You are on page 1of 133

c cc cO OO OL LL Lk kk k8 88 8l ll l N NN NO OO O1 11 1l ll l8 88 8

Oabeelat losna Oabeelat losna Oabeelat losna Oabeelat losna


may 2009 may 2009 may 2009 may 2009


All that is good and correct is lrom Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) alone -
the comilers are solely resonsible lor any mistakes and errors.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
2

8ismi||an a|-kanman a|-kanim
0 00 01 11 1 | || | lntroduction lntroduction lntroduction lntroduction

ln this course, when ahl al hadeeth are mentioned, it relers to the classical aroach and the eole who tried to
lollow the Ouran and 8unnah as close as they can.

lt was narrated in lbn majah that Lmm 8alamah said about the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) live days belore
his death: when he was sullering the agonies ol death, he uttered a lew words." when someone is dying, what
he says is very imortant. 1hese words must be ol the most valuable words he said il not the most valuable words.
ll you want to advise those around you, il you are going to say something to them, what would you say7 lt would be
something ol signilicance. ll the eole who value the duniyah want to say something, it would be about what they
value the most. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was leaving the muslim ummah with the most valuable
advice. le said: As sa|an, as sa|an." 1his means: l advise you in regards to your salah. l advise you in regards to
your salah. l advise you in regards to your salah." le reminds them three times. le was advising the muslim
ummah ol the most valuable thing, and we will learn why salah is the most valuable thing in the deen.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) according to a hadeeth ol Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) was hysically weak and
unable to stand u and lead the salah. le asked il the eole had rayed. 8he relied that they were waiting lor
him. le asked lor water and took a quick bath and wore his clothes and asked eole to hel him go out. As they
were suorting him out, he collased, and they ut him back in bed. when he woke u, the lirst thing he asked
was: uid they ray7" 1hey relied that they had not. le asked lor water again and relreshed and wore his clothes
and went out but lainted again. 1his haened three times. lach time, when he woke u, the lirst thing he asked
was il they rayed. Alter the third time, he said to let Abu lakr (radni A||anu 'annu) lead the salah lor the eole
because he realized he would not be able to lead the salah. Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) suggested having Lmar (radni
A||anu 'annu) lead the salah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) insisted on Abu lakr. Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna)
ersuaded lalsa (radni A||anu 'anna) to talk to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) about letting Lmar (radni
A||anu 'annu) lead the salah. Abu lakr (radni A||anu 'annu) led the salah.

lor a lew days, Abu lakr was leading the muslim in salah, and everyone was wondering when the lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would come out. lor almost two weeks, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) could not go
out until one night. Abu lakr was leading the muslims in salah, and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) lrom
the house ol Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) was looking out the window to the congregation and saw Abu lakr standing
as imam and the eole lined u straight making the salah without him being there, and he smiled. le was hay
because everyone was doing what they were suosed to be doing even though he was not there.

when those who were close to the window saw the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), they almost lelt their salah
to greet him, but the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) ointed with his hand lor them to stay in their osition.
Abu lakr (radni A||anu 'annu) heard the noise behind him and turned to see the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am).
le wanted to retreat back to give the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) his osition, but the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) signaled lor him to stay, and he ut the curtain down and was never seen alive again.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was so hay that the muslim ummah continued the legacy ol what he had
brought to them, and one ol the greatest manilestations ol the legacy and the most obvious sign ol our deen is the
salah.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) loved salah so much that whenever he lelt stressed out, he ran to the salah.
1oday, when eole encounter calamities, they run away lrom salah. 1hey do not realize that the tests and trials
are blessings lrom Allah to ensure that we are on the straight ath.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!

According to hadeeth Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna): whenever the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was alllicted by
any sadness or calamity, he rushed to salah. why7 lecause he wanted the divine link with Allah (suunananu wa-
ta'a|a).

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would tell lilal: lring us some comlort" because he would call lor the
salah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) knew how valuable salah is lor the muslim ummah and became the
best examle lor us. ll you read the books ol salah and ibaadah, you will be surrised. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am) would erlorm ibadaat in the day, evenings, night, middle ol the night, and end ol the night. 1here were
many times where Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) narrated ahadeeth that she would wake u in the middle ol the night
and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was not there and when she looked lor him, he was making salah.

Abdullah ibn Abbas (radni A||anu 'annu) as a teenager once slet in the house ol his aunt maymoona and was waiting
to see what the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would do in the night. le made wudu and joined the lrohet
(sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) in a long salah. when Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) saw this lrom the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am), she asked him why he is doing this because Allah had lorgiven his sins, and he relied, 8houldn't
l be a gratelul servant7"

1oday, eole think ol salah as a burden and are hay when kamadan is over because there is no more taraweeh
and qiyam al layl. 8ince the ast kamadan, how many times did you ray qiyam al layl7 low regular have you
been7 Oiyam al layl is the big challenge.

when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) died, the comanions carried the legacy and their ibaadah was the
best. 1he legacy continued alter their time. lbn Oayyim Al lawziyyah exlains the salah saying: when it comes to
salah, this is how you get your rovision lrom Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a). lt even rotects your health. lt deters
harm away lrom you. lt takes sicknesses and diseases away lrom you and strengthens your heart siritually and
hysically. lt makes your lace shine, and you leel hay and excited when you ray your salah. lt takes laziness
away lrom you. when you make wudu, it relreshes your body. lt nourishes the ruh."

1oday, the situation ol salah has changed dramatically. many eole comlain about the quality ol their salah and
question the benelit ol salah. many do not leel the sweetness ol salah.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, 1he lirst thing you will lose lrom your deen is al amanah (i.e. eole
mistrust each other) and the last thing will be as-salah." low many eole do you know around you whom you do
not trust7 1he salah is a trust and amanah we should take care ol.

Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) said: woe to the musa||ccn (those who do their ibaadah), those who are neglectlul ol
their salah." 1he ulema say that this means they are neglectlul ol erlorming the salah on time and roerly.
when it comes to ibaadah, always look u and higher.

1he story ol this class: why this class today7 1his is a very ractical class because you deal with it every single day.
lt is all about the quality ol the link. You may have a 'dial-u connection' link to Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a), and il
you try to download blessings, it will take lorever, and you may lose connection and have to kee downloading. ll
you have a good, strong and wireless connection dedicated only to you, then it means that it will be suer-last,
which is a divine connection between Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) and you. ll you have too many users in the
connection and are doing it lor other eole, then it slows down.

most ol the questions imams receive lrom eole are about ibaadah issues, and 80/ are about salah.

uisclaimer: lt is almost imossible to teach liqh ol salah without teaching the dillerent views because in the
communities, eole come lrom all over the lace and have dillerent schools ol thought and dillerent levels ol
education.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
4


class objectives:
1. lxlain the value and imortance ol salah in the lile ol muslims.
2. lrovide you with a descrition ol the various tyes ol salawat. 1here are some lorms ol salah based on weak or
labricated ahadeeth.
!. oive you a detailed descrition ol the roer methodology ol salah. lor examle: when do you raise your
hands, how do you raise hands, where do you raise your hands. Another examle: the linger (oint, move, how
to move).
4. lrovide you with conlidence that when you make you a mistake or the imam makes a mistake, you know what
to do.
ln a jumu'ah salah, the imam was a very rominent erson in the ministry ol lslamic allairs in the country.
le made only one sajdah and started making his tashahhud. leole said: 'subhanAllah' and the imam
continued until he said the tasleem. Another shaykh who was resent stood in lront ol everyone and said,
Allahu Akbar" and started the salah. lall ol the masjid lollowed and hall did not know what to do. 1he
other imam stood u because the second rak'ah is considered invalid because it is missing a sajdah.
. contemorary scenarios. lor examle: traveling and salah, a doctor erlorming surgery
6. 1his course assumes that you have already taken a course on tahaarah because urilication related scenarios
will not be discussed.
7. 8weetness ol every art ol the salah. 8ome eole are interested in knowing the secret behind the live rayers.
what is the secret behind raising the hands in salah7 what is the secret behind saying subhana kabbi al-
adheem"' and subhana kabbi al-'ala"7
8. 1he action items. As we learn a lew things, we will take an exercise ol racticing.

