Tourism

The term tourism refers both to travel undertaken for pleasure and to the modern multimillion-dollar business that caters to the tourist's need for transportation, accommodation, food, entertainment, recreation, souvenirs, and social contact.

Tourism from Ancient Times Through the 18th century
Mass tourism is a relatively modern phenomenon, but travelers have reacted as tourists, regardless of the purpose of their journeys, since the beginning of recorded history. To write his history of the war between the Greeks and the Persians, Herodotus personally visited many of the areas making up the Persian Empire. Like many present cultural chauvinists, Herodotus reacted with shock to the foreign ways of Egypt, where, he found, nothing was done as it was in Greece. Probably the most famous traveler of all time was Marco Polo, who recorded his adventures at the court of Kublai Khan; his travels by land through Central Asia, the Gobi Desert, and the Mongol Empire from Tibet to Burma and southern India; and his 3Å-year sea voyage home after an extended stay of 17 years (1275Ð92). After 700 years tourists can still profitably read the observations of that Venetian trader when contemplating their own trips to China and the Far East. Few travelers of any age have ventured so widely or written so authoritatively as Ibn Battuta (c.1304Ðc.1377), who, beginning with a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1326, over the next 30 years covered most of the Islamic world. For equally vivid descriptions of the Muslim holy cities, Africa, and themysterious East, armchair travelers would have to await the narratives of such 19th-century scholar-explorer-eccentrics as Sir Richard Burton and Charles Montagu Doughty. During the 20th century T. E. Lawrence, Lowell Thomas, Freya Stark, and H. V. Morton helped answer this need for vicarious adventure in out-of-the-way places by their knowledgeable accounts. If more people did not take to the road, it was because throughout most of recorded history travel was no pleasure. Roads were poor or nonexistent, inns uncomfortable, and
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transportation expensive and inconvenient. Only the favored few even tried to escape the city for mountain or seaside retreats in summer, or for curative thermal spas if they suffered from ill health. The country estate and the watering place of Roman times and the religious pilgrimage popular in the Middle Ages, however, represented the small beginnings of what would one day become a tidal wave of tourism. From the start some of the spas frequented by the Romans were also centers of luxury, gambling, and high living and thus attracted those who sought nothing but pleasure in other words, tourists. The prestige of Athens as a cultural center even after it had lost its political importance also made it a tourist attraction among Romans with pretensions to learning. By the 18th century the leisure time available to Europe's aristocracy led to a fashion for travel among the sons of the wealthier classes. On the Continent university students were encouraged to spend a year at a foreign institution, while in Great Britain was born the idea of the Grand Tour, an educational journey that comprised a year or two of travel and learning in the major cities of western Europe. One such privileged youth was the Scotsman James Boswell, who between 1763 and 1766 toured Holland, Germany and Switzerland, Italy, Corsica, and France. He was as zealous a journal keeper as he was a traveler, a habit that served him and English letters particularly well when later he recorded The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson (1785). An equally great boon to tourism was the revolution in aesthetic consciousness that transformed attitudes toward nature. Mountains, forests, and seas, which for centuries had seemed forbidding and malignant, were now endowed with majesty, glamour, and even divinity. The rediscovery of the beauties of untamed nature coincided with the newfound love bestowed upon ancient times and all the ruins and remnants of the distant past that were strewn about the European landscape, especially in Italy. This romantic sensibility created the appetite for viewing and sightseeing without which tourism as it exists today could never have evolved.

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Tourism as a major International Industry
Both world wars contributed to the American taste for foreign travel by exposing millions of service personnel to the excitement of faraway places. International tourism as a giant industry did not get under way until the 1950s, however. Of the many factors contributing to this boom, the two most important were U.S. prosperity relative to other countries' faltering economies in the postwar world, which gave the U.S. dollar unusual purchasing power abroad, and the advent of jet travel in 1958, which made it possible to cross the Atlantic in seven to eight hours, half the time taken by propeller aircraft and about one-eighteenth that required by surface transport all for about the same price. Jet speeds not only made accessible places that were previously considered remote, such as the South Pacific, the Far East, South America, and Africa, but also opened up the world of international travel to ordinary working people with only a short annual vacation. Adding to the convenience and attractiveness of long-distance tourism were the availability of traveler's checks, which reduced the risks of travel; the incentive of reduced fares by way of Eu-rail passes, issued by Europe's state-owned railway systems; and the increased availability of packaged tours, where inexpensive transportation, accommodations, and sightseeing for groups are all arranged in advance. U.S. tourists no longer constitute a majority in the world of travel-for-pleasure. As other nations grew prosperous they too sent large numbers of tourists out into the world: European nationals, beginning in the 1960s; the Japanese, from the 1970s; and, notably, the once-Communist countries of Eastern Europe in the late 1980s. Tourism now plays a substantial role in the economies of African, Caribbean, and western European nations. Many regions of China and of the former Soviet Union both eager for foreign business and currencies have relaxed once-rigid travel restrictions and improved their tourist facilities.

The changing faces of tourism
The tourist industry is vulnerable to almost instantaneous change when war, terrorism, or disease threatens, or when economies shrink and vacations are spent at home. Some recent examples are: the recession of the late 1980s, which continued to spread its effects on U.S. tourism into the 1990s; the Persian Gulf crisis of 1990Ð91, which
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7% compared to its 2007 level. business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited´. In 2007. Thailand and many island nations such as Bahamas. Tourism is travel for recreational or leisure purposes. On the other hand. may well become the prime tourist fad of the 21st century. taking visitors to the great wild-animal parks of Africa and rarely seen regions of the Amazon. These service industries include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis. up from 618 million in the same period in 2007. Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure.6% as compared to 2006. International tourist receipts were USD 856 billion in 2007. However.profoundly depressed tourism both to and from the United States. and other hospitality industry services such as resorts. Maldives. as a result of the economic crisis of 2008. As a tourist lure. and the Antarctic. the Himalayas. the upsurge of fundamentalist Muslim terrorism in Egypt. Tourism is vital for many countries such as U.A. Greece. Ecotourism. with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months. accommodation such as hotels and entertainment venues. the search for nature-in-the-raw. Fiji. prostitution has uplifted the economies of many nations most notably. new tourist attractions emerge constantly. 4 . Seychelles due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. as total international tourism arrivals from January to August were 641 million tourists. which gutted the tourist industry in that country beginning in 1993. while growth from January to April 2008 had reached an average 5. there were over 903 million international tourist arrivals.E. Egypt. with a growth of 6.7%. international tourist arrivals during the first four months of 2008 followed a similar growth trend than the same period in 2007. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3. international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Despite the uncertainties in the global economy. Thailand.

or 182. 5 . Gas and Water Supply. The Product With beauty and diversity. of which $6. Electricity. take a leisurely drive through the State¶s lush farm regions or stop in the quirky towns and cosmopolitan centers. Aboriginal heritage tours. In 2000-01 tourism generated $23. lively festivals. was worth $73 billion in 2003/04. The tourism industry has a larger output than: y y y Agriculture.Tourism is now one of the largest industries in Australia accounting for 536. India has a wide range of experiences for international and domestic visitors. including direct and indirect expenditure. Tourism is also big business. hike in fresh mountain air and journey to the red outback. The total real output. Communication Service. Mining. Mining. Tourism also employs 5. tourism is larger than the following industries: Agriculture. Gas & Water Supply.4 billion was generated by international visitors. Visitors can laze on a beach. Tourism impacts on almost every industry. Personal and Other Services. They can then step away to soak up the local flavors of regional of New Bombay. Forestry and Fishing. amazing landscapes and friendly locals.3 per cent of the state¶s workforce. soothe their soul in one of the World Heritage national parks. Along the way visitors will be amazed at what they find ± fine food and wine trails. and Electricity. Communication services. and Cultural and Recreational Services.Tourism Industry Tourism is one of the most exciting and progressive industries in India. Government Administration and Defense. Tourists enjoy the big city buzz of Bombay.3 billion to the Indian economy. Forestry and Fishing.000 people directly.600 jobs. In NSW. its great restaurants and shopping. the beauty of its world famous harbor.

6 . decide how they will travel there and make reservations accordingly through a travel agent. and promoting. the tourism industry is the total of all businesses that directly provide goods or services to facilitate business. The consumer In the tourism system the consumer is the most important element as the consumer is the reason tourism products and services exist. The chart below demonstrates the impact within our economy and community when someone goes on holiday. over the Internet or directly from the tourism operator. decide how much time they have available and what types of activities they would like to do while away. wholesaler. your consumers and products. on-going process that any successful business is continually working through. Consumers have many choices about how to spend their money and leisure time. developing your business and products. they will then determine their budget. developing your own skills. Marketing your business Marketing refers to a multi-faceted. advertising or working with the media to raise awareness of your product and generate sales. Then they will begin to select a destination. If they choose to spend their money on a holiday. In its broadest sense. Everyone working in tourism must ensure that the consumer is fundamental to all business and planning decisions. These benefits can be especially significant in regional areas by diversifying the area¶s economic base and expanding the employment market. evaluating research data. As you can see it is significant. pleasure and leisure activities away from the home environment.Tourism is everyone¶s business Everyone gains from properly managed tourism. It includes activities such as: researching the market.

and what they want to do. Price must meet both the consumer¶s and your needs. Providing a holiday package as a prize for a competition or even staying in touch with customers provides promotion of your product. or in a large group.Marketing is often described as µthe four Ps¶: product. product or service they are more likely to be motivated to visit. Place is about distribution: the agencies. then raise their awareness of the choices available. Planning/Decision ± Promotional information helps the consumer decide how to get there. television. bus stops. with a partner or friends. price and promotion. It is important to understand this process because it influences all stages of the previously discussed model. Awareness ± Consumers may have a recognized or unrecognized need for a holiday. especially the marketing/promotion element. newspapers. whether it¶s restful idleness in scenic spots or extreme sports in challenging terrain. 7 . Promotion is explaining destinations. products and services to consumers to help them choose their holiday. the sides of buses. The product includes the physical attributes of the product. product or service can help consumers recognize they need a holiday. channels and institutions used to give consumers easy access to purchasing your product. Motivation ± If the consumer is positively aware of a destination. on their own. radio. etc. Promotion can use a range of media such as print (magazines. Consumer Decision-making The above diagram assists in understanding the process consumers work through in deciding about taking a holiday. Internet. place. Needs ± Going on a holiday allows people to take a break from their normal life. trains etc). brochures. Promoting a holiday destination. direct mail. branding and packaging. posters displayed on billboards.

