INDIRECT QUESTIONS

Indirect questions are polite, longer forms of normal questions. For example: - Where's the department store? - Direct question - Could you tell me where the department store is, please? - Indirect question - What's his name? - Direct question - Do you know what his name is? - Indirect question Form Indirect questions are formed of two parts: a polite expression, and a question which has no subject/verb inversion like a normal question . For example: - What's his name? >> - Do you know what his name is? - Indirect question Here the polite expression is "Do you know...", and the question part is "...what his name is?". Note that the subject and verb have not changed place in the question part. So if you said "Do you know what is his name?", this would be incorrect. Another example: - What's the time? >> - Do you have any idea what the time is? - Indirect question The polite expression is "Do you have any idea...?", and the question is "...what the time is?". The question is not "...what is the time?" - you don't invert the subject and verb kike a normal question. Auxiliary Verb "To do"

The auxiliary verb "to do"is used in questions when there is no other auxiliary verb. For example: - You like Chinese food. >> - Do you like Chinese food? Indirect questions do not use the auxiliary verb "to do" in the main question. For example: - When does the next train arrive? - Direct question - Do you know when the next train arrives? - Indirect question - Do you know when does the next train arrive? - Incorrect Another example: - When does the restaurant close? - Direct question - Could you tell me when the restaurant closes? - Indirect question - Could you tell me when does the restaurant close? - Incorrect There are infinite ways to make indirect questions. Not all indirect questions are questions at all, rather they are polite statements which encourage some kind of response. Some common polite expressions include: - I wonder if/whether...? - I can't remember if/whether...? - Could you tell me if/whether...?

. Form of Passive Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs) Example: A letter was written.. the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen.g.I'd like to know if/whether.).. PASSIVE VOICE Use of Passive Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action..? . who or what is performing the action. Passive : A letter is written by Rita. . I do not know.Would you mind telling me if/whether. however.I don't suppose you could.. You have made a mistake. In this case.Is there any chance you could. It is not important or not known. I focus on the fact that a mistake was made.... however.. Example: My bike was stolen. who did it.. In the example above....I can't remember. note the following:    the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle) the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped) Examples of Passive Tense Subject Verb Object writes Simple Present Active: Rita a letter.? . When rewriting active sentences in passive voice.Would it be possible for you to. but I do not blame anyone (e.? . . as the following example shows: Example: A mistake was made. . Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice.

a letter. by Rita. by Rita. by Rita. Passi ve: Past Progressive e: Passi ve: Past Perfect e: Passi ve: Future II e: Passi ve: Conditional I e: Passi ve: Conditional II e: Passi ve: Activ Activ Activ Activ Activ A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter is being written was writing was being written had written had been written will have written will have been written would write would be written would have written would have been written by Rita. a letter. a letter. a letter. by Rita. a letter. . Present Perfect Active: Passive : Future I Active: Passive : Hilfsverben Active: Passive : Examples of Passive Tense Subject Verb Object is writing Present Progressive e: Activ Rita a letter. a letter. by Rita. by Rita. by Rita.Simple Past Active: Passive : Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter Rita A letter wrote was written has written has been written will write will be written can write can be written a letter. by Rita. by Rita. a letter. a letter.

The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped). know). think. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on. German. The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence. g. – It is said that women live longer than men. Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence).Passive Sentences with Two Objects Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject. That’s why it is usually dropped. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive. As you can see in the examples. Example: he says – it is said Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e. by Rita. the other one remains an object. Example: They build houses. A letter I was written was written to me a letter by Rita. the verb of perception is put into passive voice. say. Although Impersonal Passive is possible here. – Houses are built.g. – Women are said to live longer than men. In English. If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice. Example: They say that women live longer than men. Latin). Example: They say that women live longer than men. Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2 wrote Active: Rita a letter to me. Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. Passive: Passive: . Personal and Impersonal Passive Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. . Personal Passive is more common. you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

" Mary said. Por otro lado. he asked. en las frases interrogativas se puede usar "if" o "whether". He said. Would you like to have dinner with me tomorrow night? Chris asked.   Play Ejemplos: I am going to London next week. "Are you busy tonight?" Present Continuous "Dan is living in San Francisco." she said." (Alice dijo. "I'm happy to see you. He asked. Past Perfect Simple He told me they had gone to the movies last night. They asked me why I was working so hard. Greg said." she said.)  Play Do you have a pen I could borrow." ella dijo. "Te gustaría cenar conmigo mañana por la noche?") Reported Speech (El estilo indirecto) El estilo indirecto." Reported Speech Past Simple She said he was American. ("Tienes un bolígrafo que puedas prestarme. Mary said that she was happy to see me. He asked me if I was busy tonight. En general. . "I love to dance. el tiempo verbal cambia. cuando se usa el estilo directo. A veces se usa "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha dicho la otra persona. "I'm making dinner. Direct Speech Present Simple "He's American" she said. "Do you have a pen I could borrow. Past Continuous She said Dan was living in San Francisco. Alice said.("Voy a Londres la semana que viene. Greg said that he hadn't gone to work yesterday. He told me that he was making dinner. Past Simple "We went to the movies last night. A continuación tienes un explicación de los cambios que sufren los tiempos verbales. Con este estilo lo que la persona ha dicho se coloca entre comillas y deberá ser palabra por palabra. a diferencia del estilo directo." "Why are you working so hard?" they asked.")  Play Chris asked." él preguntó.)  Play Alice said." he asked. utilizamos el estilo directo.Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence. "I didn't go to work yesterday. I love to dance. no utiliza las comillas y no necesita ser palabra por palabra. she said." he said. "Would you like to have dinner with me tomorrow night?" (Chris preguntó. "Me encanta bailar. REPORTED SPEECH Cuando queremos informar exactamente lo que otra persona ha dicho. "I am going to London next week.