8hali'ee liqh:
- As 8unni 8hali' law code, matn Abi 8hujaa
- manual ol lslam, Al maqaasid by lmam An Nawawi
- keliance ol the 1raveler, Lmdat As 8alik by lbn Naqeeb Al misri

lanali liqh:
- mukhtasar-ul-Ouduri by Ouduri
- liqh al lmam Abdur kahman bin Yusul

comarative liqh:
- Almajmoou' by an-Nawawi - in Arabic (8hali'ee)
- Allidaayah by marghaynani (lanali)
- 1he lrohet's lrayer uescribed, 8haykh Al Albani
- liqh us 8unnah by As 8ayyid 8aabiq
- 8alat: 1he lslamic lrayer lorm A to 2 by ur. mamdouh mohamed

8ources ol lvidences:
- lalagh al maraam by lbn lajar al Asqalaani (8hali'ee)
- Aathar us 8unan by Nimawi (lanali)

Our locus will be on the 8hali'ee and lanali madhabs as well as madhab ahl al hadeeth. when the 'imam' is
mentioned in the class, it does not mean his ersonal view or his oinion, but it means the oinion ol his school ol
thought. 1he madhab itsell evolved and started one way based on secilic rinciles, and the madhab develoed
and became more sohisticated and may have a new oinion.

1his class will be lull ol new Arabic terminology. ln order to make it easier, there is a glossary ol terms at the end
ol the notebook with the Arabic text and a transliteration. 1he meaning was lelt blank lor you to lill in.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah


uelinition ol 8alat uelinition ol 8alat uelinition ol 8alat uelinition ol 8alat

ln Arabic, usually the word 'salah' is written with a tammar-uuttan. ln the Ouran, it is sometimes written with a
wcw. 1he word 'salah' comes lrom the root saad-|aam-va.

linguistic uelinition:
1. uu'a and lstighlaar (8ulication and seeking lorgiveness)

> . ,L. .. !. . l. | i.l. "> < 'l.
1ake sadaqah (alms) lrom their wealth in order to urily them and sanctily them with it, and invoke Allah lor
them. Verily! Your invocations are a source ol security lor them, and Allah is All-learer, All-lnower. |At-1awba,
9:10!]

1he meaning: make du'a lor them, sulicate lor them
Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) said that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) instructed that il someone is
invited lor lood, they should resond. ln our culture today, eole reluse because they leel like they have to
exchange the invitation.

ll you are lasting and someone ollers you lood, the meaning is to make du'a lor that erson and tell them that you
are lasting.

2. lorgiveness and mercy
| < ..l l. ls _.l !! %! l. ls l !l`.
Allah sends lis 8alat (oraces, lonors, blessings, mercy, etc.) on the lrohet (muhammad (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am)) and also lis angels too (ask Allah to bless and lorgive him). O You who believe! 8end your 8alat on (ask
Allah to bless) him (muhammad (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)), and (you should) greet (salute) him with the lslamic
way ol greeting (salutation i.e. as-salamu 'alaykum). |Al-Ahzaab !!:6]

Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) has commanded the believers to invoke the mercy ol Allah and lorgiveness lor the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am).

!. louses ol worshi
_%! >,> , .-. _> | l1 !. < l < !l .-. -..
. . .l. >. , !. ` < .: .l < . | <
1l s
1hose who have been exelled lrom their homes unjustly only because they said: Our lord is Allah." - lor had it
not been that Allah checks one set ol eole by means ol another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and
mosques, wherein the Name ol Allah is mentioned much would surely have been ulled down. Verily, Allah will
hel those who hel lis (cause). 1ruly, Allah is All-8trong, All-mighty. |Al lajj 22:40]

1he term sa|awat means the lace lor salah.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
6


4. 1o burn
ln Arabic, the rolound meaning is within the structure ol the word itsell. 1he actual tri-letter root has a meaning
that has nothing to do with worshi or ibaadah, which is burning. As-5a|i means to roast something. when the
ulema checked the connection between 'burning' and the meaning ol salah, they made a connection. 1he salat
burns your sin comletely. 1o urily gold, it is burned. 8imilarly, when someone is sick, the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) said that sickness and lever is like a lurnace lor the believer and urilies lrom the sins.

lane's Arabic-lnglish dictionary is available lor lree online. lage 1720 in the letter saad section, and all ol the
delinitions ol the terminology are rovided.

1echnical uelinition:
A articular act ol worshi act ol worshi act ol worshi act ol worshi: which involves the ractice ol articular statements and actions erlormed in a the ractice ol articular statements and actions erlormed in a the ractice ol articular statements and actions erlormed in a the ractice ol articular statements and actions erlormed in a
articular manner articular manner articular manner articular manner. lt starts with 1akbeer starts with 1akbeer starts with 1akbeer starts with 1akbeer (saying Allahu Akbar) and ends with 1asleem ends with 1asleem ends with 1asleem ends with 1asleem (saying assalamu alaykum
wa rahmatullah)."

ln the Arabic language now, il someone uses the word 'sa|an' or 'sa||i', the lirst meaning is to erlorm salah in the
way that we know it.

8avor the sweetness ol the delinition:
O: what is the relationshi between the linguistic and technical delinitions7
- 8alat involves the articiation ol all your senses. One ol the most imortant asects ol salat is khushoo',
meaning the mind, heart, hand, and tongue are all involved in the salah, and il they are not, then the salah
is incomlete.
- 1he most imortant act ol salah is dhikr and remembrance ol Allah. 1he salah begins with 'Allahu Akbar'
and a du'a, which are words ol dhikr and remembrance.
- mercy and lorgiveness are most solicited in salat. when someone rays salah and goes into sujood, he
usually asks lor mercy and lorgiveness the most.
- 8alat is best done in its most designated area, a house ol worshi. leole lrequently visit the lace lor
ibaadah.

whenever you raise your hands in salah, it is as il you are saying that you are throwing everything else behind your
back and Allah is the oreatest.


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
7

listory ol listory ol listory ol listory ol 8alat 8alat 8alat 8alat

lelore lslam:
1. uuring the time ol lbrahim
!. | >` _. . .s ~ s i... ,>l !. 1l l.l ->!
!l : .l| .,.l `l-l ,>:
O our lord! l have made some ol my ollsring to dwell in an uncultivable valley by Your sacred louse (the la'bah
at makkah): in order, O our lord, that they may erlorm As-salat (lqamat-as-8alat), so lill some hearts among men
with love towards them, and (O Allah) rovide them with lruits so that they may give thanks." |lbrahim 14:!7]

One ol the uroses ol the journey ol lbrahim was so that they might establish salah in that comletely dead and
barren valley. 1his mention ol salah was also in the lible.

lrom the lible:
And Abram lell on his lace lell on his lace lell on his lace lell on his lace and ood talked with him, saying." |oenesis 17:! and 17:17]
1his descrition is ol rostration.

