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It involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards for determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets. Inspections are usually nondestructive. The schedule is as follows, 1.During preparation of parts and assembly. 2. Dimension inspected after completion. 3. Matching work inspection--For upper and lower tank. Of bushing bosses ,conservator, connection pipes. 4.Final inspection of tanks and parts. 5.Routine Test. 6.Type Test. 7.Blast cleaning. 8.Painting inspection. 9.Check as per drawing used in the fabrication.
Packing and Despatch instructions: Despatched with cover, keeping all openings blanked to avoid dust and rain water collection.
Permanent mild steel tag is prepared. 3. Marking purpose: Marking is done for the identification for re-assembly in sequential manner and possibility of mismatching is avoided. It is not needed for small range because of few detachable components. . length wise from sections.Part marking TAG will bear in information in sequential form. Test Methods for Weldable Structural Steel: 1. conservator pipe and other accessories shall be blanked with 5mm thick M. 2. Rough edges resulting from stearing may be removed by filling machining.Bush turrets. yield strength and percentage elongation of steel will be determined from standard test pieces cut length wise or cross wise from plaes and length wise from sections . Part marking: It is done on detachable fabricated components on all transformers of 5MVA and above and furnace and special transformers.Bend Test: Test piece length wise or cross wise from plates and strips.S blanking plates. 2. TAG welded at center of detachable components. 4.Tensile Test: Tensile strength .flats and bars. Letter size 10mm height. METHOD: 1. flats and bars.
Marking to be done at time of final assembly before dismantling pipe work. . They are. All fixed amd detachable flanges of pipe work should have permanent punch mark. 1. Core Coil Assembly (CCA). 4. 4.Match marking: Fabricated detachable components have match marking so that there is no mismatch at assembly. 5. It is done for all ratings and all types of transformers. Removable bolted clamps will have match mark at a place such as pipe work. 3. Tanking. one side of such pipe will bear double punch mark. header etc. Winding. 3. Any pipe . Defects of Transformer Tanks: Fabrication of Transformer is basically divided into 4 parts. 2.wherever a possibility exists for reverse matching. Match marks to be filled by bright red paint. Core assembly. METHOD: 1. 2.
1.In this project I have considered the Tanking defects only. Mismatch. Lack of penetration . Incomplete penetration is usually caused by the use of too low a welding current and can be eliminated by simply increasing the amperage. The four defects that arise in Tanking process are. 4. 3) When the weld bead does not penetrate the toe of a fillet weld but only bridges across it. Other causes can be the use of too slow a travel speed and an incorrect torch angle. Incomplete penetration: This type of defect is found in any of three ways: 1) When the weld bead does not penetrate the entire thickness of the base plate. 2) When two opposing weld beads do not interpenetrate. Stud leakages. Welding current has the greatest effect on penetration. Both will allow the molten weld metal to roll in front of the arc. porosity. Defects usually encountered include incomplete penetration. incomplete fusion. undercutting. acting as a cushion to prevent penetration. Shop Mistake. 3. The arc must be kept on the leading edge of the weld puddle. Welding leakages. and longitudinal cracking. 2. Welding defects: These defects are mostly caused by improper welding procedure.
When this is done. When the travel speed is too high. the weld puddle will not get too large and cannot cushion the arc. The forces of surface tension have drawn the molten metal along the edges of the weld bead and piled it up along the . also called cold lapping or cold shuts. Lack of Fusion Undercutting: Undercutting is a defect that appears as a groove in the parent metal directly along the edges of the weld. Again. If the arc is directed down the center of the joint. but can also be encountered in fillet and butt joints. the weld bead will be very peaked because of its extremely fast solidification. Another cause is the use of a very wide weld joint. This type of defect is most commonly caused by improper welding parameters. Either the weld puddle is too large (travel speed too slow) and/or the weld metal has been permitted to roll in front of the arc. It is most common in lap fillet welds. particularly the travel speed and arc voltage.Lack of Fusion: Lack of fusion. The most common cause of lack of fusion is a poor welding technique. occurs when there is no fusion between the weld metal and the surfaces of the base plate. the arc must be kept on the leading edge of the puddle. the molten weld metal will only flow and cast against the side walls of the base plate without melting them. The heat of the arc must be used to melt the base plate.
