The term tourism refers both to travel undertaken for pleasure and to the modern multimillion-dollar business that caters to the tourist's need for transportation, accommodation, food, entertainment, recreation, souvenirs, and social contact.

Tourism from Ancient Times Through the 18th century
Mass tourism is a relatively modern phenomenon, but travelers have reacted as tourists, regardless of the purpose of their journeys, since the beginning of recorded history. To write his history of the war between the Greeks and the Persians, Herodotus personally visited many of the areas making up the Persian Empire. Like many present cultural chauvinists, Herodotus reacted with shock to the foreign ways of Egypt, where, he found, nothing was done as it was in Greece. Probably the most famous traveler of all time was Marco Polo, who recorded his adventures at the court of Kublai Khan; his travels by land through Central Asia, the Gobi Desert, and the Mongol Empire from Tibet to Burma and southern India; and his 3Å-year sea voyage home after an extended stay of 17 years (1275Ð92). After 700 years tourists can still profitably read the observations of that Venetian trader when contemplating their own trips to China and the Far East. Few travelers of any age have ventured so widely or written so authoritatively as Ibn Battuta (c.1304Ðc.1377), who, beginning with a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1326, over the next 30 years covered most of the Islamic world. For equally vivid descriptions of the Muslim holy cities, Africa, and themysterious East, armchair travelers would have to await the narratives of such 19th-century scholar-explorer-eccentrics as Sir Richard Burton and Charles Montagu Doughty. During the 20th century T. E. Lawrence, Lowell Thomas, Freya Stark, and H. V. Morton helped answer this need for vicarious adventure in out-of-the-way places by their knowledgeable accounts. If more people did not take to the road, it was because throughout most of recorded history travel was no pleasure. Roads were poor or nonexistent, inns uncomfortable, and

transportation expensive and inconvenient. Only the favored few even tried to escape the city for mountain or seaside retreats in summer, or for curative thermal spas if they suffered from ill health. The country estate and the watering place of Roman times and the religious pilgrimage popular in the Middle Ages, however, represented the small beginnings of what would one day become a tidal wave of tourism. From the start some of the spas frequented by the Romans were also centers of luxury, gambling, and high living and thus attracted those who sought nothing but pleasure in other words, tourists. The prestige of Athens as a cultural center even after it had lost its political importance also made it a tourist attraction among Romans with pretensions to learning. By the 18th century the leisure time available to Europe's aristocracy led to a fashion for travel among the sons of the wealthier classes. On the Continent university students were encouraged to spend a year at a foreign institution, while in Great Britain was born the idea of the Grand Tour, an educational journey that comprised a year or two of travel and learning in the major cities of western Europe. One such privileged youth was the Scotsman James Boswell, who between 1763 and 1766 toured Holland, Germany and Switzerland, Italy, Corsica, and France. He was as zealous a journal keeper as he was a traveler, a habit that served him and English letters particularly well when later he recorded The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson (1785). An equally great boon to tourism was the revolution in aesthetic consciousness that transformed attitudes toward nature. Mountains, forests, and seas, which for centuries had seemed forbidding and malignant, were now endowed with majesty, glamour, and even divinity. The rediscovery of the beauties of untamed nature coincided with the newfound love bestowed upon ancient times and all the ruins and remnants of the distant past that were strewn about the European landscape, especially in Italy. This romantic sensibility created the appetite for viewing and sightseeing without which tourism as it exists today could never have evolved.


Tourism as a major International Industry
Both world wars contributed to the American taste for foreign travel by exposing millions of service personnel to the excitement of faraway places. International tourism as a giant industry did not get under way until the 1950s, however. Of the many factors contributing to this boom, the two most important were U.S. prosperity relative to other countries' faltering economies in the postwar world, which gave the U.S. dollar unusual purchasing power abroad, and the advent of jet travel in 1958, which made it possible to cross the Atlantic in seven to eight hours, half the time taken by propeller aircraft and about one-eighteenth that required by surface transport all for about the same price. Jet speeds not only made accessible places that were previously considered remote, such as the South Pacific, the Far East, South America, and Africa, but also opened up the world of international travel to ordinary working people with only a short annual vacation. Adding to the convenience and attractiveness of long-distance tourism were the availability of traveler's checks, which reduced the risks of travel; the incentive of reduced fares by way of Eu-rail passes, issued by Europe's state-owned railway systems; and the increased availability of packaged tours, where inexpensive transportation, accommodations, and sightseeing for groups are all arranged in advance. U.S. tourists no longer constitute a majority in the world of travel-for-pleasure. As other nations grew prosperous they too sent large numbers of tourists out into the world: European nationals, beginning in the 1960s; the Japanese, from the 1970s; and, notably, the once-Communist countries of Eastern Europe in the late 1980s. Tourism now plays a substantial role in the economies of African, Caribbean, and western European nations. Many regions of China and of the former Soviet Union both eager for foreign business and currencies have relaxed once-rigid travel restrictions and improved their tourist facilities.

The changing faces of tourism
The tourist industry is vulnerable to almost instantaneous change when war, terrorism, or disease threatens, or when economies shrink and vacations are spent at home. Some recent examples are: the recession of the late 1980s, which continued to spread its effects on U.S. tourism into the 1990s; the Persian Gulf crisis of 1990Ð91, which

which gutted the tourist industry in that country beginning in 1993. Tourism is travel for recreational or leisure purposes. In 2007. Maldives.profoundly depressed tourism both to and from the United States. while growth from January to April 2008 had reached an average 5. However. Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. there were over 903 million international tourist arrivals.6% as compared to 2006. with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months. prostitution has uplifted the economies of many nations most notably. As a tourist lure. as a result of the economic crisis of 2008. International tourist receipts were USD 856 billion in 2007. 4 . The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure. Tourism is vital for many countries such as U. may well become the prime tourist fad of the 21st century.E. These service industries include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis. new tourist attractions emerge constantly.A. Egypt. as total international tourism arrivals from January to August were 641 million tourists. On the other hand. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3. Fiji. the search for nature-in-the-raw. Despite the uncertainties in the global economy. international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Thailand and many island nations such as Bahamas. Thailand. the upsurge of fundamentalist Muslim terrorism in Egypt. international tourist arrivals during the first four months of 2008 followed a similar growth trend than the same period in 2007. Ecotourism. Seychelles due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. taking visitors to the great wild-animal parks of Africa and rarely seen regions of the Amazon.7%. up from 618 million in the same period in 2007. and other hospitality industry services such as resorts. with a growth of 6. and the Antarctic.7% compared to its 2007 level. business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited´. accommodation such as hotels and entertainment venues. the Himalayas. Greece.

Tourism is also big business. soothe their soul in one of the World Heritage national parks. Communication Service. lively festivals. Along the way visitors will be amazed at what they find ± fine food and wine trails. The tourism industry has a larger output than: y y y Agriculture. or 182. of which $6.3 per cent of the state¶s workforce. Gas & Water Supply. In 2000-01 tourism generated $23. including direct and indirect expenditure. In NSW.Tourism is now one of the largest industries in Australia accounting for 536. take a leisurely drive through the State¶s lush farm regions or stop in the quirky towns and cosmopolitan centers. Aboriginal heritage tours.4 billion was generated by international visitors. the beauty of its world famous harbor.000 people directly. amazing landscapes and friendly locals. Tourism also employs 5. The total real output. its great restaurants and shopping. tourism is larger than the following industries: Agriculture. Government Administration and Defense. Forestry and Fishing.3 billion to the Indian economy. Mining.Tourism Industry Tourism is one of the most exciting and progressive industries in India. Electricity. Tourism impacts on almost every industry.600 jobs. and Cultural and Recreational Services. was worth $73 billion in 2003/04. 5 . They can then step away to soak up the local flavors of regional of New Bombay. Gas and Water Supply. Forestry and Fishing. Visitors can laze on a beach. hike in fresh mountain air and journey to the red outback. Communication services. India has a wide range of experiences for international and domestic visitors. Tourists enjoy the big city buzz of Bombay. Mining. The Product With beauty and diversity. and Electricity. Personal and Other Services.

These benefits can be especially significant in regional areas by diversifying the area¶s economic base and expanding the employment market. on-going process that any successful business is continually working through. As you can see it is significant. decide how much time they have available and what types of activities they would like to do while away. Then they will begin to select a destination. developing your business and products. Consumers have many choices about how to spend their money and leisure time. In its broadest sense. over the Internet or directly from the tourism operator. If they choose to spend their money on a holiday. The chart below demonstrates the impact within our economy and community when someone goes on holiday. Everyone working in tourism must ensure that the consumer is fundamental to all business and planning decisions. Marketing your business Marketing refers to a multi-faceted. 6 . developing your own skills. It includes activities such as: researching the market. the tourism industry is the total of all businesses that directly provide goods or services to facilitate business. pleasure and leisure activities away from the home environment. wholesaler. evaluating research data. your consumers and products.Tourism is everyone¶s business Everyone gains from properly managed tourism. decide how they will travel there and make reservations accordingly through a travel agent. advertising or working with the media to raise awareness of your product and generate sales. The consumer In the tourism system the consumer is the most important element as the consumer is the reason tourism products and services exist. they will then determine their budget. and promoting.

