University of Wurzburg Institute of Computer Science Research Report Series

Output Process Analysis of the Peak Cell Rate Monitor Algorithm
F. Hubner
Report No. 75 January 1994 Institute of Computer Science, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Federal Republic of Germany Tel.: +49/931/8885511, Fax: +49/931/8884601, e-mail: huebner@informatik.uni-wuerzburg.de

The monitoring of tra c streams in ATM networks is one of the crucial actions which are performed to avoid network congestion and to be able to guarantee the users a desired grade of service. In this paper, we derive the exact cell inter-departure time distribution from the peak cell rate monitor algorithm as proposed by the CCITT (ITU-TSS) in Draft Rec. I.371 7]. For input cell streams which follow a general independent distribution, we compute the distribution of the time that is expected by the monitor algorithm to pass until the next cell arrives. This distribution is derived by a discrete-time iteration and using this distribution, the cell inter-departure time distribution is given in closed form. We present some numerical examples which show how the inter-cell distributions are altered by passing the monitor algorithm.

Abstract

must be detected and tagged/rejected by the monitor algorithm. Both versions of the monitor algorithm.1 Introduction The peak cell rate of a connection in ATM environments is. whereas a spacing policer was proposed in 13]. 1).356 6]. outside the ATM network. End-to-end (based on 2-point) CDV and its measurement is de ned in CCITT Draft Rec. i. I. be introduced by multiplexing cells from di erent ATM connections usage parameter control (UPC) and network parameter control (NPC) functions segmentation and reassembly in the ATM adaptation layers other network and protocol functionalities The e ect that CDV virtually increases the peak cell rate of a connection must be tolerated by the monitor algorithm. 1. CDV can e. the only parameter which is de ned by the CCITT1 for tra c and congestion control. the negotiated cell rate will be exceeded and the peak cell rate monitor algorithm must detect this violation. I. The tra c streams from di erent connections are multiplexed together and then shaped in a proper way to reduce CDV introduced by multiplexing. an easyto-implement but e ective algorithm for monitoring the cell stream from a connection was proposed by the CCITT in Draft Rec. as many cells as possible. namely the virtual scheduling algorithm and the continuous-state leaky bucket. We refer in this paper only to the virtual scheduling algorithm. If cells from one connection are generated too closely to each other. are equivalent in that sense. The reference con guration for the de nition of the peak cell rate and CDV between ATM connection endpoints and the TB reference point is depicted in Fig. Fig. It is still under discussion whether the shaping should be performed in the customer equipment (CEQ). this peak cell rate must be monitored by the network to be able to guarantee the desired grade of service for all connections according to their tra c contracts. The peak cell rate of an ATM connection is de ned as the inverse of the minimum time between the generation instants of two cells from this connection at the TB reference point (cf. Contrary to this claim. at the moment. Once a connection has negotiated its peak cell rate in the tra c contract with the ATM network.371 7] and was also adopted as generic cell rate algorithm (GCRA) by the ATM Forum in 3]. Therefore.g. CCITT is renamed International Telecommunication Union .e. or inside the network. A cell spacer was proposed in 5] as tra c shaper. But cells can also arrive too closely to each other at the monitor algorithm due to cell delay variation (CDV) for which the connection is not responsible.Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-TSS) 1 1 . stemming from a misbehaving tra c source. that the same cells are rejected/accepted.