2. uuring the time ol lsma'il
' ,! &# l.l!. l ' s .. !.,
And he used to enjoin on his lamily and his eole As-8alat (the rayers)
and the 2akat, and his lord was leased with lim. |mariam 19:]

!. uuring the time ol musa
!> || _ > .. !>1l `.. !.. l-> .. '#. l.l :
.l
And we insired musa (moses) and his brother (saying): 1ake dwellings lor your eole in lgyt, and make your
dwellings as laces lor your worshi, and erlorm As-8alat (lqamat-as-8alat), and give glad tidings to the
believers." |Yunus, 10:87]

lrom the lible:
And moses made haste and bowed his head toward the earth and worshied bowed his head toward the earth and worshied bowed his head toward the earth and worshied bowed his head toward the earth and worshied." |lxodus !4:8]
1his could look like three dillerent lorms: looking down, making ruku', or making sujood.

And moses and Aaron went lrom the resence ol the assembly unto the door ol the tabernacle ol the
congregation, and they lell uon their laces they lell uon their laces they lell uon their laces they lell uon their laces and the glory ol the lord aeared unto them." |Numbers 20:6]
1his means congregational rayer.






Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
8

4. uuring the time ol lani lsra'il

1l > < _. _.. `.| !.-. ` `_.. :s !.1 ! < | - _l .
l.l ... l . l,. .s .., < !., !.> ,N >s
>.! l>N > ,> !.> ,N , -. l 1 .
..l
lndeed Allah took the covenant lrom the children ol lsrael (lews), and we aointed twelve leaders among them.
And Allah said: l am with you il you erlorm As-8alat (lqamat-as-8alat) and give 2akat and believe in my
messengers: honor and assist them, and lend to Allah a good loan. Verily, l will remit your sins and admit you to
oardens under which rivers llow (in laradise). lut il any ol you alter this, disbelieved, he has indeed gone astray
lrom the straight ath." |Al ma'ida :12]

lrom the lible:
And lzra blessed the lord, the great ood, and all the eole answered, Amen, Amen, with lilting u their hands lilting u their hands lilting u their hands lilting u their hands
and they bowed their heads and worshied the lord with their laces to the ground and they bowed their heads and worshied the lord with their laces to the ground and they bowed their heads and worshied the lord with their laces to the ground and they bowed their heads and worshied the lord with their laces to the ground." |Nehemiah 8:6]
1his is most likely ruku'.

And loshua lell on his lace to the earth and did worshi lell on his lace to the earth and did worshi lell on his lace to the earth and did worshi lell on his lace to the earth and did worshi." |loshua :14]

And lehoshahat bowed his head with his lace to the ground and all ludah and the inhabitants ol lerusalem lell bowed his head with his lace to the ground and all ludah and the inhabitants ol lerusalem lell bowed his head with his lace to the ground and all ludah and the inhabitants ol lerusalem lell bowed his head with his lace to the ground and all ludah and the inhabitants ol lerusalem lell
belore the lord, worshiing the lord belore the lord, worshiing the lord belore the lord, worshiing the lord belore the lord, worshiing the lord." |chronicles 20:18]

. uuring the time ol 'lesa

`, _. i.,l ` _- .-,l
O mary! 8ubmit yoursell with obedience to your lord (Allah, by worshiing none but lim Alone) and rostrate
yoursell, and lrka'i (bow down etc.) along with Ar-kaki'n (those who bow down etc.)." |Al lmran !:4!]
1his is another lorm ol congregational rayer. women used to worshi during that time as well.

_.l-> '!. _ ! _.. l.l!. l ! !>
And le has made me blessed wheresoever l be, and has enjoined on me 8alat (rayer), and 2akat, as long as l live."
|mariam 19:!1]

lrom the lible:
And he |lesus] went a little larther, and lell on his lace and rayed lell on his lace and rayed lell on his lace and rayed lell on his lace and rayed, saying." |matthew 26:!9]

And when the disciles heard it, they lell on their lace lell on their lace lell on their lace lell on their lace, and were so alraid." |matthew 17:6]



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
9

O: low did salat look like during the times redating lslam7
a. lraying in the louse ol Allah
| !l-> .l .!. !ll ! !1 ,.| l. !s || ,.| -`|
,L _.. _.!Lll .>-l ,l >.l
And (remember) when we made the louse (the la'bah at makkah) a lace ol resort lor mankind and a lace ol
salety. And take you (eole) the maqam (lace) ol lbrahim (Abraham) |or the stone on which lbrahim (Abraham)
stood while he was building the la'bah] as a lace ol rayer (lor some ol your rayers, e.g. two kak'at alter the
1awal ol the la'bah at makkah), and we commanded lbrahim (Abraham) and lsma'il (lshmael) that they should
urily my louse (the la'bah at makkah) lor those who are circumambulating it, or staying (l'tikal), or bowing or
rostrating themselves (there, in rayer). |Al laqarah 2:12]

b. lraying in the mihraab (chamber)
.! >.ll "! l. .,`>l < :. _.`>. !. l>. <
.> !. _.>l.l '
1hen the angels called him, while he was standing in rayer in Al-mihrab (a raying lace or a rivate room),
(saying): Allah gives you glad tidings ol Yahya (lohn), conlirming (believing in) the word lrom Allah |i.e. the
creation ol 'lesa (lesus), the word lrom Allah (le!" - and le was!)], noble, keeing away lrom sexual relations with
women, a lrohet, lrom among the righteous." |Al lmran !:!9]

i9. . `.l | '. .,`>l
And has the news ol the litigants reached you7 when they climbed over the wall into (his) mihrab (a raying lace
or a rivate room). |8aad !8:21]

1oday, the mihraab is the chamber in lront ol the imam. lowever, their mihraab was dillerent and relerred to a
secluded area in the house ol worshi lor the clergy eole to erlorm acts ol worshi. 1his was mentioned in the
story ol uawud and 8ulayman.

c. lraying in the house
!> || _ > .. !>1l `.. !.. l-> .. '#. l.l :
.l
And we insired musa (moses) and his brother (saying): 1ake dwellings lor your eole
in lgyt, and make your dwellings as laces lor your worshi, and erlorm
As-8alat (lqamat-as-8alat), and give glad tidings to the believers." |Yunus 10:87]

1hey rayed in their own houses. 1oday, eole designate one area ol the house as the 'temle'.

d. 8tanding in salah
e. kuku' (bowing down)

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
10

l. 8ujood (rostration)
| !. ,.N '> ..l : . !: ,L _... .!Lll .!1l ,l
>.l
And (remember) when we showed lbrahim (Abraham) the site ol the (8acred) louse (the la'bah at makkah)
(saying): Associate not anything (in worshi) with me, |la ilaha ill-Allah (none has the kight to be worshied but
Allah lslamic monotheism], and sanctily my louse lor those who circumambulate it, and those who stand u lor
rayer, and those who bow (submit themselves with humility and obedience to Allah), and make rostration (in
rayer, etc.):" |Al-lajj 22:26]

`, _. i.,l ` _- .-,l
O mary! 8ubmit yoursell with obedience to your lord (Allah, by worshiing none but lim Alone) and rostrate
yoursell, and lrka'i (bow down etc.) along with Ar-kaki'n (those who bow down etc.)." |Al lmran !:4!]