Promotion can use a range of media such as print (magazines. Place is about distribution: the agencies. Promotion is explaining destinations. posters displayed on billboards. and what they want to do. The product includes the physical attributes of the product. price and promotion. television. especially the marketing/promotion element. branding and packaging. brochures. Motivation ± If the consumer is positively aware of a destination. It is important to understand this process because it influences all stages of the previously discussed model.Marketing is often described as µthe four Ps¶: product. product or service can help consumers recognize they need a holiday. Consumer Decision-making The above diagram assists in understanding the process consumers work through in deciding about taking a holiday. with a partner or friends. trains etc). direct mail. Promoting a holiday destination. whether it¶s restful idleness in scenic spots or extreme sports in challenging terrain. place. Awareness ± Consumers may have a recognized or unrecognized need for a holiday. or in a large group. etc. 7 . channels and institutions used to give consumers easy access to purchasing your product. then raise their awareness of the choices available. products and services to consumers to help them choose their holiday. Price must meet both the consumer¶s and your needs. newspapers. bus stops. Internet. Needs ± Going on a holiday allows people to take a break from their normal life. product or service they are more likely to be motivated to visit. on their own. the sides of buses. Providing a holiday package as a prize for a competition or even staying in touch with customers provides promotion of your product. radio. Planning/Decision ± Promotional information helps the consumer decide how to get there.

There are also travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies. sightseeing tours and tour operators. Origins The British company. Thomas Cook. railways. that sells travel related products and services. Travel Agency A travel agency is a retail business. travel agencies largely catered to middle and upper class customers. Their word of mouth raises awareness of the destination. established in 1758. in association with the Midland Railway. and vice versa. allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located. product(s) and service(s) with potential future consumers. Other British pioneer travel agencies were Dean and Dawson. the consumer is likely to be satisfied and have a quality holiday experience. on behalf of suppliers. is sometimes said to be the oldest travel agency in the world. the Polytechnic Touring Association and the Co-operative Wholesale Society. to customers. supplied to its wealthy clients. but the post-war boom in mass-market package holidays resulted in 8 . The modern travel agency first appeared in the second half of the 19th century. Travel agencies became more commonplace with the development of commercial aviation. but in addition. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists. represented other tour companies.Satisfaction ± If a product delivers what has been promoted. car rentals. cruise lines. hotels. Kings. established a chain of agencies in the last quarter of the 19th century. Word of Mouth ± Consumers share their holiday experiences with friends. They not only sold their own tours to the public. such as airlines. in addition to developing the package tour. family and colleagues. particularly package tours. but this rests upon the services that the original bank. Originally. most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travelers and some travel agencies specialize in commercial and business travel only. starting in the 1920s.

unlike other retail businesses. because if they were to sell a thousand trips at a cheaper rate. This is known as the commission. A package holiday or a ticket is not purchased from a supplier unless a customer requests that purchase. car rentals. travel agencies are now forced to charge a percentage premium or a standard flat fee. especially by the larger chains. Air Travel Organizers¶ Licensing (ATOL) for those who order tickets in. The profit is therefore the difference between the advertised price which the customer pays and the discounted price at which it is supplied to the agent. catering to a working class clientele. and the services of an on-site Bureau de change. the customers are guaranteed either an equivalent holiday to that which they have lost or if they prefer a refund. looking for a convenient way to book overseas beach holidays. meanings in the case of a failure. they still come out better than if they sell a hundred trips at a higher rate. airlines have stopped giving commission to travel agencies. These can include the sale of in-house insurance. that is to say. The holiday or ticket is supplied to them at a discount. Major tour companies can afford to do this. some companies still give them a set percentage for selling their product. travel guide books and timetables. However. they do not keep a stock in hand. per sale. This process benefits both parties. Operations As the name implies. for those who issue air tickets. for those who sell package holidays on behalf of a tour agencies on the main streets of most British towns. Consequently. selling travel products and services on behalf of a supplier. Many British and American agencies and tour operators are bonded with the International Air Transport Association (IATA). either their own or a supplier's. a travel agency's main function is to act as an agent. They will advertise the fact that they are surety bonded. 9 . Therefore. the Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) or the American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA). The majority of travel agents have felt the need to protect themselves and their clients against the possibilities of commercial failure. A British travel agent would consider a 10-12% commission as a good arrangement. Other commercial operations are undertaken. dealing in the most popular holiday currencies. In some countries.

A travel agent is supposed to offer impartial travel advice to the customer. like football. such as sporting events. Consortium and Independent Agencies. Types of Agencies There are three different types of agencies in the UK: Multiples. most airlines pay no commission at all to travel agencies. Commissions Most travel agencies operate on a commission-basis. in order to control the distribution of their product. In this case. cruise lines. particularly with the advent of multiple no-frills airlines. sightseeing tours and tour operators is expected in form of a commission from their bookings. Independent Agencies usually cater to a special or niche market. It is now quite common for the large mass-market tour companies to purchase a controlling interest in a chain of travel agencies. In the United States. golf or tennis. there are four different types of agencies: Mega. such as the needs of residents in an up market commuter town or suburb or a particular group interested in a similar activity. car rentals. a variety of social and economic changes have now contrived to bring this aspect to the fore once more. Again. The former comprises of a number of national chains. meaning that the compensation from the airlines. the German multinational.) The smaller chains are often based in particular regions or districts. the commission consists of a set percentage of the sale. However. Miniples and Independent Agencies. often owned by international conglomerates. railways. In the United States. now a subsidiary of TUI AG. Regional. There are two 10 . Most often. this function almost disappeared with the mass-market package holiday and some agency chains seemed to develop a 'holiday supermarket' concept. an agency usually adds a service fee to the net price. like Thomson Holidays. (This is an example of vertical integration. hotels. in which customers choose their holiday from brochures on racks and then book it from a counter. American Express and the American Automobile Association (AAA) are examples of mega travel agencies.

there are no domestic consolidators. Consolidators Travel consolidators or wholesalers are high volume sales companies that specialize in selling to niche markets. the former is usually a larger operator like Thomas Cook. multi-destination. Cargo Airlines Cargo airlines (or airfreight carriers. for example. They may or may not offer various types of services. information and other resources like products. Commonly. Today.approaches of travel agencies. no consolidator offers everything. essential to managing and controlling the flow of goods. The operating responsibility of 11 . the sole purpose of consolidators is to sell to ethnic niches in the travel industry. Logistics Air transport is a vital component of many international logistics networks. with some exceptions for business class contracts. at a single point of access. that is based in the destination and delivers an expertise on that location. It involves the integration of information. from the source of production to the marketplace. out-bound travel agency. and derivatives of these names) are airlines dedicated to the transport of cargo. they may only have contracted rates to specific destinations. international repositioning of raw materials/products and manufacturing without a professional logistical support. Some cargo airlines are divisions or subsidiaries of larger passenger airlines. and people. independent operator. global export/import processes. At present. in-bound travel agency. and packaging. based in the originating location of the traveler and the other is the destination focused. but act as wholesalers to retail travel agencies. material handling. transportation. It is difficult or nearly impossible to accomplish any international trading. These can be hotel reservations. One is the traditional. while the latter is often a smaller. energy. Usually. These companies do not usually sell directly to the public. flights or car-rentals. services. inventory. warehousing. Sometimes the services are combined into vacation packages that include transfers to the location and lodging.

work in process. and UPS once unsuccessfully tried a passenger charter airline division. and British Aerospace ATP are now being modified to accept standard air freight pallets to extend their working lives.logistics is the geographical repositioning of raw materials. B 747#747-200F. Australian air Express Blue Dart Aviation 12 . the strengthening of the cabin floor and insertion of a broad top-hinged door in one side of the fuselage. Notable cargo airlines All-cargo y y y y y y y y y y y y y ABX Air Aeromodal Cargolifter Airnet Express Air Hong Kong American International Airways/Kalitta Aloha Air Cargo Atlantic Airlines ATRAN Cargo Airlines Nippon Cargo Airlines Atlas Air Arrow Airways Inc. An-26.A number of cargo airlines carry a few passengers from time to time on their flights. Ilyushin Il-76. Fokker Friendship. This normally involves the replacement of glazed windows with opaque panels. like the Boeing 707. Boeing 727. and finished inventories where required at the lowest cost possible. Short range turboprop airliners such as the An-12. Examples of the 60-year-old Douglas DC-3 are still flying around the world carrying cargo (as well as passengers). MD11. Douglas DC-8. Aircraft used Larger cargo airlines tend to use new or recently built aircraft to carry their freight. DC-10. but many use older aircraft.

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Burlington Air Express Capital Cargo International Airlines Cargo 360 Cargojet Airways Cargolux Challenger Air Cargo DAS Air Cargo Emerald Air Emery Worldwide European Air Transport (branded "DHL") Evergreen International Airlines FedEx Express Fine Air First Flight Flying Tiger Line Gemini Air Cargo Heavylift Cargo Airlines Jade Cargo International K-Mile Air Kalitta Air Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter (on behalf of Purolator) Kitty Hawk Aircargo Martinair Cargo Maximus Air Cargo MNG Airlines Murray Air (National Air Cargo Group) LAN Cargo Polar Air Cargo RAF-Avia Seaboard World Airlines Southern Air 13 .