They not only sold their own tours to the public. travel agencies largely catered to middle and upper class customers. Their word of mouth raises awareness of the destination. and vice versa. but in addition. Kings. There are also travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies. is sometimes said to be the oldest travel agency in the world. established a chain of agencies in the last quarter of the 19th century. car rentals. allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located. Travel agencies became more commonplace with the development of commercial aviation. on behalf of suppliers. such as airlines. railways. established in 1758. supplied to its wealthy clients. Travel Agency A travel agency is a retail business. Other British pioneer travel agencies were Dean and Dawson. Thomas Cook. in addition to developing the package tour. Origins The British company. but this rests upon the services that the original bank. family and colleagues. The modern travel agency first appeared in the second half of the 19th century. hotels. cruise lines. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists. but the post-war boom in mass-market package holidays resulted in 8 . product(s) and service(s) with potential future consumers. starting in the 1920s. that sells travel related products and services. sightseeing tours and tour operators. Word of Mouth ± Consumers share their holiday experiences with friends. represented other tour companies. most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travelers and some travel agencies specialize in commercial and business travel only. the Polytechnic Touring Association and the Co-operative Wholesale Society. particularly package tours. in association with the Midland Railway.Satisfaction ± If a product delivers what has been promoted. to customers. the consumer is likely to be satisfied and have a quality holiday experience. Originally.

unlike other retail businesses. for those who sell package holidays on behalf of a tour company. They will advertise the fact that they are surety bonded. car rentals.travel agencies on the main streets of most British towns. The profit is therefore the difference between the advertised price which the customer pays and the discounted price at which it is supplied to the agent. they do not keep a stock in hand. travel guide books and timetables. airlines have stopped giving commission to travel agencies. selling travel products and services on behalf of a supplier. This process benefits both parties. However. that is to say. dealing in the most popular holiday currencies. looking for a convenient way to book overseas beach holidays. a travel agency's main function is to act as an agent. meanings in the case of a failure. and the services of an on-site Bureau de change. for those who issue air tickets. Air Travel Organizers¶ Licensing (ATOL) for those who order tickets in. the customers are guaranteed either an equivalent holiday to that which they have lost or if they prefer a refund. The holiday or ticket is supplied to them at a discount. because if they were to sell a thousand trips at a cheaper rate. Major tour companies can afford to do this. either their own or a supplier's. In some countries. This is known as the commission. These can include the sale of in-house insurance. they still come out better than if they sell a hundred trips at a higher rate. The majority of travel agents have felt the need to protect themselves and their clients against the possibilities of commercial failure. A package holiday or a ticket is not purchased from a supplier unless a customer requests that purchase. especially by the larger chains. Other commercial operations are undertaken. per sale. A British travel agent would consider a 10-12% commission as a good arrangement. Operations As the name implies. Consequently. catering to a working class clientele. travel agencies are now forced to charge a percentage premium or a standard flat fee. Many British and American agencies and tour operators are bonded with the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Therefore. the Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) or the American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA). some companies still give them a set percentage for selling their product. 9 .

A travel agent is supposed to offer impartial travel advice to the customer. In the United States. now a subsidiary of TUI AG. such as sporting events. there are four different types of agencies: Mega. like Thomson Holidays. In the United States. car rentals. hotels. like football. sightseeing tours and tour operators is expected in form of a commission from their bookings. Commissions Most travel agencies operate on a commission-basis. in which customers choose their holiday from brochures on racks and then book it from a counter. It is now quite common for the large mass-market tour companies to purchase a controlling interest in a chain of travel agencies. There are two 10 . meaning that the compensation from the airlines. an agency usually adds a service fee to the net price. Types of Agencies There are three different types of agencies in the UK: Multiples. the commission consists of a set percentage of the sale. Independent Agencies usually cater to a special or niche market. a variety of social and economic changes have now contrived to bring this aspect to the fore once more. in order to control the distribution of their product. often owned by international conglomerates. Again. cruise lines. most airlines pay no commission at all to travel agencies. However.) The smaller chains are often based in particular regions or districts. such as the needs of residents in an up market commuter town or suburb or a particular group interested in a similar activity. Consortium and Independent Agencies. Most often. Miniples and Independent Agencies. this function almost disappeared with the mass-market package holiday and some agency chains seemed to develop a 'holiday supermarket' concept. American Express and the American Automobile Association (AAA) are examples of mega travel agencies. The former comprises of a number of national chains. Regional. railways. (This is an example of vertical integration. golf or tennis. particularly with the advent of multiple no-frills airlines. the German multinational. In this case.

transportation. the former is usually a larger operator like Thomas Cook. These can be hotel reservations. for example. Usually. material handling. Today. international repositioning of raw materials/products and manufacturing without a professional logistical support. It involves the integration of information. services. based in the originating location of the traveler and the other is the destination focused. Logistics Air transport is a vital component of many international logistics networks. essential to managing and controlling the flow of goods. These companies do not usually sell directly to the public. information and other resources like products. they may only have contracted rates to specific destinations. and derivatives of these names) are airlines dedicated to the transport of cargo. no consolidator offers everything. energy. the sole purpose of consolidators is to sell to ethnic niches in the travel industry. with some exceptions for business class contracts. Some cargo airlines are divisions or subsidiaries of larger passenger airlines. inventory. warehousing. multi-destination. that is based in the destination and delivers an expertise on that location. and people. global export/import processes. Cargo Airlines Cargo airlines (or airfreight carriers. from the source of production to the marketplace. They may or may not offer various types of services. The operating responsibility of 11 . while the latter is often a smaller. Sometimes the services are combined into vacation packages that include transfers to the location and lodging. It is difficult or nearly impossible to accomplish any international trading. Consolidators Travel consolidators or wholesalers are high volume sales companies that specialize in selling to niche markets. flights or car-rentals.approaches of travel agencies. Commonly. there are no domestic consolidators. and packaging. at a single point of access. in-bound travel agency. out-bound travel agency. At present. One is the traditional. independent operator. but act as wholesalers to retail travel agencies.

and finished inventories where required at the lowest cost possible. MD11. Douglas DC-8. Aircraft used Larger cargo airlines tend to use new or recently built aircraft to carry their freight. work in process. and UPS once unsuccessfully tried a passenger charter airline division. Notable cargo airlines All-cargo y y y y y y y y y y y y y ABX Air Aeromodal Cargolifter Airnet Express Air Hong Kong American International Airways/Kalitta Aloha Air Cargo Atlantic Airlines ATRAN Cargo Airlines Nippon Cargo Airlines Atlas Air Arrow Airways Inc.logistics is the geographical repositioning of raw materials. This normally involves the replacement of glazed windows with opaque panels. the strengthening of the cabin floor and insertion of a broad top-hinged door in one side of the fuselage. Examples of the 60-year-old Douglas DC-3 are still flying around the world carrying cargo (as well as passengers). Boeing 727. An-26. Fokker Friendship. DC-10. B 747#747-200F.A number of cargo airlines carry a few passengers from time to time on their flights. Ilyushin Il-76. like the Boeing 707. and British Aerospace ATP are now being modified to accept standard air freight pallets to extend their working lives. Short range turboprop airliners such as the An-12. but many use older aircraft. Australian air Express Blue Dart Aviation 12 .

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Burlington Air Express Capital Cargo International Airlines Cargo 360 Cargojet Airways Cargolux Challenger Air Cargo DAS Air Cargo Emerald Air Emery Worldwide European Air Transport (branded "DHL") Evergreen International Airlines FedEx Express Fine Air First Flight Flying Tiger Line Gemini Air Cargo Heavylift Cargo Airlines Jade Cargo International K-Mile Air Kalitta Air Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter (on behalf of Purolator) Kitty Hawk Aircargo Martinair Cargo Maximus Air Cargo MNG Airlines Murray Air (National Air Cargo Group) LAN Cargo Polar Air Cargo RAF-Avia Seaboard World Airlines Southern Air 13 .

Today. and come in all sizes. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year. they are almost always built of welded steel. often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload. 14 . although they are routinely thought of as a separate category). they handle the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task. Types Specialized types of cargo vessels include container ships and bulk carriers (technically tankers of all sizes are cargo ships. and materials from one port to another. and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped. goods.y y y y y y y y y y Swiftport Tampa Cargo TCS Courier TNT Tol Air Transmile Air Services Turkish Cargo UPS Airlines World Airways Varig Log Cargo Ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo.