Allahu 'Alam il this is the same as how we do it, but we know that they did rostrate. when riests are ordained to
higher ositions in the church, they humble themselves in that lashion ol lowering themselves to being llat on
their stomachs, and they lay there lor some time until they are called to their ositions. we believe that it should
be done in the lormat that we do, which is the sujood. Allahu 'Alam il it was done at the time ol musa (alayhi
salaam).

g. congregational 8alah
`, _. i.,l ` _- .-,l
O mary! 8ubmit yoursell with obedience to Your lord (Allah, by worshiing none but lim Alone) and rostrate
yoursell, and lrka'i (bow down etc.) along with Ar-kaki'n (those who bow down etc.)." |Al lmran !:4!]

h. lstablishing dhikr in salah
_.| ! < l| | ! .s! l.l ,%!
Verily! l am Allah! la ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshied but l), so
worshi me, and erlorm As-8alat (lqamat-as-8alat) lor my remembrance." |1ala 20:14]

Allah commanded musa to make the salah solely lor lim.

i. 1aking shoes oll
| ! i. l>! il- i| l!. 1l L
Verily! l am Your lord! 8o take oll your shoes, you are in the sacred valley, 1uwa." |1ala 20:12]

8avor the sweetness ol the history ol salat:
- muslims were not the lirst or only eole who erlormed salat. we are carrying a legacy. ll someone asks
you, 'why do you ray like that7', then resond by saying, 'why don't you ray like that7' 1he revious
rohets all did it. we are carrying the legacy ol the rohets who came belore us.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
11

- Actions ol salat are universal, not exclusively lslamic. when someone suggests salah, then tell them that it
is how you humble yoursell to Allah.
- Acts ol salat reresent humility and humbleness and a sign ol devotion.
- 8ome salat related rituals might be dillerent lrom what we do today.

Action ltem:
- 8tart a dialogue with a non-muslim lriend over the concet ol salat or rayers.
- uiscuss with them the meaning and actual lormat ol salat.
- 8ee how much do they know about the salat ol their rohets.

ln lslam:
8tage 1: 1he 2
nd
or !
rd
year alter the lirst revelation.

1he obligation ol salah was something early.

1. 1wo rayers, one in the morning and one in the evening
..! | s < _> ,-.` .%! ~. > i. _:-l!. ,.N
8o be atient (O muhammad (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)). Verily, the lromise ol Allah is true, and ask lorgiveness
lor your lault, and glorily the raises ol your lord ln the Ashi (i.e. the time eriod alter the midnoon till sunset) and
in the lbkar (i.e. the time eriod lrom early morning or sunrise till belore midnoon). |ohalir 40:]

1here were two secial times lor the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) to erlorm rayers without secilying the
lormat. le (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was not told how to erlorm the rayer. 1his was the beginning during the
time ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am).

2. Oiblah was towards lerusalem
il >l-> !L .l ls !l > ,l >l. : ! !l->
'#.1l _.l !.l. | l-l .. ,l .l1 ls .1s | ' ..>l | ls _%!
< ! ' < .l >| | < !l!. ',l ">
And we made the qiblah (rayer direction towards lerusalem) which you used to lace, only to test those who
lollowed the messenger (muhammad) lrom those who would turn on their heels. |Al laqarah 2:14!]

1hey were instructed to lace the direction ol lerusalem in the salah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) had to
ray towards the direction ol lerusalem lor almost 1 years. le rayed towards lerusalem more years than towards
the la'bah.

!. lorm ol salat was same as the original







Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
12

8tage 2: 1he Night lrayer

1. 1he obligatory night rayer
!! l l | l `. `1 l ls . ,1l .,.

O You wraed in garments (i.e. lrohet muhammad (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am))! 2. 8tand (to ray) all night,
excet a little. !. lall ol it, or a little less than that, 4. or a little more: and recite the Ouran (aloud) in a slow,
(leasant tone and) style. |Al muzzammil 7!:1-4]

1arteel means the slow recitation ol the Ouran. when you stand hall ol the night reciting with tarteel, it is a long
salah. 1he sahabah alterwards were also instructed to do that. lor the early comanions, the obligation ol salah
was the hardest because they had to ray qiyam al layl every single night lor an entire year.

2. 1he abrogation ol the obligation

| i. `l- i 1. _.l. l `. .l. !L _%! i- < '1 l
!.l l. l .> .!. />l. ',! ! .. ,1l l. > > _.`,
,> .. N -.. . < ,> l.1 . < ',! ! ..
l.l . l ., < !., !.> ! 1. />.N .> > s <
.> Ls ,> ,-.` < | < "s .>
Verily, your lord knows that you do stand (to ray at night) a little less than two-thirds ol the night, or hall the
night, or a third ol the night, and so do a arty ol those with you, and Allah measures the night and the day. le
knows that you are unable to ray the whole night, so le has turned to you (in mercy). 8o, recite you ol the Ouran
as much as may be easy lor you. le knows that there will be some among you sick, others travelling through the
land, seeking ol Allah's lounty: yet others lighting in Allah's cause. 8o recite as much ol the Ouran as may be easy
(lor you), and erlorm As-8alat (lqamat-as-8alat) and give 2akat, and lend to Allah a goodly loan, and whatever
good you send belore you lor yourselves, (i.e. Nawalil non-obligatory acts ol worshi: rayers, charity, lasting, lajj
and 'Lmrah, etc.), you will certainly lind it with Allah, better and greater in reward. And seek lorgiveness ol Allah.
Verily, Allah is Olt-lorgiving, most-mercilul. |Al muzzammil 7!:20]

we do not know much about the salat at that time in terms ol the number ol rakat, but we know that there was
long recitation and standing and rukoo' and sujood. Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) exlained later that they would ray
two rak'at. All ol the salawat were only two rak'at. 1he obligation was then abrogated, meaning it changed lrom
being an obligation to a recommendation. lowever, alter an entire year ol racticing qiyam al layl, the sahabah
continued with the ibaadah, but it was now otional, and they began cometing with this. 1he comanions had to
endure hardshis on ersonal and community levels.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
1!

Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) narrated: Verily, Allah made standing at night (lor rayer) obligatory at the beginning ol
this surah (Al muzzamil 7!). 8o the messenger ol Allah and his comanions stood lor an entire year during the
night (in rayer) until their leet swelled. Allah held back the revelation ol the end ol this surah lor twelve months.
1hen, Allah revealed the lightening ol this burden at the end ol this surah. 1hen, the standing lor night rayer
became voluntary alter it used to obligatory." |Ahmad and muslim]

Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) narrated that the obligation ol salat was two rak'at.