14 . Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year. they handle the bulk of international trade. and materials from one port to another. although they are routinely thought of as a separate category).y y y y y y y y y y Swiftport Tampa Cargo TCS Courier TNT Tol Air Transmile Air Services Turkish Cargo UPS Airlines World Airways Varig Log Cargo Ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo. Types Specialized types of cargo vessels include container ships and bulk carriers (technically tankers of all sizes are cargo ships. and come in all sizes. they are almost always built of welded steel. and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task. goods. often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload. Today.

rents a car service. Additionally. the agent would send the request to the hotel company and then the hotel would send a commission of 15 . He reserves hotels for his customers. as a result they are able to provide better discounts on air tickets and hotels for their clients. before an appropriate travel agency is chosen before a corporate trip. A travel agent serves to provide the needs of these traveling people and educate them of the necessities that they have to consider while making their journeys. the travel agent also books airline tickets. Nevertheless. it should be ensured that the travel agency is well-equipped and computerized. The travel agent also helps in forecasting the weather of a particular destination as well as informs his customers regarding the ideal season to visit. Most of the travel agencies have mutuality with the major airline companies and the hotels. and arranges accommodation. The role of travel agents is to help his or her customers to get knowledgeable concerning the top-valued packages best suitable to one's budget needs.Role of Travel Agency Travel Agent The selection of an appropriate travel agent is yet another important aspect before planning a corporate travel. However. Computerized travel agencies give their clients the best service possible and they provide automated reservation and ticketing services. The travel agent can also charge his customers for the service he provides. Smaller businesses in particular are more prone to rely heavily on the travel agents before making overseas corporate travels. The selection of a suitable travel agent can lead to significant discounts and better facilities in a business trip to the overseas. in exchange of a fee. For example. Informing his customers about the visa procedure and helping to procure the same is another important responsibility for international travel agents. books tickets for their fight and is paid by the agency suppliers by a commission. if an agent books a hotel room for his customer. The work of a travel agent is pretty similar to that of a real estate agent. a significant number of travel agencies have been seen to have established in the recent times.

A hotel room for $100 per night would mean an earning of $10 each night for the agent. such as bank balance. For ordinary travel agents.about 10 % of the hotel price excluding the taxes and other fees. They achieve this by working with the suppliers who affiliate themselves only with the travel agencies. Working with an agency can also make an agent feel supported and non-isolated and that can boost up his morale as well as help him learn new things. The membership with the supplier has a few requirements. In order to register with a supplier. sales. it is not possible to affiliate with these organizations. the travel agents can also get additional commission on attraction tickets and some other forms of road transportations. experience or knowledge in the required field and some amount as the membership fees. in that process the agent can join a travel agency or can start working independently. The commissions that the agents get from the suppliers can come from the following products:  Hotels  Cruises  International Airline Tickets  Travel Insurance  Train Tickets  Car Rentals Apart from these products. When a 16 . for example. a travel agent should open an account with the provider. By working with an agency with the many other agents can help in increasing the percentage of commission that they can get as a combined result of the sales of all the agents. It is particularly advantageous to work with the travel agencies as most of them are not able to make enough money in the sales with a definite supplier in order to obtain greater percentage of commission or bonuses. Travel agents can provide their customers with prices that are the same as the suppliers and sometimes even cheaper through discounts and special offers. when some customer rents a limousine.

he might not know all the possible things. However. In that case a travel agent can be very handy. whereas weekend prices are little higher compared to the former. at the same time earning from it. the discounts are more easily available during weekdays. These agents help people save their time and their money before on their travel preparations. On the other hand. While submitting query. Role of Independent Travel Agent As an independent travel agent. For example: According to general rules. mentioning his or her requisites. most of the online travel schedules customization on the basis of customer's own preference. Essentially in most of the cases. The travel agent can not only give the traveler valuable information. he can also give a good value to his customers. these types of discounts are greatly varied depending on the time of booking. After receiving the query. if someone plans to travel during peak season. The duty of independent travel agent is to settle all the necessary arrangements for travel once the customer sets up his or her plan. It is the duty of the online travel agent to find the best suitable offer that is precisely aligned with customer's own needs. internet is the most accessible media in travel and tourism industry. Online Travel Agent In modern times.person wants to choose from the options of booking and information related to their travel. customer needs to fill up an online form. likewise other products and facilities. but works like a freelancer who is directly associated with various travel related facilities or travel agencies. the online travel agent provides the customer the quotes available against the query. it is quite likely that booking on time may only come out with good outcome. 17 . the individual is not directly associated with any travel agency. The travel agent is responsible for letting the customer know about the requisite details in terms of discounted air fare or negotiable hotel price.

Travel insurance covers the prepaid or non-refundable costs associated with cancellation of a trip. They are also able to get you a rental car. Online travel agents usually work from the comfort of their own homes and are fortunate enough not to have to go into an office. both on an international and domestic level. Whether you are traveling for business or pleasure. If you are traveling for business. you should investigate several different agencies so that you can be sure of getting both good service and the best rates available. There are hundreds of different online travel agencies that are designed to cater to both the pleasure seeking traveler as well as the business traveler. Prior to booking your trip with an online travel agency. it behooves you to seek out the rates offered by online travel agencies. There has never been a better time to travel. delaying in a trip and any sort of interruption occurring during a trip. you should look into using an online travel agent who may be able to get you a cheaper rate for airfare and hotel accommodations. hotels. it helps in reimbursing session fees or course fees whatsoever. Because online travel agencies do not have an office or overhead. if we do not discuss about travel insurance. If you are charged with making your own travel plans when you travel for work. This is particularly beneficial insuring the costs involved with airfare. While visiting for any seminar or session. you may choose an agency that caters to business travelers.Travel Insurance While discussing about different facilities provided by independent travel agent or travel agencies. and trip costs. The savings that the company receives by not having an office can often be passed on to the customer. they can generally get better deals on airfare and hotel accommodations than travel agents with offices and overhead. There are many online travel agencies that specialize in making business travel arrangements for customers. Online Travel Agencies More and more people are using the internet to make travel arrangements. It makes sense to use good travel agents 18 . Online travel agents are usually privy to the best discounts available when it comes to both air fare and hotel bookings. the article will surely remain unfinished.

Most people who worked for corporations would take one or two trips a year if they were in a management position. Commercial travelers usually have more needs than a holiday traveler. In some cases. it can cost the same as coach travel. Business class is a service offered by most airlines and is a step below first class and a step above coach. who were in sales. more companies than ever are doing business on an international level. A good business travel agent will know the best hotels where a business traveler can be assured of having uninterrupted service of their internet usage as well as their cell phone. commercial travelers have more options than ever when it comes to taking business trips. Not only will they be able to save you money. a commercial traveler must be sure that they have all of the comforts of their office when traveling. While a holiday traveler is out to enjoy sightseeing and have fun. A good business travel agent may be able to 19 . Some of the services that business travel agencies offer include the following: Special rates for business class and first class air flights. Business trips used to be routine and boring. This can be especially helpful when embarking on a long flight. Because the internet has become such an important part of life worldwide. therefore. It has become necessary. would travel more frequently. particularly if going overseas. Some airlines offer business class that gives a business traveler a little bit more room in flight. but they will know everything that you need to bring when visiting another part of the world. Business Travel Agencies and Services More people are beginning to travel farther for business travel. for commercial travelers to seek out certain business travel agencies and services such as those that cater strictly to the business traveler or act as a virtual tour guide. particularly if it is an international trip. however. more people are traveling not only domestically but also internationally for business.when planning a large trip. Today. there is a growing need for business travel agencies and services like never before. Others. Today. Because of this phenomenon.

they can often save quite a bit of money. If your business takes you away on an international level and you find yourself booking a trip to a place where you have never been and do not speak the language. you will need to know a little of the language of that country. International Travel Hosts Some business travel agencies have private hosts that work on an international level to give first class treatment to business travelers. nightclubs and will act as translators when necessary. In addition. In addition. They realize the different needs of commercial travelers and provide internet access. The automobile rental market is very competitive and it is important for rental agents to try to procure the favor of travel agents by offering them lower rates on automobile rental. There are many different hotel chains that have emerged over recent years that cater strictly to commercial travelers. the 20 . an international driving license and laws and customs of other countries.get you better air flight accommodations than you would be able to get if booking on your own. These travel hosts help business travelers find the best restaurants. Car rental service Business travelers can usually get a better discount on car rentals when booking through a business travel agent than if they book a car rental on their own. ask your business travel agent if they offer an international travel host service. Hotel amenities for business travelers: A good business travel agent will know which hotels have the best amenities for commercial travelers. They are also adept at understanding the rate of currency exchange. International Travel Services If your business travel takes you to other countries. because a business traveler can usually get away with a smaller vehicle than those traveling with a family. you will need to find out about obtaining a passport. facsimile access and telephone access as well as spacious accommodations and working space.

More services are available than ever before for the commercial traveler to make business trips pleasant. Corporate Travel The travel that is made for the purpose of business. It is also known as Business Travel and is an advantage to the corporation financing the trip. Several factors are taken into account while planning a business trip and typically that depends on the size of the business. airlines. However. keeping entertainment as a secondary motive is known as corporate travel. The factors include the selection hotels. A number of sub factors are taken into account such as the location of the hotel from where the business would be easier to carry out. smaller corporations are known to emphasize more on the last factor regarding the selection of the 21 . the travel includes trip across the borders in the other countries for the betterment of the business or for signing a new contract. such as the National Business Travel Association (NBTA). Many organizations have been developed on the basis of corporate travel.currency that is used and about electrical appliance adaptors. travel agents and others. affordable and productive. A good business travel agency will be able to offer the commercial traveler international travel services such as information on all of the aforementioned items. In most cases corporate traveling is financed by the corporations or the company under which the person makes a trip. Hotels The selection of hotel is perhaps the most important and critical factor while planning a corporate travel. New York City and London. Business travel agencies and services that cater to commercial travelers are growing by leaps and bounds. Typically. Business travel is commonly known to be as luxurious as well as time efficient. car rentals. the quality of the hotel where the business delegate would stay during the trip and carry out the task and most importantly the cost of the hotel which depends on the first two factors. The most common destinations across the globe where business travels take place at all times are Hong Kong.

using the services of a single airline in order to enjoy certain discounts as being the regular customers and lastly they can travel using the budget airlines that are quite available now a day¶s to reduce on the cost. car rentals can also be found on discount at times and are sometimes provided by the travel agents. Smaller corporations can book the tickets in advance in order to lower the fare of the travel. Air Travel Typically corporate travel is done in the overseas and thus the selection of the appropriate airlines is also an important factor to consider before planning a major corporate travel. However. Smaller businesses can make car rental confirmations in advance in order to enjoy discounts on them or the special discount coupons obtained from the travel agents which had been selected by the corporation for the travel. A number of car rental companies can be found in all the major hotels across the globe. especially during an important trip to the overseas. Budget hotels and cheap lodgings are mostly preferred by these corporations. as selected by the specific corporation for their travel.hotel. reliability and punctuality. smaller corporations who emphasize more on minimizing the cost can take several steps in order to lower down the expenses. The preference of a particular airline company depends on the comfort. 22 . However. Business corporations often rely on the accommodation provided by the airline companies incase of a delay or cancellation of a flight. Car Rentals The usage of cars can be mandatory for efficient and much easier business trip in the overseas.