Undercutting Porosity: Porosity is gas pores found in the solidified weld bead. In both cases. . 2) Excessive shielding gas flow. 3) Severely clogged gas nozzle or damaged gas supply system (leaking hoses. raising the arc voltage or using a leading torch angle are also corrective actions. The most common causes of porosity are atmosphere contamination. When only small or intermittent undercuts are present. it is possible that porosity can only be found at the weld center. excessively oxidized work piece surfaces. The undercut groove is where melted base material has been drawn into the weld and not allowed to wet back properly because of the rapid solidification. inadequate deoxidizing alloys in the wire and the presence of foreign matter. This can cause aspiration of air into the gas stream. This can blow away the gas shield.) 4) An excessive wind in the welding area. the weld bead will become flatter and wetting will improve. Pores can occur either under or on the weld surface. fittings. These pores may vary in size and are generally distributed in a random manner. However. etc. Atmospheric contamination can be caused by: 1) Inadequate shielding gas flow. Melted portions of the base plate are affected in the same way.centre. Decreasing the arc travel speed will gradually reduce the size of the undercut and eventually eliminate it.
Porosity Longitudinal Cracking: Longitudinal or centerline cracking. Hot cracks usually result from the use of an incorrect wire electrode (particularly in aluminium and stainless steel alloys). welding conditions and welding techniques that results in a weld bead with an excessively concave surface can promote cracking. However. In this temperature range the weld bead is “mushy”. of the weld bead is not often encountered in MIG welding. . Any combination of the joint design. Hot cracks are those that occur while the weld bead is between the liquidus (melting) and solidus (solidifying) temperatures. that which does occur can be one of two types: hot cracks and cold cracks.The atmospheric gases that are primarily responsible for porosity in steel are nitrogen and excessive oxygen. The chemistry of the base plate can also promote this defect (an example would be any high carbon stainless steel casting).
• OLG Stud Leakage.Longitudinal Cracking Some examples of welding leakages found at AREVA DTI. • Lid Stud Leakage. Some examples of Stud Leakages are. . • CT Stud Leakage. • Leakage from inspection cover. Etc. Etc. • Leakage from Turret Pipeline. • Leakage from HV Turret.NAINI are. • Hand hole leakage • Leakage from bottom Radiator Header. • Inspection covers Stud leakage.
4. . 6.Mismatch: A component is said to be a mismatch when it does not match the position it has to occupy. 3. Some of the examples of mismatching defects are. OLG holes Mismatch.Under or Oversize of holes Etc. Pipeline Mismatch. 2. For example. 5. it is said to be a Mismatching defect. when a pipe’s flange is of larger diameter whereas the component to be connected is of smaller size (oversize of holes). Yoke clamp pad fixing problems. 1. They are generally caused by the problems in bending machines and by using components whose sizes are beyond the tolerances. Wrong fittings. Buffer mismatch.
1. Screws and LOGO plates not fitted. 2. Some of the examples are. Earthing links not provided.NAINI for four months of 2009 Month January February March April Welding leakages* 11(36) 2(25) 11(43. Etc. The following are the observations taken at AREVA DTI.5) Stud leakages* 2(8) 2(8) 2(8) 3(12) Mismatch* 16(100) 3(16) 7(30) 18(81) Shop mistake* 8(91) 4(32) 9(15) .Shop mistake: They are the mistakes that are committed generally by workmen. Some times they cause a major loss in man hours.
Total 24(104. in this case it is the no.5) 9(36) 44(217) 21(138) *--no. left to right. it is interpreted that Mismatch is the major defect which contributes to most of the Man hours lost. The graph is accompanied by a line graph which shows the cumulative totals of each category. of defects(man hours lost ) As it can be seen. of defects. The left vertical axis is the frequency of occurrence. And the right vertical axis is the cumulative percentage. Now using a Pareto Chart I have analysed the various Defects in Tanking. A Pareto chart is a special type of chart where the values being plotted are arranged in descending order. As shown below most of defects are due to Mismatch and welding Leakages. . It shows the highest occurring type of defect in this case.
Welding Leakages.Pareto Chart of Various Defects 100 100 80 no. of defects 80 40 40 20 20 Various Defects no.4 69.Mismatch.2 100.8 Stud Leakage 9 9. Root Cause Analysis: Mismatching Percent 60 60 . 2.9 44.0 0 KEY CONTRIBUTORS: 1. of defects Percent Cum% 0 Mism atch 44 44.9 Welding Leakages Shop Mistake 24 21 24.5 21.4 90.
Root Cause Analysis: Welding Leakages .
. some are controllable and some are non-controllable causes. Effects on Quality: The above discussed defects in fabricated parts result in increased CONQ (cost of non-quality) and decreased OTIF (On Time and In Full). By controlling the controllable causes.In both the above cases. major part of Mismatching Defects can be diminished which subsequently saves time and also improves the quality of the final product.
we have reduced expenses incurred from getting it right the second time. planning. CONQ (Cost of Non Quality) are the costs of internal and external non-conformities. pulled correctly. However . material has to be handled correctly.e. improvements in quoting process. if we are improving the ability to get it right the first time without any defects. repairs and the time for the correction of this activities.everything that goes into it has to be correct. Conclusion : . customer returns. marketing. The takeoff and order entries have to be correct. greater process. Internal non-conformities include problems detected prior delivery from administration. greater accuracy in manufacturing or loading and more. the Mismatching and other defects lead to rework on a particular job which increases the man hours lost and also decreases the efficiency of the company. To perform well on OTIF . OTIF results in better Inventory Management. quantifying these costs is difficult because these costs are hidden and not detailed by the accounting system.OTIF is a roll-up measure. As discussed. So managing OTIF includes reduced time lost to mistakes or time spent on rework of job and increased accuracy and much more. Late Delivery. OTIF is a company wide report card. After all. purchasing. Moreover rework consumes a lot of time thus resulting in delivery of the product beyond Delivery Date i. purchasing has to maintain appropriate inventory levels. warranties. production. shipment and customer services. The above defects increase the CONQ which are resulted due to increase in internal and external non-conformities. staged and loaded correctly. installation and billing errors. And external non-conformities includes problems that occur after delivery to customers: product recalls. Improving OTIF performance boosts the bottom line by lowering the operating expenses and increasing the revenue generating time. engineering. Non quality costs are powerful indicator for quality improvement and for initiation of preventive and corrective actions.
which requires proper material handling. defects in the Fabrication process are to be kept to a minimum. these defects can be limited to the minimum extent. So in order to decrease CONQ and increase OTIF.NAINI for four months of the year 2009. were not included in this Report. storing the parts to be used at required atmosphere so that rusting is kept to a minimum. The actual analysis /results out of these data. it was seen that major effect on Man hour loss and the Efficiency was mainly due to Mismatching Defects and also contributed by Welding Leakages. which were part of AREVA’s property. the Operating expenses and also the time taken thus resulting in Late Delivery. . of non-controllable causes. proper Lubrication between moving parts and most importantly safe and improvised method of Working. NOTE: The Data was collected from M/S AREVA’s Records and the analysis is solely done by self. Anyway these defects tend to increase the CONQ(cost of non quality) and reduce OTIF(On Time and In Full)which increase the amount of rework done. By controlling the controllable causes and by decreasing the no.According to the observations taken at AREVA DTI. The root cause analysis for both these defects is done and the causes were discussed.
www. www. R 3.org 2.org www. 4.com/EUWeb/MIG_handbook .eSabna. Nancy.REFERENCES: 1.Wikipedia. The Quality Tool box. Second edition.asq. Tague .
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