Computerized travel agencies give their clients the best service possible and they provide automated reservation and ticketing services. Nevertheless. The travel agent can also charge his customers for the service he provides. However. The role of travel agents is to help his or her customers to get knowledgeable concerning the top-valued packages best suitable to one's budget needs. rents a car service. the travel agent also books airline tickets. as a result they are able to provide better discounts on air tickets and hotels for their clients. in exchange of a fee. it should be ensured that the travel agency is well-equipped and computerized. Additionally. before an appropriate travel agency is chosen before a corporate trip. Informing his customers about the visa procedure and helping to procure the same is another important responsibility for international travel agents. Smaller businesses in particular are more prone to rely heavily on the travel agents before making overseas corporate travels. the agent would send the request to the hotel company and then the hotel would send a commission of 15 . books tickets for their fight and is paid by the agency suppliers by a commission. A travel agent serves to provide the needs of these traveling people and educate them of the necessities that they have to consider while making their journeys. The work of a travel agent is pretty similar to that of a real estate agent.Role of Travel Agency Travel Agent The selection of an appropriate travel agent is yet another important aspect before planning a corporate travel. The selection of a suitable travel agent can lead to significant discounts and better facilities in a business trip to the overseas. if an agent books a hotel room for his customer. For example. Most of the travel agencies have mutuality with the major airline companies and the hotels. a significant number of travel agencies have been seen to have established in the recent times. and arranges accommodation. The travel agent also helps in forecasting the weather of a particular destination as well as informs his customers regarding the ideal season to visit. He reserves hotels for his customers.

it is not possible to affiliate with these organizations. It is particularly advantageous to work with the travel agencies as most of them are not able to make enough money in the sales with a definite supplier in order to obtain greater percentage of commission or bonuses. the travel agents can also get additional commission on attraction tickets and some other forms of road transportations. In order to register with a supplier. for example. They achieve this by working with the suppliers who affiliate themselves only with the travel agencies. Working with an agency can also make an agent feel supported and non-isolated and that can boost up his morale as well as help him learn new things. By working with an agency with the many other agents can help in increasing the percentage of commission that they can get as a combined result of the sales of all the agents. such as bank balance. A hotel room for $100 per night would mean an earning of $10 each night for the agent. sales. experience or knowledge in the required field and some amount as the membership fees. The membership with the supplier has a few requirements. The commissions that the agents get from the suppliers can come from the following products:  Hotels  Cruises  International Airline Tickets  Travel Insurance  Train Tickets  Car Rentals Apart from these products. When a 16 . Travel agents can provide their customers with prices that are the same as the suppliers and sometimes even cheaper through discounts and special offers.about 10 % of the hotel price excluding the taxes and other fees. when some customer rents a limousine. a travel agent should open an account with the provider. For ordinary travel agents. in that process the agent can join a travel agency or can start working independently.

The duty of independent travel agent is to settle all the necessary arrangements for travel once the customer sets up his or her plan. these types of discounts are greatly varied depending on the time of booking. After receiving the query. it is quite likely that booking on time may only come out with good outcome. The travel agent is responsible for letting the customer know about the requisite details in terms of discounted air fare or negotiable hotel price. The travel agent can not only give the traveler valuable information. he can also give a good value to his customers. at the same time earning from it. Essentially in most of the cases. In that case a travel agent can be very handy. For example: According to general rules. the online travel agent provides the customer the quotes available against the query. However. mentioning his or her requisites.person wants to choose from the options of booking and information related to their travel. internet is the most accessible media in travel and tourism industry. These agents help people save their time and their money before on their travel preparations. Online Travel Agent In modern times. likewise other products and facilities. 17 . Role of Independent Travel Agent As an independent travel agent. he might not know all the possible things. While submitting query. On the other hand. It is the duty of the online travel agent to find the best suitable offer that is precisely aligned with customer's own needs. if someone plans to travel during peak season. most of the online travel schedules customization on the basis of customer's own preference. the discounts are more easily available during weekdays. the individual is not directly associated with any travel agency. whereas weekend prices are little higher compared to the former. customer needs to fill up an online form. but works like a freelancer who is directly associated with various travel related facilities or travel agencies.

and trip costs. If you are charged with making your own travel plans when you travel for work. it behooves you to seek out the rates offered by online travel agencies. you should investigate several different agencies so that you can be sure of getting both good service and the best rates available. They are also able to get you a rental car. There has never been a better time to travel. both on an international and domestic level. Prior to booking your trip with an online travel agency. hotels. The savings that the company receives by not having an office can often be passed on to the customer. There are many online travel agencies that specialize in making business travel arrangements for customers. While visiting for any seminar or session. Online travel agents usually work from the comfort of their own homes and are fortunate enough not to have to go into an office. you may choose an agency that caters to business travelers. Online Travel Agencies More and more people are using the internet to make travel arrangements. you should look into using an online travel agent who may be able to get you a cheaper rate for airfare and hotel accommodations. they can generally get better deals on airfare and hotel accommodations than travel agents with offices and overhead. delaying in a trip and any sort of interruption occurring during a trip. Because online travel agencies do not have an office or overhead. There are hundreds of different online travel agencies that are designed to cater to both the pleasure seeking traveler as well as the business traveler. This is particularly beneficial insuring the costs involved with airfare. Whether you are traveling for business or pleasure. If you are traveling for business. if we do not discuss about travel insurance. It makes sense to use good travel agents 18 . it helps in reimbursing session fees or course fees whatsoever. the article will surely remain unfinished. Travel insurance covers the prepaid or non-refundable costs associated with cancellation of a trip.Travel Insurance While discussing about different facilities provided by independent travel agent or travel agencies. Online travel agents are usually privy to the best discounts available when it comes to both air fare and hotel bookings.

Not only will they be able to save you money. Commercial travelers usually have more needs than a holiday traveler. would travel more frequently. Business Travel Agencies and Services More people are beginning to travel farther for business travel.when planning a large trip. a commercial traveler must be sure that they have all of the comforts of their office when traveling. Because of this phenomenon. however. commercial travelers have more options than ever when it comes to taking business trips. Business trips used to be routine and boring. Business class is a service offered by most airlines and is a step below first class and a step above coach. who were in sales. A good business travel agent may be able to 19 . there is a growing need for business travel agencies and services like never before. In some cases. particularly if going overseas. but they will know everything that you need to bring when visiting another part of the world. particularly if it is an international trip. Today. more companies than ever are doing business on an international level. for commercial travelers to seek out certain business travel agencies and services such as those that cater strictly to the business traveler or act as a virtual tour guide. it can cost the same as coach travel. A good business travel agent will know the best hotels where a business traveler can be assured of having uninterrupted service of their internet usage as well as their cell phone. Some of the services that business travel agencies offer include the following: Special rates for business class and first class air flights. Because the internet has become such an important part of life worldwide. therefore. more people are traveling not only domestically but also internationally for business. While a holiday traveler is out to enjoy sightseeing and have fun. Today. Others. This can be especially helpful when embarking on a long flight. It has become necessary. Some airlines offer business class that gives a business traveler a little bit more room in flight. Most people who worked for corporations would take one or two trips a year if they were in a management position.

Hotel amenities for business travelers: A good business travel agent will know which hotels have the best amenities for commercial travelers. an international driving license and laws and customs of other countries. ask your business travel agent if they offer an international travel host service. International Travel Services If your business travel takes you to other countries. In addition.get you better air flight accommodations than you would be able to get if booking on your own. There are many different hotel chains that have emerged over recent years that cater strictly to commercial travelers. you will need to find out about obtaining a passport. These travel hosts help business travelers find the best restaurants. If your business takes you away on an international level and you find yourself booking a trip to a place where you have never been and do not speak the language. In addition. They realize the different needs of commercial travelers and provide internet access. they can often save quite a bit of money. the 20 . Car rental service Business travelers can usually get a better discount on car rentals when booking through a business travel agent than if they book a car rental on their own. They are also adept at understanding the rate of currency exchange. because a business traveler can usually get away with a smaller vehicle than those traveling with a family. The automobile rental market is very competitive and it is important for rental agents to try to procure the favor of travel agents by offering them lower rates on automobile rental. you will need to know a little of the language of that country. facsimile access and telephone access as well as spacious accommodations and working space. nightclubs and will act as translators when necessary. International Travel Hosts Some business travel agencies have private hosts that work on an international level to give first class treatment to business travelers.

affordable and productive. Hotels The selection of hotel is perhaps the most important and critical factor while planning a corporate travel. A number of sub factors are taken into account such as the location of the hotel from where the business would be easier to carry out. More services are available than ever before for the commercial traveler to make business trips pleasant. It is also known as Business Travel and is an advantage to the corporation financing the trip. However. A good business travel agency will be able to offer the commercial traveler international travel services such as information on all of the aforementioned items. the travel includes trip across the borders in the other countries for the betterment of the business or for signing a new contract. the quality of the hotel where the business delegate would stay during the trip and carry out the task and most importantly the cost of the hotel which depends on the first two factors. such as the National Business Travel Association (NBTA).currency that is used and about electrical appliance adaptors. The factors include the selection hotels. keeping entertainment as a secondary motive is known as corporate travel. Many organizations have been developed on the basis of corporate travel. Several factors are taken into account while planning a business trip and typically that depends on the size of the business. Typically. smaller corporations are known to emphasize more on the last factor regarding the selection of the 21 . Business travel is commonly known to be as luxurious as well as time efficient. The most common destinations across the globe where business travels take place at all times are Hong Kong. travel agents and others. Corporate Travel The travel that is made for the purpose of business. Business travel agencies and services that cater to commercial travelers are growing by leaps and bounds. In most cases corporate traveling is financed by the corporations or the company under which the person makes a trip. car rentals. New York City and London. airlines.

as selected by the specific corporation for their travel. Business corporations often rely on the accommodation provided by the airline companies incase of a delay or cancellation of a flight. car rentals can also be found on discount at times and are sometimes provided by the travel agents. Air Travel Typically corporate travel is done in the overseas and thus the selection of the appropriate airlines is also an important factor to consider before planning a major corporate travel. smaller corporations who emphasize more on minimizing the cost can take several steps in order to lower down the expenses. Budget hotels and cheap lodgings are mostly preferred by these corporations.hotel. However. Car Rentals The usage of cars can be mandatory for efficient and much easier business trip in the overseas. 22 . However. using the services of a single airline in order to enjoy certain discounts as being the regular customers and lastly they can travel using the budget airlines that are quite available now a day¶s to reduce on the cost. reliability and punctuality. The preference of a particular airline company depends on the comfort. A number of car rental companies can be found in all the major hotels across the globe. Smaller businesses can make car rental confirmations in advance in order to enjoy discounts on them or the special discount coupons obtained from the travel agents which had been selected by the corporation for the travel. especially during an important trip to the overseas. Smaller corporations can book the tickets in advance in order to lower the fare of the travel.