In the case of a large agency with worldwide ramifications. in addition to a general programmes. These include transportation companies.Functions of Travel Agency Preparation of Itineraries Tourist itinerary is a composition of series of operation that are a result of the study of the market. A tourist journey is characterized by an itinerary using various means of transport to ink one locality with another. This job is intensely interesting and at the same time challenging. Liaison with Providers of Services Before any form of travel can be sold over the counter to a customer have to be entered into with. Many large agencies have people who authorities on particular countries and. both for inclusive programmers and to meet individual requirements. comes the tasks of planning and costing tours. Planning and costing tours The contracts and arrangements have been entered into and their. This job calls for a meticulously mined person and calls for considerable training and ability. A travel agent gives advice choice for their holiday or business travel. The work carried out under these heading is usually that of the owners or senior employees of agencies concerned. they provides of various services. hotel proprietors.. Many agencies with the cooperation of airlines and other transportation companies take the opportunity of arranging educational tours for such staff to the countries with which they deal. Preparation of different types of itinerary is another important function of a travel agency. the liaisons work involved a great deal of coordination with the principals. many will issue separate programmes dealing with territories. Separate programmes dealing with holiday offers based on specific forms of 23 . The study and the realization of the itineraries calls for a perfect organization ( technical and administrative) as also knowledge of the desires for a holiday and the propensity to receive tourist by the receiving localities. the providers of surface transport like motorcars or coaches for transfer to and from hotels and for sightseeing etc. and also for general servicing requirements.

is yet another important activity of a travel agency. conformations of reservations are available in a matter of seconds. Programmes also have to be issued to cover different seasons of the year. railway and steamship companies have hundreds of schedules and the man behind the counter should be conversant with all these. There are nearly 50 different types of fare combinations alone in the local air schedules and additions of new flights from time to time makes a job of the travel agent on the constant challenge. Many large travel agencies are using this system. Provision of Foreign Currency Provision of foreign currencies to intending travelers is another specialized activity of a travel agency. publicity must feature considerably in the activities of a travel agency and more so if the agency happens to be a large one. An up to date knowledge about various schedules of air companies. steamship companies and railways is very essential. This system comprises a computer network that can be used by the travel agent to reserve an air or rail accommodation in a hotel. Having spent considerable time and money on preparing all that goes into the issue of a programme. traveler¶s cheque. Ticketing Selling tickets to clients using different modes of transport like air. The majority of a large travel agencies have their own publicity departments under the management of a publicity expert.transportation. may also be prepared. both for personal accident risks and baggage. road and sea. etc. air. e. Through a wide network. rail. rail and sea is yet another important function of a travel agency. Some of the larger travel agencies deal exclusively on the provision of foreign currencies. Insurance. Computerized reservation system has in the recent years rather revolution the reservation system both for air and rail travel. This is important facility to intending travelers as it saves them a lot of time and energy. Some of the larger travel 24 . Publicity is an important part of the programme. Ticketing is however not an easy job as the range and adversity of international airfares is very complex and varied.g. Air carriers. This calls for a thorough knowledge of schedules of various modes of transport.

but for the principals include an airline. foreign currency exchange. motels. rates of hotels. e. car rentals. (5)Commission earned from ancillary services such as travel insurance and charges made for such services as travelers cheques. a shipping company and a tour operator. (2)Making arrangements for hotels. (4)Possession of professional knowledge and experience schedules of train connections.g. (3)Handling of and advising on the many detail involved modern-day travel. sightseeing. Looking at the various activities mentioned above.agents maintain sizeable shipping and forwarding departments. (1)Preparation of individual pre-planned itineraries. personally escorted tours and group and sale prepared package tours. All of this is the information of which the traveler. meals. and their quality whether rooms have baths etc. The job description of modern travel agents was summed up in an American magazine in the following words. a hotel company. travelers cheques. it is clear that the travel agents range of services in modern time has expanded a great deal. transfer of passengers and special features such as music festivals and theatre tickets. report accommodation. travel and baggage insurance. language study material. 25 . His field of experts is quite large and is consultancy growing with the facts changing travel need of the people. requirements 9immunization and inoculations). aimed at assisting the traveler to transport personal effects and baggage to any part if the world with a minimum of inconvenience.

based on quality service. Each of our branches located at Bangalore. Transportation. Mumbai. Network PL Worldways has a network of 11 IATA offices spread across the country to provide a pan country service to all our clients and in locations where we are not present. Pune. We believe in doing what is best for the client. Trivandrum. Distribution of Fertilizers. PL Worldways is today among the top travel companies in the country. Gurgaon. Coimbatore.Being one of the earliest recipients of IATA with over five decades of dedicated service. The company is recognized and accredited by premier travel Our Philosophy PL Worldways has a total billing of over Rs. PL Worldways offers a wide range of travel related services. Calicut. Pune and Trivandrum is geared to ensure complete customer satisfaction. Chennai. Cashews. with a wide network of 11 professionally managed offices in Madras. New Delhi. Hotel Reservations. Inbound Tours and Outbound Tours and Money Changing. Delhi. Coimbatore. Hyderabad.5 billion and this has been possible only with the focus on service quality. Bangalore. transparent and ethical business practices and unique products. Bombay. Calicut. 26 . We at PL Worldways strive build permanent relationships with clients. Shipping and Freight Forwarding Services and Travel Related Services.PL Worldways Limited was set up in the year 1985 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Peirce Leslie India Limited . Trichy and Hyderabad.a leading corporate house with diverse interests including Coffee. Pesticides. 1. Ernakulam. Cochin. which includes International and Domestic Air ticketing. we work through reliable agents capable of delivering the same high level of service to our clients. The emphasis has always been on ensuring Total Customer Satisfaction and providing excellent value for money. Insurance Related Services.

Industry Associations and Associations of Professionals in arranging events like conferences. we provide full support to Corporate Houses. The range of services includes ticketing.. Professional Competence. was set up in 1992 to offer its expertise in organizing special events. At PL Conferences.Personnel A team of over 170 dedicated staff form the backbone of PL Worldways enabling us to provide superior service. competitive pricing and innovative tours. IATO and recognition by the Government of India re-affirms our commitment to tourism and quality. PL Conferences PL Conferences is a division of PL Worldways Limited. The team has been instrumental in the 27 . Our excellent relationship with airlines ensures seat confirmations even during peak season. seminars. pre and post conference leisure trips etc. and spare no effort to maintain the service levels. We have the capability to completely design the program and also conduct it on behalf of our clients. Total Integrity. We believe in fair employment practices. Unfailing Courtesy and Reliability are the tenets on which PL Worldways has grown. business meetings and other corporate events. "Putting People First" has been the guiding philosophy which extends not only to our clients but also to our own employees. meet and assist. At PL Worldways. Commitment. The tours that we offer are itineraries tested by us personally which ensures that clients are not confronted by any unpleasant situations. Quality of service We pride ourselves in the high quality of service that we provide. accommodation. with its focus on quality. To constantly update our knowledge we interact with other members of our industry and our membership of PATA. one of the largest travel management companies in India. PL Conferences has an expert team of professionals who have immense experience in the tourism industry and conference management. transportation. PL Conferences. ASTA. incentive tours and conferences in India.

successful execution of several national and international conferences held in Delhi. Our service expertise includes:  Conference Promotion and Management  Venue Identification and Management  Media Coordination and Public Relations  Theme Dinner and Banquets  Accommodation Management  Logistics Management  Registration and Service Desk Operations  Traditional Reception and Cultural Destination Identification Shows  Destination Information  Aircraft Chartering  Guest Relations and Hospitality Services  Customized Corporate Packages  Tour Packages  Itinerary Planning and Management  Ticketing and Travel Management 28 . Chennai and Cochin Among the successful events organized by the company are: A wedding in Royal style for a British couple at the Neemrana Fort Palace. Association of Radiation Oncologists of India (ARIOCON 2003). World Congress for the Round-tables in Chennai. McKinsey Retreat at Cochin. Common Wealth Telecommunication Organization meet (CTO 2006) etc. Services With an experienced team of professionals from the event and destination management industry. Rajasthan. The 51st Annual Conference of the Indian Association of Cardio-vascular Thoracic Surgeons (CTCON 2005. Bangalore and Mumbai. PL Conferences offers world-class services that focus on total customer satisfaction. The Conference of Cardiology Society of India (CSI 2002). International Private Investors Meet in Delhi.

 Foreign Exchange  Meet and Greet Services  Language Interpretation Services  Inbound and Outbound Travel At PL Conferences. tailor made pre and post conference tours. as our esteemed guest. 29 . sightseeing trips and relaxation tours of short duration with everything focused around the traveler to ensure that you are absolutely at ease. apart from the meeting schedules. we treat each conference as special and design unique programs that include.

30 .

