Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Lung The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system

. The main function of the human respiratory system is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the blood, and to expel carbon dioxide from the body. Healthy levels of oxygen are absolutely crucial for the human body, as oxygen gives our cells energy and helps them regenerate. The Anatomy of the Lung Each lung is divided into lobes. The right lung, which has three lobes, is slightly larger than the left, which has two. The lungs are housed in the chest cavity, or thoracic cavity, and covered by a protective membrane called the pleura. The diaphragm, the primary muscle involved in respiration, separates the lungs from the abdominal cavity. The pulmonary arteries carry de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. The pulmonary veins, on the other hand, carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, so it can be pumped to the rest of the body.

How the Lungs Work

or expiration. the lungs facilitate the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the blood. it moves back up. This oxygenated blood can then be pumped to the body by the heart. resulting in emphysema or lung cancer. Types of Respiration Two types of respiration exist: y Quiet respiration happens when the body is at rest. or inspiration. 3. and fill with air. pushing air back out of the lungs. and travels down through the trachea. which increases thoracic volume. where it is transferred into the alveoli in the lungs to be expelled through exhalation. y Active respiration occurs when the body is active and requires higher levels of oxygen to the blood than when resting. The air finally fills the alveoli. They then return to their resting volume and push air out upon exhalation. . or respiration. The lungs and chest walls also return to their resting positions. or "windpipe. When the diaphragm relaxes. the diaphragm contracts and pulls down. Oxygen travels across the membranes of the alveoli and into the blood in the tiny capillaries surrounding them. 4. The blood also carries the waste product carbon dioxide back to the lungs. In the alveoli. Smoking can damage the alveoli and make breathing labor intensive. When you breathe. The bronchi then subdivide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. one leading to each lung." This air travels down the trachea into two bronchi. which increase the lungs' surface area and speed this process. lowering the pressure in the lungs and causing air to enter the lungs through the mouth and nose to equalize the pressure. Air comes in through the mouth and/or nose. Oxygen molecules bind to hemoglobin in the blood and are carried throughout the body.The lungs expand upon inhalation. During active respiration. 2. The respiratory system contains several structures. the lungs facilitate this process: 1. Adult lungs have hundreds of alveoli. the muscles around the ribs raise and push out the ribs and sternum. which are the small air sacs at the ends of the bronchioles. These two movements make up the process of breathing. helping the lungs take in more air. This also reduces the size of the chest cavity and helps to push air out of the lungs. During quiet respiration.

pinkish-brown.During exhalation. Both these movements make the thoracic cavity contract. and is a soft.2 3. forcing the diaphragm to rise.66 kg (3. It is both the largest internal organ (the skin being the largest organ overall) and the largest gland in the human body. the intercostals force the ribs to contract.44 1.7 lb). one called the hepatic artery and one called the portal vein. It is connected to two large blood vessels. resting just below the diaphragm. Anatomy and physiology of the liver Anatomy of the liver The liver is a reddish brown organ with four lobes of unequal size and shape. and the abdominal muscles contract. A human liver normally weighs 1. The liver lies to the right of the stomach and overlies the gallbladder. triangular organ. and help push air out of the lungs. The hepatic artery carries blood from the . It is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity.

The peritoneum folds back on itself to form the falciform ligament and the right and left triangular ligaments. which attaches the liver to the posterior portion of the anterior body wall. whereas the portal vein carries blood containing digested nutrients from the entire gastrointestinal tract and also from the spleen and pancreas. An exception to this is the falciform ligament. The liver Surface anatomy Peritoneal ligaments Apart from a patch where it connects to the diaphragm (the so-called "bare area"). double-layered membrane that reduces friction against other organs. and have essentially no functional importance. These "lits" are in no way related to the true anatomic ligaments in joints. These blood vessels subdivide into capillaries. but they are easily recognizable surface landmarks. Each lobule is made up of millions of hepatic cells which are the basic metabolic cells. which then lead to a lobule. the liver is covered entirely by visceral peritoneum. a thin.aorta. .

Physiology of the liver The various functions of the liver are carried out by the liver cells or hepatocytes.Lobes Traditional gross anatomy divided the liver into four lobes based on surface features. The falciform ligament is visible on the front (anterior side) of the liver. which the inferior vena cava runs over. which then joins to the hepatic vein to carry blood out from the liver. to look at it from behind (the visceral surface). there are ducts. On the surface of the lobules. Currently. separates these two lobes from the right lobe. Synthesis Further information: Proteins produced and secreted by the liver A large part of amino acid synthesis The liver performs several roles in carbohydrate metabolism: o o y y Gluconeogenesis (the synthesis of glucose from certain amino acids. From behind. veins and arteries that carry fluids to and from them. the transverse fissure (or porta hepatis) divides the caudate from the quadrate lobe. an experimental treatment for liver failure. Each of the lobes is made up of lobules. and a right anatomical lobe. there is no artificial organ or device capable of emulating all the functions of the liver. the lobes are divided up by the ligamentum venosum and ligamentum teres (anything left of these is the left lobe). and the right sagittal fossa. This divides the liver into a left anatomical lobe. a vein goes from the centre. lactate or glycerol) Glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen into glucose) . If the liver is flipped over. These are the caudate lobe (the more superior) and the quadrate lobe (the more inferior). Some functions can be emulated by liver dialysis. there are two additional lobes between the right and left.