Planning and costing tours The contracts and arrangements have been entered into and their. Many agencies with the cooperation of airlines and other transportation companies take the opportunity of arranging educational tours for such staff to the countries with which they deal. in addition to a general programmes.Functions of Travel Agency Preparation of Itineraries Tourist itinerary is a composition of series of operation that are a result of the study of the market. These include transportation companies. Liaison with Providers of Services Before any form of travel can be sold over the counter to a customer have to be entered into with. the liaisons work involved a great deal of coordination with the principals.. A tourist journey is characterized by an itinerary using various means of transport to ink one locality with another. many will issue separate programmes dealing with territories. they provides of various services. Separate programmes dealing with holiday offers based on specific forms of 23 . This job calls for a meticulously mined person and calls for considerable training and ability. comes the tasks of planning and costing tours. Many large agencies have people who authorities on particular countries and. and also for general servicing requirements. The study and the realization of the itineraries calls for a perfect organization ( technical and administrative) as also knowledge of the desires for a holiday and the propensity to receive tourist by the receiving localities. hotel proprietors. Preparation of different types of itinerary is another important function of a travel agency. both for inclusive programmers and to meet individual requirements. The work carried out under these heading is usually that of the owners or senior employees of agencies concerned. In the case of a large agency with worldwide ramifications. the providers of surface transport like motorcars or coaches for transfer to and from hotels and for sightseeing etc. A travel agent gives advice choice for their holiday or business travel. This job is intensely interesting and at the same time challenging.

Having spent considerable time and money on preparing all that goes into the issue of a programme.transportation. Some of the larger travel agencies deal exclusively on the provision of foreign currencies. Programmes also have to be issued to cover different seasons of the year. Insurance. This calls for a thorough knowledge of schedules of various modes of transport. Provision of Foreign Currency Provision of foreign currencies to intending travelers is another specialized activity of a travel agency. Publicity is an important part of the programme. An up to date knowledge about various schedules of air companies. Some of the larger travel 24 . publicity must feature considerably in the activities of a travel agency and more so if the agency happens to be a large one. There are nearly 50 different types of fare combinations alone in the local air schedules and additions of new flights from time to time makes a job of the travel agent on the constant challenge. air. rail. rail and sea is yet another important function of a travel agency. Through a wide network. The majority of a large travel agencies have their own publicity departments under the management of a publicity expert. This system comprises a computer network that can be used by the travel agent to reserve an air or rail accommodation in a hotel. This is important facility to intending travelers as it saves them a lot of time and energy. is yet another important activity of a travel agency. e. Ticketing Selling tickets to clients using different modes of transport like air.g. Ticketing is however not an easy job as the range and adversity of international airfares is very complex and varied. Air carriers. steamship companies and railways is very essential. traveler¶s cheque. road and sea. railway and steamship companies have hundreds of schedules and the man behind the counter should be conversant with all these. etc. conformations of reservations are available in a matter of seconds. both for personal accident risks and baggage. Many large travel agencies are using this system. may also be prepared. Computerized reservation system has in the recent years rather revolution the reservation system both for air and rail travel.

motels. it is clear that the travel agents range of services in modern time has expanded a great deal. language study material. His field of experts is quite large and is consultancy growing with the facts changing travel need of the people. aimed at assisting the traveler to transport personal effects and baggage to any part if the world with a minimum of inconvenience. travelers cheques.g. transfer of passengers and special features such as music festivals and theatre tickets. e. personally escorted tours and group and sale prepared package tours. The job description of modern travel agents was summed up in an American magazine in the following words. travel and baggage insurance. (5)Commission earned from ancillary services such as travel insurance and charges made for such services as travelers cheques. (1)Preparation of individual pre-planned itineraries. rates of hotels. 25 . report accommodation. car rentals. sightseeing. Looking at the various activities mentioned above.agents maintain sizeable shipping and forwarding departments. foreign currency exchange. and their quality whether rooms have baths etc. a hotel company. (3)Handling of and advising on the many detail involved modern-day travel. (4)Possession of professional knowledge and experience schedules of train connections. but for the principals include an airline. a shipping company and a tour operator. requirements 9immunization and inoculations). meals. All of this is the information of which the traveler. (2)Making arrangements for hotels.

a leading corporate house with diverse interests including Coffee. Gurgaon. Transportation. The company is recognized and accredited by premier travel Our Philosophy PL Worldways has a total billing of over Rs. based on quality service. Network PL Worldways has a network of 11 IATA offices spread across the country to provide a pan country service to all our clients and in locations where we are not present. Ernakulam. Hyderabad. Cochin. Shipping and Freight Forwarding Services and Travel Related Services. Coimbatore.5 billion and this has been possible only with the focus on service quality. transparent and ethical business practices and unique products. with a wide network of 11 professionally managed offices in Madras. Each of our branches located at Bangalore. Hotel Reservations. we work through reliable agents capable of delivering the same high level of service to our clients. Calicut. Trivandrum. Coimbatore.Being one of the earliest recipients of IATA with over five decades of dedicated service. Chennai. Bangalore. Distribution of Fertilizers. We believe in doing what is best for the client. which includes International and Domestic Air ticketing. Cashews. Delhi. 1. Bombay. We at PL Worldways strive build permanent relationships with clients. Pune. The emphasis has always been on ensuring Total Customer Satisfaction and providing excellent value for money. PL Worldways is today among the top travel companies in the country. Trichy and Hyderabad. Pune and Trivandrum is geared to ensure complete customer satisfaction. Mumbai. Pesticides. Insurance Related Services. Calicut. Inbound Tours and Outbound Tours and Money Changing. New Delhi. PL Worldways offers a wide range of travel related services.PL Worldways Limited was set up in the year 1985 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Peirce Leslie India Limited . 26 .

Commitment. ASTA. Industry Associations and Associations of Professionals in arranging events like conferences. competitive pricing and innovative tours. PL Conferences has an expert team of professionals who have immense experience in the tourism industry and conference management.. Professional Competence. Our excellent relationship with airlines ensures seat confirmations even during peak season. IATO and recognition by the Government of India re-affirms our commitment to tourism and quality. Total Integrity. incentive tours and conferences in India. Unfailing Courtesy and Reliability are the tenets on which PL Worldways has grown. we provide full support to Corporate Houses. transportation. Quality of service We pride ourselves in the high quality of service that we provide. business meetings and other corporate events.Personnel A team of over 170 dedicated staff form the backbone of PL Worldways enabling us to provide superior service. To constantly update our knowledge we interact with other members of our industry and our membership of PATA. was set up in 1992 to offer its expertise in organizing special events. The range of services includes ticketing. and spare no effort to maintain the service levels. We believe in fair employment practices. At PL Worldways. We have the capability to completely design the program and also conduct it on behalf of our clients. meet and assist. one of the largest travel management companies in India. At PL Conferences. with its focus on quality. The tours that we offer are itineraries tested by us personally which ensures that clients are not confronted by any unpleasant situations. "Putting People First" has been the guiding philosophy which extends not only to our clients but also to our own employees. accommodation. seminars. The team has been instrumental in the 27 . PL Conferences PL Conferences is a division of PL Worldways Limited. pre and post conference leisure trips etc. PL Conferences.

The 51st Annual Conference of the Indian Association of Cardio-vascular Thoracic Surgeons (CTCON 2005. PL Conferences offers world-class services that focus on total customer satisfaction. The Conference of Cardiology Society of India (CSI 2002). McKinsey Retreat at Cochin. Our service expertise includes:  Conference Promotion and Management  Venue Identification and Management  Media Coordination and Public Relations  Theme Dinner and Banquets  Accommodation Management  Logistics Management  Registration and Service Desk Operations  Traditional Reception and Cultural Destination Identification Shows  Destination Information  Aircraft Chartering  Guest Relations and Hospitality Services  Customized Corporate Packages  Tour Packages  Itinerary Planning and Management  Ticketing and Travel Management 28 . Rajasthan. Bangalore and Mumbai. Common Wealth Telecommunication Organization meet (CTO 2006) etc. Chennai and Cochin Among the successful events organized by the company are: A wedding in Royal style for a British couple at the Neemrana Fort Palace. World Congress for the Round-tables in Chennai.successful execution of several national and international conferences held in Delhi. International Private Investors Meet in Delhi. Association of Radiation Oncologists of India (ARIOCON 2003). Services With an experienced team of professionals from the event and destination management industry.

tailor made pre and post conference tours. sightseeing trips and relaxation tours of short duration with everything focused around the traveler to ensure that you are absolutely at ease. 29 . as our esteemed guest. apart from the meeting schedules. Foreign Exchange  Meet and Greet Services  Language Interpretation Services  Inbound and Outbound Travel At PL Conferences. we treat each conference as special and design unique programs that include.

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Flight number. Classes of travel. Supplementary information. Month of travel. It includes the following: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Date in which the reservation is made. Confirmation Confirmation can be done by the passenger through telephones. the computer system of travel agency is with the concerned airline system and the status of the tickets can be known by the system. Ticketing after getting confirmation of the ticket is the 31 .Ticketing Department Domestic Ticketing For domestic ticketing there is an efficient section or department in sky blue tourist travels. Reservation Reservation for domestic journey can be done by a telephone call or directly. PNR number. The time of reservation the ticketing department called all necessary information's from the passenger and writing in a card called reservation card. Time The name of sub-agent and his sign The name and age of the passenger. Day of travel. Ticket number. Sectors of travel. Status.

He has supplied all the required information to the travel agency-name. Flight number Specific designation of flight expressed in letters and figures.Aisleseat W.Executive. In case of onward travel. Procedures When a person is interested to travel by domestic airlines. it passes on the name of the passenger or ticket number to the airline. telex messages or telegrams or the letters are 32 . BA-British Airlines.First number. place.American Airlines.Economy. AA.Window seat. J. Classes of service R-Super sonic P-First class premium F. and flight etc. he has to conduct the travel agency and ask for an air ticket. Example: AI-Air India. date. Y. Passenger's reservation codes A. The reservation will take out a ticket from its stock and will ask the airlines for reservation on the specific date and flight. If the seat is available.status of the ticket is OK the travel agency will issue the ticket. sometimes they will issue tickets.

Here the ticket contains 4 flight coupons 33 . journey or as a Types of Tickets Single coupon ticket: -Here the ticket contains only one flight coupon. Office coupon: . The number of flight coupon is varying according to the form of ticket.) at various places of his journey. should not be given to the passenger. Constitute pima-facie evidence of the contract of carrier between the carrier passengers.Here the ticket contains two-flight coupon.It is kept by the passenger as a proof of the receipt for money paid. He needs not to make any payment of hotel accommodation and transportation. If the client is in need of necessary vouchers are issued and the original copy is given to the client. Contents of a Ticket Audit coupon: .sending to the status for information. uplifted and submitted to the airline.first cash value document. Ticket . Four-coupon ticket: . When confirmation is received. Passenger coupon: . The bills signed by the client are the proof of availing the services. They are forwarded to the concerned travel agency in due course for facilitating the payment.For audit purposes of the issuing airlines. The travel agency makes the payment and receives it from the client when the counter foil is produced to him. Airline Ticketing and Issuing After the reservation procedure the travel agent can issue the ticket journey. In addition to the reservation of the ticket the agency makes the necessary reservation of Hotel and transport (car etc.Uplifted on the flight and the class of service is mentioned in the ticket. The client hands over the voucher to the respective hotel or transport unit and signs the bill. The customer is informed and ticket is delivered to him. Double coupon ticket: .

Domestic Airline Ticket
Customers approach a travel agency office to purchase a trip. The travel agency must find out the following information. 1. Name of the client. 2. Place to be visited. 3. Date and time of departure. 4. Other related information.

They're after i) Refer the official airline guide and select the appropriate flights and time and date of departure. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Next step is to enter the flights you have chosen on your reservation sheet, Call the airline to book the flights, After the airline reservation has confirmed the flight, as sir fare from the airline. Double the one-way fare of arrive art around trip first class fare, To complete the tax refer to arrive at a round trip first class fare, To compute the tax reference to the concerned taxable, Add international tax if any. Calculate the total of basic fare, tax and international tax. ix) Complete the ticket.
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Cancellation
If the passenger wanted to cancel their confirmed reservation some cancellation charges may be made from the passenger 1. 48 hours or more before the scheduled-service change departure of the flightRs.20/2. Less than 24 hours up to 1 hour before the departure the 10% of basic fare. 3. Less than 1 hour 100% of the basic fare.

Validity Of the Domestic Ticket
Domestic ticket issued against rope tariff the validity will be 6 months from the date of issue of the ticket. Domestic tickets issued against U.S.D fares the validity for a ticket will be 1 year from the date of travel on the first day of journey

Stopover
Domestic tickets have to stop over permitted on the published domestic fares.

Combination
Not combinable with any other fare. However combination of INR Domestic fare with Indo Nepal Rupee fare is permitted

Documentation
Domestic fares no documents required except restricted area permit (RAP).

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International Ticketing
The procedures can be made directly or through telephone at the time of reservation for an international journey. Then the agency issued ticket for international travel as per the rules of IATA. VOID. Sometimes the airline companies charge a fare of 350/- so the travel agents give great care while issuing on international ticket. It also the concerned from, or affects the reputation of the company. At the times of reservation of a ticket Rs.500/- is charged the travel agencies as advance if any reason the ticket may be cancelled before paying the price of the ticket by the client the travel agency take the advance amount and it is not returned to the client.

There are 4 coupons in an international ticket.
y y y y Auditors coupon Office coupon. Flight coupon. Passenger coupon

An Airline Ticket

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They are divided into 4 conditions. 37 . The rules for construction of fare differ with each of these conditions. Corrosive materials like wet battery. 2. Radioactive materials. Poison. 4. 1. which are restricted to use f to not taken into the aircraft at the time of journey or cargo hole. SOTO-Sold Outside Ticketed Outside. SOTI-Sold Outside Ticketed Inside 3. SITO-Sold Inside Ticketed Outside. 1. NOC and in certain cases USD these fares are always expressed in the currency of the country were the travel commences. Oxidizing materials. Flammable gas (Butane gas). 3. Flammable solid. 5. However it always be born in mind that a published fare takes a constructed fare. 2. Mercury acids etc. Restricted Materials Following are the materials.International fares International fares between different cities are published in the Air tariff or tariff manual of the concerned airlines in local currency. 8. 4. Inflammable liquids. 7. Only when the fares are not available in the tariff manual should a fare be constructed. Sin-Sold Inside Ticketed Outside. Fare Construction-International Sectors Construction of International fares depends on the place where the ticket is paid for and the place where the ticket is issued. 6. Fireworks.

The baggage not carried on the same aircraft as that on the passenger is carried. ‡ Baggage accompanied: . First class-40kg. C/J class-30kg. Y class-20kg. Baggage Baggage's with personal property of the passenger or crew carried on and air craft by agreement with the operator. this is carried by the messenger. These are checked and tagged with number tag (Baggage tag. It is under the supervision of the passenger. Person does not pay any money for the baggage¶s if it is come under the allowed weight or pieces.some airlines give free baggage allowance according to the number of piece carried by the passenger and its size. These are concluded free baggage. 38 .Checked baggage¶s are also called registered baggage and are carried in the Cargo compartment. There is a limit in the carriage of the baggage in each class.The part of the baggage.9.a document issued by the carriers used for the identification of checked baggage). ‡ Checked baggage: . ‡ Un-requested or Un-checked baggage: -Placed in the cabin. Other dangerous goods. which is in excess of the free baggage allowance and for which the passenger has to pay extra charges. ‡ Piece concept: . Passenger can carry baggage¶s but it is limited. ‡ Free baggage underweight concept: The weight concept is according to the weight of the baggage. ‡ Baggage excess: .

2.additional fuel surcharge will live from the passenger (YQ). 9.Normal fares are published fares for travel between two points their include domestic fare and international fare.g. Air or surface transportation. Fuel surcharge (FS) . 2.It is collected by the airline along with fares on behalf of the airport authority. Car rental or hotel accommodation (other than those included in a tour package).. It includes the following: 1. Components of fare 1. 6.are given by the airlines to some categories of people. 39 . Internal air travel tax (W). Normal fares: . Miscellaneous Charge Order (MCO) When a client pays in advance for travel services and accommodation that are not included in ticket.Techniques of Fare Construction Types of fares These are mainly 2 types of fares are applicable to the calculation. 8. 3. 4. Collection for prepared ticket advises (DTAS). 3. a prepared order form is used which is known as MCO. Deposits (initial payment with balance due). Additional collections. air/sea tours. Refundable balances. Upgrading under collections. Land agreements. Basic fare 2. 4. 7. Passenger service fee (PSF): . Steam ship transportation e. 5. 1. Special commission fares: .

7. which are very useful in fare Construction 1. Stopover. it needs to be constructed the main point to be taken into account is that the constructed fare must not be less than the lowest amount obtained by away of the other principles. There are some elementary terminologies. Intermediate stop. Interline service. 17. Circle trip. One-day trip. and more distance point principles. 6. Round the world trip. Itinerary. Such as lowest combination of fare principle. 40 . 10. and agent's coupon and a passenger's coupon. 18. Direct. 13. Specified transportation and land agreements must not exceed the value of MCO. Nonstop. Round trip. 14. Surface. 4. Open jaw. 9. Online service.Each MCO has an auditor's coupon. 11. 5. mileage system. Joint fare. 16. Routing. 15. The value of MCO must not exceed certain limits. 8. Local fare. 3. 2. Connections. Fare Construction Terminology As per the basic fare construction principles of IATA when no through fare is specifically published for a desired itinerary. Off line service. 12.

Write the flight you have selected and date for customer's flight. 5. Transfer all his information to the itinerary pad. 3. Content the concern airline and book the flights. Type of the flight. 9. Write the clients name and residential phone connected on 10. 6. Date of return. 1. 7. But some difference is occurred. 13. Place of Departure. Date of Journey.Global Indicator EH-Eastern Hemisphere (are 2 and 3) TSTrans Siberian (via Moscow) PO-Polar Routing AP-Atlantic Pacific WH-Western Hemisphere AJ-Atlantic Journey PF-Pacific Journey International Airline Ticketing In case of international airline procedure is same as the domestic. Again refer the DAU to select return flight of the flight 11. When the client approaches the travel agency the following information should be given by him. Make a note of the airline reservations name and date on which the 41 reservation pad. 8. Refer the worldwide edition of and look up to the place of departure from the place of destination. . 12. 2. Place of Arrival. Name of the client. 4.

