Japanese Cheat Sheet

Layout: 8.5x11” --- Romanization: Hepburn --- Last Updated: September 30, 2009 --- Originally downloaded for free from: http://nihonshock.com Polite Verb Forms Present/Future Tense Progressive (be …ing) Past Tense Negative Present/Future Negative Past Command Negative Command Potential Form (able to…) Want to… Don’t want to… Let’s… Causative (let / make) ~I + masu ~TE + imasu ~I + mashita ~I + masen ~I + masen deshita ~TE + kudasai ~A + naide kudasai ~E + masu (!) suru → dekimasu ~I + tai desu ~I + takunai desu ~I + mashou (U-Verb) ~A + semasu (RU-Verb) ~A + sasemasu (!) suru → sasemasu (!) kuru → korasemasu (U-Verb) ~A + remasu (RU-Verb) ~A + raremasu (!) suru → saremasu (!) kuru → koraremasu Informal Verb Forms (×) = cannot be made into a noun with koto/no Present/Future Tense Progressive (be …ing) Past Tense Negative Present/Future Negative Past (×) Command (×) Negative Command Potential Form (able to…) Want to… Don’t want to… (×) Let’s… Causative (let / make) ~U ~TE + iru ~TA ~A + nai ~A + nakatta ~TE ~I + nasai (!) Very Direct ~A + naide ~U + na (!) Can Be Rude ~E + ru (!) suru → dekiru ~I + tai ~I + takunai¹ (see footer) ~OU (U-Verb) ~A + seru (RU-Verb) ~A + saseru (!) suru → saseru (!) kuru → koraseru (U-Verb) ~A + reru (RU-Verb) ~A + rareru (!) suru → sareru (!) kuru → korareru Neutral Verb Forms (►) = form does not grammatically end a sentence (►) If… ~E + ba ~U + to ~TA + ra ~A + nakereba ~TE + kara ~TA + ra ~U + mae ni ~TA + kara ~TA + node ~U + tame ni ~U + no ni ~I + nagara ~TE + miru (mimasu) ~OU + to suru (shimasu) ~I + nai to ikenai (ikemasen) ~I + nakereba ikenai (ikemasen) ~TE + te ha ikenai (ikemasen) ~TE + oku (okimasu) Compound Sentences VERB1~TE + PHRASE 2

(►) If not… (►) After… (►) Before… (►) Because… (►) In order to… (►) While… Try to… Must/have to… Must not… To do in advance… Compound Verbs VERB1~I + VERB 2

Passive (be verbed)

Passive (be verbed)

Verbs as nouns (Gerund form) Informal Form + koto or no

Conjugating Verbs
Regular Verbs U-Verb ~ RU-Verb hana.sa A tabe hana.shi I tabe hana.su U tabe.ru hana.se E tabe.re hana.sou OU tabe.you TE tabe.te TA tabe.ta Irregular Verbs SURU ~ KURU shi A ko shi I ki suru U kuru sure E kore shiyou OU koyou shite TE kite shita TA kita ~ TE TA U-Verb TE/TA endings u tsu ru bu mu nu ku gu tte nde ite ide tta nda ita ida Exceptions: 1. iku (to go) becomes itte and itta 2. If the verb ends in う(u), ~A ending becomes わ (wa). su shite shita

U-Verbs that look like RU-Verbs: iru (to need²) hairu (to enter) shiru (to know) kiru (to cut) kaeru (to go home) suberu (to slip/slide) keru (to kick)

de aru
Present Past Probable Negative Past Neg. Prob. Neg. Positive Past Probable Negative Past Neg. Prob. Neg.

(to be)
Change i → sa i → ku i → kunai i → katta i → kunakatta i → kereba i → kunakereba i → sugi(ru) i → kute

Change na → sa na → ni Meaning noun form³ adverb form Meaning noun form adverb form negative past past negative if if not… too… combining form

あ a い i う u え e お o ア a イ i ウ u エ e オ o

か ka き ki く ku け ke こ ko カ ka キ k ク ku ケ ke コ ko

が ga ぎ gi ぐ gu げ ge ご go ガ ga ギ gi グ gu ゲ ge ゴ go

さ sa し shi す su せ se そ so サ sa シ shi ス su セ se ソ so

ざ za じ ji ず zu ぜ ze ぞ zo ザ za ジ ji ズ zu ゼ ze ゾ zo

た ta ち chi つ tsu て te と to タ ta チ chi ツ tsu テ te ト to

desu deshita deshou de ha arimasen de ha arimasen deshita de ha nai deshou

da datta darou ja nai ja nakatta ja nai darou

Adjectives ending with the hiragana い(i) are i-Adjectives except those that end as ~ei





Hiragana だ な は da na ha ぢ に ひ ji ni hi づ ぬ ふ zu nu fu で ね へ de ne he ど の ほ do no ho Katakana ダ ナ ハ da na ha ヂ ニ ヒ ji ni hi ヅ ヌ フ zu nu fu デ ネ ヘ de ne he ド ノ ホ do no ho

