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Inside this issue: Inside this issue:

Tejas Introduction to incorporate Mk-2 will Stealth 5 gen fighter elements

14 7 Sea HarriersJ-20:Mig-29k dog fight over Goa Chengdu and Chinese Stealth Puzzle

17 8


Indias Ballistic Missiles

PAK FA / FGFA: Game Changer?

19 10
IAC-3 mightall set to become 4th country to Japan be nuclear powered Aircraft carrier


join exclusive 5th Gen club by 2014

21 11 The MMRCA Game Limited should conPipavav Shipyard


struct second aircraft carrier for India

Indias artillery woes: 23 13

DRDO may field Indigenous 155-mm gun for the Indian Army by end of 2013
Did we really reach the moon? 24 14


MCA to AMCA: Journey of Cutting edge Next Gen Fighter

AMCA/NGFA (Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft or Next Generation Fighter Aircraft) 20 Star Wars VII - The KALI strikes back Super Carrier required for BrahMos Strategic Long Bombers: Mission Accomplished. Conventional Submarines: Their new found role 23 26 27 29


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Introduction to Stealth

Vinayak Shetti Security Editorial Panel

If you consider yourself to be some kind of expert in defence knowledge and consider yourself well informed then no need to read any further, this article will be explaining basic and in simple words terms and definition of stealth and aircrafts and the technology, conditions which lead to development of this technology.

Roots of Stealth: Development of Radars in World War 2, meant that fighter and bomber aircrafts were no longer had the surprise attack edge over enemy forces in their territory, some Western experts have credited Radar and Brilliant Royal Air force for actually saving Britain from falling into hands of Adolf Hitler , Germans and Hitler knew that fall of Britain was been avoided for long due to this two critical factors and Germans actually started work on a aircraft which could had defeated, not so reliable radars of that era by trying to develop a Low Observable worlds first Stealth fighter close to end of the world war 2 called has Horten Ho 229 designed by Reimar and Walter Horten and built by Gothaer Waggonfabrik.


INDESEC Expo 2010


It was the first pure flying wing powered by a jet engine, aircraft was developed under Emergency Fighter Program where German commanders were working on many secret weapons systems to develop a wonder weapon which might have turned the tide against the enemy and save them from a defeat, Horten Ho 229 did not use any stealth metal but used rather conventional technology and stealth aeronautics to reduce its Radar Cross section , after few flights, aircraft indeed proved that it had reduced RCS and was much better in in avoiding detection , Reimar Horten said he mixed charcoal dust in with the wood glue to absorb electromagnetic waves (radar), which he believed could shield the aircraft from detection by British early warning ground-based radar known as Chain Home , Horten Ho 229 had a smaller radar cross-section than conventional contemporary twinengine aircraft. This was because of wings blended into the fuselage. By end of the war America had captured most of the research project of Reimar Horten and was transferred back to Main land , and the aircraft was long forgotten until in year 2008 when Northrop-Grumman Corporation which possessed all the research work on Horten Ho 229 ,decided to build a replica of Horten Ho 229 and test it with then British made radar to check if Horten Ho 229 was indeed predecessor of all stealth fighter , Northrop-Grumman did find that Horten Ho 229 gave a radar cross section only 40% that of other conventional aircraft of world war 2 era .So indeed Hitler almost was close to develop a reduced RCS aircraft of the that time ,could that had a major or turned the tide of the war in favor of Hitler? well that Experts will debate for years to come , but our History teaches us that For every new Weapon a counter Weapon is always just across the corner Predecessors of Modern Stealth Aircrafts: When we ask, which was the first Stealth Aircraft? Immediately Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk comes to our mind, we dont deny that F-117 was worlds first Real Stealth Aircraft but we cannot deny that they were many other aircrafts prior to that, which was designed keeping Stealth in mind; this article will highlight those aircrafts. By 60s less than 15 years after World War-II had ended, it was clear that new Superpowers of the new world, United States of America and U.S.S.R had emerged so was the start of the Cold War between them, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Americas Prime Secret Agency wanted an aircraft which was able to penetrate Soviet Airspace and carry out reconnaissance , after U-2 spy plane was shoot down over Soviet Union , CIA wanted a plane that was not only Fast and fly way over SAM coverage of Soviet union but also possessed Stealth characters ,this lead to development of A-12 Predecessors of SR-71.


A-12: was Predecessors of SR-71, and was developed using a new metal known has Titanium , interestingly Titanium was then supplied by Soviet Union itself ,but they never had even a remote idea that it was used to build a aircraft which was supposed to ultimately spy on them . Around Twelve A-12 were build and operated by CIA and it was used in spy activates over North Vietnam and North Korea but never against Soviet Union which was considered too dangerous.

A-12 had many Stealth features and special attention was provided to reduce RCS of the aircraft, it was rumored that CIA and Lockheed Martin were provided full funding no question asked on funds, Aircraft when under its testing phase was kept in total secrecy and everyone who knew about the project were provided good salary and were told to be tight lipped about it, even a crash of A-12 was covered up by CIA has a crash of F-105. Aircraft was still under powered and budget constant meant A-12 had early retirement, but new aircraft based on A-12 was just around the corner.