8tage !: ! years belore the lijra / years belore the lijra (deending on the year ol lsra wa al miraj)
(1he Night ol Al lsra wa al miraj)

1he eole in makkah decided to boycott the lamily ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). 1he entire lamily ol
the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was cut oll lrom the Ouraysh comletely. ln order to enlorce this boycott,
they drove the lamily ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) out ol makkah into a valley. lanu lashim was sent
to a 'concentration cam', and they remained there lor almost three years. 8a'ad ibn Abi waqas said that he was
walking at night while starving and steed on something moist and ate it, and that until that day he had no idea
what he ate. lhadija (radni A||anu 'anna) and his uncle Abu 1alib both died during that year. when the boycott was
over, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) and his tribe went back to makkah. lis olitical suort was gone
alter the death ol Abu 1alib.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was always anxious about what was going to haen and decided to go to
1a'il to try to gain suort. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) went out with high exectations that the
eole there would accet the daw'ah. le invited them to lslam and remained with them lor almost two weeks,
and the answer he received lrom them alter two weeks was harder than what he endured lrom his eole lor ten
years. Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) asked the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) il he had sullered anything worse
than the deleat at Lhud, and he relied that the deleat was nothing comared to his days in 1a'il. when he was
going down the mountain returning to makkah, he was unaware ol his surroundings until he arrived in the valley.
lventually, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) went to ask lor rotection to enter into his own city. le went to
mu'tim ibn Adi, who was one ol the non-muslim leaders, and was given his rotection with his ten sons. 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) entered makkah and made tawaal. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was
leeling let down comletely because 1a'il had not resonded and his own eole were rejecting him.

le was sleeing outside ol the la'bah and libreel (alayhi salaam) came to wake him u. le went with libreel and
saw a strange animal like a horse with wings: Al laraa'. 1hey both rode on the animal and began llying. lor the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), it was a low oint in his mission and then he saw all ol these miracles. le went
to the seventh heaven and met many rohets. le was receiving emotional suort. when he went all the way to
the seventh heaven, it was time lor him to meet with lis lord. le went to a location and libreel told him to go
lorward on his own. libreel told him that he could not go any lurther with him. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) took the rivilege ol going to a station that was lurther than the angels could reach. Allah soke to the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). le (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) received the instruction ol the live daily rayers.

1. 1he live daily rayers

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was given lilty salawat. On his way back, he (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) met
musa (alayhi salaam) who told him that lilty rayers was too much. musa told him to return to Allah and ask him
lor less. Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) told him 4 rayers. musa told him to make them less. 1hen he was given 40
rayers. le (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) went back and lorth until he was given salawat. musa told him that live
rayers were still too much. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that he could no longer ask Allah
(suunananu wa-ta'a|a) lor less because he lelt shy and embarrassed. Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) told him that there
are live rayers with the reward ol lilty.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
14

Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) called the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) to come belore him without any
intermediary to give him the instruction ol salah, which is why it is one ol the most imortant obligations lor
muslims to take care ol and maintain regularly.

Anas reorted the messenger ol Allah said: .1hen Allah revealed that which le revealed to me. le enjoined on
me lilty rayers every day and night. l came down until l reached musa, and he said, 'what did your lord enjoin on
your Lmmah' l said, 'lilty rayers every day and night.' le said, 'oo back to your lord and ask lim to reduce (the
burden) lor your Lmmah, lor your Lmmah will not be able to do that. l tested the children ol lsrael and lound out
how they were.' 8o l went back to my lord and said, 'O lord, reduce (the burden) lor my Lmmah lor they will never
be able to do that.' 8o le reduced it by live. l came back down until l met musa and he asked me, 'what did you do7'
l said, '(my lord) reduced (my burden) by live.' le said, 'oo back to your lord and ask lim to reduce (the burden)
lor your Lmmah.' l ket going back between my lord and musa, and (my lord) reduced it by live each time, until
le said, 'O muhammad, these are live rayers every day and night, and lor every rayer there is (the reward ol)
ten, so they are (like) lilty rayers." |lukhari]

2. 1imes ol the live daily rayers

libreel came to him at the beginning time ol each salah on the lirst day and rayed with him. On the next day,
libreel came at the end time ol each salah excet maghrib, and on each occasion, he led the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) in salah. At the end ol the second day, libreel said that the time lor each salat is between the two
times he visited.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) learned the salat lrom libreel (alayhi salaam).

lbn Abbas narrated that the Angel libreel led the lrohet, to teach him the rayer times. On the lirst day he rayed
all the rayers at the beginning ol their resective times and on the second day he delayed the rayers until just
belore the end ol their times lor all rayers excet maghrib where he instead rayed it on both days at the same
time, and then said: .the time ol each 8alat is between these two times." |1irmidhi]

!. lrayers were two rak'ah only

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) and his comanions would regularly ray two rak'at.

Aisha narrated: 1he rayer was rescribed as consisting ol two rak'ahs both when one was resident and when
traveling. 1he rayer while traveling was lelt according to the original rescrition and the rayer ol one who was
resident was enhanced." |Abu uawood]

4. 1hey were allowed to seak during salah.
ll someone came late in salah, they could talk to the erson next to them in salah to ask them which rak'ah it was.
later, this was rohibited.

8tage 4: 2
nd
year alter the lijra
1. Oiblah was changed towards makkah

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) reared the sahabah lor immigration and sent musab ibn Lmair to
madinah to make rearations. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) lor almost two years in madinah rayed in
the direction ol lerusalem. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was longing to ray towards makkah. Allah
(suunananu wa-ta'a|a) knew his desire. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) received the instruction in 8urah Al
laqarah to change the direction ol the qiblah towards makkah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
1

what is the signilicance ol the change in direction ol the qiblah7 8ome ol the ulema say that this is a symbol to
indicate the shilt ol the siritual guidance lrom lani lsra'il to lani lsma'il. Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) romised
lbrahim (alayhi salaam) that he would have many generations that would worshi lim. Alter 00 years lrom the
time ol 'lesa, Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) sent the linal message through lsma'il lrom his son muhammad.

Al-lara bin 'Azib narrated: Allah's messenger ollered his rayers lacing layt Al-maqdis (lerusalem) lor sixteen
or seventeen months, but he wished that he could ray lacing the la'bah (at makkah). 1he lirst rayer which he
ollered (lacing the la'bah) was the Asr (Alternoon) rayer in the comany ol some eole. 1hen one ol those who
had ollered that rayer with him, went out and assed by some eole in a mosque who were in the bowing
osition (in kuku') during their rayers (lacing lerusalem). le addressed them saying, 'ly Allah, l bear witness that
l have ollered rayer with the lrohet lacing makkah (la'bah).' learing that, those eole immediately changed
their direction towards the louse (la'bah) while still as they were (i.e., in the same bowing osition). 8ome
muslims who ollered rayer towards the revious Oiblah (lerusalem) belore it was changed towards the louse (the
la'bah in makkah) had died or had been martyred, and we did not know what to say about them (regarding their
rayers towards lerusalem). Allah then revealed: (And Allah would never make your laith (rayers) to be lost (i.e.,
the rayers ol those muslims were valid)) (2:14!)." |lukhari and muslim]

2. 8alat was enhanced and number ol rak'ahs increased
lour rak'at lor dhuhr, asr, and isha. 1hree rak'at lor maghrib. 8eaking became rohibited in the salah.

A man who was known lor his long hands joined the salah late. le did not know ol the rohibition ol seaking in
salah, and someone sneezed and said a|numdu|i||an and he relied, )arnamuk A||an." when the salah was linished,
the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) turned to them and said, kegular seech is not belitting the salah." 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) showed such tolerance to his ignorance.