ば ba び bi ぶ bu べ be ぼ bo バ ba ビ bi ブ bu ベ be ボ bo

ぱ pa ぴ pi ぷ pu ぺ pe ぽ po パ pa ピ pi プ pu ペ pe ポ po

ま ma み mi む mu め me も mo マ ma ミ mi ム mu メ me モ mo

や ら わ ya ra wa り ri ゆ る ん yu ru n れ re よ ろ を yo ro wo ヤ ラ ワ ya ra wa リ ri ユ ル ン yu ru n レ re ヨ ロ ヲ yo ro wo

ン 七

JLPT Level 4 (N5) Kanji (103 in all)

一 二 三 四 五 六
ichi ni san shi/yon go roku

八 九 十 百 千 万 円 人 子 男 女
hachi kyuu juu hyaku sen man Yen person child man woman

日 月 火 水 木 金
sun moon fire water tree gold


上 下 左 右 入 出 大 小 中 外 半
up down left right in out big small inside outside half

口 目 手 足 耳 北
mouth eye hand leg ear north


東 西 母 父 友 多 少 古 新 前 後
east west mother father friend many few old new front back

今 午 時 週 年 行
now noon hour week year go

come meet

見 聞 言 話
see hear say talk stand car street station

language school

読 書 買 店 高 安
read write buy store high cheap

learn heaven

understand sky

休 食 飲 生 会 立 車 道 駅 校 社
rest eat drink live company

国 毎 間 先 何
country each interval previous what

天 空


川 白 花 雨 魚
river white flower rain fish


気 名 本 長
energy name book long 3: Drop sa if followed by a form of de aru.
© Lloyd Vincent, 2009. Redistributing without giving credit is terribad for your karma, don’t do it.

1: Do not use this form to refuse/decline an offer; it’s too direct.

