Turbine engine fuel controls are designed to meter fuel by weight rather than by volume. A typical fuel control unit is an engine-driven accessory that meters fuel using hydro mechanical. Fuel control units meter the correct amount of fuel into the combustion section to obtain an optimum air-to-fuel mixture ratio of 15:1 by weight. many fuel control units incorporate several automatic functions to help prevent flameouts. or FeU. If you recall from Section B. On the other hand. its volume also increases. a fuel control provides the precise fuel flow needed. Today.FUEL CONTROL UNITS: When the engine operator makes a power setting with the cockpit controls. If you may recall. Page 264 . Based on the detected parameter information. and over-speed conditions. compressor inlet air temperature and pressure. By the same token. or electronic forces. a fuel control unit monitors several engine operating parameters including power lever position. In addition. hydro-pneumatic units are used on several turboprop engines. and burner or compressor discharge pressure. while the heat energy per unit volume of fuel varies. hydro mechanical and electronic fuel control units are used on most turbojet and turbofan engines. as the temperature of turbine fuel decreases. a mixture ratio of 15:1 is the theoretically perfect mixture for combustion. its volume decreases. hydro pneumatic. over-temperature occurrences. the fuel control unit.
HYDROMECHANICAL: A typical hydro mechanical fuel control unit is divided into a fuel metering section and a computing section. Page 265 .
and a pressure regulating valve.The fuel metering section consists of a fuel pump. Page 266 . to provide a positive means of stopping the flow of fuel to the engine for engine shut down. a pressure regulating valve is installed in parallel with the main metering valve. a pressure regulating valve. the computing section consists of a speed sensitive control. To begin. must be maintained. In order to properly meter fuel by weight. a main metering valve. In addition. or drop. Additional components include a servo valve that controls the rate of engine acceleration and deceleration. boost pump fuel is directed to the main fuel pump which sends unpressurized fuel to the main metering valve. A typical metering valve consists of a tapered valve that meters the fuel flow to the combustors based on power lever position and the pressure at the engine inlet and within the burners. a typical fuel metering section utilizes a positive displacement fuel pump. and a fuel shutoff valve. it becomes metered fuel and a pressure differential is created across the metering valve. On the other hand. FUEL METERING SECTION: The primary purpose of the fuel metering section of a hydro mechanical fuel control unit is to meter the appropriate amount of fuel to the combustion section at the correct pressure. and two bellows that adjust fuel flow based on burner and inlet air pressure. a single metering valve. To understand how the fuel metering section works. a fuel shutoff valve is provided downstream from the main metering valve. As unmetered fuel flows through the opening created by the metering valve. that responds to the position of the power lever and the speed of the engine. In order to do this. To do this. a constant pressure differential. or governor.
A pressure regulating valve is similar to a pressure relief valve in that a spring-loaded valve controls the amount of fuel that is bypassed back to the inlet of the fuel pump. However. a pressure regulating valve utilizes a diaphragm that is exposed to pump pressure on one side and metered fuel pressure on its opposite side. in order to maintain a constant pressure differential across the metering valve. the pressure regulating valve senses the pressure drop across the metering valve and is able to maintain a pre-determined pressure drop based on the spring pressure. Page 267 . This way.
To do this. During engine operation. smooth commands to reposition the main metering valve. more fuel flows to the engine to increase the power output.COMPUTING SECTION: The computing section of the fuel control is responsible for positioning the metering valve to obtain the appropriate power output and control the rate of acceleration and deceleration. creating an under-speed condition. This action forces the tops of the Flyweight’s inward. it moves to the left and forces the metering Valve to open. Page 268 . The pilot servo valve is a hydraulic dampener which transforms sudden throttle movements into slow. forward movement of the power lever causes the spring cap to slide down the pilot servo valve rod and compress the flyweight speeder spring. a typical computing section utilizes a speed sensitive governor. and two pressure sensitive bellows. Any time the metering valve is opened further. As the slider moves down the inclined plane of the multiplying linkage. the fuel in the pilot servo valve is displaced from top to bottom causing the slider to move down. a servo valve. When this occurs.
Page 269 .As power output increases. The increased rotational speed increases the centrifugal force acting on the flyweights causing them to return to an upright position. engine speed also increases causing the governor drive to rotate faster.
This helps to prevent fuel from boiling and fouling the system with carbon due to heat absorption after engine shutdown. to schedule fuel. Furthermore. A starting flow control unit also is utilized in this type of fuel control and is installed between the main metering valve and fuel nozzles. and an Nz governor are also used in this type of fuel control unit. there are two types of Page 270 . The propeller of a free-turbine type of turboprop engine is driven by Nz and. Therefore. most modern turbofan engines utilize an electronic engine control. and reducing maintenance costs. a properly functioning EEC can prolong engine life by preventing over-temperature and over-speed occurrences. The starting flow control unit ensures the correct fuel pressure to the nozzles and provides a means of draining residual fuel from the fuel manifolds when the engine is shutdown. the only way a modern turbofan engine can realize its optimum designed efficiency is if the fuel is precisely scheduled to the engine while several engine parameters are monitored. In fact. A hydro pneumatic fuel control differs from hydro mechanical fuel control in that a hydro-pneumatic fuel control utilizes a pneumatic computing section that determines fuel flow rates based on the position of the power lever. an N1governor. scheduling the proper amount of fuel to the engine became more important. reducing operator workload.HYDRO-PNEUMATIC: As mentioned earlier. hydro-pneumatic fuel controls are often used on turboprop engines. In addition to its ability to monitor and precisely meter fuel. ELECTRONIC: As turbine engines advanced in technology. propeller rpm is controlled by the Nz governor. N1 rpm. an EEC offers the benefit of saving fuel. functions of the governors and pneumatic computing section are interdependent. compressor ditto governors. therefore. Today. increasing reliability. The N1 governor controls compressor turbine speed while the Nz governor controls the power turbine speed. A starting flow control unit consists of a casing which contains a ported plunger that slides in a ported sleeve. or EEC. A rack and pinion assembly converts rotational movement of the input lever into linear motion for moving the plunger. Both governors sense compressor discharge air and are connected to the pneumatic computing section. To obtain the monitoring and control needed.
On the other hand. the supervisory engine control system and the fullauthority control system. In addition. the EEC begins operating as a limiter to limit the mount of fuel that goes to the engine. the electronic control monitors several engine operating parameters and adjusts the fuel control unit to obtain the most effective engine operation based on the position of the power lever. some supervisory EECs may be used primarily as an engine speed and temperature limiting control. an aircraft operator can manually revert to the hydro mechanical control whenever it is deemed necessary. For example. acceleration. idle. a warning light illuminates in the cockpit to warn the aircraft operator that the EEC is no longer inputting information to the fuel control unit. if a supervisory EEC should malfunction. In fact. Page 271 . With this type of system. SUPERVISORY EEC: A supervisory EEC consists of an electronic control and a conventional hydro mechanical fuel control unit. and shutdown. deceleration. the supervisory EEC used on a Rolls Royce RB-211 works on a hydro mechanical schedule until the engine is accelerated to near full engine power. However. With this type of system. As a safety feature.electronic engine controls used. most EECs also limit an engine's operating speed and temperature to prevent over-speed and over-temperature occurrences. In addition. once the engine nears its maximum rotational speed and operating temperature. the electronic engine control adjusts the fuel control unit as necessary to maintain the selected EPR as the aircraft climbs or as atmospheric conditions change. control automatically reverts back to the hydro mechanical fuel control. the hydro mechanical fuel control unit controls most engine operations including starting. once the operator sets the power lever to obtain a specific engine pressure ratio (EPR). By the same token.
In most cases. In addition. total inlet air pressure and temperature. A typical FADEC system consists of a redundant. turbine exhaust pressure and temperature. This input information is analyzed by the EEC and then a series of commands are issued to a set of actuators that control engine operating parameters. all FADEC systems are fully redundant and. aircraft altitude. the EEC receives input on engine speed (N1and Nz). the aircraft operator simply places the power lever in a specific position to obtain a given EPR.Full-AUTHORITY EEC: Page A full-authority digital engine control. two-channel EEC that can pull information from either channel. therefore. fuel and oil temperature. fuel flow rate. and burner pressure. stator vane angle. throttle lever position. On aircraft equipped with a FADEC system. performs virtually all the functions necessary to support engine operation during all phases of flight. bleed-air status. 272 . eliminate the need for a hydro mechanical fuel control unit. or FADEC.
Manual trimming procedures vary widely between engine models. An engine change. If you recall. as mentioned earlier. TURBINE FUEL CONTROL MAINTENANCE: Page Turbine engine fuel control repairs in the field consist of control replacement or occasional field adjustments. In addition. a calibrated tachometer must be installed to read Nz rpm. you should take time to review the specific procedures in the engine's maintenance manual. an EEC consists of two redundant channels that send and receive data. Once the instrumentation is installed. In addition. the aircraft should be pointed 273 . To provide a high degree of reliability. anyone channel can take information from the other channel. Another example is when wear and tear on engine control linkages cause misalignment between the cockpit and engine. In addition. therefore. A typical trimming procedure requires you to install calibrated instruments for reading turbine discharge pressure or EPR. engines that are equipped with an EEC are usually more fuel efficient. and the EEC automatically accelerates or decelerates the engine to the EPR desired. the process of adjusting a turbine engine fuel control is commonly referred to as trimming the engine. since an EEC closely monitors and controls the engine operating parameters so that maximum thrust is obtained for a given amount of fuel. adjustments are limited to idle and maximum speed adjustments. fuel control change. This greatly reduces pilot workload as well as under-speed and over-speed occurrences. power supply. and actuators. A fuel control may also need to be retimed when deterioration of engine efficiencies occur as service time takes its toll. before you attempt to trim an engine. For example. sensors. or throttle linkage adjustments for proper control cushion and spring back are all examples which require trimming procedures. and after such maintenance tasks as prescribed by the manufacturer. the EEC maintains the selected EPR as the aircraft changes altitude or ambient conditions change. memory. Furthermore. Each channel consists of its own processor. In addition. FADEC systems are designed with several redundant and dedicated subsystems. The primary purpose for trimming a fuel Trim checks are completed whenever engine thrust is suspect.or power output.