Time The name of sub-agent and his sign The name and age of the passenger. Status. It includes the following: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Date in which the reservation is made. Classes of travel.Ticketing Department Domestic Ticketing For domestic ticketing there is an efficient section or department in sky blue tourist travels. Ticket number. Sectors of travel. Supplementary information. Reservation Reservation for domestic journey can be done by a telephone call or directly. Ticketing after getting confirmation of the ticket is the 31 . Day of travel. The time of reservation the ticketing department called all necessary information's from the passenger and writing in a card called reservation card. Confirmation Confirmation can be done by the passenger through telephones. Month of travel. PNR number. Flight number. the computer system of travel agency is with the concerned airline system and the status of the tickets can be known by the system.

Window seat.Aisleseat W. He has supplied all the required information to the travel agency-name.First number.Executive. sometimes they will issue tickets. and flight etc. Y. Flight number Specific designation of flight expressed in letters and figures. Passenger's reservation codes A. he has to conduct the travel agency and ask for an air ticket. AA. If the seat is available. place. In case of onward travel.American Airlines. it passes on the name of the passenger or ticket number to the airline. date. telex messages or telegrams or the letters are 32 . Procedures When a person is interested to travel by domestic airlines.Economy.status of the ticket is OK the travel agency will issue the ticket. Example: AI-Air India. Classes of service R-Super sonic P-First class premium F. BA-British Airlines. The reservation will take out a ticket from its stock and will ask the airlines for reservation on the specific date and flight. J.

uplifted and submitted to the airline. journey or as a Types of Tickets Single coupon ticket: -Here the ticket contains only one flight coupon. The customer is informed and ticket is delivered to him.Here the ticket contains 4 flight coupons 33 . Office coupon: . When confirmation is received.It is kept by the passenger as a proof of the receipt for money paid. Constitute pima-facie evidence of the contract of carrier between the carrier passengers. The client hands over the voucher to the respective hotel or transport unit and signs the bill. Ticket . In addition to the reservation of the ticket the agency makes the necessary reservation of Hotel and transport (car etc. Contents of a Ticket Audit coupon: . Double coupon ticket: . The bills signed by the client are the proof of availing the services.Uplifted on the flight and the class of service is mentioned in the ticket.For audit purposes of the issuing airlines. should not be given to the passenger. If the client is in need of necessary vouchers are issued and the original copy is given to the client. Four-coupon ticket: . He needs not to make any payment of hotel accommodation and transportation.) at various places of his journey. Passenger coupon: . The number of flight coupon is varying according to the form of ticket. Airline Ticketing and Issuing After the reservation procedure the travel agent can issue the ticket journey.Here the ticket contains two-flight coupon. The travel agency makes the payment and receives it from the client when the counter foil is produced to him. They are forwarded to the concerned travel agency in due course for facilitating the payment.sending to the status for information.first cash value document.

Domestic Airline Ticket
Customers approach a travel agency office to purchase a trip. The travel agency must find out the following information. 1. Name of the client. 2. Place to be visited. 3. Date and time of departure. 4. Other related information.

They're after i) Refer the official airline guide and select the appropriate flights and time and date of departure. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Next step is to enter the flights you have chosen on your reservation sheet, Call the airline to book the flights, After the airline reservation has confirmed the flight, as sir fare from the airline. Double the one-way fare of arrive art around trip first class fare, To complete the tax refer to arrive at a round trip first class fare, To compute the tax reference to the concerned taxable, Add international tax if any. Calculate the total of basic fare, tax and international tax. ix) Complete the ticket.

If the passenger wanted to cancel their confirmed reservation some cancellation charges may be made from the passenger 1. 48 hours or more before the scheduled-service change departure of the flightRs.20/2. Less than 24 hours up to 1 hour before the departure the 10% of basic fare. 3. Less than 1 hour 100% of the basic fare.

Validity Of the Domestic Ticket
Domestic ticket issued against rope tariff the validity will be 6 months from the date of issue of the ticket. Domestic tickets issued against U.S.D fares the validity for a ticket will be 1 year from the date of travel on the first day of journey

Domestic tickets have to stop over permitted on the published domestic fares.

Not combinable with any other fare. However combination of INR Domestic fare with Indo Nepal Rupee fare is permitted

Domestic fares no documents required except restricted area permit (RAP).


International Ticketing
The procedures can be made directly or through telephone at the time of reservation for an international journey. Then the agency issued ticket for international travel as per the rules of IATA. VOID. Sometimes the airline companies charge a fare of 350/- so the travel agents give great care while issuing on international ticket. It also the concerned from, or affects the reputation of the company. At the times of reservation of a ticket Rs.500/- is charged the travel agencies as advance if any reason the ticket may be cancelled before paying the price of the ticket by the client the travel agency take the advance amount and it is not returned to the client.

There are 4 coupons in an international ticket.
y y y y Auditors coupon Office coupon. Flight coupon. Passenger coupon

An Airline Ticket


2. However it always be born in mind that a published fare takes a constructed fare. SITO-Sold Inside Ticketed Outside. Oxidizing materials. The rules for construction of fare differ with each of these conditions. 1. 7. 4. Sin-Sold Inside Ticketed Outside. Poison. Flammable solid. SOTO-Sold Outside Ticketed Outside. which are restricted to use f to not taken into the aircraft at the time of journey or cargo hole. 5. Fireworks. Mercury acids etc. Flammable gas (Butane gas). Corrosive materials like wet battery. 1. Fare Construction-International Sectors Construction of International fares depends on the place where the ticket is paid for and the place where the ticket is issued. Only when the fares are not available in the tariff manual should a fare be constructed. 4.International fares International fares between different cities are published in the Air tariff or tariff manual of the concerned airlines in local currency. They are divided into 4 conditions. 6. 3. Inflammable liquids. Restricted Materials Following are the materials. 8. NOC and in certain cases USD these fares are always expressed in the currency of the country were the travel commences. Radioactive materials. 2. SOTI-Sold Outside Ticketed Inside 3. 37 .

Checked baggage¶s are also called registered baggage and are carried in the Cargo compartment. Passenger can carry baggage¶s but it is limited.The baggage not carried on the same aircraft as that on the passenger is carried. C/J class-30kg. These are concluded free baggage.some airlines give free baggage allowance according to the number of piece carried by the passenger and its size. Y class-20kg.a document issued by the carriers used for the identification of checked baggage).The part of the baggage. First class-40kg. ‡ Checked baggage: . ‡ Free baggage underweight concept: The weight concept is according to the weight of the baggage. Other dangerous goods. It is under the supervision of the passenger. Person does not pay any money for the baggage¶s if it is come under the allowed weight or pieces. ‡ Un-requested or Un-checked baggage: -Placed in the cabin. this is carried by the messenger. which is in excess of the free baggage allowance and for which the passenger has to pay extra charges. 38 . ‡ Baggage accompanied: . ‡ Piece concept: . ‡ Baggage excess: . Baggage Baggage's with personal property of the passenger or crew carried on and air craft by agreement with the operator. There is a limit in the carriage of the baggage in each class. These are checked and tagged with number tag (Baggage tag.9.

9. Collection for prepared ticket advises (DTAS).It is collected by the airline along with fares on behalf of the airport authority. Deposits (initial payment with balance due). 1. air/sea tours. Land agreements. Refundable balances. Special commission fares: . 7. 8. Air or surface transportation. Miscellaneous Charge Order (MCO) When a client pays in advance for travel services and accommodation that are not included in ticket. 4. Fuel surcharge (FS) . Components of fare 1.g. Normal fares: . 3.are given by the airlines to some categories of people.Techniques of Fare Construction Types of fares These are mainly 2 types of fares are applicable to the calculation. 5. 39 . Steam ship transportation e.additional fuel surcharge will live from the passenger (YQ).. Internal air travel tax (W). Basic fare 2. a prepared order form is used which is known as MCO. Car rental or hotel accommodation (other than those included in a tour package). It includes the following: 1. 2. Upgrading under collections.Normal fares are published fares for travel between two points their include domestic fare and international fare. 2. Passenger service fee (PSF): . 4. 3. 6. Additional collections.

Fare Construction Terminology As per the basic fare construction principles of IATA when no through fare is specifically published for a desired itinerary. Specified transportation and land agreements must not exceed the value of MCO. 13. and more distance point principles. Round the world trip. There are some elementary terminologies. Circle trip. 2. 16. which are very useful in fare Construction 1. Routing. Itinerary. 9. 5. 11. 7. 40 . Surface. 10. Intermediate stop. 4. Nonstop. One-day trip. and agent's coupon and a passenger's coupon. mileage system. 18. it needs to be constructed the main point to be taken into account is that the constructed fare must not be less than the lowest amount obtained by away of the other principles. Round trip. Connections. 8. Off line service. 3. Joint fare. Local fare. 17. 15. Interline service. 12. Online service. Direct. Such as lowest combination of fare principle. Open jaw. 6.Each MCO has an auditor's coupon. The value of MCO must not exceed certain limits. 14. Stopover.

Write the clients name and residential phone connected on 10. Refer the worldwide edition of and look up to the place of departure from the place of destination. 8. But some difference is occurred. 3. 12. Date of Journey. Date of return. When the client approaches the travel agency the following information should be given by him. Place of Arrival. 5. Again refer the DAU to select return flight of the flight 11. . Make a note of the airline reservations name and date on which the 41 reservation pad. Place of Departure. 6. 7. Name of the client. 9. 1. Content the concern airline and book the flights. 2. Write the flight you have selected and date for customer's flight. 4. Transfer all his information to the itinerary pad.Global Indicator EH-Eastern Hemisphere (are 2 and 3) TSTrans Siberian (via Moscow) PO-Polar Routing AP-Atlantic Pacific WH-Western Hemisphere AJ-Atlantic Journey PF-Pacific Journey International Airline Ticketing In case of international airline procedure is same as the domestic. Type of the flight. 13.