2: iru (to be/exist) is a RU-Verb

The test this time was more difficult than last time. Please come by three o'clock. Indicates a limit.Last Updated: September 30. If you eat too much pizza. or amount of something that is small. Shachou no sasoi dakara iku beki da to omoimasu. shika also indicates a limit. Indicates an approximate extent. Sato’s phone number. (!) The hiragana wo is used. (The “doer” of the verb) Marks the objects of some specific non-action verbs. At the end of a sentence. Tanaka has the money. (I) bought shoes. (I) gave her a book. Ano kyoushitsu wa onna no ko bakari imasu. Indicates “from”.5x11” --. Used with verbs of motion to show the place the action occurs. Indicates a specific point in time. as in “a letter from Mr. but it was a good match. If you write a kanji about 10 times.”) Means “but” or “even so”. Let’s meet at the park on Saturday. Piza o tabesugiru to futorimasu yo. When followed by ni. Indicates a person that the action of a sentence is done with. etc. Doyoubi ni kouen ni aimashou. Uso wo tsukeru wake ni wa ikemasen yo. or unsatisfactory. don’t do it. Indicates a reason or motive.) into an “every~/all~” word. Dekiru dake hayaku kaite kudasai. (!) Although the hiragana ha is used. The more you drink coffee. it is sometimes pronounced bakkari for emphasis. or length of time inside of which something occurs. but follows all other particles. This wasabi is very strong. you can remember it. Indicates the material something is made of. ya only lists some (implying that there are others) © Lloyd Vincent.Japanese Cheat Sheet Layout: 8. Indicates direct objects for some specific verbs: naru (to become). Can also be pronounced gurai WA より ほど くらい は GA Indicates an approximate extent. Ichijikan dake matte kudasai. shika is always used with a negative verb form. This red camera is cheaper than that black camera. Sono kuroi kamera wa kono akai kamera hodo yasukunai desu... doko. Marks quoted speech. Kanji wo juukai gurai kaku to oboeremasu. (Monday / 3pm / 1972) (!) kyou (today). or amount of something that the speaker thinks is small. 2009 --. (twice) a week Replaces na when using na-Adjectives as Adverbs. Yamada” Kono akai kamera wa sono kuroi kamera yori yasui desu. Indicates a time or place of beginning. ashita (tomorrow). I studied to the extent that I want to cry. TO と DE から MADE Indicates the place or area. a pencil. Osaka ni mo ikimashita. Turns interrogatives (dare. so I think (you) should go.Originally downloaded for free from: http://nihonshock. sora o tobu to fly in the sky だけ BAKARI を NI Means “only” or “to the exclusion of all other things” Indicates a indirect object. Indicates a time or place of end.com Core Particles Indicates the topic of a sentence. Due to a cold. DAKE KURAI HODO YORI Assisting Particles Indicates the lesser element in a positive comparison. etc. Can join phrases meaning “and” or “after” (!) See Page 1 (Neutral Verb Forms): ~U + kara and ~TE + kara Kyou no kaigi wa ichiji kara sanji made desu. limit or value. wakaru (to understand). limit or value. Nakitai hodo benkyou shimashita. the more delicious it is. (= stronger than average wasabi) Tanaka-san wa o-kane o motteimasu. That classroom has only girls in it. に でも SHIKA Ichinichi ni ko-hi. (!) Nuance: implies that the amount is small. (!) Nuance: used to indicate a neutral or large amount. Ko-hi. doko. Hon ya enpitsu ya keshigomu o kaimashita (I) bought a book. Commonly used when stating a fact about someone or something. to sometimes informally becomes tte Marks a complete idea for use with verbs like omou (to think). kinou (yesterday) do not take this particle. or bakka as a shortened form. As for the car. まで HAZU Expectation で MO Common Grammar Patterns BEKI Appropriateness Used with other particles to add a meaning of “also/too” or “even”. itsu. you must state all objects of the group. you’ll get fat. Mr. She can speak not only Japanese but English too. Creates an OR-group. kono wasabi wa totemo tsuyoi desu. Turns interrogatives into “some~” words. It’s an invitation from the CEO. も KA WAKE Situation / Fact TAME Reason TSUMORI Intention か E DAKE DE NAKU Not only NO HOU GA WAKE NI WA IKENAI Must not Can be interchanged with the particle ni to show a destination. Creates an incomplete¹ AND-group of two or more nouns. Redistributing without giving credit is terribad for your karma. (The “h” sound is only faintly vocalized) Sengetsu Kyoto e ikimashita. Turns interrogatives (dare. Indicates the greater element in a negative comparison. Mr. が O Indicates the direct object of a verb. (!) Although demo is often treated as a particle. (I) learned Japanese in three months. Sanji made ni kite kudasai. Used to contrast one thing from another. Creates a complete¹ AND-group of two or more nouns.wa nomeba nomu hodo oishiku narimasu. Kanojo wa nihongo dake de naku eigo mo hanasemasu. (= with him right now) kono bunshou no imi ga wakarimasu. Please call me anytime. へ YA ~EBA ~U HODO The more the ~er Tanaka-san ha Sato-san no denwa-bangou o shitteiru hazu desu. That black camera isn’t as cheap as this red camera. Tanaka has money. Indicates the tool or means used to perform an action. (I) went to Kyoto last month. itsu. You mustn’t tell lies. I also/even went to Osaka. しか KARA Like dake. O-cha demo nomimashou ka? Shall we drink some tea or something? Itsudemo denwa shite kudasai. Giving and Receiving Regular Polite I give AGERU SASHIAGERU I receive MORAU ITADAKU You give to me KURERU KUDASARU や 1: With to. Indicates a possibility or suggestion. Today's meeting is from one o'clock to three o'clock. This week (I’m) going to learn hiragana and katakana. suki desu (to like/love) Connects clauses with a meaning of “but” or “despite” Tanaka-san ga o-kane o motteimasu. (I) understand the meaning of this sentence. insufficient. dekiru (to be able) Marks the object of an adjectival-verb. Mr. (the thing or person that an action is done for or directed toward). Kanojo ni hon o agemashita. au (to meet). (I) went to see a movie with her.o nihai nomimasu. it is actually the ~TE + mo form of de aru (meaning “even if it is. jouzu desu (to be good at). at the beginning of a phrase. Nihongo o sankagetsu de oboemashita. Sen’en shika motte imasen I only have 1. kanojo to eiga o mi ni ikimashita. ばかり DEMO (!) In spoken Japanese.) into a “some~” word. extent. Commonly used with dekiru (to be able) to create an “as much as possible” meaning. Iku tame no junbi ga owarimashita ka? Are you finished getting ready to go? Konshuu hiragana to katakana o oboeru tsumori desu. I drove (it). (= he is rich) Marks the subject of a verb. extent. (!) The hiragana he is used.000 yen. He is always that way. However. Please write it as quickly as you can. My friend didn’t win. Please wait just one hour. Zenkai yori konkai no tesuto no hou ga muzukashikatta desu. it is pronounced as wa Kuruma wa watashi ga unten shimashita. I drink two cups of coffee a day. predictable relationship. noru (to ride) Indicates a destination or location for a verb. I overslept. an eraser (and some other stuff). Kaze de nebou shimashita. (The “w” sound is only faintly enunciated) Kutsu o kaimashita. 2009. indicates a time something must be done by/before. Watashi no tomodachi ga katta wake ja nai kedo ii shoubu deshita. banana ka ringo o kaimashou ka? Shall we buy a banana or an apple? Dareka tasukete! Somebody save me! Kare wa itsumo sou desu yo. (!) Usage: mo replaces wa and ga completely. Tanaka should know Mr.Romanization: Hepburn --. . Indicates a period of time in which something repeats: ie. Connects two phrases showing a natural. hoshii desu (to want). makes the sentence or phrase into a question. (!) In this usage. (!) Nuance: used to indicate a neutral or small amount.

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