However. This is required to correct performance readings to standard sea-level conditions. If an over adjustment is made. will produce a low trim setting. Page 274 . the trim should be decreased below target values. elevated compression and turbine discharge pressures will result which. and standard temperature and pressure. it is typically accomplished by turning a screw type adjustment on the fuel control unit. If trimming of either the idle or maximum settings is necessary. However. observe the turbine discharge or EPR readings to determine how much trimming is necessary. The ideal conditions for trimming a turbine engine are no wind. if the velocity of the wind blowing into the intake is too great. most manufacturers recommend that in the fuel control.into the wind. To obtain a temperature reading it is common practice to hang a thermometer in the shade of the nose wheel well. ultimately. With the engine running at idle and maximum power. low humidity. then increased back to the desired values. all final adjustments must be made in the increase direction. Another step in the trimming procedure is to measure the barometric pressure at the engine inlet and the ambient temperature.
Page 275 .
or springback. Once the fuel control unit has been trimmed and control spring back is correct. Correct spring back is indicated when the fuel control reaches its internal stop before the cockpit power lever reaches its stop. advance the power lever from the idle position to takeoff thrust position and measure the time against a published tolerance. Then. While low humidity is desirable for purposes of accuracy during trimming procedures. The reason for this is that only 25 percent of the air passing through a turbine engine is used for combustion. Another important part of the trim procedure is to check for power lever cushion. You should move the power lever full forward and release it before and after the trim run. place a mark on the cockpit power lever quadrant at the takeoff trim position. In nonstandard conditions with high ambient temperatures. Correct power lever spring back ensures a pilot that takeoff power will be obtained and that additional power lever travel is available for emergencies. A trim check is normally followed by an acceleration check. A remote control unit allows you to make the trim adjustments from the cockpit during ground test with the cowls closed. If the cushion and spring back are out of limits. you must make the necessary adjustments in accordance with the manufacturer's rigging instructions. The amount of lever spring back is then measured against prescribed tolerances. Page 276 .FUEL CONTROL ADJUSTMENTS: Remote adjusting equipment. A typical acceleration time from idle to takeoff thrust for a large gas turbine engine ranges from 5 to 10 seconds. the engine should produce its rated thrust in standard conditions. high atmospheric humidity actually degrades rated thrust very little. After completing the trim check. the rated thrust is degraded.
Type II synthetic oil is a polyester lubricant that has a 5 centistokes rating and is used in most modern turbine engines. while adhesion allows oil to adhere to surfaces under centrifugal loads. Turbine engines. low pour point. In addition to having a low viscosity. Cohesion is a characteristic of oil molecules that causes them to stick together under compression loads. high flash point. since some proprietary additives . on the other Hand. typically from -60°F to +400°F. or MIL-L-7808 and Type II. low viscosity oils are used in turbine engines. synthetic oils are used almost exclusively in turbine engines. and excellent cohesion and adhesion properties. synthetic oils have a low volatility which helps prevent evaporation at high altitudes. or MIL-L-23699. Additional characteristics possessed by synthetic oils include having a high viscosity index. Currently. In addition. In addition. or coke deposits when exposed to excessive temperatures. are built with extremely tight tolerances and the ball and roller bearings used are subjected to relatively low pressures. This type of synthetic oil has a very low viscosity and was used primarily in early turbine engines. On the other hand.JET ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM & LUBRICATING OILS The large operating tolerances and high bearing pressures in reciprocating engines require the use of high viscosity oil. Because of this. most synthetic oils contain an antifoaming additive which helps reduce foaming and ensures positive lubrication. conventional mineralbased oil would congeal at the Low temperature extremes and break down at the upper extremes. Because of this. there are two types of synthetic oils used in turbine engines: Type I. Type I synthetic oil is an alkyl dieter oil with a 3 centistokes rating. Given these temperature extremes. mineral-based oils tend to leave lacquer and carbon. different types of synthetic oil should not be mixed. Page 277 In addition. the oil used in turbine engines must provide adequate lubrication over a wide temperature range. In addition to its ability to lubricate over a wide temperature range. As discussed in Section a.
JET ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM The lubricating system on turbine engine supplies oil to moving parts within the engine. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE Page 278 . some manufacturers recommend that different brands of synthetic oil not be mixed. a turbine engine has one or two rotating shaft that ride on bearings and an accessory gear box. OIL PUMPS 3. OIL RESERVOIR 2. COMPONENTS OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM 1.many not mix with others. pressure lubricating is used to lubricate all necessary components within a turbine engine. unlike reciprocating engine that have several moving part that splash oil around the engine. In most case. The reason for this is that. Which are subjected to friction and heating.
when mounted externally. OIL JET 6. OIL PRESSURE GAUGE 10. OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGE OIL RESERVIOR: The oil reservoir in a dry sump system is usually constructed of sheet metals aluminum or stainless steel and is designed to furnish a constant supply of oil to the engine during all approved flight maneuvers. the oil reservoir may be mounted externally or internally. the reservoir may be attached to the engine case or mounted internally. Page 279 . CHECK VALVE 8. the oil reservoir is formed by an internal space. within the engine structure. Common locations for internal oil reservoirs include cavities between major case sections and propeller reduction gear boxes. OIL COOLER 9. or cavity.4. As mentioned earlier. VENT SYSTEM 7. OIL FILTER 5. in a dry sump system.
Page 280 .OIL PUMPS: It is use to pressurize the oil. The inlet of the pump from tank to the various required area of the engine.
Page 281 . A rotor drive shaft and eccentric rotor from one rotating part. 2. increasing the volume between the vanes as each pair approaches the oil inlet. the trapped oil is released at the pump outlet. The gears and housing are precisely machined to keep clearances between them as small as possible. drives the vanes around the pump chamber. The vanes are free to slide in and out of the eccentric rotor. 4. GEAR PUMP VANE PUMP GEROTOR PUMP SCAVENGE PUMP GEAR PUMP: The gear-type pump is the most common type of oil pump used in turbine engines. VANE PUMP: A vane-type pump uses sliding vanes mounted in an eccentric rotor to move fluids.TYPES OF OIL PUMPS: 1. As the gears rotate. A typical gear-type pump consists of two meshed gears that rotate inside a housing. Oil is picked up by the gears at the pump inlet and then becomes trapped between the teeth and the housing. 3.
This makes the sliding vane pumps ideal for use in a scavenge system. Page 282 . the eccentric shape of the rotor reduces the volume between the vanes as they near the oil outlet and the oil is forced out of the pump. oil floods the space between the vanes. the sliding vane pump are considered to be more tolerant of debris. One opening is the oil inlet while the other is the oil outlet.When a pair of vanes passes the oil inlet. a typical gerotor-type pump consists of an engine-driven spur gear that rotates within free spinning rotor housing. GEROTOR PUMP: Another type of constant-displacement pump used to move oil through a turbine engine is the gerotortype pump. The rotor and drive gear ride inside a housing that has two oblong openings. Often pumps used in an oil system. As discussed in the previous section. As the vanes rotate past the inlet.
Therefore.vane-. A scavenge pump may be a gear. to ensure that oil does not collect in the engine sump. almost all turbine engine lubrication systems must utilize a scavenge pump to return oil to the oil reservoir.SCAVENGE PUMP: In addition to a pressure pump. Page PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE: 283 The reason for this is that after oil flows through an engine it typically has a greater volume due to foaming and thermal expansion. . or gerotor-type pump that is driven by the engine. the scavenge pump must be capable of pumping a greater volume of oil than the pressure pump. One unique feature of many turbine engine oil pumps is that the pressure pump and scavenge pump are often enclosed in a single housing. As a rule. scavenge pumps have a capacity that is greater than a pressure pump.
metallic particles produced by engine wear. it flows to an oil filter. some system does not use a pressure relief valve and allow full pump pressure to circulate within the system. dirt and other foreign matter may also be inadvertently introduced into the oil supply during servicing. The contaminants typically found in a turbine engine oil system include products of oil decomposition. In addition. most engines force the oil to pass through another filter just prior to entering the bearing chambers. On some engines. and corrosion. while system that does not incorporate a relief valve are called full flow system.Some turbine engine lubricating systems rely on a pressure relif valve to regulate the oil pressure within the system. Since last chance filters are placed deep within an engine. they are cleaned only when an engine is disassembled for overhaul. the oil is filtered prior to reaching the reservoir. since large amounts of air move through a turbine engine. Occasionally. Page 284 . filtration is also provided in the scavenge subsystem. airborne contaminants can enter the oil system through the main bearing seals. In addition. on the other hand. All turbine engines include an oil filter downstream from the oil pump. This filter is commonly referred to as a last chance filter because it represents the last opportunity to filter the oil before it enters the bearing chamber. Lubricating systems that have a relief valve system. The purpose of the filter is to remove solid particles that are suspended in the oil. With this type of system. OIL FILTERS: Once oil is discharged from an oil pressure pump.
To put micron measurements in perspective.000039 inch. many oil screens are pleated. The screen-disk type filter is more common to Pratt & Whitney engines and consists of a series of wafer thin screens that are separated by spacers. any contaminants that are flushed out of the bearing chambers do not make it back to the clean oil in the reservoir. consider that objects must be approximately 40 microns or larger to be distinguishable by the human eye. To create a larger surface area for filtration. a wire mesh oil screen. This type of filter is often used in the pressurized portion of an oil system and fits into an annulus provided in the main accessory gearbox. One micron represents a size or distance equal to one millionth of a meter. The effectiveness of a turbine engine oil filter is measured in microns. A typical wire-mesh filter is rated at 20 to 40 microns. its construction permits the filter to be disassembled and cleaned. or a pleated-fiber filter.Page This way. In addition. In other words. a screen disk. particles larger than 40 microns in size are filtered from the oil supply. A typical rating on a screen disk filter is approximately 20 microns. Pleated-fiber filters are typically rated at about 15 microns and are similar to the filters used in 285 . Typically installations that utilize screen-type filters include bowl-type in-line filters and gearbox filters. or approximately . Turbine engines utilize three types of filters. The screens are stacked on a perforated metal core and oil is filtered as it passes from the outer edge to the core.