To declare before checking in if carrying any arms or explosives. 2. travel Instructions to the Passenger Before the travel of the passenger should take careful attention towards the instruction given by the airline. which should not exceed 115cm. 15 Check the fee with the airline etc. 42 . Length. Not to leave baggage unobserved at any time especially with in airport was made. To carry only one travel baggage the some of the mention viz. breadth. They are as follows: 1. 3. Not to accept any package from unknown person. 4. height. residential telephone contact and agency phone number of the airline reservations. 14 Convey the passenger's name.

Sample Electronic Ticket 43 .

and then the permission is given to carry on the project. 44 . The foreign exchange counter deals with buying and selling of foreign currency and also transferring various travelers' cheque Accounts Department Accounting involves recording. classification and summarizing the accounting information directed towards the determination of financial strength and weakness of a travel agency. All the forms and formalities of everything should be fulfilled.Foreign Exchange Department Simply foreign exchange means the money of a foreign country. These are essential in determining the true & fair status of business& making strategic plans & decisions. To manage a travel agency profitably demands accurate recording & preparation of financial statements. as he does not have to go to another place for that. This is mainly important in the case of international tourist. proper securities would be furnished. For a travel agency to have foreign exchange department it has to pass certain formalities. It should acquire the permission from:    Ministry of external affairs The RBI The State Government. Foreign exchange can be defined as that section of economic science . In that country they may require the currency of that particular country. They may be coming from a foreign country. They may be coming with their own currency to a foreign country. which deals with the means and methods by which right to wealth of one countries currency and converted into right to wealth in terms of another countries currency. So the foreign exchange department in the travel agency would be of a great help to the tourist.

4. the amount owned to producers is referred to as an account receivable. Sometimes a travel agency provides credit facilities to its clients that is. Accounting System The basic objective of accounting is to ascertain profitability & financial position of a travel agency operation. Account Receivable When a travel agency purchase tourism products from the suppliers on credit. leisure& commercial client. 3. 7. Sales Cash receipt Account receivable Cash disbursement I ATA ledger Pay roll General ledger Profit & loss account Balance sheet 2. 45 . 3.1. 5. 4. every travel company prepares a sales journal. 8. To achieve this every travel agency prepares the following journals and statements: 1. 2. It in fact makes a loan to its unit. 6. Sales Journal In this journal all credit sales are recorded. 9. For eg: profit form sale of tour package. Cash Receipt Journal It is used to record all revenue received by the travel agency during the period. commission received from the principles are recorded in it. To maintain up to date record of all credit sale.

The important official documents required are as follows: Passport 46 . which are taken by the passenger at the time of journey.Travel Documentation Department It is very important to give attention to the official document.

47 .

If it is applied directly only 7 photos are needed.A passport is an official document issued by the government to identify an individual granting permission to travel abroad and requesting a protection from the government for him. For applying a normal passport we require: a.For getting a normal passport the period is 20 months. Types of passport 1. If we are applying for a passport through a travel agency we should give 8 photos. validity is 10 years . Ration card or ID card. b. c. SSLC book or CBSE. 48 . Normal passport: The color of this passport is navy blue.

Those passengers. visa on arrival messages. Diplomatic passport: This is issued to diplomats or consulates and govt. Supreme Court judges. And diplomatic passport holders can hold a normal passport also. Far East etc. 49 . Validity of this passport is 1 year and can extended if needed. This is to enable the individual to avoid immigration check at airport.600/-. The color of the passport is gray. PM.Official passport: These types of passports are issued to persons who are traveling on government expense. Officials who are in high rank like president. 1) ECNR 2) Name addition 3) Address channel : : : Degree certificate with mark list Maiden name. This type of check is avoided for Europe &US. Female (R). Fee is Rs. who are not belonging to the above category to obtain ECNR from the protector of emigrant office by submitting this passport. Telephone Bill or ID Card. ECNR not applicable.Birth certificate. Marriage certificate Ration Card. degree holders etc. African. This is mainly introduced for gulf. Thumb impression-male (L). They should surrender the passport when they leave their position or retire and this is issued for scientists. Minor passport: This passport is issued for children below 17 years. Miscellaneous forms (Documents needed are): ECNR (Emigration Clearance Not Required) This endorsement or passport is issued from the passport office for professionals. employees of central or state government. For issuing a minor passport we should require: Both parents' passports. If the father is residing in a foreign country we need fathers concerned letter attested by Indian Consulate at the country. return ticket etc ant then pay a normal fee. Color of this passport is white.

50 . ii) Minor children between 15-18 years of age where at least one of their parents hold valid passport.4) Police clearance : You should fill a miscellaneous form when the Certificate passport is submitted. Minor children below 15 years where at least one of the parents have valid passport. we should make sure that he does not Have any criminal background. By 5) Lost Passport : 13 photos. Advertisement in leading Newspaper. If the previous passport has been issued by this office or its valid or expired within last one year. I) II) III) Government employees who NOC from the Department. a separate form should be filled (lost and Damaged form). It is normally issued the passport office. Confirm the local police Police Verification (PV) The following category of applicants is exempted from PV. i) will be done after Senior citizens at the age of 65 and above when one of their adult children hold valid passport. When a pax is leaving a Country. The following categories are exempted from previous PV in verification the passport issue.

parents.If the regional 51 . Spouse of official passport holders going abroad. Tatkaal scheme only will be applicable in cases where either the PV report is not required. Blood relatives of person residing abroad who is initially ill. PV basis (duplicate passport -reissue of passport without change in address). children or individuals working abroad. If you are eligible for tatkaal services please obtain a passport form. Fill the form eligibility correctly in block letters with expanding initials. conferences etc. Minor less than 15 years of age or where passport can be issued on post. Spouse.iii) Family members of the government employee who furnish NOC. Paste 6 color photos and put cross signature or thumbs impression on all the pasted photographs. Tatkaal Scheme Under this scheme passport will be issued on the payment of additional fee over and above the normal passport submission fee. Persons going abroad for their own marriage. government servants with NOC and their spouses and applicable with verification certificate. We can learn the eligibility of thatkaal scheme how to apply directly for tatkaal service and how to convert ordinary to tatkaal service. Winners of promotional awards or scheme were a foreign traveler in prize or incentive. The following categories with genuine urgency would be covered under tatkaal scheme ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Businessman wishing to travel abroad urgently for trade. Patients requiring medical treatment. Students going abroad to join in foreign university. And it should be submitted to the regional passport officer and show the document regarding the urgency along with the verification certificate.

VISA(Visitors Intended Stay Abroad) To get a visa stamped on passport as the following details: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Date of entry. Proof of date of birth. Duration of stay Type of visa Date of Leaving Signature 52 .passport officer is convinced with the document of urgency. If the passport officer is satisfied with the document he may order for acceptance additional fees to be deposited and you will get the passport within few days. The following documents are submitted for this service: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Proof of residence. For that you should meet regional passport officer along with all relevant document of urgency and verification certificate signed by the authority. Proof of educational qualification NOC Fees Documents regarding urgency Verification certificate issued by compete tent authority. he may order for acceptance application form under tatkaal service. Conversion of ordinary passport to tatkaal service If you have applied for passport under normal routine and meanwhile due to some urgency you want the passport immediately.

With an Schengen Visa you may enter one country and travel freely through Schengen zone. Where to apply All depends on the basis of places you want to visit. Color photo. If you intent to visit several Schengen but do not have a main destination you should apply for the visa at the embassy or consulate which is your fist point of entry. Schengen Visa Travelling in Europe has been simplified with the introduction of Schengen Visa. similar to that of traveling from one state to another. 15 countries are in Europe. passport size-non-digital-most finish-3 photos 53 . At present there are.Schengen Countries The name schengen originates from a small town in Luxemburg in January 1985 seven European countries signed a treaty to end internal borders check points and control. This means that internal air. As a visitor to the Schengen area you will enjoy the many advantages of this unified visa system. Most countries have joined the treaty over the past years. Schengen Visa requirements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Balance sheet of the passenger Income tax returns Credit cards Bank account statements for the past 3 months Business contact from the company in Europe Invitation letter of the company giving details about your trip. Internal border controls have disappeared these one no or few stops and checks. you must apply at the embassy or consulate at that country which is your main destination. If you intend to visit only one Schengen country. road and train travel one handled as domestic trips.

‡ ‡ Return ticket OMC (Overseas Med claim Policy) Types of visa 54 .

E. US Visiting visa Documents Required ‡ ‡ ‡ Passport valid for at least 6 months.: US Consulate in Calcutta. These will be only on Embassy in a country but many Consulates. Affidavit or support original (it's a booklet sent from US by the sponsor) Salary certificate of the sponsor-Original bank account statement on bank letter headoriginal of both sponsors and client. Mumbai And Chennai. 55 . Consulate This comes under the Embassy headed by consulate general.. Income tax return of the passengers of 2 years Non-emigrant form duly filled up with 5 photos. If it's a Common wealth country it comes under the high commissioner. Gulf 3mnths) Family visa/Residence permit/D-type visa Household visa (for housemaids etc) Student visa Missionary visa (for religious study of for visiting Rome) Job visa Transit visa Embassy The main representing office of a country headed by an ambassador. Depending upon the size of the country these may be more consulates.g.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Visit visa/tourist visa (America-4-6mnths. ‡ ‡ ‡ Taxes bill original of sponsor.

2.400/. Immigrant Visa: For those intending to reside permanently in US. There are mainly 2 types of visiting visa 1.for 6 months). 56 .DD drawn on TT service (Drawn on American Consulate General) Visa fee (4600/. Visiting friends and Relatives.For pleasure or medical treatment. Tourism.‡ ‡ Request letter (by the passenger to the consulate or embassy) Rs. The most NIV are: y Visitors visa: Issued to persons who wish to enter US temporarily for business or pleasure other type of NIV given to are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Students Participants in exchange programmed Temporary workers Performing artists Professional journalists Representation of a foreign government.For business B2. visa-processing fee-2300/In normal case passenger above 60 years age need not have to appear on personnel interview. Non-Immigrant visa (NIV): For those visiting US temporarily. Types of visitors visa Bl.

Students¶ visa Type F: For academic studies. Temporary workers L.depending upon the kind of work to be performed. Green card holders must not stay in his home country or in other country for more that 6 months. 3 photos. They must have a petition approved by the immigration and naturalization service in US before the apply for a visa. One way ticket 7. 5. Green card Resident permit. 0. If the person is staying for more than 5 years in America he is eligible to apply for citizenship. Passport valid 2. Visa form duly filled up and signed 57 . Medical certificate 4. Marriage certificate 3. Husbands passport copy 6. Type M: For non-academic or Vocational studies. Saudi resident Visa (joining with family or spouse) Documents required: 1. Any citizen staying in a resident permit for more than 2 years is eligible for green card. P.

Singapore visiting visa ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Passport valid for at least 6 months.or a draft of 400 Saudi riyals in the name of the passenger. Visa form duly filled up. Confirmed return ticket. BTQ 500 dollars. One visa form (photo copy allowed). 5.Saudi Hajj The applicant should have a passport valid for at least 4 months from the date of expiry of visa. \\\Request letter/Covering letter. Stay permitted is till the 10th day of monaural month. Vaccination certificate against Meninchittis and Cholera is required. 58 . 6. This is mandatory. Confirmed onward and return ticket. 3. Visa validity depends upon the period of Hajj. It changes every year processing time in 24 hours. Hajj requirements are fixed of Hajj Ministry in Saudi Arabia and coordinated with Hajj Committee in India. 7. Travelers cheques in original amount to rs. 4. 8. payable at Jeddah plus draft for 789 Saudi riyals a "Moallam Fee" favoring United Agencies Jeddah. 12 photos. 1.500/. 2. 3 photos. Invitation letter (not necessary).

the authority should instruct the embassy in India to stamp visa prior to travel. If it is a landing visa then the traveler should carry the NOC with him and visa is stamped at the point of entry. No passenger is allowed to go to flight without the NOC. As original visa is not received by passenger. Visa is faxed to the traveler and must be carried by the passenger (this contains NOC stamping also). The PNR is faxed or telephoned to the sponsored that in turn produces the original visa in the airline office in Dubai who gives visa on arrival message to COK Air India office. Visa is valid for 30 days. If he has to obtain an ECNR he has to submit the visa on arrival message with other document to emigration office. When they first enter a foreign country. The passenger has to get the visa message from the COK Air India office with a seal on it. Processing time is 15 days. For example. The Indian nat ionals must submit t he passport details to the immigration officer for the issue of this. Other Permits Depending on the status of the traveler other types of permit may also be required to enter some entries. E. after the airline booking is made. Visa is endorsed on arrival at the point of entry. COKDXB by AI. When the passenger arrives at DXB airport he gets the visa stamped on the passport. In case it is a stamping visa.DUBAI (Business and visiting visa) Indian nationals intending to visit UAE must obtain a NOC through t heir spo nsor in UAE.. The forms for these permits are 59 .g. NOC will state whether it is landing visa or a stamping visa. Qatar The business associates in Qatar must obtain a NOC from the immigration department in Doha by submitting the details of the traveler's passport. travelers may be required to obtain a visitors permit or tourist card.

In some instances. banks or even directly through insurance companies. Such insurance policies can be obtained from travel agents. to visit families and friends etc. For instance. the forms must be obtained at the airport to departure. Cholera. Whatever be the reason. The clients often have a choice of different levels of coverage. some policies compensate travelers for lost or damaged baggage. because different travels for different reasons: for business. the Caribbean or Europe do not usually need the vaccinated for any of these diseases. other health precaution may be advisable. clinics. However. trip interruptions. visitors are advised to take anti-Malaria medication prior to their trip.usually distributed to passengers on international flights. Travel Insurance Travel Insurance is yet another important travel document which is needed for any passengers who intended to travel abroad. Travelers traveling from US to other destination in North America. So travel agents should urge all travelers to purchase adequate travel and medical insurance coverage's for their overseas trip. the various travel insurance 60 . But these are only some strong reasons why travel insurance is strongly recommended. Without creating panic of holiday horror it is the agent's duty to explain why insurance is necessary and describe what type of coverage is essential. leisure. Health and Immunization Requirements Some countries require an international certificate of vaccination for small pox. As a travel agent it is our duty and responsibility what arrangements if any the client has made for the trip. Many of the travelers are reluctant to pay out for insurance thinking that it may not be needed. in some regions of South America. Anything can happens to a passenger while they are in travel especially when they travel to a foreign country. or Yellow fever. In addition to health coverage's. financial failure of service providers and other possible misfortunes. Therefore it is the product knowledge of the travel agent that will influence the clients to buy insurance. As a good travel agent it is our duty to ensure the safety and security of our clients. Asia and Africa.

When travel insurance is purchased a certificate will be issued. Missed Departure Hi-Jacking Travel Trade Indemnity Legal Expenses General details of coverage and common exclusions Death and Permanent Disablement Coverage: Accidental Death. showing details of coverage and importantly a policy number. Curtailment. Luggage. Exclusions: Normal coverage does not usually apply to accidents caused or connected to What insurance companies refers to as hazardous or dangerous sports. Repatriation and Scratch and Rescue. Personal effects and Travel Documents Personal Liability Cancellation. A good travel insurance policy should include coverage for: Death and Permanent Disablement Medical and Other Related Expanses Luggage. Personal Accident. Personal Effects and Travel Documents 61 .companies often pays a high rate of commission to the travel agents. Medical and other related expenses Coverage: Medical and Dental charges. Exclusion: In this section there will be much exclusion and the details can be found in the policy documents.

Payment is collected on hotel bills. Any tax collected by agents must be recorded on ticket coupon to show how much and what type of taxes have been collected. Tax relating to air travel. Legal Expenses Coverage: It covers all legal expenses which is incurred for the fully settlement of the insurance policy. Tickets. Various transport or airport facility taxes may have to be collected by travel agents upon sale of tickets. Money. taxes are collected for 62 .Coverage: Passport. departing or transiting a particular country or airport and are a direct source of revenue for the government. There are often limits on the amount that may be for loss of personal effects. Travel Documents. Curtailment. collected by travel agents may be linked to the ticket price. Further. Luggage delay or loss. Taxes are levied for arriving. Customs and Currencies Taxes Many countries levied various types of taxes on travelers. A departure chare is often charged when travelers leave the country. Missed Departure Coverage: Protection against the need to delay or cancel the travel arrangement due to illness or death of the policy holder. Travel Trade Indemnity Coverage: Protection against the travel agent or the company becoming bankrupt. Taxes. car rentals by port charges on cruises and other services. Cancellation. Exclusion: Some policies do not cover loss of cash that can be replaced. traveling companies or family members. Personal Liability Coverage: Against causing injury or damage to people or property.

he will get such answers from the destination guide books and travel books. laptop computer. because they arc for personal use. accommodation as well as its cost to the clients. cosmetics. we will get the details of various taxes collected from a passenger from Travel Information Manual (TIM). but if so. The duty collected by customs officials are another direct source of revenue for government. Import and export limits for permitted items may be exceeded.The travel agent advices the client to read such books and it is the duty of such travel agents to recommend good books for their customers. alcohol and perfume. Also. various forms of transportation. there are regulations that protect endangered species. etc. Most countries allow concessions of certain items. The regulations may protect one country's population from the spread of dangerous infectious diseases. are not normally subject to restrictions. Personal procedures. how much cash to take and what other form of payment to travel with. As a travel agent. In addition to this the client also gets the information about local attraction. festivals. such as clothes. a duty must be paid. Customs includes the following: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Passenger traveling with pets Wild flora and fauna Baggage clearance Firearms. noise pollution etc. The import and export of certain articles may be restricted or prohibited altogether. other weapons and small caliber ammunition Currencies and other forms of payments Most of the travel agents are often faced with questions from clients about exchanging foreign currencies. of a 63 . TIM describes the customs regulations of individual countries of the quantities of duty-free items that may be imported or exported. etc. camera. These books provide the local map. Such duty-free items include tobacco. Customs Customs regulations govern the transport of articles and species from one country to another. jeweler.

However.particular destination. and entrance fees. Visa Thomas Cook. date and place where the check has been cashed. The most important advantage for the traveler's check is that it can replace if lost. However. Traveler's Cheque Some travel agencies are able to arrange issue of traveler's check. A customer has to analyze all such tour components and decide how to finance the trip successfully. but it carries the most risk. Credit cards 64 . Cash lost or stolen cannot be replaced without insurance and now more and more travel insurance policies are excluding cash over the limit stipulated in your insurance policy. but they can also be used to get cash advances at most banks and larger hotels. But the traveler must only keep a record of individual check number. some cash is necessary. Carrying a small amount of local currency is always useful and sometimes essential to pay for local transport. This is one good way to earn greater revenue through extra services to customers. The following are the various forms of payments recommended by the travel agents for their clients: Cash Cash limits on the import and export of foreign and local currencies. The basic rule is to discourage clients from carrying large sums of cash overseas. Travelers check can also be obtained from a banker or foreign exchange agencies. Cash is the easiest form of payment. these limits are usually set high enough so as not affect the average traveler. Credit Cards Using a credit card can limit or even remove the need to carry traveler's cheques. as certain items such as local transport cannot be paid for in any other way. food and drink. Not only can one pay for many goods and services by card. In certain countries. City Bank etc. Some well knew traveler's check include American Express. the amount of currencies that may be imported or exported is limited. All traveler's check are not acceptable world-wide. The agent should check the guide book whether a traveler's check is acceptable or not. Automated Teller Machines (ATM) are more and more common in cities and are accessible 24 hours a day.

are safe and fees are often cheaper than using traveler's cheques. as acceptability cab varies depending on how fast the credit card company is paying its bills. 65 . Marketing and Sales Department As applied to the tourism industry. Tourism promotion is one of the essential element of the marketing mix & important tool of marketing. This is done by promotion. Immigration This department will guide the customer through the various formalities of the health and customs. the most important function of marketing is to bring about an awareness of the production in the minds of the consumers in the market areas. so that the prospective customers know about their existence. Travelers are best advised to take another form of payment as a backup. to influence the potential customers or trade intermediaries. The purpose of promotion is to encourage or more specifically. through communication to think and to act in a certain manner. This would help the travel agency to attract new customers. The new products & new attractive rates should constantly be present in the news paper. Disembarkation cards must be completed and presented at the Immigration Counter on arrival at airport. In case the person concerned is leaving the country for non-employment purpose. he can obtain suspension from immigration clearance for the specified country and for the specified period from projector of emigrants. The various sources of marketing are : 1. News & Feature Stories. Embarkation cards must be presented at the respective exit point counter on departure. Travelers should not rely solely on credit card.

The sales department informs the potential costumer about all the services provided by the travel agency and establishes direct personal contact with them. Sales personal go to the client in personally. sit with them and explain the various services and prices. Printed materials include brochures. It is a voluminous publication with special emphasize on the quality of paper. It should be prepared in a journalistic style. It gives detailed information on accommodation. The Brochures should contain the following information Name of tour company Means of transport Details about destination Itinerary 66 . The various marketing steps that are taken to promote a particular travel product is called as the sale techniques. It should have all the information which is required Sales Techniques Travel marketing is a major responsibility of the travel agency. Marketing policies involve product pricing. display material etc. The owner usually establishes a marketing program with definite objective. Brochure Brochures pamphlet bound in the main form of booklet. price. travel schedules etc. Sales techniques can be group into main areas 'printed material1 and 'special offers'.2. Press release is an announcement or a news article written by or for a travel company that objectively describes something news worthy. direct main material. advertising and marketing coverage. graphic design of the cover and the layout of the pages. Press Releases There should be a press release at least every week.

Display Materials Display materials includes posters dispensers for sales literature cardboard stands. Sales letters are a direct main material. Folder is short. articles of handicrafts. Reservation and cancellation conditions Details of other services-insurance. tastefully illustrated and attractively designed produced. exhibits etc. which can be folded. The sales letter can be measured very rapidly from the response it draws.Accommodation. These are sent out to those people whose address has been selected according to the likelihood of there being potential users of the service offered. It is a tool through which an attempt is made to gain agreement of favorable action towards a product. Special offers 67 . either fixed or on an automatic projector for display purposes. This material is used in the agency's office or in travel agents sailor rooms. currency. This is done by way of replay card which is included with which the recipient can request for their information and also travel literature. In many cases. The material is displayed in such a way that it attracts the attention of a visitor as soon as he enters the office. Location. Meals Name of overseas representatives Duration of each tour Booking. Sales letters offer may opportunities for selling service. entertainment Travel documents required Details of price Folder Folder is a single piece of illustrated paper. Folder is lee voluminous then the brochure and its production are less time consuming. cinema slides are also used.

etc. Buddhist. 68 . monuments. incentive tour. special interest tours. free gifts premiums and various types of contests are being used extensively in competitive industries like cosmetics. conference.It will include temporary price reductions. business. architecture. Generally international tour marketing is relatively more difficult and complex than domestic tour marketing. religious. special off-season rates at hotels and tourist resorts are the examples of some of the special offers in the tourist industry. the marketing strategies that are effective and Profit for mass tour operators. Reduced air fares for students. ayurvedic packages. This is the more profit making department. These are classified into four categories. beach. wildlife. incentive tours. The tourist industry has also started to adopt these techniques as additions sales support tool. heritage. Travel agency may combine the different tour products and they form a single package tour and sell to the group of individual at a markup price. cruise tour. This is because of the nature and types of tour packages offered by tour operators. lovers etc. cultural. Moreover tourism industry. Tour Packaging Department Another important part of a travel agency is tour package department. Affinity group'. Types of Tour Package A travel agency/tour operator deals with a variety of 'tour packages/ catering to the diverse needs of tourists such as adventure. Marketing of Tour Packages This significally different from marketing of other tourism elements. group tour. educational tour.

accommodation. Thus. Hosted Tour A hosted tour means when an agency utilizes the services of another agency at a particular destination. An independent four may or may not be an all inclusive tour. However.1. The escort's responsibilities and duties are to provide comprehensive information and assistance to the group. 3. enrooted and the destination place. When the group arrive in India (Delhi). at the origin. the tourists are free to purchase each single component separately. which assists them in clearing their baggage and transfers them to the hotel. Today. this type of tour provides the tourists considerable freedom to plan the activities according to their own choice. The components of such tours are air travel. Independent Tour Independent tours are prepared/formulated for those tourists who want to travel independently. tour price varies depending on the type of air travel. several Indian and Foreign Travel Agencies offer independent tours to inbound and outbound tourists. Suppose a group of French tourists is coming to India. escorted tours are meant for those travelers who are planning to visit foreign country for the first time. air transfer. Basically. The foreign independent travel and Domestic Independent Travel are examples of an independent tour. when the group arrive at an other destination in India. entertainment and other travel services. a different travel agency greets them at the each tourist spot. The excursion tours are the examples of escorted tours. Their tour-host is available to offer device and information about the local attractions and entertainment. sightseeing. Therefore. Escorted Tour When an agency includes the services of a well educated and trained tour manager in its package tour it is called escorted tour.' Further. 2. travel documents. a hosted tour provides the tourists 69 . accommodation and is inclusive of other tour components. they are greeted at the airport by TCI. air transfer. boat riding. Thus. in some cases.

an adventure and special interest package tour. There are a number of other packages offered by a tour company such as a custom tour an excursion tour. 70 .maximum level of pre-arranged and personalized services. 4. Incentive Tour.

Tickets * Threats from suppliers of services like Airlines.Strength y y y y Excellent supplier relationships Excellent customer relationships Adequate financial resources Reputation in market place is strong Weaknesses y y Irregular company newsletter publication No understanding with local media. Hotels etc 71 . Opportunities * Customization of its products to cater the needs and wants of its prospective customers * Provision of quality customer services * Economical and attractive tour packages Threats * Emergence of large competitors with homogeneous products * Seasonality and perishability nature of its products * Emergence and development of E.

Recommendations 1. will be helpful in the time of crises. 6. 5. 4. 2. The employees are asked to work overtime and this may affect their efficiency negatively.Findings 1. it will help to maintain to up to date data information in a systematic way. Hotels. The introduction of online booking by airlines has created an adverse effect in sales volume of tickets in travel agencies. travel exhibition etc. 5. Travel agencies in India are facing tough time due to the stoppage of commission by domestic airlines. Travel agencies have to practices new marketing tools like participating in travel marts. Marketing procedures done by the travel agency are not up to the standard and this may affect the business. Car rentals etc. 2. 4. Travel agencies have to maintained good relation with its customers because repeated customers are the greatest. Travels agencies should be in good terms with other service providers like Airlines. Travel agencies must be more concern about the clients and customer satisfaction must be their main motive. 6. The number of staffs should be increased so that the work timings can be shifted. Due to low starting salary in travel agencies new comers are tend to quit the field. Accounts and sales department should be computerized. 3. 3. and will reduce the strain of employees. Travel agencies lack talented staffs this may reduce the customer satisfaction. 72 .

It includes the airlines. We found that each and every person has got his role to play in this modern evergreen tourism industry. they are something or other for each of us to contribute to this industry as a new destination. And this organizational study had laid a mile stone in my career for achieving the goals I have set. I have to say that this one month have really played its role to frame each to be good tourism professional fit for the industry. 73 . Travel Agencies and Tour Operators Business. all the people who have a little knowledge about this industry. In PL Worldways I got an opportunity to explore what the real industry is. is a very complex one. Professional. communication and technical skill is highly required for being a good tourism professional. I have realized that Tourism industry is really booming and a challenging industry. there was a market change in trend in international tourist arrivals as a result of the global economic downturn in major tourist generating markets. We only know about some subjects like Tourism Business. Liaison with the providers of service is also required.the number of international tourist arrivals grew from 25 million to 696 million. Tourism is now the world¶s largest industry. In the 50-year period from 1950 to 2000. And it is my passion to became a good tourism professional. which they might not understand.Conclusion As. not a mere job. an attractive itinerary and can shine in this field. Tour operation is challenging and fascinating job. Tourism Product. But after this one month training we got a real picture about what the tourism industry really means. From 2001. I have worked in all the departments especially Tours and conferences. Emerging trends in Tourism. hotels. I have realized that there is a great difference between the academic knowledge and technical knowledge. There is a large scope for employment opportunity for each one of us. I have got only a little knowledge about this industry. Tourism Marketing to others. ships and other means of travel.


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