Modal Verbs (Los verbos modales) El tiempo verbal cambia en el estilo indirecto también con algunos de los verbos modales: Direct Speech Will "I'll go to the movies tomorrow." John said. Should Tom asked if we should go to the beach today." they said. Past Perfect Continuous She said. He asked if I'd been sleeping when he called. "I'll cut my hair tomorrow." He asked." mom said. Present Perfect Continuous "I've been studying English for two years. They said that they hadn't been waiting long. "might" y "ought to". "Have you worked here before?" I asked. Nota: Con "would"."Did you buy a new car?" she asked. "I may not be in class tomorrow.      Ejemplos: "I'm 30 years old. Steve said. She said." he said." "Have you been waiting long?" they asked. → They said they are going to Tokyo next week. Past Perfect Simple "I'd been to Chicago before for work." Vicki said. el tiempo no cambia. "I've already eaten. "You must work tomorrow." Nina said. "I'd been dancing for years before the accident." → Dave said Kelly is sick. "We are going to Tokyo next week. → She said she is 30 years old." "We haven't been to China. Past Perfect Continuous Vicki told me she'd been working last night. "We've been dating for over a year now. "Kelly is sick. They asked whether I'd been waiting long." "Can you open the window. The boy asked if he could use the bathroom. Must "You must wear your seatbelt." they said. Might/Could Jane said she might not be in class tomorrow. "Were you sleeping when I called?" Present Perfect Simple Heather said. Can Debra said. Past Perfect Continuous He said he'd been studying English for two years. Past Continuous "I was working late last night. → Nina said she is cutting her hair tomorrow. They said they hadn't been to China. She said I had to work tomorrow." he said. "could". Past Perfect Simple (*NO CHANGE) He said that he'd been to Chicago before for work. please?". "We weren't waiting long. She asked me if I would help her move. Past Perfect Continuous (*NO CHANGE) She said she'd been dancing for years before the accident. I asked her whether she'd worked there before. She asked me what we should do tonight. Nota: Cuando hablamos de algo que no ha cambiado (todavía es verdad) o que es en el futuro. "What shall we do tonight?" she asked. "should". Dave said. Indirect Speech Would John said he would go to the movies tomorrow. Past Perfect Simple Heather told me that she'd already eaten. he asked. Tell . They said. Say vs. no tenemos que cambiar el tiempo verbal. "Will you help me move?" she asked." She asked me if I had bought a new car. Could Debra said Allen could work tomorrow. Steve told me that they'd been dating for over a year." Shall "Shall we go to the beach today?" Tom asked." she said." "May I use the bathroom. Had to My mom said we had to wear my seatbelt. "Allen can work tomorrow. please?" the boy asked. He asked me if I could open the window. May Jane said.

" she said. Cuando usamos "tell" necesitamos usar un objeto indirecto que va detrás del verbo. ("Tengo hambre. (Él dijo que tenía hambre. o o o 5.) She asked me if I liked to dance. o o o 4. "Stop complaining." ella dijo. pero en inglés se usan estos verbos de maneras distintas. ("Dime la verdad.) Glen told Mike that he needed his help. ("Podrías decirme la hora.) Con la verdad y las mentiras.) Glen said to Mike that he needed his help." ella dijo. (Keith nunca miente. please?" she asked. por favor. > o o o 3. (Nos contó un cuento maravilloso." él dijo. Ejemplos: He told us a great story." (Le dije.) "Tell me a joke. ("Cuéntame un chiste.) . "I'm hungry." Say Se usa "say" en el estilo directo y el indirecto.") Glen told Mike. (Nos dijo de darnos prisa. > Ejemplos: "Can you tell me your name please.") Estilo indirecto He told me that he was hungry. "Necesito to ayuda.        Ejemplos: Estilo directo He told me. Ejemplos: I told him. o o o Ejemplos: "Could you tell me the time. se puede traducir "tell" como "contar" en español.) She said.) Otros usos de "tell": 1. "¿Te gusta bailar?") Estilo indirecto He said he was hungry.) Keith never tells lies. "I need your help. Si queremos usar "say" con un objeto personal. por favor?" me preguntó.) Usamos "tell" cuando damos o pedimos información. (Glen dijo a Mike que necesitaba su ayuda." Glen said to Mike. (Bob me dijo la fecha." (Me dijo. aunque el uso con el estilo directo no es tan común." he said. "Deja de quejarte. se usa "tell.) También se puede usar "tell" con el estilo directo y el indirecto. aunque en general usamos "say" para "decir algo" y "tell" para "decir algo a alguien. "Do you like to dance?" (Ella dijo.") She told us to hurry." (Glen dijo a Mike. necesitamos usar el preposicion "to"." ("Dime tu nombre." Ejemplos: "Tell me the truth.) "I need your help.) Bob told me the date. (Me dijo que tuvo hambre." Glen dijo a Mike. Hay unas reglas que indican el uso de uno sobre el otro en inglés.          Tell Ejemplos: Estilo directo "I'm hungry. ("Necesito tu ayuda. o o o 2. Se usa "tell" con ordenes o instrucciones." she said. En esto caso.) Usamos "tell" con el tiempo o la fecha.En español podemos traducir "say"o "tell" como "decir". "Tengo hambre.") You told him the address of the office? (¿Le dijiste la dirección de la oficina?) Se usa "tell" con cuentos o bromas. (Me preguntó si me gustaba bailar. (Glen dijo a Mike que necesitaba su ayuda.

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