Because of their construction. and assembled around a perforated steel core. OIL JETS: An oil jet is basically a fixed nozzle that provides a relatively constant oil flow to the main bearings at all engine speeds. the bearing chambers all accessory gearbox are vented to the oil reservoir The primary purpose of a vent system is to vent Page 286 . Therefore. because they are located deep within an engine. folded into pleats. Therefore. This is especially true for the turbine bearings since they are subjected to the most heat. However. bearing failure will inevitably result if the last chance filter becomes clogged.reciprocating engines. As discussed Earlier. VENT SYSTEM: In many turbine engines. Oil jets are located in the pressure lines adjacent to. Since the use of unfiltered oil to lubricate main bearings can cause extensive damage. A typical pleated-fiber filter element consists of millions of resin-impregnated fibers that are formed into a long sheet. the oil must be free of particle contaminants. The most common way of meeting this requirement is to incorporate an oil bypass valve that automatically lets oil bypass the filter entirely once it becomes plugged. constant oil flow to the bearings is vital. Due to the high rpm and high loading placed on main rotor bearings. most turbine powered aircraft incorporate a warning light in the cockpit to warn the operator when the filter is being bypassed. last chance filters are placed in the oil line upstream from the oil jets to help prevent nozzle clogs. FAR requirements dictate that all oil filters be constructed and installed in a way that permits full oil flow even if the filter becomes completely blocked. or within. While an air-oil mist is considered adequate for some types of bearings. a solid oil spray typically provides better engines that utilize oil dampened bearings that rely on an oil film between the outer race and bearing housing to reduce rotor vibrations and compensate for slight rotor misalignments. Oil jets can deliver lubrication oil in the form of a solid oil spray or an air-oil mist. The small nozzle orifices in the tips of oil jets become clogged easily and. the bearing compartments And rotor shaft couplings. pleatedfiber filters are generally intended to be replaced at specific time intervals. they are not accessible for cleaning except during engine overhaul. some means of bypassing the filter must be provided.
Check valves are usually spring-loaded. all aircraft engines are equipped with an oil pressure gauge that is calibrated in pounds per square inch. or an internal oil fire. Without the check valve. If you recall. However. CHECK VALVES: A check valve is sometimes installed in the oil supply line of dry-sump oil systems. turbine engine oil reservoirs are pressurized to help ensure a positive flow of oil to the pump and minimize oil foaming. Such accumulations could cause excessive loading on the accessory drive gears during an engine start. the warning light should extinguish once oil pressure increases above the low limit marked on the oil pressure gauge. This location ensures an indication of the actual pressure being delivered to the engine. each engine's low oil pressure light illuminates. when starting the engine. The check valve prevents supply oil from seeping through the oil pump elements and high-pressure lines after shutdown. but typically ranges from two to five psi. The oil pressure required to open a check valve varies. OIL PRESSURE GAUGE: To allow you to monitor the effectiveness of a given lubrication system.excessive pressure in the bearing chambers so the pressure differential between the bearing chamber and the lubrication system is maintained and the pressurized air within the bearing chambers and accessory gearbox provides a source of pressurization for the oil reservoir. compressor rear Housing and combustion chamber. When aircraft electrical power is turned on and the engine is not running. oil could accumulate in the accessory gearbox. A turbine engine pressure gauge is typically connected to the oil system downstream of the main oil filter. contamination of the cabin pressurization air. Page 287 . some oil pressure systems incorporate a low-pressure warning light. ball-and socket valves constructed to allow the free flow of pressurized oil. the oil reservoir is vented to the atmosphere through a check relief valve that maintains a reservoir pressure of three to six psi. As an additional feature. To control the amount of pressurization.
As a result. of the Two locations. Page 288 . Some engine manufacturers prefer the temperature sensor to be installed in the scavenge subsystem. Therefore. This option is possible because turbine engine lubrication systems have a flow rate of two to five times the Oil tank capacity per minute. Their reason for this is it provides a slightly quicker indication of high friction buildup caused by failing parts.OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGE: The oil temperature gauge allows you to monitor the temperature of the oil. This is important because oil circulation cools the engine as it lubricates the moving parts. it is more common to place the sensor in the pressure subsystem to sense the oil temperature at the engine's oil inlet. such as bearings and gears. The oil temperature sensor location in a turbine engine lubrication system is less critical than in a reciprocating engine. temperatures stabilize throughout the entire lubrication system very rapidly. engine manufacturers place the sensor in either the pressure subsystem or the scavenge subsystem. However.
Page 289 . and two igniter units. This high-energy spark is needed to ignite the fuel/air mixture in low temperatures and at high altitudes. for one joule to be produced. On engines equipped with an automatic relight setting. high amperage spark that has high heat intensity. low amperage spark.TURBINE ENGINE IGNITION SYSTEMS The primary function of a turbine engine ignition system is to ignite the fuel in the combustion chamber during engine starts. two high tension leads. A typical capacitor discharge ignition system produces a spark that may be as high as 20 joules and 2. Both systems consist of two identical independent systems containing two transformers. The two common types of capacitor-discharge systems are the high tension and low-tension systems. sometimes called an exciter box. A secondary function of the ignition system is to provide standby protection against an in-flight flameout. generates electrical energy for operating the igniters. Once ignited.000 amps. a drop in discharge pressure automatically activates the ignition system. CAPACITOR-DISCHARGE Almost all turbine engines utilize a capacitor-discharge ignition system. Engines equipped with a continuous setting incorporate a separate low tension continuous duty circuit. One popular method of activating this type of system is to use pressure sensors installed at the compressor discharge. therefore. a pilot can select continuous ignition with one or both igniter plugs. To do this. most turbine engine ignition systems have continuous or automatic relight settings that can be selected in flight. Unlike the ignition systems used on reciprocating engines that produce a high voltage. a capacitor-discharge ignition system delivers a high voltage. or exciter units. Each exciter unit. A typical spark lasts a few millionths of a second and. most turbine engine ignition systems are normally operated only for brief periods. the number of watts in the spark must be high. the ignition system monitors one or more parameters and provides ignition only when a monitored parameter falls below a specified operational value. To give you an idea as to the intensity often spark produced by a capacitor-discharge system most turbine engine ignition systems are assigned a joule rating based on the amount of power they produce. When used this way. combustion becomes self sustained and an ignition source is no longer required. Therefore. With this type of system. One joule represents the number of watts in a spark times the duration of the spark.
the DC input current must be converted so it pulsates in the coil's primary winding. a coil must be used.Most exciters are sealed units containing electronic circuitry that is potted in an epoxy resin. In order for an exciter unit to step up the input voltage. many low tension systems use a vibrator type circuit. Each unit then steps up the 28 volts DC to produce the high voltage pulses necessary to fire one igniter unit. In some cases. In addition. In this case. To do this. Page 290 . both exciters are housed together as a single unit. the two exciter circuits are often considered to be one unit. LOW-TENSION SYSTEM In a low-tension system. 28 volts DC is supplied to each exciter unit.
and to the top side of the secondary winding. After repeated cycles. The igniter in a low-tension system is referred to as a self-ionizing or shunted-gap-type igniter. the storage capacitor builds a charge that is capable of jumping the gap in the discharge tube. The initial current surge ionizes the air gap. once the cockpit switch is closed. Secondary current now flows from the top of the secondary winding. up through the primary winding. current flows from ground. a capacitor is installed in parallel with the points. As electrons pile up on the top plate of the storage capacitor a negative charge accumulates and free electrons are repelled from the bottom plate of the capacitor to ground. the points are pulled open. To prevent arcing at the points.Page When a low-tension system is de-energized. which makes it conductive and allows the capacitor to discharge fully to the igniter. a discharge tube is installed between the capacitor and igniter. and current flow stops. and into the storage capacitor. up through the storage capacitor. the electromagnetic field surrounding the primary winding collapses and a strong pulse is induced into the seconding winding. The firing end of the igniter contains a semi -conductor material which bridges the gap between the 291 . This pulse attempts to flow from the secondary winding to ground. and to the battery's positive terminal. This action is repeated approximately 200 times per second and produces pulsating DC voltage. When current initially flows through the primary winding. To stop current flow in this direction. However. As electromagnetic forces in the primary winding build and become stronger than the permanent magnet. a diode rectifier is installed between the top side of the secondary winding and the storage capacitor. through the rectifier. When the points open. To prevent this initial pulse from flowing to the igniter. a relatively small pulse is produced in the secondary winding. a permanent magnet holds the points in the vibrator circuit closed. across the points.
