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Carina Anttila-Suarez Biology 21 SJCC

Seeing the forest AND the trees

The study of the distribution of organisms and the processes that underlie distribution patterns in an ecosystem

And the insects, the fungi, the water, the soil

Ecosystems- living organisms interacting with one another and with factors of the non-living environment constitute and ecosystem Biotic = living factors Abiotic = non-living factors Food chains (ie. ghost moth larvae & the under ground chain) Food webs

Biotic vs. Abiotic

Biotic Ecosystem components

Producers Capable of photosynthesis (plants & algae) Store energy to be released by other organisms Primary consumers Feed directly on primary producers Cows, reindeer, moose, caterpillars Secondary consumers Feed on primary consumers Tigers, polar bears, toads, tsetse flies Decomposers Break down organic material to forms that can be re-assimilated by producers Fungi and bacteria

Abiotic components = water, soil, rocks, wind, oxygen. * Know example discussed lab


Factors that Affect Distribution

Plants in the forest

Geologic history Topography Climate Species interactions

Fungi & Bacteria = decomposer


Antarctic Diatom

Greenhouse effect

Areas susceptible to abrupt change in global temps

Ocean Currents
Upper waters move in currents that distribute nutrients and affect regional climates

Rain Shadow
Air rises on the windward side, loses moisture before passing over the mountain

Regions of land characterized by habitat conditions and community structure Distinctive biomes prevail at certain latitudes and elevations Maintain their identity because of climate and physical barriers that tend to maintain isolation between species
If I gave you a list of abiotic & biotic characteristics could You match them with the biome?

Biodiversity Hot Spots

Portions of biomes that show the greatest biodiversity

Twenty-five locations around the world are characterized as biodiversity hotspots by Conservation International. Often remote, these areas hold 44 percent of all plant species and 35 percent of all land vertebrate species in only 1.4 percent of the Earths landmass. (Map by Robert Simmon)

Most diversity is toward equator



Biotic communities on a global or continental scale 7 major biomes in North America


African Flyway

Tundra Taiga Temperate deciduous forest Tropical rain Forest Grassland Desert Mountain forest

Occupies 20% of earths land surface Primarily above the Arctic circle but with alpine regions south of circle (ie. Alps, Rockies) Tree-less* Permafrost- (10-20 cm to 1 m) deep 2-3 inches of top soil Precipitation less than 10 inches (25 cm) a year 2-3 month growing season Extreme cold but summer day can be 81F!

Tundra Flora
Arctic tundra
Dwarf shrubs dominate Sedges Grasses Lichens Mosses

Alpine tundra (no permafrost)

Grasses, sedges, herbs dominate

A Fragile, Inter-related Biome

Truck tracks compress soil, kill plants Grazing animals disturb mats causing blowouts.

Tundra walking

greening & muskox

Seed production -> Lemming numbers -> Snow owl numbers

Wet forest Northern conifer or boreal forest Adjacent and south of arctic tundra Long severe winters with heavy snow -58F to 86F 10-39 inches of rainfall

Taiga Flora
(flora = plants)

Dominated by evergreen trees

Spruce Fir Pine

Other trees
Larch Birch (wet areas) Aspen (wet areas) Willow (wet areas)

Shrubs and perennials but few annuals

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Broad-leaf trees that shed their leaves annually Occur on large continental masses in Northern Hemisphere Great Lakes to Gulf of Mexico (east of Mississippi River) 39 F in winter to 68+F in summer 20-65 inches of rainfall a year

Broad Leaf Trees Sugar Maple and American basswood dominate

Birch Oak Hickory Chestnut Pines (eastern white pines) Bald Cypress


Many species have been logged to greatly reduced or lost numbers

Tulip tree Beech Magnolia

Found in interior sections of continent Inter-grade into forests and desert at their margins As little as 10 inches as much 39 inches of rainfall a year. -50F to 113 F Prairies (tall grass lands) --> cereal croplands

Great Central Valley of California

Mediterranean climate Grasses are shorter than midwestern prairies Vernal pools- temp. accumulation of water.

Where-ever precipitation is consistently low or soil is too porous to retain water. Often less than 10 inches rain per year Low humidity 59F to 95 F in same day Plants with thick cuticles, water-storage parts, spines and/or leathery leaves

One-third of land surface is arid or semiarid

Little water & poor sandy soil

Tropical Rain Forest

Sonoran Desert
Southern Arizona north to the Grand Canyon The southeastern corner of California (roughly south of a line drawn from Needles to Palm Springs to San Diego) The state of Sonora, Mexico The Baja California peninsula of Mexico The Gulf of California and its islands

5% of Earths earths surface = 1/2 of all forested areas Poor soil (fast decomposition) Tropic areas with 79 to 157 inches per year of rain & 80% humidity. 77-95F Yucatan Peninsula south to Central America

Flora of the Tropical Rain Forest

Dominated by broad-leaf green plants Tall trunks that do not branch for 160 feet Layered Canopy & shallow roots system (buttresses). 100s of species both evergreen and deciduous Vines and epiphytes

Costa Rica

Lots of water & Many plants

A biome not considered in lab but important since its your local ecosystem

Mountain and Coastal Forest

M&CF Plant Associations

Different plants at different elevations Lower elevations- Ponderosa Pine (Sierras), Douglas Fir, Western Red Cedar & Western Hemlock Mid-Elevations in Sierras Sugar Pine, White Fir and Jeffrey Pine High Elevations in Sierras Pine, Fir and Hemlock

Conifer forests dominate Large trees due to large amounts of rainfall (+100 inches per year) Relatively dry summers Redwood forest & fog Pacific Northwest, Cascade, Rocky Mountains, Sierras

M&CF Plant Adaptations to Fire

Long hot summer with little rain Fire is common Thick Bark (Douglas Fir & Redwood) Cones that respond to fire (Knobcone Pine)

Underground food web

Bush Lupine
the Bush Lupine, Ghost moth, Nematode, Fungi story


Fig1. The nematodeghost moth-lupine trophic cascade at Bodega Marine Reserve. a) Bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) in flower in June 2001; b) the same stand in July 2003 after ghost moth outbreak; c) ghost moth caterpillars (Hepialus californicus) in a lupine stem; d and e) release of thousands of infective juveniles of the nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus (all photos: Don Strong, except d: Dan Gruner).