VII. the bone marrow has almost completely taken over that task. protein S and antithrombin.. as well as protein C. and copper. the production of triglycerides (fats).o y y Glycogenesis (the formation of glycogen from glucose)(muscle tissues can also do this) The liver is responsible for the mainstay of protein metabolism. when the metabolite is more toxic than its precursor. This sometimes results in toxication. iron. X and XI. vitamin A (1 2 years' supply). and some is stored in the gallbladder. including glucose (in the form of glycogen). facilitating its excretion into bile. II (prothrombin). vitamin B12 (1-3 years' supply). vitamin D (1 4 months' supply). y . y The liver also produces insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). synthesis as well as degradation The liver also performs several roles in lipid metabolism: o o Cholesterol synthesis Lipogenesis. V. The liver breaks down or modifies toxic substances (e. the liver is the main site of red blood cell production. the toxins are conjugated to avail excretion in bile or urine. y The liver produces coagulation factors I (fibrinogen).g. Some of the bile drains directly into the duodenum. IX. y The liver is a major site of thrombopoietin production. y The liver produces and excretes bile (a yellowish liquid) required for emulsifying fats. Preferably. a polypeptide protein hormone that plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults. y In the first trimester fetus. Thrombopoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates the production of platelets by the bone marrow. methylation) and most medicinal products in a process called drug metabolism. Breakdown The breakdown of insulin and other hormones The liver glucoronidates bilirubin. y y y y The liver converts ammonia to urea. Other functions The liver stores a multitude of substances. By the 32nd week of gestation.

instead of hemoglobin. an enzyme that is released when the kidney senses low blood pressure. carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation). In contrast. The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells.y The liver is responsible for immunological effects. Anatomy and physiology of the blood Anatomy Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) such as nutrients and oxygen and transports waste products away from those same cells. The liver synthesizes angiotensinogen. mineral ions. y y The liver produces albumin. Plasma. acting as a 'sieve' for antigens carried to it via the portal system. the major osmolar component of blood serum. In vertebrates.the reticuloendothelial system of the liver contains many immunologically active cells. a hormone that is responsible for raising the blood pressure when activated by renin. Insects and some molluscs use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood. use hemocyanin to carry oxygen. which constitutes 55% of blood fluid. These contain hemoglobin. the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a . carbon dioxide is almost entirely transported extracellularly dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ion. an iron-containing protein. is mostly water (92% by volume).[1] and contains dissipated proteins. including leukocytes and platelets. it is composed of blood cells suspended in a liquid called blood plasma. glucose. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes) and white blood cells. Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated. hormones. such as crustaceans and mollusks. which facilitates transportation of oxygen by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. Some animals. platelets and blood cells themselves.

which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism (blood clotting after an open wound in order to stop bleeding) y y y y Messenger functions.or hemato. In most insects. Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system. urea.closed circulatory system. and detection of foreign material by antibodies y Coagulation. Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo. Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. based largely on white blood cells. given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen.g. and lactic acid Immunological functions. including the transport of hormones and the signaling of tissue damage Regulation of body pH Regulation of core body temperature Hydraulic functions . blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue. including circulation of white blood cells. blood lipids)) y y Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide. this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen. which is carried in red cells) Supply of nutrients such as glucose. from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled. White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites. amino acids. have hemocytes as part of their immune system. In terms of anatomy and histology.. and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e. In animals with lungs. using hemolymph. Function Blood performs many important functions within the body including: y y Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin. arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body.[2] Arthropods.(also spelled haemo.and haemato-) from the Ancient Greek word (haima) for "blood". Platelets are important in the clotting of blood. and venous blood carries carbon dioxide. a waste product of metabolism produced by cells.

which contain the most deoxygenated blood in the body. Additional return flow may be generated by the movement of skeletal muscles. Arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to all of the cells of the body. red blood cell production is limited to the larger bones: the bodies of the . However.Physiology Cardiovascular system The circulation of blood through the human heart Main article: Circulatory system Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. as adults. almost every human bone produces red blood cells. the production of red blood cells. to the lungs to be exhaled. In humans. During childhood. and venous blood carries carbon dioxide. the production of white blood cells and platelets. Blood then enters the left ventricle to be circulated again. and myelopoiesis. a waste product of metabolism by cells. while the pulmonary veins contain oxygenated blood. which can compress veins and push blood through the valves in veins toward the right atrium. one exception includes pulmonary arteries. blood is pumped from the strong left ventricle of the heart through arteries to peripheral tissues and returns to the right atrium of the heart through veins. It then enters the right ventricle and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. Production and degradation of blood cells In vertebrates. the various cells of blood are made in the bone marrow in a process called hematopoiesis. which includes erythropoiesis. The blood circulation was famously described by William Harvey in 1628.