Aisha narrated: 1he rayer was rescribed as consisting ol two rak'ahs both when one was resident and when
traveling. 1he rayer while traveling was lelt according to the original rescrition and the rayer ol one who was
resident was enhanced." |Abu uawood]

8avor the sweetness ol salat in lslam:
- we lollowed the stes ol the righteous nations belore us in salat. muslims are lollowing the nations who came
belore.
- we are the only nation today that adheres to the original lorm ol salat. 1his is something to be roud ol.
- Allah is the most mercilul that le rescribed salat gradually. ll the salah was rescribed in its current lormat
originally, it would not have been done. we as muslims are in debt to musa (alayhi salaam) because it was him
who heled us make the salah live.
- Oiyam al layl is indeed the most owerlul siritual retreat. 1he sahabah were trained in qiyam al layl. Anyone
who wants to be a successlul student ol knowledge or halidh ol Ouran has to ractice qiyam al layl. ll you do
not ractice this, then you are missing a lot. Oiyam al layl is madrassan (a school that teaches eole).
- 1he change ol the qiblah was an indication to the signilicance ol this ummah, shilting it lrom lani lsra'il to
lani lsma'il.
- we do as little as live, and we get as much as lilty, such a lucrative bargain.
- may Allah reward the comanions lor enduring the hardshis ol erlorming the salat when it was most
dillicult. 1his is indeed something amazing. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that the reward ol the
comanions is something beyond our reach. 1hey endured the hardshi ol establishing this laith.

Action ltem:
- 1ry to ractice qiyam al layl during one ol the weekends as long as you can allord.
- keeat that lew times
- write your leelings about much the sahaba had to endure during those early times ol lslam in regards to
establishing the salat.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
16


lxamles ol dillerent tyes ol salat:

1. lard salat
- 1he live obligatory salat
- lriday's salat
2. wajib salat
- lid rayer
- witr rayer
!. Nall salat
- Ar-rawaatib
- At-tasabeeh
4. congregational rayer
- 1araweeh
- Al-istisqaa' (salah asking lor the rain)
. lndividual's rayer
- Ad-duhaa
- Ash-shurooq
6. lrayers erlormed with no secilic sabab (occasion or cause)
- Nall mutlaq
- Oiyam al-layl
7. lrayers erlormed lor a secilic sabab (occasion or cause)
- Al-istikhara
- lhusool and kusool

8avor the sweetness ol the tyes ol salat:

- As we love variety and lreedom ol choice, Allah gave us various ways ol raying to lim. ll you ray the
dillerent salat, you will never miss the live daily rayers.
- we ought to lullill our individual worshi as much as we care about our congregational one. You should
rolong your salat when you ray by yoursell.
- 1he individual rayers are no less imortant than the congregational ones.
- ln the voluntary lorms ol salat, those who wish to comete, let them comete.
- we do have many needs in this lile and alhumdulillah there are many lorms ol salah that we can erlorm lor
each.
- what a blessing! 1he salat erlormed because ol a secilic cause reminds us to remember Allah in all occasions.


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
17

0 00 02 22 2 | || | lart One: 8alat al lart One: 8alat al lart One: 8alat al lart One: 8alat al- -- -lareedha (1he live Obligatory lrayers) lareedha (1he live Obligatory lrayers) lareedha (1he live Obligatory lrayers) lareedha (1he live Obligatory lrayers)

Lbada ibn as-8aamit narrated, the messenger ol Allah said: Allah has obligated live rayers. whoever
excellently erlorms their ablutions, rays them in their roer times, comletes their bows, rostrations
and khushu' |attuning the heart to the rayer |has a romise lrom Allah that le will lorgive him. And
whoever does not do that has no romise lrom Allah. le may either lorgive him or unish him." |malik
and Ahmad]

cha cha cha chater 1: 1he Value ol 8alat ter 1: 1he Value ol 8alat ter 1: 1he Value ol 8alat ter 1: 1he Value ol 8alat

8tatus ol 8alat 8tatus ol 8alat 8tatus ol 8alat 8tatus ol 8alat

1. 1he main illar ol lslam
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, lslam was built on live illars."

mu'adh ibn labal narrated the messenger ol Allah said, 1he uermost level ol the matter is al lslam, its illar is
salat, and the to ol its hum is al-jihad." |1irmidhi]

ll one ol the illars ol a structure is removed, then the structure becomes shaky. kegardless ol how much you try
to 'atch' your deen, il you do not have the main illar there, it will never be sound or strong.

2. 1he lirst obligation alter the shahadah
ll someone becomes muslim, he is told that there are live daily rayers. when mu'adh ibn labal was sent to
Yemen, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) told him that alter shahadah, the eole need to be told about the
salah.

!. lt was rescribed in the heavens during the magnilicent journey (al-lsra wa al-miraj)
1his is the only obligation that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) received directly lrom Allah (suunananu wa-
ta'a|a).

8ome ol the sahabah reorted that whenever they reared to stand lor the salah, they would turn ale and
become anxious. when asked why he was that way, one ol the sahabah relied: uon't you know who l will be
standing belore7" ll you believe that Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) is watching over you, then you will not oller
something chea, but you will oller the best ol what you have.

4. Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) gave the messenger the obligation ol 8alat directly without any intermediates.

. A ublic call - adhan was made to remind ol it
1he only ibaadah which has a regular reminder is salah. lvery muslim tries his best to kee aware ol the time ol
the salawat. 1here is a ublic reminder live times a day. One ol the signilicances ol making the adhan ublic is to
ensure that raise ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) is made. 1here is always continuous mention ol Allah (suunananu
wa-ta'a|a).

6. lurilication act is stiulated rior to its erlormance
when making salah, extra recautions must be taken you and must be ure and clean. ll you think about wudu as
being rearation lor standing belore Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a), you will do it very well because you will want to
erlect it lor Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
18


7. lts obligation is maintained regardless ol being in state ol travel, lear, or sickness

8. 1he lirst matter ol account on the uay ol ludgment is about 8alat
On the uay ol ludgment, when we stand belore Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a), the lirst question we will be asked is
about salah.

1he lirst matter that the slave will be brought to account lor on the uay ol ludgment is the rayer. ll it is sound,
then the rest ol his deeds will be sound. And il it is bad, then the rest ol his deeds will be bad." |At-1abarani]

9. 1he best ol all deeds ol worshi
Abdullah ibn masood narrated: l asked the messenger ol Allah, 'which deed is most beloved to Allah7' le said,
'8alah at its aointed times." 1hen Abdullah asked, And then what7" 1he messenger said, 1hen kindness to
arents." 1hen he asked, And then what7" 1he messenger said, lihad in the way ol Allah." |lukhari and muslim]

Accountability lor 8alat Accountability lor 8alat Accountability lor 8alat Accountability lor 8alat

A erson who is accountable lor salat should be:
1. A muslim, man or woman
2. keached the age ol uberty. 1he hysical signs ol uberty are dillerent lor men and women. when a
woman has her lirst eriod, this is when she has reached the age ol uberty. when a boy has his lirst wet
dream, he has reached the age ol uberty. ll they do not show any hysical signs, then the maximum legal
age lor uberty is 1.
!. ln a state ol sound mind. 1he erson who rays should know what they are doing. 8ome may lose sound
mind lorcelully (i.e. through surgery) or a erson who may laint or be so tired that il they rayed they
would not know what they are saying.

O: what il someone deliberately drugs himsell belore salah time in order to ski the salah7
1his cannot be taken as an excuse to ski salawat.