SR-71: Lockheed Martin had to take special permission from CIA to reveal details of A12 to United States Air Force and Lockheed convinced the U.S. Air Force that an aircraft based on the A-12 would provide a less costly alternative to the recently canceled North American Aviation XF-108, SR-71 was not only able to provide USAF a strategic reconnaissance, its Mach 3 speed made it untouchable among Soviet interceptors aircrafts , and sure it was untouchable, SR-71 sure had its nervous moments almost 4000 attempts were made to shoot it down, but never it was shoot down by Soviets because of its ability to operate over 800000 feet close to the outer space ,way out of reach of many latest Soviet SAM Systems ,SR-71 standard evasive action was simply to accelerate.

SR-71 was longer and heavier than the A-12, with a longer fuselage to hold more fuel, two seats in the cockpit, and reshaped chines. But A-12 which was a single seat aircraft had more room to carry better Spy Camera, it was also first aircraft to feature 15 % composite and rest been Titanium , SR-71 was designed keeping Stealth in mind ,early study had indicated that aircraft with flattened, tapering sides reduced RCS in the aircraft ,special radar-absorbing materials were used to further reduce RCS of the aircraft ,but then Aircraft flying over Mach 3 created enough heat around it self that it was easily detected mostly over Soviet union ,Lockheed agreed that Soviet Radar technology was advancing more faster than Stealth technology ,this was the prime reason why technological changes carried out in SR-71 to achieve stealth was easily defeated due to advancement in Radar technology by soviets . I SECURITY I MARCH 2011 8

SR-71 was powered by a Revolutionary Hybrid engine called J58 at lower speed it showed the characteristics of a turbo fan engine but at high Mach speed it was like a Ramjet engine, faster it was pushed better it performed, this was the reason why it could out run Soviet SAM systems easily ,soon after its production ended many of the tools required to manufacture the aircraft was destroyed since it was found very risky to keep them in store around 30 aircrafts were built for US air force but lack of spares and high operating cost meant that the aircraft was retired in 1998, Stealth technology used in SR71 was not totally useless but it was just a start to develop and produce a Stealth aircraft , SR-71 still holds many of the records even after been retired more than a decade ago and the contribution of SR-71 in development of Stealth Technology cannot be neglected ,due to this reason it has a special mention in this article .

The Siemens SCADA PLCs which were the primary target of stuxnet, run on Windows operating system. Off course Mossads friends in NATO could arrange for easy access to vulnerabilities in WinCC and hence designing zero day attacks was not difficult. Stuxnet exploits four such vulnerabilities and its ability to reprogram the machines while hiding and then self destructing itself make it a Category 0 worm. So how are we sure that Stuxnet was bred by Israel and NATO secret services. Firstly WinCC vulnerabilities could be gathered from Microsoft only under state pressure. Secondly, accessibility to PLCs and centrifuges to program the worm perfectly would need very high funding that no amateur developer can afford. And thirdly and more convincingly, the reason that it hits only a particular series (S7-300) of SCADAs which have a specific variable frequency drives, makes it easy to guess the beneficiaries. This is now known that more than 60% of the world affected systems have been detected in Iran. At half a megabyte in size it is unusually heavy to be an amateur worm, and might have taken months or years to build. So how did the Stuxnet worm get into the Natanz facility, considering that none of the systems were connected to the internet. It is to be noted that Atomstroy export has had a major role in the construction and execution of all Iranian nuclear facilities. Mossad agents could have easily planted it on some of the Russian scientists laptop, with or without their knowledge is trivial information in the current context, and it could have transferred onto the network via a contaminated USB drive and moved further using peer to peer remote procedure calls. However it is all guesswork and it will take many years for the US to officially de-classify its documents for us to know who really did it and how much damage it really caused. And it did cause some collateral damage as well, because it is speculated that Indian INSAT-4D malfunctioned due to stuxnet. Or lets wait for another round of wikileaks cables to mention who actually planted the stuxnet in Natanz. As of now it is celebration in Meir Dagans camp, as he may have postponed their proclaimed Annihilation by a few more years.


First Gen Stealth fighter: CIA in its report to Us Government told that, in a full out war with soviets ever occur in near future whole United States Air force fleet will be wiped out in flat 7 days, due to advancement of Soviets SAM batteries and Radar technology, this rang alarm bells in USAF and Government and it was decided to develop an aircraft which will be able to defeat radars of the soviets union and also provide technological edge to USAF, so began work on Lockheeds secret project known has Have Blue which was more like a Proof of concept for developing a Stealthy aircraft ,under this project two Prototypes were developed which were close to 60 % of the size of the F-117 .

In its first flight Have Blue Prototype flew over Army Radar station without been detected by Radar controllers who were fully aware of such flight by the aircraft. Once the concept was proved, soon began work on the F-117 prototype which had its first flight in 1981 and was under secrecy for over 8 years before been finally reveled to general public about its existence only in 1988, Well again idea and principal to achieve near stealth or full stealth aircraft was again provided by Soviets, a Soviet Mathematician Pyotr Ya. Ufimtsev provided a theory in early 60s, on how Aircrafts RCS could be reduced using his principals, but to prove his theory required advance computers which were not available at that time, so soon his theory and his principals were forgotten, until American Scientist stumbled about his theory while doing research on Stealth technology, advancement in computer technology in mid-70s allowed Americans to work on his theory to achieve Stealth technology .


F-117 was world first Stealth Strike aircraft, it was designed to deflect radar signals and to keep the project secret and reduce cost most of the technology was incorporated from other fighters like F-16 /F-18 and F-15, well it did send alarm bells all over military corners of the world but reaction was quite cold to it , but after the first Gulf war in 1990s made F -117 much talked about aircraft , Iraq at that time was most heavy defended country in the middle east ,equipped with latest Soviet SAM Batteries most experts expected heavy loss to any evading air force , but F-117 was a game changer , not only it took out more than 30 % of the Strategic targets in first 24 hour raid it also bombarded Iraqi Capital Bagdad which was seen has most fortified city in whole of the region , Iraqi defence force and SAM operators had no idea what hit them ,and were seen firing towards the sky long after F-117 had existed the area , Success of F-117 meant that many Defence forces started working on new better techniques to counter this new weapon and carried out different level of changes to Radars and SAM batteries to detect and engage F-117 in future conflicts .

F-117 was shoot down in Kosovo war, using a modified SA-3 Soviet era SAM Battery, it has been told that spotters had spotted low flying F-117, using combination of previous flight path and high radar wave length Yugoslav military's air defense were successful in bringing down the aircraft, Yugoslav forces invited Russian scientist to have a look at near intact F-117 airframe, which might have compromised closely guarded Stealth Technology which United States guarded for more than three decades ,eight years after this incident United states started retiring them , F-117 was a revolution in stealth aircraft technology but it had serious flaws , F-117 due to its shape was not highly Maneuverable aircraft ,not to compromise on stealth meant it could not carry any on board radar nor radar warning indicator ,it was optimized for strike roles only and when intercepted it had no chance of fighting off an enemy interceptor ,limited payload carrying capacity was also a hindrance ,but it marked development of other more improved Stealth aircrafts like B-2 Stealth bomber , F-22 ,F-35 and later catch up done by Russians in Pak-Fa and Recently flown Chinese J-20 .There is no single Stealth technology ,it is lot of factors that lead to Stealth aircrafts , Aeronautical shape ,mixture of less reflective metals to radar waves all this leads to Stealth .


Chengdu J-20: Chinese Stealth Puzzle

Its a fighter, its a bomber its a??? Vinayak Shetti Security Editorial Panel
Year started off with unconfirmed but grainy images of the so called first Chinese stealth fighter, not long the aircraft known has Chengdu J-20 Chinese stealth fighter made it first so called official first flight on January 11 2011, this was the first time that a new Chinese fighter had got so much International media attention and officials made no attempt to stop high resolution pictures of the stealth fighter to be taken.

Even with so many higher resolution pictures which was available and many defence experts failed to spot door section for the internal weapons, either Chinese have done a near impossible job of completely hiding the doors or pictures have been carefully photoshoped for to make it difficult for Western experts to get a look at it or mostly commonly assumed believe is that Chinese have not built one for the first technology demonstrator aircraft. Has usual Chinese officials only confirmed successful first flight and nothing much was disclosed ,but with pictures available we are able to make out some aeronautics layout of the aircraft ,we are sure that further design optimizations will be carried out by Chinese ,but with what we have now we have carried out a some characteristics of the fighter aircraft . I SECURITY I MARCH 2011 14
Chengdu J-20 clearly shows a relatively large jet with canards and delta wings, fuselage length as per our experts ( should be around 23 or 25 meters, wing span between 13 and 14 meters, J-20 has a pair of all-moving tailfins that are swept back in the F-35 style instead of being trapezoid like the F-22 and PAK-FA tails and ventral stabilizing fins. It also has an F-22 style nose section, but with F-35 style dropped nose, forward swept intake cowls with diverter less supersonic inlet (DSI) bumps and a one-piece canopy. And an estimated Maximum takeoff weight of 40 tons. We believe aircraft is powered by pair or Russian engines mostly from AL family (AL-31F, or 117) or a Chinese copy mostly likely been WS-14 or WS-10 whichever the engine is jet will have enough thrust to enable it to super cruise but we think the Max speed will be lower than Mach 2.

Chengdu J-20 first flight took place when American Defence secretary Gates was in Beijing, and it was enough to create a shockwave among western aviation experts and professionals since many believed the Beijing is some years away (predicted was mid 2015) from developing its own stealth fighter. So what is Chengdu J-20? Is it an Air dominance fighter, a Strike Aircraft or a multi role fighter aircraft? , well many leading defence experts have avoided answering this question, since the aircraft has puzzled many experts due to its inherent aerodynamic features, Large and long Chengdu J-20 indicates that it has been designed to carry truck load of weapons, that might include heavy Anti-ship missiles and powerful engines will ensure that it is able to fight or avoid enemy interceptors.


PLAAF greatest fear is to engage American carrier groups, and in a future conflict with United States PLAAF might want a heavily loaded J-20 sinking American aircraft carriers and its battle group. We are not saying that J-20 cannot be optimized for long range interception roles ,but considering possible future conflict J-20 might be optimized has a Strike aircraft to take out large areas or large ship battle groups .

Origin or the start of the project is difficult to tell due to secretive Chinese behavior, but we believe research work on a Stealth platform might have started in early 90s , Stealth technology knowhow might have come from the drowned Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk which went down over Kosovo in Kosovo war in 1999, it is believed that both Russian and Chinese scientist might have studied wreckage of the drowned fighter carefully but we are sure that the J-20 simply cannot be based on an outdated stealth platform which have been already retired from US Air force , we are aware that Chinese have secretly through espionage have acquired confidential documents related to American Stealth Bomber B-2, but all experts do agree that Chinese are still years away from making it operational and starting its production


PAK FA / FGFA: Game Changer?