which drains into the left subclavian vein where lymph rejoins the systemic blood circulation. is an important source of lymphocytes. Thermoregulation Blood circulation transports heat throughout the body. during childhood. and amino acids. examples are the erectile tissue in the penis and clitoris. when the external temperature is low. Lymphatic system Main article: Lymphatic system In mammals. The proteinaceous component of blood (including clotting proteins) is produced predominantly by the liver. resulting in faster heat loss. blood flow to the extremities and surface of the skin is reduced and to prevent heat loss and is circulated to the important organs of the body. Increasing blood flow to the surface (e. and adjustments to this flow are an important part of thermoregulation. The liver also clears some proteins. the pelvic bones. Hydraulic functions The restriction of blood flow can also be used in specialized tissues to cause engorgement. In contrast. the thymus gland.g. In addition. preferentially. the breastbone (sternum). during warm weather or strenuous exercise) causes warmer skin. and the bones of the upper arms and legs. Healthy erythrocytes have a plasma life of about 120 days before they are degraded by the spleen. Lymph is collected by a system of small lymphatic vessels and directed to the thoracic duct. while hormones are produced by the endocrine glands and the watery fraction is regulated by the hypothalamus and maintained by the kidney. The kidney actively secretes waste products into the urine. resulting in an erection of that tissue. . blood is in equilibrium with lymph. Deoxyhemoglobin binds most of the hydrogen ions as it has a much greater affinity for more hydrogen than does oxyhemoglobin.. found in the mediastinum. lipids. which is continuously formed in tissues from blood by capillary ultrafiltration.vertebrae. the ribcage. and the Kupffer cells in the liver. Transport of hydrogen ions Some oxyhemoglobin loses oxygen and becomes deoxyhemoglobin.

the regulation of the acid-base balance of body fluids. Kidneys The kidneys are located in the back of the upper abdomen and are protected by the lower ribs and rib cartilage of the back. carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes including area. uric acid and creatinine. Other functions of the urinary system include the regulation of the volume of body fluids. The maintenance of water balance. Anatomy of the Urinary System The function of the urinary system is to remove waste products from the blood and eliminate them from the body. The principal waste products being eliminated are water. which is important in the regulation of blood pressure. The kidneys are involved with a number of bodily functions which include: y y The filtering and excretion of unwanted waste products such as urea from the body. without the need for bulky muscular legs. the production of renin. the balance of pH and the electrolyte composition of these fluids.Another example of a hydraulic function is the jumping spider. in which blood forced into the legs under pressure causes them to straighten for a powerful jump. .

it can extend well up into the abdominal cavity when full. waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood. which stimulates the production of red blood cells. Urea is produced when foods containing protein. poultry. How does the urinary system work? The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. and the production of erythropoietin. It is through this tube that urine is eliminated from the body. After the body has taken the food that it needs. such as meat. such as potassium and sodium. The urinary system keeps chemicals.y The production of the hormone erythropoieten. where it is removed. Their function is to transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Ureters The ureters are two slender tubes that run from the sides of the kidneys to the bladder. Located just behind the pubic bone. Bladder The bladder is a muscular organ and serves as a reservoir for urine. Near the outlet of the bladder is a small muscle called the internal sphincter. Urethra The urethra is a tube that extends from the bladder to the outside world. which controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow. Other important functions of the kidneys include blood pressure regulation. which contract involuntarily to prevent the emptying of the bladder.a pair of purplish-brown organs located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to: y . Urinary system parts and their functions: two kidneys . and water in balance. and certain vegetables are broken down in the body. and removes a type of waste called urea from the blood. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.

circular muscles that help keep urine from leaking by closing tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder. called a glomerulus. or is allowed to stand still. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten. away from the kidneys. keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood. and a small tube called a renal tubule. the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra. Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine downward. together with water and other waste substances. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries. If urine backs up. When all the signals occur in the correct order. two ureters . y two sphincter muscles . y y bladder .the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons.a triangle-shaped. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones.o o o remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine. a kidney infection can develop. hollow organ located in the lower abdomen. produce erythropoietin. Urea. which squeezes urine out of the bladder.narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. y y nerves in the bladder .The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine. and contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra. . a hormone that aids the formation of red blood cells. normal urination occurs. urethra .alert a person when it is time to urinate. or empty the bladder. About every 10 to 15 seconds. forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. At the same time.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful