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of an organization, yet very few employers are able to harness the full potential from their employees (Radcliffe, 2005). Human resource is a productive resource consisting of the talents and skills of human beings that contribute to the production of goods and services (Kelly, 2001). Lado and Wilson (1994) define human resource system as a set of distinct but interrelated activities, functions, and processes that are directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining a firm’s human resources. According to Gomez-Mejia, Luis R., David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy, (2008), it is the process of ensuring that the organization has the right kind of people in the right places at the right time. The objective of Human Resources is to maximize the return on investment from the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. It is the responsibility of human resource managers to conduct these activities in an effective, legal, fair, and consistent manner (Huselid, 1995). Employee Training and Development Training and development is a subsystem of an organization that emanate from two independent yet interdependent words training and development. Training is often interpreted as the activity when an expert and learner work together to effectively transfer information from the expert to the learner (to enhance a learner's knowledge, attitudes or skills) so the learner can better perform a current task or job. Training activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds (Learner R., 1986). On the other hand development is often viewed as a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance. This development often includes a wide variety of methods, e.g., orienting about a role, training in a wide variety of areas, ongoing training on the job, coaching, mentoring and forms of self-development. Some view development as a life-long goal and experience. Development focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate (Nadler Leonard, 1984).
human resource development. and learning and development (Harrison Rosemary. 2007). as a planned staff education and development. employee training and development is placed within a broader strategic context of human resources management. . As the generator of new knowledge.e. It has been known by several names. and not only to rely solely on utilization of the existing (Vemic. To preserve its obtained positions and increase competitive advantage. In the field of human resource management. with the goal to benefit both the organization and employees. ensure inventiveness and shape the entire organizational knowledge that provides the organization with uniqueness and differentiates it from the others. The strategic procedure of employee training and development needs to encourage creativity. global organizational management.Training and development ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. the organization needs to be able to create new knowledge. i. the continuous employee training and development has a significant role in the development of individual and organizational performance. including employee development. training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. 2005). both individual and group. Thus.
affect organizations in a specific industry and it is possible to control them to some extent. suppliers and creditors. competitive or operative environment as they are variously referred to. uses the terms societal environment to define the varying trends and general forces that do not relate directly to the company but could impact indirectly on the company at some point in time. and personal observation and experience a set of seven dimensions that seem to characterize most if not all of the systems producing profits through people. competition and product markets comprising customers. Pfeffer (1998) proposes that there is evidence demonstrating that effectively managed people can produce substantially enhanced economic performance. 1998). self-managed teams and decentralization of decision making as the basic . These may include the labour market. variables in the task. The second type of environment is the task environment that comprises elements directly influencing the operations and strategy of the organization. As such. He named them the seven practices of successful organizations and they are: employment security. trade unions. related literature. The factors may be internal or external to the organization. selective hiring of new personnel. disrupts the equilibrium that exists between the organization’s strategy and structure. Four of these forces are identified as economic. The task environment elements are directly linked to the company and are influenced by the societal environment. Its central claim is that by matching the size and skills of the workforce to the productive requirements of the organization. necessitating adjustment to change. F. However. technological. legal and political and socio-cultural and demographic forces. and by raising the quality of individual employee contributions to production. The environment of an organization refers to the sum total of the factors or variables that may influence the present and future survival of an organization (Armstrong. (1995).LITERATURE REVIEW The value of Training and Development According to Beardwell& Holden (1997) human resource management has emerged as a set of prescriptions for managing people at work. whether remote or task. Cascio W. environmental change. Pfeffer extracted from various studies. organizations can make significant improvements on their performance.