Once the resistance across the air gap becomes less than the resistance across the semi-conductor. Once induced into the secondary. Page When 115 volts AC is applied to a high-tension circuit. current flows from the 292 .center and ground electrodes. in turn. As a safety precaution.000 volts into the secondary winding during the first half cycle. It also protects the circuit from overheating if the ignition system is energized with no igniter plugs installed. the semi-conductor. the primary winding of the power transformer induces approximately 2. it flows through the center electrode. At the same time. and back to the capacitor. 115 volt. the air gap heats up sufficiently to ionize and decrease resistance. 400 Hz alternating current is applied to the transformer/exciter unit. The use of alternating current eliminates the need for a vibrator circuit which. As soon as current flows through the semiconductor. eliminates the problems associated with vibrating contacts. HIGH-TENSION SYSTEM In a high-tension ignition system. the capacitor fully discharges across the air gap to create a high energy capacitive discharge spark. The purpose of the bleed resistor is to allow the capacitor to slowly discharge when the system is de-energized. the semi-conductor heats up and its resistance increases. When current initially flows to the igniter. the outer casing. many ignition systems have a bleed resistor.
and back to the positive side of the secondary winding. Rectifier tube Blocks any other current path during this half cycle. During this half cycle.000 volts. This 20. Once induced the current flows from the positive side of the coil and charges the right side of the doublers capacitor to 2. current flows through the primary winding and trigger capacitor to ground.000 volts into the secondary winding. Once at the trigger transformer. The high-tension spark vaporizes and ignites fuel globules around the igniter electrodes. procedures regarding the service and maintenance of igniters vary. rectifier tube A blocks current flow from the doublers capacitor and R] to ground ensuring current flow to the storage capacitor. TYPES OF IGNITERS Many varieties of igniter plugs are available and. During the second half cycle. the primary winding induces another 2. rectifier tube B.000 volt pulse ionizes the igniter plug air gap creating a low resistance path that allows both the trigger capacitor and storage capacitor to fully discharge at the igniter plug.000 volt pulse in the secondary winding. Current then flows up from ground at rectifier tube A. through ground and back to the negative side of the secondary coil. Page 293 . therefore. Because of this. engine manufacturers specify the approved igniters for a given engine as well as the servicing instructions. through resistor R] and the doublers capacitor. The storage capacitor discharge through the primary winding of the trigger transformer induces 20. and the storage capacitor to ground. For example. current flows across the air gap and to the trigger transformer. The doublers capacitor now has a total charge of 4. This charges the left side of the doublers capacitor to 2. Repeated pulses charge the storage capacitor to a point where the air gap in the discharge tube ionizes.000 volts.negative side of the winding and out to ground. When this occurs.000 volts and current flows through resistor Rz. the air gap on an igniter is much wider than that of a conventional spark plug and the electrode is designed to withstand a much more intense spark. IGNITERS Igniters for gas turbine engines differ considerably from the spark plugs used on reciprocating engines.
In most cases. in the case of a constrained-gap igniter. This allows the tip of a constrained-gap igniter to remain partially recessed in the combustion chamber liner which. Therefore. in turn. However. the igniter tip must protrude the proper length into the combustor. allows it to operate at cooler temperatures. in order for the high intensity spark to get from the center electrode to ground.Page 294 When installed in an engine. .1 inch into the combustion chamber. it must jump out away from the plug's tip. the igniter tip extends approximately 0.gap igniter plug is recessed in the body of the plug. The reason for this is the center electrode of a constrained. the igniter does not have to project into the combustion chamber.
24 to 28 volts is supplied to each glow plug causing them to become yellow hot. Once hot. This is designed to occur when the main nozzle is not completely atomizing its discharge during engine start. Page 295 . However. the coil generates a very high heat value that is capable of igniting a fuel/air mixture in extremely low temperatures. After engine start. fuel flow through the glow plug is terminated and the air source keeps the igniter coil cool during normal engine operation. they do serve the same purpose.GLOW PLUGS Some small turbine and turboprop engines incorporate a glow plug type igniter rather than a spark igniter. Although glow plugs are not considered to be an igniter in the strictest sense. A glow plug consists of a resistance coil that is very similar in appearance to an automobile cigarette lighter. In a typical glow plug ignition system. with a glow plug. The influence of the airflow on the dripping fuel acts to create a hot streak or torch-like ignition. air directed up through the glow plug coil mixes with fuel dripping from the main fuel nozzle.
The self-ionizing.IGNITION SYSTEM INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE Maintenance of a typical turbine engine ignition system consists primarily of inspecting. If glow plug heater coils have carbon buildup which appears to fuse the coils together. Typically. The semiconductor material at the firing end is easily damaged and manufacturer seldom permit any type of cleaning. Once the recommended time has passed. Following these steps helps ensure that no lethal electrical charges are discharged during the removal process. Visually inspect self-ionizing igniters used in low tension systems in the same manner but do not make dimensional checks. it is imperative that you follow the manufacturers recommended safety procedures. ceramic insulators and electrode tips are cleaned with solvent and a felt swab. The reason for this I that some older transformers contain amounts of radioactive material. To remove an igniter plug. Once softened. The semiconductor material often consists of only a very thin coating over a ceramic base material. In situations where a transformer must be removed. you should bear in mind that most turbine engine ignition systems produce lethal amounts of electrical current. The delicate nature of the semiconductor material makes contact with any tool risky. If an igniter is determined to be faulty. The radioactive material I used to calibrate the discharge point to a preset voltage. disconnect the transformer input lead and wait the time prescribed by the manufacturer. CLEANING AND SERVICING IGNITERS The outer case of high voltage igniter plugs may be cleaned with a soft brush and approved solvent. the coil end can be immersed in carbon remover to soften the deposit. Therefore. disconnect the igniter lead and ground the center electrode to the engine. the coil is rinsed in warm water and blown dry with compressed air. Inspection of a high voltage igniter plug or glow plug generally consists of a visual inspection and a dimensional check. blow off the remaining solvent with dry compressed air. Finally. For example. manufacturers typically recommend a waiting period after the ignition system is turned off before you begin disassembling any connections. testing troubleshooting. regardless of the amount of carbon buildup. and replacing various components. After cleaning. As a safety precaution. follow the proper disposal procedures outlined by the manufacturer. or shunted-gap igniters used with low-tension systems are generally cleaned only on their outer casing. The materials used in some Page 296 . when performing these operations. However. you should exercise caution. a soft nylon or fiber brush is used to remove any remaining carbon. Use of a technician's scale or suitable depth micrometer is recommended. before you perform any maintenance on an ignition system ensure that the ignition switch is off.
The operational check should follow the guidelines established by the engine manufacturer and the aircraft ground run-up checklist. many engine manufacturers produce troubleshooting charts to help in the diagnosis and repair of commonly encountered problems. the louder the snapping noise. all igniters produce a snapping sound when they are fired.igniters may require special handling. The sound emanates from the high intensity spark that jumps the air gap between the igniter electrodes. After you have completed a visual and dimensional inspection. before an operational check is performed. to conduct an operational test. ensure that no fuel is in any of the combustors. As a general rule. A fuel-wetted combustor may erupt in fire when the igniters are tested. reinstall the serviceable igniters or glow plugs and prepare the engine for an operational check. However. To aid in this process. Therefore. When operated. the more intense the spark. TROUBLESHOOTING Logical troubleshooting procedures should be used when investigating an ignition system problem. Page 297 . one person stands near the engine and listens for the snapping noise produced by each igniter while someone in the cockpit activates the ignition switch.
As a safety precaution, you should never energize turbine engine ignition system for troubleshooting with the igniter plugs removed. If this is done, serious overheating or damage to the exciter box may result.
TURBINE ENGINE STARTING SYSTEMS
Gas turbine engines are generally started by a starter that connects to the main gearbox. In this configuration, the starter rotates the compressor through the gearbox. On engines that utilize a dual axial compressor, the starter rotates the high speed compressor and N1turbine system only. Likewise, on turboprop and turbo shaft engines utilizing a free-turbine, only the compressor and its associated turbine assembly are rotated by the starter. Compressor rotation by a starter provides the engine with sufficient air for combustion and also aids the engine in self-accelerating to idle speed once combustion occurs. Neither the starter nor the turbine wheels have sufficient power on their own to bring an engine from rest to idle rpm. However, when used in combination, the process takes place smoothly in approximately 30 seconds on a typical engine. Many starting systems have a speed sensor device which automatically disengages the starter after self-accelerating speed is reached. At this point, turbine power is sufficient to accelerate the engine to idle rpm. If an engine is not assisted to the correct speed, a hung start may occur. A hung start occurs whenever an engine lights up but does not accelerate to idle rpm. If a hung start occurs, the engine must be shut down and the cause for insufficient starting speed corrected before another attempt is made. Any attempt to accelerate an engine that is hung can often lead to a hot start, because the engine is operating with insufficient airflow to combust more fuel. Starting systems for turboprop and turboshaft engines are designed according to whether the engine is a fixed shaft or free-turbine design. For example, with a fixed shaft turboprop engine, the starter must rotate the engine and propeller. Therefore, starters used on fixed shaft turboprops engines typically develop more torque. In addition, to help reduce drag, fixed shaft turboprop engines are started with the propeller in low pitch allowing more speed and airflow. Free-turbine engines, the other hand, present very little drag on turbine acceleration because only the gas generator portion of the engine is being turned by the starter. This factor allows the use of less powerful, lighter weight starters. In addition, since the propeller is not turned by the starter, the engine can be started with the propeller blades in any position. ELECTRIC STARTERS Like reciprocating engines, several gas turbine engines utilize an electric starting motor. The two most common types of electric starter motors include the starter generator and direct-cranking starter. Units such as this starter-generator are frequently used on light gas turbine engines. To save weight and reduce complexity, a starter-generator turns the engine during
the starting process and then becomes a generator to supply electrical power once the engine is running. STARTER-GENERATORS Starter-generators provide an efficient means of accomplishing both starting and power generation functions. In addition, since a starter-generator performs the functions of both a starter and generator, it provides an inherent weight-savings. Because of the efficiency and weight-saving features, starter-generators are widely utilized on both turboprop and corporate jet aircraft.
There are several different types of starter-generators in use today. Most contain two field coils and common armature winding. One field coil is connected in
series with the armature and has a low resistance, while the second shut winding has a comparatively high resistance. When used as a starter, current flows through both the series field winding and the armature to produce the torque needed to rotate the engine. However, in the generator mode, the shut field receives current while the series field receives no current. To properly control a starter-generator during the start sequence, there are several components that must be used in a starter generator circuit. For example, in addition to needing a battery and/or master switch, many starter-generator circuits use an under current controller, a start switch, some sort of power lever relay, and an ignition solenoid.