Aisha narrated, the lrohet said: 1he len has been lilted lrom three: lrom the child until he reaches uberty, lrom
the sleeer until he wakes u, and lrom the one who has lost his mind until he recovers." |Abu uawood]

Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas, narrated , the messenger ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, command your
children to make 8alat when they become seven years old, and sank them lor it when they become ten years old,
and arrange their beds (to slee) searately." |Abu uawud]

O: what is the ruling on the salat ol a child7
ladeeth: 1he en has been lilted lrom three." One ol them is the child until the child reaches the age ol uberty.
ll a erson takes a na alter dhuhr and overslees and does not wake u until the sun is going down, then the
moment they wake u, they need to make the salah and are not accountable unless they are doing it on urose or
unless they know lor sure that they will overslee and miss the salah.

ladeeth Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al A'as: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, command your children to
ray when they become seven years old. lhysically disciline them when they become ten years old, and arrange
their beds (to slee) searately." |Abu uawud]
lt is a matter ol bringing the disciline to the house.

when a woman was at lajj, she raised her child, which indicated that the child was small. 8he asked the lrohet
(sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) il the lajj would count lor the child. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said yes
and that the mother would be rewarded lor it. lt counted as reward but not lor his lard lajj.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
19

kulings ol Abandoning 8alat kulings ol Abandoning 8alat kulings ol Abandoning 8alat kulings ol Abandoning 8alat

what is the ruling on a muslim who does not erlorm 8alat7
lirst: Neglecting 8alat by denying its obligation

Verdict: Lnanimous agreement that this erson is a kalir who is an aostate lrom the religion ol lslam |Abu
lanilah, maalik, 8hali'ee, Ahmad]

lxemtion: A new convert who is not knowledgeable enough in lslam.
A woman was brought to Lmar (radni A||anu 'annu) who had committed zina. caital unishment was her
unishment because she was reviously married. Lmar (radni A||anu 'annu) lound that she was taking it lightly
and was not aware ol what was going on, and he asked her il she knew what she was doing. 8he relied that she
did it and named the man. le asked her il she knew that il was haraam, and she relied that she did not. le
did not unish her.

lvidence:
.!. ! l.l '. l >> $! . 1l l-
lut il they reent, erlorm As-8alat (lqamat-as-8alat) and give 2akat, then they are your brethren in religion.
(ln this way) we exlain the Ayat (rools, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail lor a
eole who know. |At 1awbah 9:11]

ll they do not ray the salah, then they are no longer your brethren, meaning they are taken out ol the lold ol
lslam.

labir narrated, the messenger ol Allah said: letween a man and 8hirk and lulr there stands his neglect ol the
8alat." |muslim]
ll a erson abandons salah with no valid reason, then it is considered an action ol kulr and shirk.

Neglecting salat out ol laziness or other reasons without denying its obligation

Verdict: 1wo oinions:
lirst - 1his erson is a muslim who is lasiq (disobedient) - Abu lanilah, maalik, and Ash-8hali'ee
1his is the oinion ol the majority ol muslim jurists.
lvidence:

Lbadah ibn -us-8amit narrated, the messenger ol Allah said: Allah has obligated live rayers. whoever
excellently erlorms their ablutions, rays them in their roer times, comletes their bows, rostrations and
khushu |attuning the heart to the rayer] has a romise lrom Allah that le will lorgive him. And whoever does
not do that has no romise lrom Allah. le may either lorgive him or unish him." |malik and Ahmad]

Allah does not lorgive shirk or kulr, but Allah may lorgive anything else besides these. According to these
scholars, il Allah may lorgive it, then it is not kulr.

8econd - 1his erson is a kalir - (the school ol lmam Ahmad, lmam Ahmad himsell holds the lirst oinion)
lvidence:
luraydah ibn al-lusayb said: l heard the messenger ol Allah say: '1he covenant that distinguishes between us
and them is the rayer, and whoever neglects it has disbelieved (become a kalir).'" |Ahmad, Abu uawood, al-
1irmidhi, al-Nisaa'i and lbn maajah]

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
20

1he lirst grou resonds to this evidence and says that the action itsell is an act ol kulr but does not cause the
erson to be a kalir.

ll a erson misses one excuse without a legitimate reason, then he is considered a kalir and must take the
shahadah again and do many things.

8chool or madhab Oinion ualeel
lmams Abu lanilah,
malik, and 8hali'ee
1his erson is a
muslim but also a
lasiq.
'Lbadah ibn -us-8amit (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated, the
messenger ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: Allah has
obligated live lrayers. whoever excellently erlorms their
ablutions, lrays them in their roer times,
comletes their bows, rostrations and khushu' |attuning the
heart to the lrayer] has a romise lrom Allah that le will lorgive
him. And whoever does not do that has no romise lrom Allah. le
may either lorgive him or unish him." |muwatta' malik and
musnad lmam Ahmad]
lmam Ahmad
1his tye ol
erson lelt the
lold ol lslam.
luraydah ibn al-lusayb (radni A||anu 'annu) said: l heard the
messenger ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) say: '1he covenant
that distinguishes between us and them is the lrayer, and
whoever neglects it has disbelieved (become a lalir).'" |musnad
lmam Ahmad, 8unan Abi uawood, 8unan al-1irmidhi, 8unan al-
Nisaa'i and 8unan lbn majah]

8avor the sweetness ol the status ol salat:

1. lvery day you have a romise lrom Allah to lorgive you, maintain your salat. 1here is a covenant with
Allah to obtain lorgiveness every single day, so do not miss that romise.
2. Your salat is the best caital you have to oller on the uay ol ludgment. lncrease your investment.
!. 8alat is a unique lorm ol creating a muslim identity: carry your badge wherever you go. 1he lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that someone who does not ray has committed an act ol kulr. ll you maintain
your live daily rayers, then you have that badge ol lslam on you.
4. 8alat was rescribed in the heavens. lt is the uivine link. ll you try to imress more than one in your
ibaadah by making riyaa' then the link will become slow. You must do it only lor Allah (suunananu wa-
ta'a|a).

Abu lurayrah narrated, the messenger ol Allah said, Allah Almighty said: 'l have divided rayer between mysell
and my servant into two halves, and my servant shall have what he has asked lor." |muslim]

Action ltem:
- 1arget a lriend or a relative whom you love so much and lear lor their akhirah
- 1alk to them about salah
- uo your best to hel them value and learn how to do their salat
- 8hare the reward with them. You don't want them to miss one salat, do you7

Number ol Number ol Number ol Number ol lard lard lard lard 8alat 8alat 8alat 8alat

1here are live obligatory rayers.
1alha ibn Lbayd-Allah said: A man lrom Najd with unkemt hair came to the messenger ol Allah and we heard his
loud voice but could not understand what he was saying until he came near and then we came to know that he was
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
21

asking about lslam. 1he messenger ol Allah said, (You have to oller) live rayers each day and night." 1he man
asked, uo l have to do anything else7" 1he messenger ol Allah said, No, unless you want to oller voluntary (nall)
rayers." |lukhari and muslim]

1he comanions could not understand what he was saying because he had a dillerent accent. 1he man then asked
about zakat and lasting and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) gave the minimum ol the ractice. 1he bedouin
said that he would not add more or less, and alter he lelt, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, ly Allah il
he maintains that, then he will be successlul."

lajr (uawn rayer): 1wo kak'ah. 1his salah is also called salat as-subh.
uhuhr (Noon rayer): lour kak'ah
Asr (late alternoon): lour kak'ah
maghrib (8unset rayer): 1hree kak'ah
lsha (Night rayer): lour kak'ah

O: what is the ruling on witr 8alah7
1his salah is done at the end ol the salawat. 1he word 'witr' in the Arabic language means 'odd number'. (i.e. 1, !, ,
7,.)