how long a person keeps on trying. Motivation at work can take place in two ways. The organization as a whole can provide the context within which high levels of motivation can be achieved training the employees in areas of their job performance. Boxall and Purcell (1992) suggest that ‘human resource advantage can be traced to better people employed in organizations with better processes.’ This echoes the resource based view of . extensive training. It must support some organizational goals. It encompasses those capabilities. First. resources.principles of organizational design. finding and carrying out that which satisfies their needs or at least leads them to expect that their goals will be achieved. have listed the components as being. including dress. in the best judgment of managers. well motivated people are those with clearly defined goals who take action that they expect will achieve those goals. Effect of training and development on competitive advantage Competitive advantage is the essence of competitive strategy. and decisions. Effect of training and development on employee productivity McGhee (1997) stated that an organization should commit its resources to a training activity only if. Motivating other people is about getting them to move in the direction you want them to go in order to achieve a result. (Lengnick-Hall 1990). and wage differences across levels. comparatively high compensation contingent on organizational performance. which permits an organization to capitalize on opportunities in the marketplace and to avoid threats to its desired position. direction-what a person is trying to do. praise and training (Synderman 1957). management can motivate people through such methods as pay. Effect of training and development on employee motivation Motivation is concerned with the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. and extensive sharing of financial and performance information throughout the organization. Arnold etal (1991). the training can be expected to achieve some results other than modifying employee behaviour. efforthow hard a person is trying to and persistence. relationships. office arrangements. improved quality or more efficient personal relations is the modification of employees behaviour affected through training should be aimed at supporting organization objectives. such as more efficient production or distribution of goods and services. Secondly. reduced status distinctions and barriers. language. product operating costs. promotion. people can motivate themselves by seeking.
pre-sale activities which encompass the advice and guidance given to a prospective client. The challenge is to ensure that firms have the ability to find. 2005) Effect of training and development on customer relations William Edward Deming. Intellectual capital is the source of competitive advantage for organizations. the convenience of the location and such issues (Gale 1994). whether there are any consultancy services provided to help the customers assess their needs and any help line available for ease of access to information on products). compensate. one of the quality Gurus defines quality as a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low costs and suitable to the market. Further training has an effect on staff attitudes and motivation. he advises that an organization should focus on the improvement of the process as the system rather than the work is the cause of production variation (Gale 1994). the training can be expected to achieve some results other than modifying employee behaviour. assimilate. Motivating other people is about getting them to move in the direction you want them to go in order to achieve a . This is only possible when employees are well trained and developed to ensure sustainability of the same. the speed of handling a client’s transactions and processing of claims. Organization should commit their resources to a training activity only if. on the selling point of Products/Services a customer would be interested to know about the opening hours of the organization. Conclusion There is a strong relationship between training and development and employee productivity. which states that ‘distinctive human resource practices help to create the unique competences that determine how firms compete’ (Capelli and Crocker.Hefter. in the best judgment of managers. customer communications ( how well the customers are informed of the products and services. Many service organizations have embraced this approach of quality assurance by checking on the systems and processes used to deliver the end product to the consumer. the speed of handling customers calls and the number of calls abandoned or not answered. and retain human capital in shape of talented individual who can drive a global organization that both responsive to its customer and ‘the burgeoning opportunities of technology’ (Armstrong. Essentially this checks on. 1996).the firm.
who take action that they expect will achieve those goals. An organization should focus on the improvement of the process as the system rather than the work is the cause of production variation. Well motivated people are those with clearly defined goals. The level and type of staff training has an effect on customer relations. Many service organizations have embraced this approach of quality assurance by checking on the systems and processes used to deliver the end product to the consumer. .result.
CIPD Publishing. 699-727 Learner. Lado. Academy of Management Journal. 86 -105 . Academy of Management Journal. (1986). The Handbook of Human Resource Development (Glossary). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Concepts and Theories of Human Development (2nd ed. Learning and Development. HBS press. 50. Irwin. Ottawa. M. Boston Betcherman. Other Constituencies.References Armstrong. (1994) Human resource systems and sustained competitive advantage: A competency-based perspective. Davidman (1998). (2001). M. Whither industrial and organizational psychology in a changing world of work?American Psychologist. Canadian Policy Research Network.. A. The Human Equation. Building Profits by Putting People First. Leonard (1984). J. M (1998): Human Resource Management: Strategy and Action.. and the Contested Definitions of Human Resource Development. 635-672 Kelly D. Boston Tessema. Training for the New Economy: A Synthesis Report.). 5 Huselid. 38(3). pp. 117 Cascio. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 17(1). pp. & Wilson. Pfeffer J. R. and Soeters. (1995).. 19(4). McMullen and K. (1998). F. Dual Perceptions of HRD: Issues for Policy: SME’s. (2006) Challenges and prospects of HRM in developing countries: testing the HRM-performance link in Eritrean civil service. M. 928–939 Harrison Rosemary (2005). K. productivity and corporate financial performance. W. A. Nadler. G. (1995) The impact of human resource management practices on turnover. New York: Random House).
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