The purpose of an undercurrent controller is to ensure positive action of the starter and to keep it operating until the engine is rotating fast enough to sustain combustion. A typical undercurrent controller contains two solenoids; a starter solenoid and an undercurrent solenoid. The starter solenoid controls the input to the starter, while the undercurrent solenoid controls the starter solenoid. To start an
engine equipped with an undercurrent solenoid, you must first close the battery and engine master switches. This completes the circuit from the aircraft's bus to the start switch, fuel valves, and power lever relay. Energizing the power lever relay starts the fuel pumps which provide the necessary fuel pressure for starting the engine. As the start switch is turned on, two solenoids close the starter solenoid and the ignition solenoid. The starter solenoid closes the circuit from the power source to the starter motor while the ignition solenoid closes the circuit to the ignition units. As soon as current begins flowing to the motor through the starter solenoid, the undercurrent solenoid closes. Once closed, the undercurrent relay completes a circuit from the bus to the starter solenoid coil and ignition solenoid coil, allowing the start switch to be returned to its neutral position while the start sequence continues. As the motor builds up speed, the current draw of the motor begins to decrease. Once the current draw falls below approximately 200 amps, the undercurrent solenoid opens. This action breaks the circuit from the bus to the coil of the starter and ignition solenoid. This, in turn, stops current flow to the starter motor and ignition exciters. Once the start sequence is complete, the engine should be operating efficiently and ignition should be self-sustaining. If, however, the engine hangs, or fails to reach sufficient speed to halt the starter operation the start switch should be moved to the stop position to break the circuit from the positive bus to the main contacts of the undercurrent relay. If there is not enough battery power to accelerate the engine to starting speed, most starter-generator circuits allow the use of an external power source. However, when external power is used, there must be a switch in the circuit that prevents the battery from being connected to the bus. As an added feature in most starter-generator circuits, a means of testing the ignition exciters is typically provided. In the example used earlier, the ignition exciters are tested by means of a test switch that bypasses the ignition solenoid. To get current to the test switch, the battery switch and engine master switch must be turned on, while the power 8-47 lever(s) must be advanced to close the power lever switch and relay. STARTER-GENERATOR TROUBLESHOOTING The need for troubleshooting is dictated by unsatisfactory starter-generator performance. Efficient troubleshooting is based on a systematic analysis of what is happening so you will be able to determine the cause of a malfunction. There is no magic in successful troubleshooting, but rather an application of logic and a thorough knowledge of the basics of engine operation. For example, if you are faced with a problem of deteriorating starter-generator performance, the first thing you should do is get all of the facts. Take nothing for granted, and ask the pilot questions. For example, find out if the trouble comes about suddenly or was it a gradual decrease in performance? Under what conditions does this performance
loss show up? After getting all of the facts, perform a ground check to see if the problem can be duplicated. The next step is to eliminate all of the areas that are not likely to cause the trouble. To assist in the troubleshooting process, some manufacturers provide troubleshooting charts.
DIRECT-CRANKING STARTERS Direct-cranking starters are seldom used on large turbine engines; however, they are used frequently for starting auxiliary and ground power units. A typical direct cranking electric starter used on a small turbine engine consists of an electric motor, a set of reduction gears, and an automatic engaging and disengaging clutch mechanism.
The automatic clutch assembly performs two main functions. First, the clutch assembly prevents the starter from applying excessive torque to the engine accessory drive gearbox. To do this, an adjustable torque setting within the clutch assembly is set at approximately 130 inch-pounds of torque. Whenever the starter applies more than 130 inch pounds of torque to the engine drive gear, small clutch plates within the clutch housing slip, thereby reducing the chance of damaging the drive gear. During starting, the friction clutch is designed to slip until the differential torque between the engine and starter falls below the slip torque setting. The second function of the clutch assembly is to act as an over-run clutch. When the starter is rotated, centrifugal force causes the pawls to move inward against spring tension to engage the engine drive gear. As the armature drives the clutch housing, the housing bumps the pawls inward until they catch the engine drive gear. This occurs because the pawl cage assembly floats within the pawl
This over-running feature prevents the engine from driving the starter to burst speed. an air turbine starter utilizes a small turbine wheel to convert the velocity energy of a moving airstream into mechanical energy to turn an engine. pneumatic starters are used almost exclusively on commercial jet aircraft. reduction gear assembly. and clutch assembly. or pneumatic starter was developed. A typical air turbine starter consists of a small turbine assembly. Because there are so few parts in an air turbine starter. they typically weigh about one-fifth the weight of a comparable electric starter. Once the engine begins to exceed starter speed.clutch housing. As its name implies. the pawls slip out of the tapered slots of the engine drive gear and are disengaged by the retracting springs. the air turbine. This gives air turbine starters a high power-to-weight ratio. Page 305 . Because of this. AIR TURBINE STARTERS As an alternative to either of the electric starters just discussed.
Page 306 . The air source may be an onboard auxiliary power unit. This allows the sprag clutch ratchet and starter gear to coast to a halt while the drive shaft housing and pawls continue rotating at engine gearbox speed. Two common types of turbine assemblies used on pneumatic starters are the radial inward flow turbine and the axial-flow turbine. centrifugal force pulls the pawls outward disengaging the starter from the drive shaft housing. the pawls are forced inward by small leaf springs to engage the sprag clutch ratchet. or an operating engine bleed air source. The vanes convert the low pressure. The output end of the reduction gearing connects to a sprag clutch assembly which is located inside the drive shaft housing. high volume air to a high velocity airstream that spins the turbine blades at high kinetic energy levels. As soon as air enters a pneumatic starter. When standing still. This rotational speed is reduced 20 to 30 times through a reduction gear assembly that is lubricated by an integral oil supply. Air is supplied to the starter inlet where it enters the air turbine assembly. a high volume air source of approximately 40 psig at 50 to 100 pounds per minute is required. when the sprag clutch ratchet is turned by the starter. A typical sprag clutch assembly consists of a set of pawls and a clutch ratchet. the air supply is shut off automatically by a centrifugal cutout switch that closes the inlet air supply valve. ground power unit. the air passes through a set of turbine nozzle vanes. the drive shaft and housing also turn. In a typical pneumatic starter. this configuration. the turbine rotates at 60 to 80 thousand rpm. Once the start sequence is complete. Once the engine starts and accelerates to idle speed.To activate a pneumatic starter.
a drive shaft shear point is typically incorporated. when the engine begins accelerating to idle speed. the air supply powering the starter should shut off automatically. However. a clicking sound can sometimes be heard after the engine has been shut down and is coasting. In other words. most pneumatic starters have an air inlet design that chokes off the airflow so the starter turbine stabilizes at a maximum speed. As discussed earlier. the airflow would accelerate the turbine assembly until it fails at its burst speed. This sound is considered 307 . if this does not happen. the drive shaft will shear once the engine induces a predetermined amount of torque on the starter. If this feature were not incorporated.Page To prevent a pneumatic starter from being damaged in the event the clutch does not release from the engine drive shaft housing during the start sequence. if the engine starts to drive the starter. On some engines that use a pneumatic starter equipped with a sprag clutch.
the control head is actuated by a switch in the cockpit.normal and is the result of the spring tension on the pawls overcoming centrifugal force and forcing the pawls to ride on the clutch ratchet. you should refer to the previous figure. the pilot valve rod lifts off its seat. the amount of air flowing to the servo piston will equal the amount of air being bled to the atmosphere and the system will be in a state of equilibrium. while the butterfly valve is actuated pneumatically or manually. On aircraft that use a pneumatic starter. The following discussion describes how the components in the control head of an air supply valve regulate the amount of air supplied to the starter. the control rod bellows partially compresses. To aid in understanding how the components work together. A typical air supply valve consists of a control head and a butterfly valve. the 308 . As mentioned previously. When downstream air pressure reaches a preset valve. Once the pilot valve cap seats. allowing servo piston air to vent to the atmosphere. an air supply valve is installed in the air inlet line leading to the starter. In most cases. a centrifugal cutout flyweight switch de-energizes a solenoid which forces the control crank to release the pilot valve cap. Page When a predetermined starter drive speed is reached. the control head is allowing maximum air pressure to the starter. AIR SUPPLY VALVE As pressure builds in the air supply line downstream from the butterfly valve. all air pressure vents to the atmosphere and the butterfly valve closes. At this point. As this occurs.
Because of this. the control crank applies pressure to seat the pilot valve rod and displace the pilot valve cap. When the starter air valve cannot be controlled electrically due to a malfunction. adequate lubrication is crucial.control head is actuated electrically by a switch in the cockpit. the butterfly valve opens and allows air to flow to the starter. It is normal for small particles to be present on the drain plug. Once activated. some manufacturers provide a chart listing several common malfunctions as well as the probable cause and remedy. Page 309 . However. filtered air is allowed to flow to the servo piston. As air pressure compresses the servo piston. To facilitate the troubleshooting process. there may be times when you have to troubleshoot a malfunction. Routine inspections of pneumatic starters should include a check of the starter's oil level and examination of the magnetic drain plug. In addition to normal maintenance practices. make sure you follow the manufacturer’s procedures. a manual override handle can be used to position the butterfly valve. With the pilot valve cap off its seat. the control crank rotates and pushes the control rod to extend the bellows fully. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE Air turbine starters are pneumatic accessories designed to operate at high rpm in a high temperature environment. In addition. but particles that feel sandy or gritty are evidence of some sort of internal failure. when attempting to start an engine using the manual override.
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a locking plate a abwasher and a fuel nozzle due to important nature of the spray pattern of a nozzle . Using new tab washers for each nozzle . Fuel nozzle are subjected to two separate test Leakage test Functional test Leakage test It is need to make sure that the nozzle is not leaking at the adaptor connection Functional test It is to observe the spay pattern Page 321 . it is necessary to clean and test fuel nozzle at certain intervals.tighten the nozzle assembly and torque but do not bent the lux of tab washers until testing is completed. The procedure for testing fuel nozzle begins with lubricating nozzle with fuels then installing the nozzle into manifold adapter.FUEL NOZZLE TESTING Manufacturers maintenance manuals as well as appropriate safety precaution should be always be used when performing any type of maintenance on fuel nozzle Generally fuel nozzle assembly consist of fuel manifold adapter .a sheath.
Parker Hannifin Corporation. As an example of client confidence. Prompt Entry of Test Scripts with Archiving of up to 50 Tests Available to the Operator Test Data Printing and Networked Data Logging MIL-T-83431 Specifications Page 322 . From small commuter jet engines to massive F119 fuel pumps for the most advanced tactical military aircraft. using MIL-C-7024. type II or jet fuels are available as standard designs.Constant development concurrent with market and client requirements has gained Avtron the reputation for having the best universal fuel nozzle test stands in the world. at 10 to 2000 PSIG. Avtron fuel nozzle test stands are exclusively used by the world's largest gas turbine fuel system manufacturer.2°F Electronic Spray Angle Measurement Airflow Measurement Using Sonic Orifices (Single or Dual Orifice Systems) Automatic Limit Checking with Pass/Fail Display Automated Calibration Screens Easy. we have been the preferred provider of fuel nozzle test stands for over thirty years. Test stands with fuel flows from 2 to 8000 pounds per hour. Other features of our units include: Independent Dual Fuel Flow Circuits for Fuel Nozzles with Primary and Secondary Flow Requirements Fuel Temperature Control to +/.
Internal engine washing can be done by two methods: the motoring wash and the running wash. care must be taken to maintain the original profile of the blade within reasonable limits. Compressor and Turbine Wash: As an engine operates. The engine is run up by the starter to between 10 and 25 percent rpm. Washing of the compressor section of the engine is accomplished by injecting the applicable fluid into the engine’s intake using either an installed compressor wash ring or a hand-held wash wand. During blade repairs. a type of compressor wash must be performed to remove the bake-on salt. deposits accumulate on the engine’s internal gas path components such as the compressor and turbine blades. The portions of the blade which have higher stresses may not be cut as deeply as the portions subjected to lower stresses during operation. This ensures that the wash fluid stays in a liquid form. This provides the engine with the correct flow of fluid in the form of a spray. For a specific engine. to illustrate typical practices.COMPONENT MAINTENANCE Compressor Blades: Compressor blades are subject to the same type of damage encountered by fan blades and the repair procedures are similar. The motoring wash is generally done by turning the engine using only the starter. Note that there are definite limit on the depth of a cut that is allowed in removing a nick. To recover this performance loss. dirt or other types of contamination deposits. The limits vary in accordance with the part of the blade where the damage is located. Turbine washes are done in much the same manner except that the wash tube is generally attached to the combustion section of the engine. Figure 18-26 is adapted from the maintenance manual for the Pratt & Whitney JT8D engine and shows some of the permissible repairs for compressor blades. The foregoing examples of blade repairs are provided for information only. the appropriate specifications given in the maintenance manual must be used. These deposits can accumulate at the point of deteriorating the engine’s performance. scratch or other damage caused by the ingestion of a foreign object. Cleaning of the engine can be divided into internal and external washing. When the engine Page 323 .
Spraying should be stopped as the engine slow back down to about 5 percent rpm. Starter limits must also be adhered to so as to prevent overheating and damaging of the starter. A schematic of a compressor/turbine wash rig is shown in figure. the compressor bleed air and any other components that might that become contaminated must be closer off or isolated to prevent contamination. In cold weather and in very contaminated environment. Page 324 . special frequency and frequency need to be used. The engine’s maintenance manual will list the proper fluids and frequency of washes. the cleaning mixture can be sprayed into the engine’s intake as the engine continues to accelerate. and the turbine desalination wash. Some different types of internal engine washes are the compressor performance discovery wash. Sometimes it is necessary to do a cleaning wash and a rinse wash to remove the cleaning fluid.reaches about 5 percent rpm. The running wash is performed with the engine running as idle speed and the cleaning fluid mixture and the rinse solution injected at the correct flow rate. the starter should not be operated for more than 30 s. Before the internal wash is attempted. The imagines ignition should be turned off during the motoring runs. As a general rule. and the correct cool-down time should be observed between runs.
REPAIR LIMITS FOR COMPRESSOR BLADES Page 325 .
MAXIMUM ALLOWANCE BLENDED NICK LIMITS (INCHES) BLADE AREA A B C D E F STAGE 1 VIEW A 1/32 RB 5/32 B .003 RB 1/8 D 1/16 D CAUTION: The limits referred to in this figure in areas “C”.”E” and “F” pertain to local. isolated. Page 326 . damaged areas only and must not be in interpreted as authority for removal of materials all across the tip and leading or trailing edges as might be done in a single machining cut.
which is a condition that results from the gas path forces acting on the turbine blades. and untwist. vanes and blades: When a bore scope inspection reveals that there is damage or deterioration in the hot sections of the engine. No burning or distortion is permitted. which generally decreases blade efficiency. This is particularly true for first-stage blades because of the high temperature involved. The centrifugal stresses to which turbine blades are subjected to require that the blades are be free of cracks in any area and that no nicks or dents exist in the root area. Other conditions to look for during inspection include blade creep. A compressor-turbine wheel is shown in figure. A limited number of small nicks and dents can be permitted in the areas of the blade away from the root area. Repair for Turbine Nozzles. which is the permanent elongation of the turbine blades due to rational forces.CROSS SECTION OF FAN BLADE ABOVE PART SPAN SHROUD Turbine Blades: Serviceability limits for turbine blades are much more stringent than are those for nozzle vanes. Parts requiring repair and replaced with new or reworked parts from the factory or overhaul facility. These forces tend to change the pitch of the blade. Page 327 . the areas involved must be disassembled sufficiently to remove the defective parts.
Replacement of turbine blades must be done with blades having the correct moment-weight designation to ensure that the turbine rotor will be in balance when assembled. The maintenance manual for each engine specifies the correct arrangement of blades according to their moment-weight markings.
The operation of an engine stand is usually accomplished with a bellmouth air inlet. a certain amount of pressure drop will occur and must be taken into consideration when the performance of the engine is measured. to supply the demand. and these procedures must be followed precisely to ensure that correct information is obtained regarding the performance of the engine. it is common practice to measure certain essential parameters in order to evaluate the engine performance correctly. 2. Ambient air temperature(Tamb) Ambient air pressure(P amb) Exhaust total pressure(Pt7) Low-pressure compressor rpm(N1) High. 5. Procedures for testing are developed and published by the engine manufacturer. If the bellmouth duct is protected by a screen.pressure compressor rpm(N2) Exhaust-gas temperature(EGT) Fuel flow in pounds per hour(pph)(Wj) Thrust(Fn) Low-pressure compressor outlet pressure(Ps3) Page 335 . Among these parameters are the following: 1. 6. 9. However the bellmouth duct guides the air in such a way that there is essentially no pressure drop at the compressor inlet. 7. 3. In testing of a gas-turbine engine. 8. The purpose of this type of inlet is to eliminate any loss of air pressure at the compressor inlet. Since a large volume of air is drawn into the engine a rapid increase in air velocity must take place as the air nears the inlet. this directional change results in a pressure drop.TESTING OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AFTER OVERHAUL The testing of a new or overhauled gas-turbine engine to ensure correct performance is accomplished on an instrumented test stand. With a straight inlet duct. Much of the airflow will have to change direction almost 90ï as it comes from the sides of the inlet and enters the compressor. Moreover. 4. air must flow from areas outside the area directly in front of the engine.
This is accomplished by means of correction factors designated by the Greek letters delta(ä) and theta(è).92 è = T/T0 = t (0F)+460/519 where. fuel flow and pressures will be affected by the engine-driven fuel pump. 0R (0F + 460) T0=standard-day temperature. Likewise. Page 336 . specific instructions are made available by the manufacturer for the testing of the engine in a test cell or on the aircraft. but others may be recorded if desired or necessary.10. Oil flow and temperature will be changed as a result of the engine oil cooler and the engine pump. When an engine is assembled as a complete powerplant for a quick engine change (QEC). air pressure and temperature must be corrected to standard conditions.5190R For any particular type or model of engine. because it may affect some of the performance measurements. it is necessary to consider the equipment installed on the engine. Because standard performance of an engine occurs only under standard conditions. P = observed barometric pressure (in HG abs) P0 = standard-day barometric pressure T = temperature. High-pressure compressor outlet pressure(Ps4) These parameters are usually adequate to determine engine performance. Delta is used to correct for pressure and theta provides the correction for temperature. The values for delta and theta may be found on an appropriate chart or they may be calculated as follows: ä = P/P0 =P/29.
Energize the starter and motor the engine as long as necessary to check instruments for positive indications of engine rotation and oil pressure. b. Fuel boost. Normal noise consists of clicking of compressor and turbine blades. IDLE d. OFF c. engine and aircraft manufacturers specify certain operational checks to be routinely performed by maintenance personnel. fittings. ON 3. The particular types of checks and the procedures to be followed vary. and that starter operation meets speed requirements for successful starts. Listen for unusual noises. Page 337 . Check for oil level in the oil tank. Dry motoring check: The dry motoring check may be required during or after inspection and maintenance to ensure that the engine rotates freely. depending on the type of engine and the aircraft involved. Deenergize the starter and make the following checks during coastdown: a. Check for roughness. and accessories for leakage. that instrumentations functions properly. 2. Ascertain that all conditions required prior to a normal start are met. A dry motoring check should be performed according to the following procedure: 1. These conditions can be established by conducting a normal prestart inspection.OPERATIONAL CHECKS: To ensure that a gas-turbine engine is in satisfactory operating condition. 4. Position engine controls and switches as follows: a. Inspect the lubricating system lines. Throttle. Fuel shutoff lever. c. This check is also used to prime and leak-check the lubrication system when maintenance has required replacement of system components. Ignition. OFF b. and gear noise.