Ajay Naik Security Editorial Panel Week after this article was written Second Sukhoi T-50 aka Pak-Fa prototype had made its first flight and Pak-Fa had even gone supersonic by this time, Russians for some reason are able to stick to their Schedule and were able to deliver the second T-50 barely over a year from the first flight which was taken by the first prototype in 29 January 2010. T-50-1 has already completed more than 40 test flights successfully, while T-50-2 seems to have IRST housing in the front of the canopy and in the back of the cockpit, but both the aircraft will not have any Avionics suite or any weapons package. T-50-3 will have prototype AESA Radar and T-50-4 aircraft will have a Production AESA Radar which has been designed by V. Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute Of Instrument Design in Zhukovsky.


As per Sukhoi Company official press release, PAK FA combines the features of both strike aircraft and fighter. The fifth generation aircraft is equipped with brand new avionics, which integrates an electronic pilot functions, as well as with phased-array antenna radar. As per Russian media Pak-Fa will have effective reflecting area of 0.010.03 square meters in the forward Hemisphere while the same characteristics of the Su-30MKI fighter equals to 20 square meters. Current aircrafts (TD-50-1/2) are powered by a new engine which is referred only has Engine 117 developed by Saturn Research which is a deep modernization of the wellknown AL-31FP with improved specific and long-term performance characteristics. AL41 engine developed for the MiG 1.42 new generation fighter could have been the logical choice but it has different dimensions and cannot be used for PAK-FA However the technologies applied in the AL-41engine may be certainly used for the development of a new engine, which has not acquire any name so far but rumored to be called "127 engine". Russians have already informed that Pak-Fa will get flat TVC Nozzles very similar to F22, but not sure if they will have 2D TVC or 3D TVC. FGFA will be completely different beast based on T-50 Prototype but, IAF will first acquire Single seat Pak-Fa first which will be 50 aircrafts and FGFA is the official designation for the Indian version. HAL will be doing 25 % of the design share for the FGFA; the Indian version will be a twin seater. HAL and UAC will be equal partners in a joint venture company, and FGFA will be taking over the role of Air Dominance Fighter which has been currently performed by Sukhoi -30 MKI in Indian Air force, HAL will also be providing largely to composites, cockpits and avionics in FGFA. First PAK-FA will join Indian air force by 2017 and first FGFA will join by 2022


Japan all set to become 4th country to join exclusive 5th Gen club by 2014

VINAYAK SHETTI Security Editorial Panel

Japan is looking to join the United States, China and Russia with a stealth fighter that senior Japanese air force officials say can be ready for a prototype test flight in just three years, significantly upping the ante in the intensifying battle for air superiority in the Pacific. Japan started working on ATD-X when they failed to get American F-22; because of a congressional export ban. America did offered them F-35 or F/A-18 to replace its old F4EJ and F-15 fighters decision worth billions of dollars on which plane it will select is expected soon, The prototype will likely be able to fly in 2014, Japan has put 39 billion yen ($473 million) into the project since 2009 . Japan is only testing the technologies required for the stealth fighter aircraft in 2014 and after two years of testing phase if everything goes well only then Japan will start work on real Stealth Fighter aircraft only around 2016. China surprised experts when it flight tested Chengdu J-20, for first time in January this year, this has caused a great deal of consternation among U.S. and Japanese military planners because its development appears to be going faster than forecast. Though the J-20 is still years away from combat readiness but it has complicated matters for the nervous Japan.


Japan is also worried about Russian developed T-50 which being jointly developed with India's air force. Because of a lingering dispute over islands both claim in the north Pacific. Japan's ATD-X program - the acronym stands for advanced technologies demonstrator clearly shows the S-curve ducts and will have fly-by-optics flight control system, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar capabilities for electronic countermeasures (ECM), electronic support measures (ESM), communications functions, the aircraft also features 3D thrust vectoring capability. Thrust in ATD-X will be controlled by the use of 3 paddles on each engine nozzle similar to the system used on the US-German built experimental Rockwell X-31, 3 paddle thrust vectoring allowed the X-31 to fly in a direction other than where the nose is pointing, resulting in significantly more maneuverability than most conventional fighters. Japan is reported to have issued a request for information for engines in the 10 to 20 thousand pound thrust range to power the prototypes and has a long-list of candidates on which it is seeking information, the sources say. These include the General Electric F404 used to power the Boeing F/A-18 Hornet, Snecma's M88-2 for the Dassault Rafale and Volvo Aero's RM12, integrated with the Saab Gripen. Its search even contains the Gas Turbine Research Establishment GTX-35VS Kaveri, still in development for India's Aeronautical Development Agency Tejas light combat aircraft. While Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries is to provide the engines for the completed fighter. First aircraft will be a 1/3 size model of a possible full-production aircraft, this program will be supported by American aircraft manufacture Lockheed Martin in the development of ATD-X. Japan relies to a large degree for its defense on its alliance with the United States, which has a significant number of fighters and other aircraft, along with some 50,000 troops, stationed around the Japanese archipelago.


Pipavav Shipyard Limited should construct second aircraft carrier for India
Ajay Naik Security Editorial Panel

Pipavav Shipyard Limited (PSL) a prominent private-sector shipyard in India, located in Pipavav, in southern Gujarat coast and also one of the largest Shipyards in India spread over almost 500 acres, with massive dry docks of over 680 meters length and 62 meters might be birth place for Indias next Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC II). If Sources are to be believed Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) which is constructing Vikrant class carriers (IAC I) which is a Conventional-powered STOBAR carrier with displacement of 40,000 tons ,can only build aircraft carriers with displacement up to 40,000 tons only due to its limited size of the dry docks .