To carry only one travel baggage the some of the mention viz. Length. Not to accept any package from unknown person. travel Instructions to the Passenger Before the travel of the passenger should take careful attention towards the instruction given by the airline. Not to leave baggage unobserved at any time especially with in airport area. 2. 4. height. 15 Check the fee with the airline etc. which should not exceed 115cm. 3. 14 Convey the passenger's name. To declare before checking in if carrying any arms or explosives. They are as follows: 1. residential telephone contact and agency phone number of the airline reservations. breadth.booking was made. 42 .

Sample Electronic Ticket 43 .

So the foreign exchange department in the travel agency would be of a great help to the tourist. All the forms and formalities of everything should be fulfilled. They may be coming from a foreign country. and then the permission is given to carry on the project. For a travel agency to have foreign exchange department it has to pass certain formalities. This is mainly important in the case of international tourist. These are essential in determining the true & fair status of business& making strategic plans & decisions. They may be coming with their own currency to a foreign country. The foreign exchange counter deals with buying and selling of foreign currency and also transferring various travelers' cheque Accounts Department Accounting involves recording. which deals with the means and methods by which right to wealth of one countries currency and converted into right to wealth in terms of another countries currency.Foreign Exchange Department Simply foreign exchange means the money of a foreign country. To manage a travel agency profitably demands accurate recording & preparation of financial statements. classification and summarizing the accounting information directed towards the determination of financial strength and weakness of a travel agency. as he does not have to go to another place for that. It should acquire the permission from:    Ministry of external affairs The RBI The State Government. proper securities would be furnished. In that country they may require the currency of that particular country. Foreign exchange can be defined as that section of economic science . 44 .

Cash Receipt Journal It is used to record all revenue received by the travel agency during the period. 7. To maintain up to date record of all credit sale. To achieve this every travel agency prepares the following journals and statements: 1. Sales Journal In this journal all credit sales are recorded. For eg: profit form sale of tour package. leisure& commercial client. Account Receivable When a travel agency purchase tourism products from the suppliers on credit. every travel company prepares a sales journal. commission received from the principles are recorded in it.1. 4. 9. 5. Sometimes a travel agency provides credit facilities to its clients that is. Accounting System The basic objective of accounting is to ascertain profitability & financial position of a travel agency operation. It in fact makes a loan to its unit. Sales Cash receipt Account receivable Cash disbursement I ATA ledger Pay roll General ledger Profit & loss account Balance sheet 2. 8. 3. 4. 2. 3. 6. the amount owned to producers is referred to as an account receivable. 45 .

which are taken by the passenger at the time of journey.Travel Documentation Department It is very important to give attention to the official document. The important official documents required are as follows: Passport 46 .

47 .

If we are applying for a passport through a travel agency we should give 8 photos. Types of passport 1. Normal passport: The color of this passport is navy blue. Ration card or ID card. If it is applied directly only 7 photos are needed.For getting a normal passport the period is 20 months. SSLC book or CBSE. b. c. validity is 10 years .A passport is an official document issued by the government to identify an individual granting permission to travel abroad and requesting a protection from the government for him. For applying a normal passport we require: a. 48 .

African. visa on arrival messages. They should surrender the passport when they leave their position or retire and this is issued for scientists. PM. Those passengers. employees of central or state government. ECNR not applicable. Color of this passport is white. degree holders etc. Minor passport: This passport is issued for children below 17 years. This is to enable the individual to avoid immigration check at airport. return ticket etc ant then pay a normal fee. The color of the passport is gray. If the father is residing in a foreign country we need fathers concerned letter attested by Indian Consulate at the country. Far East etc.Birth certificate. And diplomatic passport holders can hold a normal passport also. Marriage certificate Ration Card. Telephone Bill or ID Card. 1) ECNR 2) Name addition 3) Address channel : : : Degree certificate with mark list Maiden name. Fee is Rs. Validity of this passport is 1 year and can extended if needed. Supreme Court judges. Diplomatic passport: This is issued to diplomats or consulates and govt. Miscellaneous forms (Documents needed are): ECNR (Emigration Clearance Not Required) This endorsement or passport is issued from the passport office for professionals.600/-. 49 . Female (R).Official passport: These types of passports are issued to persons who are traveling on government expense. This is mainly introduced for gulf. This type of check is avoided for Europe &US. For issuing a minor passport we should require: Both parents' passports. who are not belonging to the above category to obtain ECNR from the protector of emigrant office by submitting this passport. Officials who are in high rank like president. Thumb impression-male (L).

ii) Minor children between 15-18 years of age where at least one of their parents hold valid passport. 50 . I) II) III) Government employees who NOC from the Department. i) will be done after Senior citizens at the age of 65 and above when one of their adult children hold valid passport.4) Police clearance : You should fill a miscellaneous form when the Certificate passport is submitted. Minor children below 15 years where at least one of the parents have valid passport. we should make sure that he does not Have any criminal background. The following categories are exempted from previous PV in verification the passport issue. Advertisement in leading Newspaper. Confirm the local police Police Verification (PV) The following category of applicants is exempted from PV. a separate form should be filled (lost and Damaged form). When a pax is leaving a Country. By 5) Lost Passport : 13 photos. If the previous passport has been issued by this office or its valid or expired within last one year. It is normally issued the passport office.

If the regional 51 . And it should be submitted to the regional passport officer and show the document regarding the urgency along with the verification certificate. government servants with NOC and their spouses and applicable with verification certificate. Blood relatives of person residing abroad who is initially ill. Persons going abroad for their own marriage. Paste 6 color photos and put cross signature or thumbs impression on all the pasted photographs. Minor less than 15 years of age or where passport can be issued on post. Spouse. Students going abroad to join in foreign university. children or individuals working abroad. The following categories with genuine urgency would be covered under tatkaal scheme ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Businessman wishing to travel abroad urgently for trade. Fill the form eligibility correctly in block letters with expanding initials. Tatkaal scheme only will be applicable in cases where either the PV report is not required. Tatkaal Scheme Under this scheme passport will be issued on the payment of additional fee over and above the normal passport submission fee. We can learn the eligibility of thatkaal scheme how to apply directly for tatkaal service and how to convert ordinary to tatkaal service. parents. conferences etc. Patients requiring medical treatment. Spouse of official passport holders going abroad.iii) Family members of the government employee who furnish NOC. PV basis (duplicate passport -reissue of passport without change in address). If you are eligible for tatkaal services please obtain a passport form. Winners of promotional awards or scheme were a foreign traveler in prize or incentive.

The following documents are submitted for this service: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Proof of residence. Proof of date of birth. Duration of stay Type of visa Date of Leaving Signature 52 . If the passport officer is satisfied with the document he may order for acceptance additional fees to be deposited and you will get the passport within few days. Conversion of ordinary passport to tatkaal service If you have applied for passport under normal routine and meanwhile due to some urgency you want the passport immediately.passport officer is convinced with the document of urgency. he may order for acceptance application form under tatkaal service. Proof of educational qualification NOC Fees Documents regarding urgency Verification certificate issued by compete tent authority. For that you should meet regional passport officer along with all relevant document of urgency and verification certificate signed by the authority. VISA(Visitors Intended Stay Abroad) To get a visa stamped on passport as the following details: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Date of entry.

Where to apply All depends on the basis of places you want to visit. If you intent to visit several Schengen but do not have a main destination you should apply for the visa at the embassy or consulate which is your fist point of entry. you must apply at the embassy or consulate at that country which is your main destination. 15 countries are in Europe. At present there are. As a visitor to the Schengen area you will enjoy the many advantages of this unified visa system. Color photo. passport size-non-digital-most finish-3 photos 53 . Internal border controls have disappeared these one no or few stops and checks. If you intend to visit only one Schengen country. Schengen Visa requirements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Balance sheet of the passenger Income tax returns Credit cards Bank account statements for the past 3 months Business contact from the company in Europe Invitation letter of the company giving details about your trip. With an Schengen Visa you may enter one country and travel freely through Schengen zone. This means that internal air. similar to that of traveling from one state to another.Schengen Countries The name schengen originates from a small town in Luxemburg in January 1985 seven European countries signed a treaty to end internal borders check points and control. Most countries have joined the treaty over the past years. Schengen Visa Travelling in Europe has been simplified with the introduction of Schengen Visa. road and train travel one handled as domestic trips.

‡ ‡ Return ticket OMC (Overseas Med claim Policy) Types of visa 54 .

Depending upon the size of the country these may be more consulates. E.: US Consulate in Calcutta. Mumbai And Chennai.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Visit visa/tourist visa (America-4-6mnths. US Visiting visa Documents Required ‡ ‡ ‡ Passport valid for at least 6 months. Affidavit or support original (it's a booklet sent from US by the sponsor) Salary certificate of the sponsor-Original bank account statement on bank letter headoriginal of both sponsors and client.g.. Gulf 3mnths) Family visa/Residence permit/D-type visa Household visa (for housemaids etc) Student visa Missionary visa (for religious study of for visiting Rome) Job visa Transit visa Embassy The main representing office of a country headed by an ambassador. ‡ ‡ ‡ Taxes bill original of sponsor. 55 . These will be only on Embassy in a country but many Consulates. Consulate This comes under the Embassy headed by consulate general. Income tax return of the passengers of 2 years Non-emigrant form duly filled up with 5 photos. If it's a Common wealth country it comes under the high commissioner.

The most NIV are: y Visitors visa: Issued to persons who wish to enter US temporarily for business or pleasure other type of NIV given to are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Students Participants in exchange programmed Temporary workers Performing artists Professional journalists Representation of a foreign government.400/. Types of visitors visa Bl. 56 . Visiting friends and Relatives.‡ ‡ Request letter (by the passenger to the consulate or embassy) Rs. Tourism.for 6 months).For business B2.For pleasure or medical treatment. visa-processing fee-2300/In normal case passenger above 60 years age need not have to appear on personnel interview.DD drawn on TT service (Drawn on American Consulate General) Visa fee (4600/. 2. Immigrant Visa: For those intending to reside permanently in US. Non-Immigrant visa (NIV): For those visiting US temporarily. There are mainly 2 types of visiting visa 1.