In this paper we make use of the analysis presented in 8] and derive the exact cell inter-departure time distributions of GI cell streams which are monitored by the peak cell rate algorithm. In Section 2 we derive the cell inter-departure time distribution.4 and Section 3 concludes the paper and gives an outlook on further studies. In a previous paper 8] we have derived the exact cell rejection probability of the monitor algorithm. Fig. The distribution of the number of slots that are expected until a new cell arrival at the monitor is derived in Subsection 2. I. CDV is introduced between the physical layer service access point (PHY SAP) and the TB reference point. The paper is organized as follows. the exact cell inter-departure time distribution are given.CDV Tolerance τ Traffic Source 1 Connection MUX Endpoints Traffic Source N Shaper PHY SAP Physical Layer Functions Other CEQ 1/T Functionalities UPC Generating S T B B CDV ATM Layer Physical Layer Equivalent Terminal Figure 1: Reference con guration from CCITT Draft Rec. in Subsection 2. In contrast to other published dimensioning studies we took general independent (GI ) cell inter-arrival time distributions into account. As pointed out above.3. Therefore. Some numerical results are presented in Subsection 2. Therefore. the exact cell rejection probability and.371.2.1 the virtual scheduling algorithm is described. the output from the monitor algorithm constitutes the tra c stream which enters the ATM network. 1). 2 . it is of interest to know how the output from the monitor algorithm looks like. Using this distribution. In Subsection 2. there exists a contradiction between the claims to tolerate CDV and to detect cells from misbehaving tra c sources. or how the monitor algorithm alters the cell streams by rejecting some of the cells. But after the tra c shaping. This enabled us to consider also complex tra c scenarios at the connection endpoints (cf. Thus. The peak cell rate monitor algorithm is part of the UPC functions which are performed after the TB reference point. the parameters of the monitor algorithm must be chosen in a way to ful ll both claims in a best manner.

the connection generates cells with a rate smaller than the peak cell rate. If a cell arrives later than its TAT. the peak cell rate is de ned as the inverse of the minimum inter-arrival time T of two ATM cells. described in two versions in CCITT Draft Rec. The time instant at which the next cell is expected to arrive is called theoretical arrival time (TAT).1 Description of the algorithm The peak cell rate monitor algorithm is. the late arrival of this cell does not allow for an earlier arrival of the next cell. A owchart of the peak cell rate monitor algorithm is shown in Fig. The CDV is taken into account by the CDV tolerance . the algorithm can also be used to monitor the sustainable cell rate together with the corresponding burst tolerance. the time di erence between two cell arrivals (at the reference point at which the monitor algorithm is employed) shall not be smaller than T . As described in 3]. we restrict ourselves to the monitoring of the peak cell rate of an ATM connection.2 Analysis of the peak cell rate monitor algorithm 2. cell arrival at time t yes TAT < t ? no compliant cell (1) TAT:=t+T no TAT > t +τ ? yes compliant cell (2) TAT:=TAT+T non-compliant cell (3) Figure 2: Virtual scheduling algorithm for peak cell rate monitoring. Clearly. 2. The monitor algorithm determines if a cell arrives too closely to the last cell (indicating that the ATM connection generates cells with a rate higher than the negotiated rate) or not. as mentioned earlier. the cell is accepted (case (1)) and the TAT for the next cell is set to t + T . We refer here to the virtual scheduling algorithm. Thus.e.371 7]. Three cases can be distinguished: 1. the TAT for the rst monitored cell is set to its arrival time. 3 . The time instant at which a cell actually arrives is denoted by t. i. In this paper. Therefore. As mentioned already. I.

. cell rate monitor algorithm (cf. If a cell arrives before its TAT but not before TAT. the cell is recognized as a noncompliant cell (case (3)) and is rejected2 . The aim of the next subsections is to provide an exact and numerically tractable analysis of the inter-cell distribution for tra c streams which have passed the monitor algorithm. 1 and n. If a cell is generated before the time instant TAT. z + (k). 2. The gray shaded regions in Fig. if the cell inter-arrival time distribution follows a GI distribution. The number of slots until arrival of + cell number n + 1 is An+1 .2 Basic analysis We derive an iterative algorithm to determine the exact cell inter-departure time distribution from the peak cell rate monitor algorithm. and An are denoted . time is discretized into slots of cell duration length. An example evolution for the random variables Zn and Zn is shown in Fig. that the analysis which is presented in the following allows also to consider non-renewal cell arrival . cases (1) and (2) in Fig. + Zn discrete random variable just after the arrival instant of cell n for the number of slots until cell n + 1 is expected to arrive. 3). the cell is also accepted (case (2)) but the TAT of the next cell is set to TAT+T. The following speci c notation is used: . by zn n the distributions an(k) are identical and independent of n. we consider the number of slots until a new cell is expected to arrive and use for this the time-dependent random variable Z (and its variants Z . As appropriate for ATM environments.. An discrete random variable for the number of slots between the generation instants of cells n . the expected time between the arrival instants of cells n and n + 1 has expired and cell n + 1 is accepted. Therefore. and an (k) respectively. 3. Fig. + processes. 3 denote Cells which are identi ed as non-compliant cells can optionally be tagged or rejected (see 7]). 2 4 . Therefore. Zn is decreased by one each slot if it has a positive value. If Zn+1 is zero at the arrival instant of cell n + 1 (cf. + + Since Zn represents the number of slots until the next cell is expected to arrive. + The distributions of the discrete-time random variables Zn .. Zn discrete random variable just before the arrival instant of cell n for the number of slots cell n was expected to arrive later. It should be pointed out. we simply use a(k) to denote the cell inter-arrival time distribution. the cell arrives too early but within the allowed CDV tolerance.2. The TAT for the next cell is not modi ed in this case. (k). Since cells from a compliant tra c source are spaced normally by at least T (slots). We consider here only the case of cell rejection. 3. Zn . Each accepted cell increases Zn by T according to the peak . and Z +). 2). If the cell arrival process is a renewal process.

3 begin) are recognized as non-compliant cells.Z T+ τ T τ arrival of cell n A n+1 n+1 n+2 non-compliant cell T Z . In the following. A cell generation at the beginning of the gray shaded regions can therefore lead to the maximum value of + . Zn is . . is driven by the decrease of Zn by one each slot until it reaches zero. . determined by Zn in the following way: + Zn = ( . Applications of this type of algorithm for the analysis of tra c models in UPC context can e. Using z. T + for Zn . + Figure 3: Zn and Zn process example for < T .Z+ n n τ Zn+1 T τ T τ time (in slots) . and 12]. + Zn+1 = maxf0 Zn . Zn . + of Zn and Zn if the cell generation process follows a general distribution.e. before the gray shaded regions in Fig. the equilibrium state distribution of Zn . + Zn+1 is given using Zn by . Fig.g. cell n + 2 in .g. Cells which arrive at time instants with Zn > (i. (k). The algorithm is based on the algorithm for the computation of the system size distribution in the G X ]=D=1 . 9]. 3). Zn . be found in 8]. An+1 g: (1) + This eqn.+T Z n . the time periods in which cells are accepted due to the CDV tolerance (e. we propose an iterative algorithm for the computation of the distributions . The gray shaded regions begin when Zn reaches the value . Zn +1 : 5 (2) . S queueing system proposed by TranGia and Ahmadi in 11]. the exact cell rejection and inter-departure time distribution can be derived.

k)) 0 k T + (3) where denotes the discrete convolution operation and 0(z(k)) is de ned by 8 > k<0 > P0 < 0 z(i) k = 0 : 0 (z (k)) = > > i=. zn (k) is determined in di erence to eqn.(1).1 : zn > . T ) + z.(2) by (4) 8 > 0 0 k < + (k ) = . we determine the probabilities that the expected time until the next cell arrival is still k slots (0 k T + ) at the time instant of a cell arrival. (k . the probability to observe a non-compliant cell. T ) T k T + n n (5) If + T .(5) by 8 > 0 0 k T . case (3) in Fig.e.The rst case corresponds to the arrival of a non-compliant cell (rejection) whereas the . : z (k) + z. 6 .e. since the results are required for the analysis of the cell inter-departure time distribution in the following subsection. zn : z (k . T ) zn T k : > . i.(3) and (6) for equilibrium state distributions z. but we revised it here. second case corresponds to the arrival of a compliant cell (increase of Zn by T ). According .1 : z(k) k > 0 + If < T . i. The rejection probability pr . 2) is simply given by pr = k= +1 +T X . is given by to eqn. the (7) and + z+(k) = nlim zn (k): !1 We derive the complete distribution z. (k . (k) by the iterative algorithm. z. + zn+1(k) = 0 (zn (k) an+1(. zn (k) +1 k T . z (k): (8) This part of the analysis has been already presented in 8]. (k) + 1 k +T n n (6) Using alternatingly eqns. (k) and z+ (k) are derived by iteration as . (cf. the distribution for Zn+1 . the distribution for Zn is given according to eqn. (k) = nlim zn (k) !1 T .1 < + (k ) = .(3) and (5) for < T and eqns.

(k) in closed form. Zn n cell arrivals T+ τ T+j T τ j Zn time (in slots) T+j. the departure process is the same as the arrival process if no cells are rejected. . cells arrive one behind the other and no batch arrivals have to be taken into account. 7 . Fig. we depict in Fig. . we consider a time instant at which a cell is accepted and determine how many slots pass by until the next cell is accepted.3 Inter-departure time distribution The exact cell inter-departure time distribution d(k) can be derived using z. The rst cell which arrives T + j . since this is the shortest period of time in which two cells can be accepted by the peak cell rate monitor algorithm.τ τ cell departures Figure 4: Cell departure scenario for < T . All cells arriving within the T + j . Since cells are not delayed by the peak cell rate monitor algorithm. To make the steps in the analysis more clear. The peak cell rate algorithm monitors streams of cells belonging to one speci c ATM connection at the TB reference point (cf. 1). Therefore. + takes on value T + j and the next cell can be accepted at the earliest T + j . slots for < T . Inter-departure times must be at least T . 4 an example scenario. or more slots after cell n determines the inter-departure time between cell n and itself. To derive the cell inter-departure time distribution. Then Zn slots later.2. The probability that an inter-arrival time of zero occurs is therefore zero (a(0) = 0) and we consider here only inter-arrival time distributions with this property. 1 slots immediately after cell n are rejected and do not occur in the departure process. We assume that cell n arrives at a time instant with Zn = j and is therefore accepted.

p r for 0 j : (11) For the derivation of the probability. the proba. it follows that d(k) = 0 for 0 k maxf0 T . Then. By discrete convolution of a(k) with itself (m times). Cells are rejected within k . One or more cells are rejected. 1g: . i slots after arrival of cell n and the time between the last rejected and the subsequent accepted cell equals i slots. 1g (9) slots is The probability that the cell inter-departure time equals k > maxf0 T . given by: d(k) = X j . 2. that the sum of the inter-arrival times of possibly rejected cells and of the next accepted cell equals k slots. bility that an accepted cell (with no. . No cell is rejected. the inter-arrival time between both accepted cells must be exactly k slots. P fcell n sees Zn = j jcell n is acceptedg P fsum of inter-arrival times of rejected cells and of next accepted cell = kg: (10) Since z. two di erent cases must be distinguished: 1. the distribution (k) for an arbitrary number of cell arrivals within k slots is given by: (k ) = m=1 | 1 X a(k) :{z: a(k} : : ) m (12) Since a(0) = 0 is valid. (j ) 1 .(12) at m = k: (k ) = m=1 | k X a(k) :{z: a(k) : : } m (13) 8 . P fcell n sees Zn = j jcell n is acceptedg = z. at most k cells can arrive within k slots and therefore. Therefore.For T the shortest inter-departure time is one slot. n) sees Zn = j is 1 . (k) denotes the equilibrium state distribution at cell arrival instants. it is su cient to stop the summation in eqn.

In Fig. Thus. In Fig. i) a(i)5 : (14) 2. The peak cell rate monitor algorithm parameters are T = 10 and is varied (both cases T and T are considered). any GI distribution or distribution which is derived by any form of measurement (e. in this example by pr = 0:5. the rejected arrivals must take place within the T + j . The cumulative arrival time distributions are shown in both Figs. (j ) 4a(k) + k. 4. larger than expected by the peak cell rate monitor algorithm. inter-departure times with k > maxf0 T . most of the cells are accepted as compliant cells. Therefore. equivalently. p 1 minf X . that j is upper bounded by minf k + . i. Figs. i slots. or. According to Fig.4 Numerical results Some numerical examples for cell inter-departure time distributions can be seen in Figs. 6 the mean cell inter-arrival time is E A] = 5 slots.g. but is lower bounded by pr = (T . equivalently. . T must be valid. The shortest inter-departure time after an accepted cell which has seen Zn = j is T + j .T g k+ r j =0 2 z. On the other hand.e. i. from a simulation) could be used for a(k). k T + j .e. Such tra c streams are generated by connections which do not comply with their tra c contract.T + 3 (k . . that the investigated monitor algorithm is able to tolerate the e ect of CDV. It can be observed that the curves for cell inter-arrival and inter-departure time distributions become more similar as is increased. If the sum of interarrival times of rejected cells shall equal k . For ! 1 both curves coincide. a signi cant di erence between arrival and departure time distributions remains.e. the peak cell rate monitor 9 . . (10) . 5 the mean cell inter-arrival time is E A] = 15 slots. The curve for = 200 shows almost no di erence to the curve for = 20 and can be seen as a limiting distribution. some cells are rejected and. which is not introduced by the tra c source itself. We can learn from Fig. i. if is chosen large enough. since the cell rejection probability is zero in this case. 1g occur according to eqns. i T + j .1 X i=k.(12) with probabilities: d(k) = 1 . 1 must be valid. For the cell inter-arrival time. no matter how large is chosen. Such back-to-back cells are one of the major sources of network congestion and it should be therefore avoided to send them to the ATM network. Therefore. 5 and 6). 0g slots are zero in both Figs.e. we use a geometric distribution which is shifted by one to make sure that no batch arrivals can occur. smaller than expected by the peak cell rate monitor algorithm. j k + .. 1 k . . if a numerical value smaller than T is chosen for (cf. the probabilities for inter-departure times smaller than maxfT . j + 1 . i. 1 or. T + i k . Thus. T g. 5. 5 and 6. A characteristic of cell inter-departure time distributions from the monitor algorithm is that the minimum inter-cell time is T . 1 slots after the arrival of cell n. k . As expected. E A])=T . The cell rejection probability decreases with increasing . Therefore. contrary to the former example.j +1. choosing "too large" allows for the generation of some back-to-back cells which pass the monitor algorithm. by the curves with the "+" symbols. In general.

2 0.6 0.cumulative distribution function 1.2 + • • • • • • • • • ++++ • • • • • • • • ++++++++ • • • • • • • • • • • • 0.0 + • • • • • • • • • • 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 inter-departure time Figure 6: Mean cell inter-arrival time smaller than T .4 τ=0 • • • • • 0.4 0.0 ++++ +++ • • • ++ • • + • • • + • • • + • • • • + • • + • τ=200 • • • + • τ=20 • τ=5 • + • • + • 0.8 0. cumulative distribution function 1.8 0. 10 .0 •••• • • • • • •+ • +++++++ • • • • •+• •••••••••• ++++++ • • • • • • • • • •• ++ • • • • +• •••• ++++ • • • • • ••• +++ • • • • • • • • • +• • ++ • • • • ++ • • • • • • • • ++ • • • • • +• • ++ • • • • • • • •• • ++ • +• • • +• • • +• • • +• • • +• • τ=20 • +• • • +• • • +• • • τ=5 +• • • +• • • • +• • • • + • • • τ=0 + • • • +• • • • • • • • • • 0 10 20 30 40 50 inter-departure time Figure 5: Mean cell inter-arrival time larger than T .0 0.6 0.

studies dealing with the interdeparture time distributions of queues with general input and some kind of interfering tra c as proposed in 1]. after the ATM network has been passed by the tra c streams. It is still under discussion whether the peak cell rate monitor algorithm should be also applied inside the ATM network or at the receiving site of an ATM connection. The distribution for the expected time until the next cell arrival at the monitor was used and this distribution has been computed by a discretetime iteration. 4]. 3 Concluding remarks and outlook We derived the exact cell inter-departure time distribution from the peak cell rate monitor algorithm in closed form. The cell streams. 10] could be taken into account. I. In future studies. must follow a GI distribution and the numerical results have shown how these cell streams are altered by the monitor algorithm. P.356 6] will be investigated. as long as < T is chosen. Fig. which are subject to monitoring. i. the end-to-end CDV according to CCITT Draft Rec. 6 shows that there is a remarkable di erence between inter-arrival and inter-departure time distributions if cell streams which originate from a misbehaving tra c source pass through the monitor algorithm. slots exists.algorithm is able to provide some kind of spacing functionality if < T is valid. Tran-Gia and M. T = 200 and = 200. It should be noted that the numerical values for T and are chosen in the presented examples to demonstrate some basic e ects. that a minimum inter-cell distance of T . Since the tra c from a speci c ATM connection passes several multiplexing facilities inside the network. The presented analysis of the monitor algorithm at the entrance of the ATM network at the TB reference point will serve as a basis for future studies. 2].g. The author would like to thank Prof. e. It constitutes no complexity problem to take into account more realistic values.e. Acknowledgement 11 . Ritter for proof-reading the manuscript. Departing cell streams have the nice property.

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