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B7 a) The diagram below shows the industrial process which is used to make magnesium metal by electrolysis.

gaseous anode product

electrolyte of molten magnesium fluoride molten magnesium steel cathode graphite anode

(i)

Name the gaseous product at the anode. Fluorine gas (ii)

[1]

The magnesium fluoride electrolyte is kept at a very high temperature. Explain, in terms of the bonding and structure of magnesium fluoride, why a high temperature must be maintained. [3] Structure: magnesium fluoride is an ionic compound. In the giant crystal lattice, the magnesium ions and the chloride ions are very strongly attracted to one another. The ions are held in fixed positions. Bonding: These ions are held in place by strong ionic bonds throughout the entire lattice. Why high temp be maintained: A lot of energy is needed to break the bonds so it has a high melting point. Once the bonds are broken, a high temperature is maintained to ensure that the electrolyte remains molten so that the ions are mobile and be able to move to the respective electrodes.

(iii) cathode.

Write an ionic equation to show the formation of the product at the [1] Mg2+ + 2eMg

b) An aqueous barium nitrate solution can be electrolysed using carbon electrodes. (i) Should the electrolyte be maintained at a high temperature? Why? [1] No. The ions are already mobile and able to move when they are in aqueous solution.

(ii)

Describe what is observed and name the product at the cathode. [2] Effervescences are seen. The product formed is hydrogen gas.

(iii) [1]

Write the ionic equation for the reaction at the anode.

4OH-

2H2O + O2 + 4e-

(iv) remaining

If a few drops of aqueous potassium sulphate is added into the electrolyte, what would you observe? [1]

A white precipitate is formed. Please note: barium nitrate + potassium sulfate sulfate ( white ppt) + potassium nitrate ( colourless) barium

The apparatus shown below was used to compare the reactivity of four metals, A, B, C and D. The metal strips and the copper sheet were first cleaned with sandpaper. The metal strips were then placed in turn onto a moist filter paper. In each case, the voltmeter reading was recorded.

Metal under test A B C D a)

Direction of electron flow in the external wire Cu to A Cu to B C to Cu D to Cu

Voltage recorded (v) -0.31 -1.08 +0.75 +0.62

Why is chloroform (tetrachloromethane) not used for soaking the filter paper? [1]

Chloroform is a covalent compound which does not contain ions. It would not be able to carry the electric current and thus there is no conduction of electricity. b) On the basis of the results, arrange the four metals in order of increasing reactivity, starting with the least reactive metals. [2] least reactive to most reactive: B, A, D, C Please note: in a voltaic cell, electrons move from more reactive metal to the less reactive metal. The voltage reading is positive value since copper is taken as 0. negative value implies metal is less reactive than copper.

c) All the metals A, B, C and D have a stable oxidation state of +2. What metal or metals will you choose to displace copper from copper (II) sulphate solution? Describe what will be observed and write the equation to represent the reaction of one metal selected. [4] metal C and metal D. blue solution turns colourless. A pink solid is formed. D+ CuSO4 DSO4 + Cu

d) Estimate the recorded voltage if metal strip A is attached to metal strip C. What would the direction of electron flow in the external wire? [2]

voltage is +1.06 V . the electrons would move from C to A in the external wire.

e) This experiment can be repeated using rods of the various metals instead of strips and inserting them into a cut lemon. Explain why cut lemon is able to support the experiment. [1] Lemon is a dilute solution of citric acid. It is able to dissociate into ions which carry an electric current when it is connected to the electric circuit.