While IAC-II which is still on the drawing board will have higher displacement of 65,000 tons and will utilize steam catapults, which will also be able to accommodate more aircrafts and larger aircrafts (AEW aircraft) order for which is expected to be placed by mid or end of 2011, will require bigger dry docks then the current dry docks which CSL have.

Recently Defence minister A.K Anthony had said that from 2011 onwards PSU will have to compete with Private ship builders to meet growing needs of Indian navy and coast guards. Pipavav Shipyard Limited is also working on a larger Dry dock which is over 700 meters long and 65 meters wide when completed in 2012 it will be second largest dry dock in the world so PSL will be a logical choice to construct IAC-II for Indian navy. Indian Navy have not officially confirmed if it will be going for a 65,000 tons IAC-II aircraft carrier or will stick with another 40,000 tons very similar to the first carrier ,but Navys effort to buy four carrier-based fixed airborne early warning and control aircraft does suggests that IAC-II might be 65,000 tons aircraft carrier . Request for information (RFI) to provide fixed-wing early warning platform has been issued. But source have confirmed it is not toping Navys priority list. Navy has also send RFI to acquire new line of 4.5 generation fighter jet for the second carrier which has been responded by same vendors currently in the race to provide 126 jets to Indian air force under MMRCA contract. Experts believe that a CARTOBAR based IAC-II aircraft carrier will enable Navy to operate in future fifth generation aircrafts like N-AMCA or N-FGFA ,since Aircraft carrier generally have service life 40 to 50 years .


DRDO may field Indigenous 155-mm gun for the Indian Army by end of 2013
Ajay Naik Security Editorial Panel

Indian army which is struggling to purchase 155-mm Guns for itself for the past 9 years might wait little longer and for an indigenously developed 155-mm towed gun. Many of the guns which were offered by foreign vendors are already blacklisted by Ministry of Defence due various ill-regulatories and allegations of corruption that includes some of the top companies like, Singapore Technologies Kinetics (STK); Germanys Rheinmetall; Israel Military Industries (IMI); and another Israeli company, Soltam. Denel, a South African company, had been blacklisted earlier; 155-mm gun Project will be a Public-Private joint venture between DRDO and Bharat Forge / Larsen & Toubro. ARDE one of the DRDO Laboratory has already taken up the work and is carrying out preliminary work of the project. ARDE designed Arjuns Tanks 120mm Riffle bore guns and even developed the 105mm Indian Field Gun (IFG), Indian army is likely to work with ARDE on this project and is keen on this project to avoid further delays in inducting 155mm guns. Indian army which has a requirement of more than 1400 of 155-mm Guns is now counting on ARDE to pull it out of this mess and deliver this guns for trails by 2013 at best, while ARDE with help from Private sector is confident to produce one by 2013 and give it for Army Trials.


MCA to AMCA: Journey of Cutting edge Next Gen Fighter

VINAYAK SHETTI Security Editorial Panel MCA 1.0 Concept and initial idea for development of Twin engine based Medium combat aircraft can be traced back to late 90s. Thats even before first flight of the LCA TD-1 had taken place, Medium combat aircraft (MCA) then was a tailless delta design with two engines, combined with a thrust vectoring control capability. Aircraft was designed keeping in mind LCA-Tejas Delta wings and was a direct derivative from LCA , as per original idea it was supposed to have maximum spare and design commodity with Tejas at that time. Main purpose was to replace the aging Jaguar & MiG27 fleet from the Indian Air force, original design weight was supposed to be less than 20 tonne. And was supposed to be a Strike aircraft with secondary role of a point defence fighter , In Beginning very small team of Scientist were working on it which was privately funded by ADA from its own budget, but without Tejas proving its mettle first, India air force nor Government of India was Interested to seriously consider this Proposal by ADA, till Tejas Program started gaining popularity among IAF and Defence Ministry whole MCA Project was in cold storage and put under back burner only to revived again in mid2004-5. A twin-engine delta wing version was been shelved by ADA then.

MCA 2.0 aka Next Gen Fighter aircraft (NGFA) MCA got a new name Next Generation Fighter Aircraft on recommendation from the Secretary, Defence Production. DRDO and ADA again began to work on MCA aka NGFA in Mid-2006 after initial success of Tejas and with the backing of the government. Indian Air Force asked the ADA to prepare a detailed project report on the development of a Medium Combat Aircraft (MCA) incorporating stealth features. larger team of scientist were assigned to work on the Program, even in this period there was no funding from the Government but a request for Proposal was asked to ascertain if the project can be viable. This was completely new design based on low observability design elements. First look at the aircraft was only available in 2009 when a wind tunnel model was displayed in Aero India 2009 for the first time; Aircraft featured Serpentine air intakes with reduced RCS, and Internal Weapons Bay. Earlier Design of MCA (MCA 1.0) was supposed to be a 4.5 Gen aircraft with larger payload , Range and powered by two Kaveri engine, but new MCA (MCA 2.0) had added stealth elements (Semi stealth) with frontal section getting more Stealth element and also with Reduced Cross Section (RCS) , and with Empty weight of 17 tonne along with 2 tonne internal Weapons and 4 tonne of Fuel , new MCA could have MTOW (Maximum Take of weight) of 22 tonne powered by two Kaveri thrust vectoring engine based on Snecmas M88-3 core producing 90k of thrust .