7. 3. This is accomplished as follows: 1. 2. Move the fuel shutoff lever to OFF and continue motoring the engine for at least 30s to clear the fuel from the combustion chamber. 8. 9. Energize the starter. the wet motoring check is employed. 10. normal operating noise. and correct indications on engine-related instruments. Check the concentric fuel shroud for leakage. Check the oil level in the oil tank. 5. and accessories for leakage. Deenergize the starter and during coastdown. the following steps should be taken: . 4. 1.16 kg/h or for a maximum of 60s. Check to see that fuel flow drops to zero.Wet monitoring check: When it is necessary to check the operation of fuel-system components after removal and replacement or to perform a depreservation of the fuel system. Inspect the lubrication system for leakage. Position the engine controls and switches as for a dry motoring check. Observe the starter operating limits. 6. Engine drain lines must be disconnected from drain cans to check for leakage. When core engine speed(N2) reaches 10 percent. move the fuel shutoff lever to ON and check for oil pressure indication. Continue motoring the engine until the fuel flow is 226. Stabilize engine at ground idle. Idle check: The idle check consists of checking for proper engine operation as evidenced by leak-free connections. fittings. check for unusual noises. Inspect the fuel system lines. Page 338 After the engine is started according to approved procedure.80 to 272. No leakage is permitted.
75 percent. record the average readings of TAT.N1 speed. and pneumatic lines. follow these steps: 1. Visually inspect fuel. Corrected Wf = (observed Wf x 29. and accessories for leakage. To perform the power assurance test. 2. The engine is tested at 50 percent.2. the engine being tested is not used to supply power for any aircraft systems-electric. During the tests. Stabilize at flight idle and check the same parameters checked for ground idle. Engine speeds will vary according to compressor inlet temperature. Power assurance check: The power assurance check is performed to make sure that the engine will achieve takeoff power on a hot day without exceeding rpm and temperature limitations. EGT must be observed constantly to avoid the possibility of overtemperature. fittings. core engine speed (N2). During operations above ground idle. Deenergize flight-idle solenoid. EPR(engine pressure ratio). 5. Set the engine power at nominal N2 speed as indicated on the appropriate chart for the total air temperature(TAT). 4. Four minutes after the throttle lever is set. EGT. 3. or other. (Tt2). Correct Wf for local barometric pressure in accordance with instructions.N2speed. do not exceed the open-cowling limitations imposed by the airframe manufacturer. and fuel flow(Wf). Should the temperature approach maximum allowable. lubrication.92)/(actual barometric pressure) Page 339 . the throttle should always be moved slowly. Check fan speed (N1). and maximum power. oil pressure. and exhaust-gas temperature (EGT) to see that they are within the proper ranges according to the ground idle speed chart and engine specifications. hydraulic. See that they are within the limitations set forth on the flight idle speed charts. During engine operation for the power assurance check.
the operator should take immediate action by retarding the throttle or shutting the engine down.3. adjust readings according to the parameter adjustments set forth in the operations manual. Using N1 (where N1=target N1 – observed N1) as a correction factor. As soon as the engine is shut down. grinding. it should be operated at ground idle speed for about 3min to permit temperature reduction and stabilization. In the operation of gas-turbine engines of any type. the EGT gage should be observed to see that EGT starts to decrease. Before a hot engine is shut down. During coastdown after the engine is shut down. Page 340 . If it is expected that a beyond-limits condition is developing. a technician should listen for unusual noises in the engine such as scraping. bumping and squealing. it must be emphasized that temperature and rpm for both N1 and N2 must be watched carefully. If EGT does not decrease. an internal fire is indicated and the engine should be dry-motored at once to blow out the fire.
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When turbo shaft are turbo prop engines are installed. and special devices designed to detect indications of trouble which may not be revealed by the engine instruments. oil pressure gages and fuel gages. FAULT INDICATORS Fault indicators include any instruments are devices on an aircraft which can give a member of the crew information about a problem developing in the operation of the engine. the procedures traditionally employed for reciprocating engines. however. Manufacturers and operators of gas-turbine engines work together to develop information and techniques regarding the operation of the engines and to establish techniques for troubleshooting. oil temperature gages. When the fault is isolated are identified. new and improved techniques have been developed which aid considerably in identifying and solving technical problems. These systems include special sensors and Page 343 .GAS-TURBINE ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING The troubleshooting of turbine engines follows. analyzed and corrected. In addition to the standard instruments. torque indicating gages are often included. Typical engine instruments for a gas turbine engine are EGT gages. DEFINITION Troubleshooting may be defined as the detection of fault indications and the isolation of the fault or faults causing the indications. Numerous systems have been developed by which faults are detected. in general. These indicators may be divided into two groups the standard engine instruments used to monitor the operation of engines. built in trouble shooting equipment (BITE) systems are often installed. percent rpm gages (N1 and N2). EPR gages. the correction of the fault is simply a matter of applying the correct procedures. These instruments are all effective in detecting faults.
these parameters are monitored over a period of time so that a trend can be noticed. ∆ITT step change at time of incident Momentary fuel nozzle leak Hot or very near Hot start most probable ∆wf ∆wf up or slightly up Page 344 . For long term trouble shooting. This will allow corrective action to be taken as promptly as possible.transducers which produce signals of vibration and other indications that are indicative of developing problems. Engine speed (% rpm). Possible faults ∆Ng ∆Ng slightly up or steady Two/three flights ∆ITT after incident. exhaust gas temperature (EGT). By comparing the tendency of engine parameters to change up or down the technician can trouble shoot engine problems. and fuel flow (Wf) are primary engine parameters for trouble shooting.
∆wf ∆wf up Page 345 .Probable faults ∆Ng ∆Ng down Most typical of the hot section problem. ∆ITT ∆ITT up ∆wf ∆wf up Possible faults ∆Ng ∆Ng steady Fuel indication ∆ITT ∆ITT steady Fuel nozzles dirty inefficient burning.
∆Ng ∆Ng steady ITT instrumentation A. ∆wf ∆wf steady CONDITION MONITORING Page 346 .may be T5 trim resistor or aircraft ITI system fault.T5 harness or T5 bus bar problem. ∆ITT ∆ITT down 5 to 10°C or more B.
Variable loads extracted from the engine. Data should normally be collected at regular intervals. ensure that the engine parameters are stabilized before taking the data readings. and bleed air. Condition monitoring devices and equipment can be broadly Page 347 . the data are read and sent to computers on the ground especially designed to record and store this information. One tool which can aid both of these efforts is engine performance monitoring. as with airline-type aircraft. Once the initial relationships have been established for the various parameters. reduce operating costs. will have an effect on trend accuracy. To minimize these effects. The engine parameters should be read separately for each engine and in a reasonable time frame. This facilitates quick diagnosis.Aviation maintenance and operations groups are continually striving to improve the service reliability of their gas-turbine engines and. abnormal performance of an engine will be indicated by parameter relationships deviating from the norm. a specific engine will not vary significantly from this calibration unless some external forces effect it. Trend analysis involves the recording and analysis of gas-turbine engine performance and certain mechanical parameters over a period of time. In a computerized system. hydraulic. Data collection methods will vary depending on whether the data are collected manually or by an onboard computer. Thus. In order to reduce fluctuations in the data. which can be followed by either further monitoring or immediate maintenance action on the problem. such as generator. Condition monitoring devices are designed to give an indication of any engine deterioration at the possible stage and also to help identify any area or module in which deterioration is occurring. through trend analysis. at the time. each time set of readings is taken it is preferable that conditions be repeated as closely as possible with regard to altitude and power. air conditioning. The primary aim of trend analysis is to provide a means of detecting significant changes in the performance parameters resulting from changes in the mechanical condition of the engine. A gas-turbine engine operates in accordance with predetermined relationships among the various performance parameters at steady-state conditions.
and ground indicators. the trend lines will gradually deviate. outside air temperature. As more plots are entered. A correct interpretation of these deviations will enable an operator’s maintenance facility to plan for corrective maintenance actions. and airspeed if applicable. The engine condition trend monitoring system for a PT6A turboprop engine performs its function through a process of periodically recording engine instrument readings such as torque. Such comparisons produce a set of deviations in ITT. As deteriorations appear. these deviations are entered on a chart to establish a base line for the engine. correcting the readings for altitude. compressor speed(Ng). During the life of an engine. such as a performance recovery compressor wash or a hot section inspection. Beginning with the engine in a new or overhauled condition. interturbine temperature. in-flight recorders. Page 348 . and fuel flow(Wf). Ng.categorized into the areas of flight deck indicators. a trend line for each engine parameter is established. these trend lines will remain stable for as long as the engine is free from deterioration. and then with a set of typical engine characteristics. and Wf.
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exploding the gunpowder and scattering the solution.S. His extinguisher used the reaction between sodium bicarbonate solution and sulfuric acid to expel pressurized water onto a fire. The pressurized water was forced from the canister through a nozzle or short length of hose. it consisted of a copper vessel of 3 gallons(13. a celebrated chemist. which used water or water-based solutions. The modern fire extinguisher was invented by British Captain George William Manby in 1818. This was connected with a system of fuses which were ignited. while the second released a lead bung that held the vial closed. A soda-acid extinguisher was patented in the U. This device was probably used to a limited extent. It works and looks similar to the soda-acid type. It consisted of a cask of fire-extinguishing liquid containing a pewter chamber of gunpowder. carbon dioxide gas was expelled and thereby pressurize the water. A vial was suspended in the cylinder containing concentrated sulfuric acid. refers to its efficiency in stopping a fire in London. They later invented a carbon tetrachloride model called the "Petrolex" which was marketed toward automotive use. Once the acid was mixed with the bicarbonate solution. The main tank Page 360 . in 1881 by Almon M. the vial of acid could be broken in one of two ways. The cartridge-operated extinguisher was invented by Read & Campbell of England in 1881. which mixed a solution of water and sodium bicarbonate with tartaric acid. 1729. Granger. who first used it to extinguish a pan of burning naptha. Depending on the type of extinguisher.6 litres) of pearl ash (potassium carbonate) solution contained within compressed air. One used a plunger to break the acid vial.FIRE EXTINGUISHER The first automatic fire extinguisher of which there is any record was patented in England in 1723 by Ambrose Godfrey. The chemical foam extinguisher was invented around 1905 by Alexander Laurant of Russia. but the inner parts are different. The soda-acid extinguisher was first patented in 1866 by Francois Carlier of France. producing the propellant CO2 gas. as Bradley's Weekly Messenger for November 7.
the chemicals mix. hence its widespread use in film and television. it was usually of 1 imperial quart (1. In 1928.contains a solution of water. which used sodium bicarbonate specially treated with chemicals to render it free-flowing and moisture-resistant. and could cause death in confined spaces. inhibiting the chemical reaction. A cylindrical metal or plastic chamber holds about a quart and a half of 13% aluminum sulfate and is capped with a lead cap. The licorice causes some of the CO2 bubbles to become trapped in the liquid and is discharged on the fire as a thick whitish-brown foam. Around 1912 Pyrene invented the carbon tetrachloride (CTC) extinguisher.6 L) capacity but was also available in up to 2 imperial gallon (9 L) size. It is a low-pressure gas that works by inhibiting the chain reaction of the fire and is the most toxic of the vaporizing liquids. When the unit is turned over. of CO2 with a wheel valve and a woven brass. CO2 is still popular today as it is a ozone-friendly clean agent and is useful for a extinguishing a person who is on fire. The extinguisher was suitable for liquid and electrical fires.5 lbs. It consisted of a copper cylinder with an internal CO2 cartridge. cotton covered hose. In the 1940s. It was more effective and slightly less toxic than carbon tetrachloride and was used until 1969. A further variety consisted of a glass bottle "bomb" filled with the liquid that was intended to be hurled at the base of a fire. foam compound (usually made from licorice root) and sodium bicarbonate. producing CO2 gas. used until the 1960s. It consisted of a tall metal cylinder containing 7. and was popular in motor vehicles for the next 60 years. and to a lesser extent. DuGas (later bought by Ansul) came out with a cartridge-operated dry chemical extinguisher. The CTC vaporized and extinguished the flames by creating a dense. oxygenexcluding blanket of fumes. The operator turned a wheel valve on top to puncture the cartridge and squeezed a lever on the valve at the end of the hose to Page 361 . The vapor and combustion by-products of all vaporizing liquids were highly toxic. The carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguisher was invented (at least in the US) by the Walter Kidde Company in 1924 in response to Bell Telephone's request for an electrically non-conductive chemical to extinguisher the previously difficult to extinguish fires in telephone switchboards.1 L) or 1 imperial pint (0. Methyl Bromide was discovered as an extinguishing agent in the 1920s and was used extensively in Europe. which expelled the liquid from a brass or chrome container by a handpump. with a composite funnel-like horn as a nozzle. Germany invented the liquid chlorobromomethane (CBM) for use in aircraft.
contain the expellant gas in a separate cartridge that is punctured prior to discharge.discharge the chemical. allowing an operator to discharge the extinguisher. endangers the user (i. ABC dry chemical came over from Europe in the 1950s. and Asia. Depending on the agent used. often in emergency situations. although nitrogen cartridges are used on low Page 362 . There are two main types of fire extinguishers: Stored pressure and generated pressure. Both work by inhibiting the chain reaction of the fire. With dry chemical extinguishers. but is falling out of favor for many uses due to its environmental impact. It is not designed for use on an out-of-control fire. or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. exposing the propellant to the agent. the expellant is stored in the same chamber as the firefighting agent itself. no escape route. and was but remained largely a specialty type until the 1950s. Typically. when small dry chemical units were marketed for home use. such as one which has reached the ceiling. explosion hazard. This was the first agent available for large scale threedimensional liquid and pressurized gas fires. used primarily in areas such as industrial facilities. etc. and return to the fire in an reasonable amount of time. but it is still widely available in North America. Cartridge-operated extinguishers. and in the case of Halon 1211. the Middle East. Europe and Australia have severly restricted its use. different propellants are used. Fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires. Halon 1211 came over to the US in the 1970s. these extinguishers utilize compressed carbon dioxide instead of nitrogen. These types as are not as common. cooling class A fuels as well. smoke. Stored pressure are the most common type fire extinguishers. Unlike stored pressure types. water and foam are pressurized with air. with Super-K being invented in the early 60s and Purple-K being developed by the US Navy in the late 1960s. and had been used there since the late 40s or early 50s. where they receive higher-than-average use. nitrogen is typically used.). Halon 1301 had been developed by DuPont and the US Army in 1954. recharge it. a fire extinguisher consists of a handheld cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. Halon is still in use today. They have the advantage of simple and prompt recharge.e. In stored pressure units.
Wheeled models are most commonly found at construction sites. They exist in both storedand generated-pressure types and contain all types of suppressants. or D) in the rest of the world. foam. and a band or circle of a second color covering at least 5% of the surface area of the extinguisher indicates the contents. BC. foam. and dry powder(ABC. Handheld extinguishers weight from 2 to 30 pounds (1 to 14 kilograms). Cart-mounted units typically weigh 50+ pounds (23+ kilograms). Before 1997. and typically contain either dry chemical. the entire body of the fire extinguisher was color coded according to the type of extinguishing agent. wetting agent. Cartridge operated types are available in dry chemical and dry powder in the US and water. also called wheeled extinguishers. TypePre-1997CurrentClassWaterSolid redA FoamSolid blueRed with a blue bandAB Dry chemical (powder)Red with a white bandABCE Carbon dioxideRed with a black bandA (limited)BCEFVapourising liquid (not halon)Red with a yellow bandABCE HalonSolid yellow—ABE Wet chemicalSolid oatmealRed with an oatmeal bandAF According to the standard BS EN 3. airport runways. Page 363 . Halon. fire extinguishers in the United Kingdom as all throughout Europe are red RAL 3000. and temporary landing sites. Classification Internationally there are several accepted classification methods for hand-held fire extinguishers. Halotron-1 or CO2. Purple-K. and are hence easily portable by hand. are cartridge-operated. Each classification is useful in fighting fires with a particular group of fuel. Fire extinguishers are further divided into handheld and cart-mounted. heliports.temperature (-60 rated) models.
Typical United Kingdom CO2 and water fire extinguishers Old Code Type BS EN 3 Colour Code Fire Class Water Signal Red Signal Red A Foam Cream Red with a Cream panel above the operating instructions AB sometimes E Red with a Blue panel French Dry powder above the operating Blue instructions AB sometimes C E Page 364 Carbon dioxide CO2 Black Red with a Black panel above the operating instructions B E .
Extinguishers are marked with pictograms depicting the types of fires that the extinguisher is approved to fight. 2007 edition. EN 3 does not recognize a separate E class . or white if water mist. which usually silver.Wet chemical No F Class Red with a Canary Yellow panel above the operating A instructions F Class D powder Red with a Blue panel French above the operating Blue instructions D The UK recognizes six fire classes. which are usually yellow. In the UK the use of Halon gas is now illegal except under certain situations. There is no official standard in the United States for the color of fire extinguishers. except for Class D extinguishers. In the past. Class A fires involve organic solids such as paper and wood. The types of fires and additional standards are described in NFPA 10: Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers. Class B fires involve flammable liquids. Class E fires involve live electrical items and Class F fires involve cooking fat and oil. and water. and some extinguishers still use both symbols. extinguishers were marked with colored geometric symbols. Class C fires involve flammable gases. 55B. Fire Class Geometric Symbol Pictogram Intended Use Mnemonic A Page Green Garbage can and wood pile Ordinary solid Think A for anything 365 . Fire extinguishing capacity is rated by fire class using numbers and letters such as 13A. Class D fires involve metals. though they are typically red.this is an additional feature requiring special testing (dielectric test per EN 3-7:2004) and NOT passing this test makes it compulsory to add a special label (pictogram) indicating the inability to isolate the user from a live electric source.
There is no additional rating for class C.Triangle burning combustibles that leaves ash B Red Square Gasoline can with a burning puddle Flammable liquids and gases Think B for anything in a barrel .25 gives the equivalent extinguishing capability in gallons of water. and an extinguisher will never have a rating of just C. Page 366 . The number preceding the B indicates the size of fire in square feet that an ordinary user should be able to extinguish. oil. The ratings are described using numbers preceding the class letter. C Blue Circle Electric plug with a burning outlet Energized electrical equipment Think C for current D Yellow Pentagram (Star) Burning Gear and Bearing Combustible metals K Black Hexagon Pan burning Cooking oils and fats Think K for kitchen The Underwriters Laboratories rate fire extinguishing capacity in accordance with UL/ANSI 711: Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers. such as 1-A:10-B:C.gas. The number preceding the A multiplied by 1. as it only indicates that the extinguishing agent will not conduct electricity. etc.
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Filename: amer ge Directory: C:\Documents and Settings\abu\My Documents Template: C:\Documents and Settings\abu\Application Data\Microsoft\Templates\Normal.) .224 (approx.dotm Title: Subject: Author: abuthahir Keywords: Comments: Creation Date: 9/23/2008 11:25:00 PM Change Number: 4 Last Saved On: 9/24/2008 1:00:00 PM Last Saved By: abuthahir Total Editing Time: 58 Minutes Last Printed On: 9/24/2008 1:14:00 PM As of Last Complete Printing Number of Pages: 367 Number of Words: 74.) Number of Characters: 423.249 (approx.
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