Passport valid 2. One way ticket 7. Husbands passport copy 6. P. Type M: For non-academic or Vocational studies.Students¶ visa Type F: For academic studies. 5. Saudi resident Visa (joining with family or spouse) Documents required: 1. They must have a petition approved by the immigration and naturalization service in US before the apply for a visa. 0. Green card Resident permit. Temporary workers L. 3 photos. If the person is staying for more than 5 years in America he is eligible to apply for citizenship. Green card holders must not stay in his home country or in other country for more that 6 months. Any citizen staying in a resident permit for more than 2 years is eligible for green card. Marriage certificate 3. Visa form duly filled up and signed 57 . Medical certificate 4.depending upon the kind of work to be performed.

payable at Jeddah plus draft for 789 Saudi riyals a "Moallam Fee" favoring United Agencies Jeddah. Confirmed onward and return ticket. 58 . 2. 1.or a draft of 400 Saudi riyals in the name of the passenger. This is mandatory.Saudi Hajj The applicant should have a passport valid for at least 4 months from the date of expiry of visa. 8. Confirmed return ticket. One visa form (photo copy allowed). 3 photos. Singapore visiting visa ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Passport valid for at least 6 months. Invitation letter (not necessary). Vaccination certificate against Meninchittis and Cholera is required. 12 photos. 5. 3. BTQ 500 dollars. 6. Stay permitted is till the 10th day of monaural month. Visa validity depends upon the period of Hajj. It changes every year processing time in 24 hours.500/. Visa form duly filled up. \\\Request letter/Covering letter. 4. Travelers cheques in original amount to rs. Hajj requirements are fixed of Hajj Ministry in Saudi Arabia and coordinated with Hajj Committee in India. 7.

Qatar The business associates in Qatar must obtain a NOC from the immigration department in Doha by submitting the details of the traveler's passport. COKDXB by AI. When the passenger arrives at DXB airport he gets the visa stamped on the passport. Visa is valid for 30 days. When they first enter a foreign country.. The forms for these permits are 59 . Visa is faxed to the traveler and must be carried by the passenger (this contains NOC stamping also). If he has to obtain an ECNR he has to submit the visa on arrival message with other document to emigration office. If it is a landing visa then the traveler should carry the NOC with him and visa is stamped at the point of entry. travelers may be required to obtain a visitors permit or tourist card. The passenger has to get the visa message from the COK Air India office with a seal on it. The Indian nat ionals must submit t he passport details to the immigration officer for the issue of this. Visa is endorsed on arrival at the point of entry. The PNR is faxed or telephoned to the sponsored that in turn produces the original visa in the airline office in Dubai who gives visa on arrival message to COK Air India office. No passenger is allowed to go to flight without the NOC. the authority should instruct the embassy in India to stamp visa prior to travel. Other Permits Depending on the status of the traveler other types of permit may also be required to enter some entries. NOC will state whether it is landing visa or a stamping visa. E.DUBAI (Business and visiting visa) Indian nationals intending to visit UAE must obtain a NOC through t heir spo nsor in UAE. In case it is a stamping visa. For example.g. Processing time is 15 days. As original visa is not received by passenger. after the airline booking is made.

Therefore it is the product knowledge of the travel agent that will influence the clients to buy insurance. the forms must be obtained at the airport to departure. other health precaution may be advisable. Without creating panic of holiday horror it is the agent's duty to explain why insurance is necessary and describe what type of coverage is essential. As a good travel agent it is our duty to ensure the safety and security of our clients. Travelers traveling from US to other destination in North America. to visit families and friends etc. Anything can happens to a passenger while they are in travel especially when they travel to a foreign country. As a travel agent it is our duty and responsibility what arrangements if any the client has made for the trip. banks or even directly through insurance companies. For instance. the Caribbean or Europe do not usually need the vaccinated for any of these diseases. Health and Immunization Requirements Some countries require an international certificate of vaccination for small pox. Such insurance policies can be obtained from travel agents. some policies compensate travelers for lost or damaged baggage. Cholera. The clients often have a choice of different levels of coverage. But these are only some strong reasons why travel insurance is strongly recommended.usually distributed to passengers on international flights. Many of the travelers are reluctant to pay out for insurance thinking that it may not be needed. visitors are advised to take anti-Malaria medication prior to their trip. clinics. financial failure of service providers and other possible misfortunes. However. the various travel insurance 60 . In addition to health coverage's. Asia and Africa. Whatever be the reason. because different travels for different reasons: for business. leisure. Travel Insurance Travel Insurance is yet another important travel document which is needed for any passengers who intended to travel abroad. trip interruptions. in some regions of South America. In some instances. or Yellow fever. So travel agents should urge all travelers to purchase adequate travel and medical insurance coverage's for their overseas trip.

Luggage. When travel insurance is purchased a certificate will be issued. A good travel insurance policy should include coverage for: Death and Permanent Disablement Medical and Other Related Expanses Luggage. Exclusion: In this section there will be much exclusion and the details can be found in the policy documents. Personal Accident. Exclusions: Normal coverage does not usually apply to accidents caused or connected to What insurance companies refers to as hazardous or dangerous sports. showing details of coverage and importantly a policy number. Personal effects and Travel Documents Personal Liability Cancellation. Medical and other related expenses Coverage: Medical and Dental charges. Personal Effects and Travel Documents 61 . Curtailment.companies often pays a high rate of commission to the travel agents. Repatriation and Scratch and Rescue. Missed Departure Hi-Jacking Travel Trade Indemnity Legal Expenses General details of coverage and common exclusions Death and Permanent Disablement Coverage: Accidental Death.

departing or transiting a particular country or airport and are a direct source of revenue for the government. Tax relating to air travel. Taxes. Various transport or airport facility taxes may have to be collected by travel agents upon sale of tickets. taxes are collected for 62 . Luggage delay or loss. Travel Trade Indemnity Coverage: Protection against the travel agent or the company becoming bankrupt. collected by travel agents may be linked to the ticket price. Curtailment. Tickets. traveling companies or family members. Money. Missed Departure Coverage: Protection against the need to delay or cancel the travel arrangement due to illness or death of the policy holder. Customs and Currencies Taxes Many countries levied various types of taxes on travelers. A departure chare is often charged when travelers leave the country. Cancellation. Further. Personal Liability Coverage: Against causing injury or damage to people or property. car rentals by port charges on cruises and other services. Payment is collected on hotel bills. Travel Documents. Legal Expenses Coverage: It covers all legal expenses which is incurred for the fully settlement of the insurance policy.Coverage: Passport. Any tax collected by agents must be recorded on ticket coupon to show how much and what type of taxes have been collected. Exclusion: Some policies do not cover loss of cash that can be replaced. Taxes are levied for arriving. There are often limits on the amount that may be for loss of personal effects.

TIM describes the customs regulations of individual countries of the quantities of duty-free items that may be imported or exported. but if so. Customs Customs regulations govern the transport of articles and species from one country to another. Customs includes the following: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Passenger traveling with pets Wild flora and fauna Baggage clearance Firearms. other weapons and small caliber ammunition Currencies and other forms of payments Most of the travel agents are often faced with questions from clients about exchanging foreign currencies. Most countries allow concessions of certain items.The travel agent advices the client to read such books and it is the duty of such travel agents to recommend good books for their customers. alcohol and perfume. we will get the details of various taxes collected from a passenger from Travel Information Manual (TIM). laptop computer. Also. cosmetics.security procedures. etc. various forms of transportation. festivals. such as clothes. there are regulations that protect endangered species. The regulations may protect one country's population from the spread of dangerous infectious diseases. because they arc for personal use. Import and export limits for permitted items may be exceeded. noise pollution etc. he will get such answers from the destination guide books and travel books. The import and export of certain articles may be restricted or prohibited altogether. camera. In addition to this the client also gets the information about local attraction. of a 63 . accommodation as well as its cost to the clients. The duty collected by customs officials are another direct source of revenue for government. Personal effects. As a travel agent. how much cash to take and what other form of payment to travel with. Such duty-free items include tobacco. jeweler. etc. These books provide the local map. are not normally subject to restrictions. a duty must be paid.

the amount of currencies that may be imported or exported is limited. food and drink. The most important advantage for the traveler's check is that it can replace if lost. Some well knew traveler's check include American Express. Credit cards 64 . Carrying a small amount of local currency is always useful and sometimes essential to pay for local transport. but they can also be used to get cash advances at most banks and larger hotels. Cash lost or stolen cannot be replaced without insurance and now more and more travel insurance policies are excluding cash over the limit stipulated in your insurance policy. However. but it carries the most risk. Cash is the easiest form of payment. A customer has to analyze all such tour components and decide how to finance the trip successfully. City Bank etc. date and place where the check has been cashed. However. Not only can one pay for many goods and services by card. The basic rule is to discourage clients from carrying large sums of cash overseas. Credit Cards Using a credit card can limit or even remove the need to carry traveler's cheques. But the traveler must only keep a record of individual check number. some cash is necessary. as certain items such as local transport cannot be paid for in any other way. In certain countries. The following are the various forms of payments recommended by the travel agents for their clients: Cash Cash limits on the import and export of foreign and local currencies.particular destination. Automated Teller Machines (ATM) are more and more common in cities and are accessible 24 hours a day. The agent should check the guide book whether a traveler's check is acceptable or not. these limits are usually set high enough so as not affect the average traveler. This is one good way to earn greater revenue through extra services to customers. Visa Thomas Cook. Traveler's Cheque Some travel agencies are able to arrange issue of traveler's check. All traveler's check are not acceptable world-wide. Travelers check can also be obtained from a banker or foreign exchange agencies. and entrance fees.

so that the prospective customers know about their existence. to influence the potential customers or trade intermediaries. This would help the travel agency to attract new customers. The new products & new attractive rates should constantly be present in the news paper.are safe and fees are often cheaper than using traveler's cheques. Disembarkation cards must be completed and presented at the Immigration Counter on arrival at airport. Immigration This department will guide the customer through the various formalities of the health and customs. The purpose of promotion is to encourage or more specifically. 65 . Embarkation cards must be presented at the respective exit point counter on departure. Travelers should not rely solely on credit card. he can obtain suspension from immigration clearance for the specified country and for the specified period from projector of emigrants. News & Feature Stories. The various sources of marketing are : 1. Tourism promotion is one of the essential element of the marketing mix & important tool of marketing. through communication to think and to act in a certain manner. as acceptability cab varies depending on how fast the credit card company is paying its bills. Travelers are best advised to take another form of payment as a backup. the most important function of marketing is to bring about an awareness of the production in the minds of the consumers in the market areas. This is done by promotion. Marketing and Sales Department As applied to the tourism industry. In case the person concerned is leaving the country for non-employment purpose.