AMCA 3.0 (Advance Medium combat aircraft) Indian Air force after studying ADAs Proposal and after working out its own Air Staff requirements (ASR) for the AMCA issued its ASR to DRDO and ADA in April 2010. Indian air forces ASR threw few surprises for MCA Project, like a demanding customer which IAF has been all this year came up with more stringent requirements. some of the Requirements asked by the IAF in its ASR are below and how MCA (2.0) became AMCA 1) AMCA will not exceed 25 tons weight. 2) Twin engine powered aircraft with higher thrust. 3) AESA Radar 4) Semi Stealth is not an option, IAF wants it to be fully stealthy aircraft with low RCS. 5) Redesign in its currently proposed air frame design to make it stealthier 6) More of Locally developed technology and less imported technology (Radars, Engines, and Avionics) 7) Multi-Role all weather stealth aircraft (Earlier idea by ADA was a Strike aircraft with other capabilities) 8)Twin pilot configured ADA is currently studying the ASR put forward by Indian air force and officially will began work on AMCA in mid-2011, MCA (2.0) design will get further optimization of airframe shaping to further enhance Stealth in it, it will also get further treatment to reduce its IR Signature through Nozzle design, better Bay cooling along with reduction on exhaust temperature from the engine nozzles, special coatings for polycarbonate canopy to make AMCA Indias first stealth fighter aircraft. ADA has asked for 18 months to further improve the Airframe changes required to meet ASR issued by the IAF, other than the wind tunnel model displayed in Aero India 2009 there are more three other variants which never has been displayed yet, DRDO is currently planning three Prototypes of AMCA and two production series trial jets which will carry out initial test flights. ADA has promised first flight of AMCA by 2017 which looks highly unlikely, since ADA will need to work on Airframe optimization first and if it fails to get better optimization on stringent requirements laid down by IAF then it might have to work on completely new design itself . $2 billion funding is set to be allocated over the next three years for its development and ADA already received initial funds to start the project. Whole MCA program has seen many changes From a 4.5 Gen aircraft to Semi-Stealth aircraft to fully stealth aircraft. Engine: Plans are to use Two Kaveri engine based on M88-3 (Core) , if the engines are not ready by the time for first flight either Ges F-414IN engines which will power Tejas MK-2 will be used or original lower thrust Kaveri engine might be used for Technology demonstrator aircrafts , still clarity on engine part will come in coming years I SECURITY I MARCH 2011 26


Sumit kumar Security Editorial Panel

10 January 2011 can be called as the day when 24 yrs long awaited LCA Tejas was in the sky for IOC (initial operation clearance), after watching its maneuverability at AERO India, I can say TEJAS has all needed potential for becoming another legendry and most produced (after Mig-21,F-16) fighter plane of the world. And if everything works on time this reliable Indian product can be seen protecting sky of various countries around the world. This project will both foster local industry and build a credible and reliable defense system for the nation. Here I will be talking about Mark -2 version of LCA that I think is under surveillance from many Armed forces around the globe. What makes it so crucial for west and other super power is that it is the first light weight multirole aircraft that can be produce in numbers due very low fly away cost and developed by fusing many sophisticated technologies around the world. ADA has had a profitable commercial spin-off in its Auto lay integrated automated software system for the design and development of 3-D laminated composite elements (which has been licensed to both Airbus and Infosys). Modular carbon fiber structure, engines from US and Avionics ,Radar and other warfare suits from the joint ventures between Israel and Indian industries. I SECURITY I MARCH 2011 27

India has its best designers, engineers, scientists, academicians working on/ contributing to the project. In the main, they are devoted and tireless in their efforts to success-fully complete the project. They need support (not blind sup-port) of the polity, defense services and bureaucrats. Public support will follow, provided there is honest transparency. And also ADA is out sourcing the manufacturing of sub-assemblies and components and structures to any vendor on the globe that offers cost-effective solutions.

What makes Tejas so important for India, is future of the aircraft industry, military (ALH, Saras, HJT-36) and civil, depends on success of the LCA. And after ferrying Dhruv to Ecuador and other small countries it is very important for ADA and HAL to develop Tejas within sanctioned time limit and make it reliable world class product. Tejas can be a good competent for international market as many developing countries are looking to develop/strengthen their Air Force. I would compare few static characteristics and specification Tejas Mk-2 with F-16 and JAS Gripen. Engine: The F414-GE-INS6 engine selected by Aeronautical Development Agency for Tejas Mk-2 which is around 1100kg (predicted Mk-1 is around 8000 kg) is the highest thrust F414 (98 KN) variant, and it includes a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC). Comparably latest version of F-16 Block 50+ C/D(1700kg) is having GE-110-132 got around (120KN thrust) and 12000 kg of JAS Gripen having F414G version Engine are obviously have low thrust is to weight ratio. Hence Tejas Mk-2 is faster than its competitors. Airframe Design: All three Aircraft have different airframe design, every design got it advantaged and disadvantages. Composites are used to make an LCA both lighter and stronger at the same time compared to an all-metal design, and the LCA's percentage employment of C-FCs is one of the highest among contemporary aircraft of its class. Apart from making the plane much lighter, there are also fewer joints or rivets, which increases the aircraft's reliability and lowers its susceptibility to structural fatigue cracks.

In addition LCA have unstable aerodynamic Design that increase its maneuverability stabiles with Quadruplex (Digital) FBW based on MIL STD 1553B Bus Control system. While other two have inferior Triplex DFCS with one Analog Backup on MIL STD 1553B bus. COMBAT: Each fighter has almost same hard point configuration and external load strength i.e. 7 and around 4000 kg respectively. Combat range of 3000 km. Although F-16 is superior in Wing loading but I am quite sure that improvement in Mk-2 airframe design will ensure more payload carrying capacity for Tejas. RADAR: THE Mk-2 may get Elta EL/M-2052 type radar if everything goes fine. I make that statement because there is rumor that Americans are afraid of Tejas Success and are pressing Israels Elta to not share/partner AESA technology development with India. Elta Design EL/M-2052 radar for Israeli F-16 upgrading their Northrop Grummans AN/APG80Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar .Gripen is going for Italian Selex Galileo's AESA Raven. All these radars are comparatively of same configuration and Abilities. But less AESA elements in TEJAS Mk-2 Radar (Due Small Surface Area of Nose) make it inferior. I am not considering all other dynamic changes like ejection seats, conformal fuel tanks, electronic warfare suits, cockpit accessories, and avionics up gradation. Because all these features can be configured and upgraded for a particular country demands and different mission requirement. Since there is so much out there for ADA, HAL and DRDO for the development of many new technology for this indigenous bird after US lifted its sanction from these industries. This project is not just about making a light supersonic multi-role fighter. Its all about to prove Indian capability to make something that is worth of salutes and make an image of successful Indian indigenous efforts. This plane is developed for the replacement of Mig21 but it have all those capabilities to surpass Mig-27.Thanks to IAF increasing demands since starting of the project. This project will ensure growth fostered in certain industrial sectors. Which is a good sign in economic terms as it moves us one step closer to improving the competitiveness of our industry and moreover reduces the impact of defense purchases on foreign exchange reserves instead it can be serve to joint ventures. Various R&D labs attached to the DRDO, DOE, DAE, CSIR, IITs, IISC, PSU R&D, and ISRO also receive guidance from the ADA. HAL, ADE and ADA interact with public sector and private sector industry also. They design complicated parts and get them manufactured by Indian industries.

A large number (approximately 300) of small and medium-scale units are involved in mechanical production. If the manufacturers are indeed able to exploit spin-offs and affect a stronger showing in the aviation market, then we could see real long-term prosperity in certain parts of India. I also recommend that stronger measures be taken at the earliest possible to transfer more technology to industry and specific economic incentives be offered to private sector companies to participate in the LCA project. Even if the Lca does exceed the present estimated unit cost, the funds will end up being dispersed within the country and will boost local industry. Result of the accomplishments of India's domestic industries, presently about 70% of the components in Lca are manufactured in India and the dependence on imported components used would be progressively reduced in the coming years including engine. LCA is not only important for IAF to protect Indian skies it will ramp up confidence of all those units to work on more complex projects. Export orders from Third world countries will hence decrease cost and support up gradation of the mighty Tejas.


Flight Safety Analysis: 2007-2011

Pratik Sawerdekar Security Editorial Panel

Post Aero India 2011 all eyes are now on multi-billion dollar tenders issued by the Ministry of Defence to procure 126 fighter aircrafts and more than 400 light, heavy and attack helicopters. In this fanfare we often forget the main reasons why these tenders were floated. The 126 MMRCA tender was floated as a stop gap measure to sustain fleet strength depleted due to delay in LCA program and high rate of attrition amongst the forces. Indian military aviation has suffered 54 mishaps during the period 2007-2011(FY) resulting into many casualties. In this analysis we aim present the fact in simplified but detailed manner. Forces wise analysis: The air force as usual scores the most in mishaps. Plagued with old and obsolete aircrafts like MiG-21 and Mig-27 remain major contributors. Not just old but also upgraded variants of these two fighters have performed poorly in air safety. Indian Navy comes in second facing similar issues with old Sea Harriers. Of the 30 purchased in 1980s only 11 remain. Indian Army has fared good primarily because of its smaller air arm. The only crash suffered by the Army was that of a Cheetah in February this year. However, if the Cheetahs and Chetaks arent replaced soon than we may see a rise in incidents. In all Army, Navy and Air force suffered 1, 10 & 42 mishaps respectively.

Type wise analysis: Fighter aircrafts of the Indian Air Forces fared very poorly with 33 incidents. Again the MiG-21s and MIg-27s formed the bulk of losses. Also Indian Navys Sea Harrier suffered multiple crashes in 2007 and another in 2009. Of lately older helicopters i.e. the Cheetah and Chetak of both the Navy and Air force showing trends of increase in rate of attrition. Helicopters accounted for 16 mishaps during the period. The Transport fleet of the Air Forces proved to be very reliable with only 1 loss of an An-32 but this loss accounted for the single largest cause of death with 13 killed in the incident. Trainers and UAVs crashed 4 times during the period. Aircraft wise analysis:

A comparison of aircrafts contributing to most crashes show that the MiG-21 remains the Flying Coffin of the Air force and is followed by MiG-27. The efforts of IAF and authorities of MiG, HAL and ADA dont seem to be working. Another major contributor is the helicopter fleet of Cheetah, Chetek, Kamov, Mi-8, Mi-17 & Mi-26 who contributed 17 crashes. The pride of the IAF the Su-30MKI has suffered two crashes but still remains one of the safest platform along with Jaguar and MiG-29. The Mirage-2000 suffered no losses during the period. Prior to the Limited Upgrade (LUSH) the Sea Harriers suffered 4 crashes. The MiG-21, MiG-27 and helicopters are areas where there needs to be work done. Facts & Conclusion: The armed forces of India have lost exactly 3 squadron strength worth of aircrafts over past four years of which more than 1 squadron worth attributed to fighters and a further 1 squadron attributed to helicopters. Statistically, India losses approximately 1 aircraft per month excluding recoverable mishaps. Such a high rate of attrition is not seen in any other frontline military. Also the loss of life is tremendous with 50 deaths mostly that of military personals. Rapid progress needs to be made in air safety by India. Aircrafts like the MiG-21, MiG-27, Cheetah and Chetek needs to be replaced by safer indigenous aircrafts like the Tejas and Dhruv by increasing their annual serial production.