The owner usually establishes a marketing program with definite objective. Marketing policies involve product pricing. The sales department informs the potential costumer about all the services provided by the travel agency and establishes direct personal contact with them. Press Releases There should be a press release at least every week. Sales techniques can be group into main areas 'printed material1 and 'special offers'. The Brochures should contain the following information Name of tour company Means of transport Details about destination Itinerary 66 . Press release is an announcement or a news article written by or for a travel company that objectively describes something news worthy. display material etc. Printed materials include brochures. direct main material. It is a voluminous publication with special emphasize on the quality of paper. travel schedules etc. graphic design of the cover and the layout of the pages. It should be prepared in a journalistic style. It should have all the information which is required Sales Techniques Travel marketing is a major responsibility of the travel agency. advertising and marketing coverage. Sales personal go to the client in personally.2. sit with them and explain the various services and prices. The various marketing steps that are taken to promote a particular travel product is called as the sale techniques. price. It gives detailed information on accommodation. Brochure Brochures pamphlet bound in the main form of booklet.

This material is used in the agency's office or in travel agents sailor rooms. It is a tool through which an attempt is made to gain agreement of favorable action towards a product. Location. The material is displayed in such a way that it attracts the attention of a visitor as soon as he enters the office. cinema slides are also used. articles of handicrafts. This is done by way of replay card which is included with which the recipient can request for their information and also travel literature. Sales letters offer may opportunities for selling service. The sales letter can be measured very rapidly from the response it draws. Meals Name of overseas representatives Duration of each tour Booking. Display Materials Display materials includes posters dispensers for sales literature cardboard stands. These are sent out to those people whose address has been selected according to the likelihood of there being potential users of the service offered. currency. Folder is short. Folder is lee voluminous then the brochure and its production are less time consuming. Reservation and cancellation conditions Details of other services-insurance. which can be folded. Sales letters are a direct main material.Accommodation. exhibits etc. either fixed or on an automatic projector for display purposes. Special offers 67 . In many cases. tastefully illustrated and attractively designed produced. entertainment Travel documents required Details of price Folder Folder is a single piece of illustrated paper.

special off-season rates at hotels and tourist resorts are the examples of some of the special offers in the tourist industry. educational tour. group tour. Moreover tourism industry. cruise tour. conference. Types of Tour Package A travel agency/tour operator deals with a variety of 'tour packages/ catering to the diverse needs of tourists such as adventure. These are classified into four categories. beach. Affinity group'. the marketing strategies that are effective and Profit for mass tour operators. Reduced air fares for students. 68 . Tour Packaging Department Another important part of a travel agency is tour package department. business. heritage. incentive tour. lovers etc. monuments. This is the more profit making department. Generally international tour marketing is relatively more difficult and complex than domestic tour marketing. etc. ayurvedic packages. religious.It will include temporary price reductions. Buddhist. This is because of the nature and types of tour packages offered by tour operators. Marketing of Tour Packages This significally different from marketing of other tourism elements. special interest tours. Travel agency may combine the different tour products and they form a single package tour and sell to the group of individual at a markup price. cultural. free gifts premiums and various types of contests are being used extensively in competitive industries like cosmetics. The tourist industry has also started to adopt these techniques as additions sales support tool. wildlife. incentive tours. architecture.

Basically. Therefore. Independent Tour Independent tours are prepared/formulated for those tourists who want to travel independently. accommodation. accommodation and is inclusive of other tour components. Thus. several Indian and Foreign Travel Agencies offer independent tours to inbound and outbound tourists. travel documents. The excursion tours are the examples of escorted tours. in some cases. An independent four may or may not be an all inclusive tour. The foreign independent travel and Domestic Independent Travel are examples of an independent tour. enrooted and the destination place. this type of tour provides the tourists considerable freedom to plan the activities according to their own choice. boat riding. Their tour-host is available to offer device and information about the local attractions and entertainment. escorted tours are meant for those travelers who are planning to visit foreign country for the first time. sightseeing. The escort's responsibilities and duties are to provide comprehensive information and assistance to the group. they are greeted at the airport by TCI. Today. When the group arrive in India (Delhi). The components of such tours are air travel. 3.1. at the origin. the tourists are free to purchase each single component separately. Hosted Tour A hosted tour means when an agency utilizes the services of another agency at a particular destination. air transfer. which assists them in clearing their baggage and transfers them to the hotel. entertainment and other travel services. tour price varies depending on the type of air travel. Escorted Tour When an agency includes the services of a well educated and trained tour manager in its package tour it is called escorted tour. air transfer.' Further. 2. a different travel agency greets them at the each tourist spot. Suppose a group of French tourists is coming to India. However. Thus. when the group arrive at an other destination in India. a hosted tour provides the tourists 69 .

4.maximum level of pre-arranged and personalized services. an adventure and special interest package tour. 70 . Incentive Tour. There are a number of other packages offered by a tour company such as a custom tour an excursion tour.

Tickets * Threats from suppliers of services like Airlines. Hotels etc 71 . Opportunities * Customization of its products to cater the needs and wants of its prospective customers * Provision of quality customer services * Economical and attractive tour packages Threats * Emergence of large competitors with homogeneous products * Seasonality and perishability nature of its products * Emergence and development of E.Strength y y y y Excellent supplier relationships Excellent customer relationships Adequate financial resources Reputation in market place is strong Weaknesses y y Irregular company newsletter publication No understanding with local media.

5. Due to low starting salary in travel agencies new comers are tend to quit the field. and will reduce the strain of employees. The employees are asked to work overtime and this may affect their efficiency negatively. 6. The number of staffs should be increased so that the work timings can be shifted. Recommendations 1. Travel agencies lack talented staffs this may reduce the customer satisfaction. Marketing procedures done by the travel agency are not up to the standard and this may affect the business. Travel agencies must be more concern about the clients and customer satisfaction must be their main motive. 4. it will help to maintain to up to date data information in a systematic way. 4. 2. Travel agencies have to maintained good relation with its customers because repeated customers are the greatest. 2. 6. Accounts and sales department should be computerized. 72 . 3. 3. will be helpful in the time of crises. Travels agencies should be in good terms with other service providers like Airlines. Travel agencies have to practices new marketing tools like participating in travel marts.Findings 1. Hotels. Car rentals etc. Travel agencies in India are facing tough time due to the stoppage of commission by domestic airlines. The introduction of online booking by airlines has created an adverse effect in sales volume of tickets in travel agencies. 5. travel exhibition etc.

communication and technical skill is highly required for being a good tourism professional. which they might not understand. Tourism Marketing to others. I have worked in all the departments especially Tours and conferences. And it is my passion to became a good tourism professional. Emerging trends in Tourism. In the 50-year period from 1950 to 2000. Tourism Product.the number of international tourist arrivals grew from 25 million to 696 million. I have to say that this one month have really played its role to frame each to be good tourism professional fit for the industry. Liaison with the providers of service is also required. I have got only a little knowledge about this industry. We only know about some subjects like Tourism Business. There is a large scope for employment opportunity for each one of us. is a very complex one.Conclusion As. they are something or other for each of us to contribute to this industry as a new destination. I have realized that Tourism industry is really booming and a challenging industry. not a mere job. We found that each and every person has got his role to play in this modern evergreen tourism industry. And this organizational study had laid a mile stone in my career for achieving the goals I have set. It includes the airlines. ships and other means of travel. Tour operation is challenging and fascinating job. 73 . In PL Worldways I got an opportunity to explore what the real industry is. I have realized that there is a great difference between the academic knowledge and technical knowledge. there was a market change in trend in international tourist arrivals as a result of the global economic downturn in major tourist generating markets. Professional. Travel Agencies and Tour Operators Business. all the people who have a little knowledge about this industry. an attractive itinerary and can shine in this field. But after this one month training we got a real picture about what the tourism industry really means. Tourism is now the world¶s largest industry. hotels. From 2001.

PRINCIPLE &PRACTICES STERLING PUBLISHING 1997 PC SINHA TOURISM TRANSPORT ANMOL PUBLISHING AND TRAVEL MANAGEMENT 2000 MANISH RATTI HOTEL TOURISM RAJAT PUBLICATION ANDHOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT 2001 Websites y y y y www.com 74 .google.com www.travelindia.Bibliography AUTHOR BOOK PUBLISHER YEAR A .travelhistory.plworldways.K BHATIA TOURISM DEVELOPMENT.com www.com www.