Maximum Destructions- Capabilities of SAM's against Ballistic Missiles.

NJ S Security Editorial Panel
Akash: It is considered to be one of the best SAM which India has for surface to Air defense. It is a medium Range defense system developed by Defense development organization (DRDO) with Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL). Akash is highly effective against incoming missiles and fighter aircraft up to 25-30 km away, with altitude up to 18000 m (18 km) with speed of Mach 2.5, the warhead comes with 55 kg. The battery comes with four 3d phased array radar and four launchers with three missiles, radar has Capable to detect 100 and track 64 targets, and engage with 8 targets at one time. The present version Can target incoming ballistic missiles which has 2000 km range. Akash is almost comparable to patriot missile system of United States and more accurate then Patriot missile, only some countries in world have capabilities operational multi-target handling SAMs. And as per price of Akash, it is 8 10 times lower than cost of similar type of SAMs in other countries. Rajendra Radar: These missiles are controlled by phased array fire control radar, it can track 64 targets From 60 km range, this radar can be used for Weapon Locating Radar purpose also. Once India was Depending on other countries for Weapon Locating Radar for border surveillance, now India is capable Of manufacturing these cutting edge technology radar types, but MoD has to take decision to induct Rajendra radar for Weapon Locating purpose also. Our Security Magazine has learnt Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) is currently Working on Rajendra 3 version for Indian Armed Forces, it may be mounted on T-72 chassis.


Current Status: Indian Air force has already placed moderate number of Akash SAMs systems with With almost total numbers of 1000 missiles and same volume may also be placed by Indian Army with Some modifications in system. In past IAF/Army has hesitated to accept Akash SAM for its Air defense Group, after vigorous and successful test has made to select Akash. As per report it may be tested against incoming ballistic missiles from the range of 2000 kms, most Of the ballistic missiles are hypersonic in speed and has more ranges in between 8000 12000 kms In case if we need to face longer range missiles, Akash may fail to accomplish the target that may Cause Maximum Destruction. Defense against Ballistic Missile Patriot 3: One of most popular SAM system of United States, it has accurate hitting on target with new Generation technology, but doesnt have longer range. The range is said to be 15 kms. US recently Offered this system to India .But the early version Patriot 2 has more range, it is said to Patriot-2 /3 has capable against ballistic missile. And apart from this, US already in testing of its THAAD missile system with 200 km range, which has high attitude coverage, which may work against longer range ballistic missiles. Arrow SAM: The launch platform for Arrow missiles is six canisters / trailer-mounted erector launcher and has flight ceiling 50 -60 km with operational range from 90 km 148 kms. This program has funded By United States, in year 1999 India was interested to purchase Arrow 2 systems from Israel, however in 2002, US vetoed Israels request to sell the Arrow 2 missiles to India, Arrow 2 has maximum range Extended to 300 kms also.


S-400 SAM (Russia): S-400 is capable of detecting six targets in the range of 400 kms, against Aircraft Cruise and ballistic missile (which is coming from 3500 kms) and engaging them at 200 km ranges. According to source the speed of S-400 missiles is Mach 12 , currently Russia is deploying these systems By replacing S-300 SAMs. Apart from this Russia is developing S-500, which is said to be more advanced in range and technology, it is said to be more capable than any other missiles in world. May be S-500 Systems have possibilities to inducted in service by 2015 onwards. AAD/PAD: India realizes the need of high attitude version SAMs that made India to develop AAD/PAD System, currently its in developing stage. The some of the test is considered to be highly successful, as per sources this system has capable of 80 km in flight ceiling coverage and DRDO is looking for more powerfully with 150 km flight ceiling coverage, but it may take at least 3 -7 years with fully operational .


Introduction This is story based on Two ex IAF pilots inducted into a Black Squadron flying EW version of NGFA , operated by our intelligence agencies ,is story is based in the year 2020 this is totally fractious characters and events which never have taken place or likely to take place , this story is brain child of Vinayak Shetti , and totally his imagination . This is done to keep interest in magazine and also for Entertainment purpose only Plot Story involves two Serving IAF Sukhoi Su 30 pilots who are kicked out IAF due to an incident ,which will be revealed in first episode and how they are approached by nonexistence Squadron operated by our Intelligence agency and it will cover their adventure ,missions, and other things they are made to do when flying in this BLACK SQUADRON . Next Month we will carry the first Episode , to keep viewers interaction at maximum , we are letting viewers suggest names of the pilots and also squadron they were operating before been kicked out , and also reason of they been kicked out , they can also send missions and operations they are likely going to conduct in future episodes. Any one Good in Photoshop or Corel Draw can also design a Electronic warfare based NGFA based on Pak-FA , and Squadron patches for the Pilots We are proud to announce the name of the first episode

(Spoilers : Mission Inside Chinese territory)
Please send your suggestions and art work ,stories to I SECURITY I MARCH 2011 37