1wo oinions:
lirst oinion: lt is a recommended sunnah (maalik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad)
1his is the oinion ol the majority ol the schools ol thought.
1his oinion is that it is voluntary.

1. witr is not mentioned in the lollowing hadeeth:
1alha ibn Lbayd-Allah said: A man lrom Najd with unkemt hair came to the messenger ol Allah and
we heard his loud voice but could not understand what he was saying until he came near and then we
came to know that he was asking about lslam. 1he messenger ol Allah said, (You have to oller) live
rayers each day and night." 1he man asked, uo l have to do anything else7" 1he messenger ol Allah
said, No, unless you want to oller voluntary (nall) rayers." |lukhari and muslim]

2. Ali bin Abu 1alib reorted: 1he witr rayer is not obligatory as the rescribed 8alat, but the messenger
ol Allah observed it as his regular ractice (8unnah). le (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, 'Allah is witr
(single) and loves what is witr. 8o erlorm witr 8alat. O lollowers ol Our'an, observe witr 8alat.'' |At-
1irmidhi and Abu uawood]

!. Al-mukhdaji |a erson ol the linana tribe] heard lrom one ol the Ansar, nicknamed Abu muhammad,
that the witr rayer is obligatory. le went to Lbadah ibn -us-8amit and mentioned to him what Abu
muhammad had said. Lbadah observed: Abu muhammad is mistaken lor l heard the messenger ol
Allah say: 'live rayers are ordained by Allah lor his slaves. whoever lullills them roerly without any
shortcoming, he will have a act with Allah that le will admit him into aradise. whoever does not do
them, he will have no act with Allah, and il le wills le may unish him and il le wills le may lorgive
him.'" |Ahmad and Abu uawood]

4. ljtihaad: witr can be erlormed while one is riding his camel and obligatory salat cannot be erlormed
that way.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to ray witr while he was riding his camel when traveling.



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
22

O: ll you are traveling and it is time lor maghrib and isha, can you ray these salawat while you are driving on the
road7
No, unless there are severe conditions like hail, snow, or rain and you cannot go out ol your car. Lnder normal
circumstances, you must ray the salat while standing. while you are driving, you can ray qiyam al layl and ray
witr while driving. low are the ruku' and sujood erlormed7 low down a little lor the ruku' and more lor the
sujuood. while you are driving and raying, you kee looking at the road. what about the qiblah direction7 lt
does not matter. when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) started his salah, he would look in the direction ol
the qiblah, and then he would turn his camel to the direction ol the journey.

lor lard salah, you must stand and lace the qiblah.

O: ls it rohibited lor someone who is traveling to ray the sunan other than the mutlaq nall (qiyam al layl), witr,
and the sunnah ol lajr7
lt is better not to ray the other sunan.

8econd oinion: lt is wajib (obligatory) (Abu lanilah)
lard is any ruling established by a mutawaatir evidence such as the Ouran or mutawaatir hadeeth. mutawaatir
means 'abundance'. mutawaatir evidence means that it comes through an abundance ol narrations. ln Abu
lanilah's school o l thought, anyone who denies lard is kalir, but denying the waajib does not necessarily take a
erson out ol the lold ol lslam, but it is imortant to do the action.

1. Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al 'Aas narrated that the messenger said: Verily, Allah has added on you a salat,
which is the witr." |Ahmad]
1he other school resonds: 1his hadeeth does not seak about the obligation ol witr but seaks ol an
additional sunnah. lt is very imortant which is why the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
maintained it.

2. Abu Ayyoub narrated that the messenger ol Allah said: witr is laqq (obligation) on every muslim."
|lbn majah]
ln Arabic, one ol the delinitions ol the word 'haqq' is 'obligation'. lvery muslim 'should' ray witr. 1he
word 'should' does not constitute lard according to the other school ol thought.

According to the majority oinion, il you do not ray witr, you will not be held accountable.





Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
2!

8ummary ol the ruling on witr:

8cholar(s) Oinion ualeel
lmams malik,
8hali'ee, Ahmad
8unnah mu'akkadah
Ali bin Abu 1alib reorted: 1he witr rayer is not obligatory as the
rescribed 8alat, but the messenger ol Allah observed it as his regular
ractice (8unnah). le (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, 'Allah is witr
(single) and loves what is witr. 8o erlorm witr 8alat. O lollowers ol
Our'an, observe witr 8alat.'' |At-1irmidhi and Abu uawood]

Al-mukhdaji |a erson ol the linana tribe] heard lrom one ol the Ansar,
nicknamed Abu muhammad, that the witr rayer is obligatory. le went
to Lbadah ibn -us-8amit and mentioned to him what Abu muhammad
had said. Lbadah observed: Abu muhammad is mistaken lor l heard the
messenger ol Allah say: 'live rayers are ordained by Allah lor his
slaves. whoever lullills them roerly without any shortcoming, he will
have a act with Allah that le will admit him into aradise. whoever
does not do them, he will have no act with Allah, and il le wills le
may unish him and il le wills le may lorgive him.'" |Ahmad and Abu
uawood]
lmam Abu
lanilah
waajib
Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al 'Aas narrated that the messenger said: Verily,
Allah has added on you a salat, which is the witr." |Ahmad]

Abu Ayyoub narrated that the messenger ol Allah said: witr is laqq
(obligation) on every muslim." |lbn majah]

8avor the sweetness ol the live salawat:
- live siritual meals vs. three nutritious meals. Allah created us lrom earthy and heavenly comonents: the
body and the ruh. 1he main ingredient ol the body is dirt. 1he earthly comonent must be nurtured.
8ome eole end u with ten meals just to suort the body. ll a erson is regular at the gym, they want to
send hours exercising. 1he soul came lrom a dillerent source.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that the child alter concetion stays in the womb lor three
eriods ol lorty days, and then the angel comes down carrying lour things with the soul. 1o nurture the
soul, you need to look lor something that comes lrom the same heavenly source. 1he soul also requires
regular meals, which are the live siritual meals. 1he snacks in between are sunnah and nall.

- A lrequent reminder ol the urose ol lile, worshiing Allah. lvery time you get lost in the duniyah, the
salah reminds you that you are a servant ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) and not a servant ol your work or
home or school.

- An ellacer ol the sins committed throughout the day and night. 1he live rayers clean you lrom your sins
and act as a lurnace.
Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated: 1he messenger ol Allah said: ll there was a river at the door
ol anyone ol you and he took a bath in it live times a day, would you notice any dirt on him7" 1hey said,
Not a trace ol dirt would be lelt." 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) added, 1hat is the examle ol
the live rayers with which Allah blots out (annuls) evil deeds." |lukhari and muslim]

- lile organizer and sell-disciline tool. 1oday, lile is based on timing, and eole love organization. when a
muslim wants to go to the mall to sho, the lirst thing he thinks about is the salah and the amount ol time
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
24

until the next salah. Lnconsciously, he is organizing his time. 1his teaches elliciency and how to use time
wisely.

- luilding a strong social structure lor a muslim community. when a erson goes regularly to the salah, it
breaks the ice between the eole, and it also removes racial barriers. ll a erson is missing lrom the
regular salah, we remember them. lt creates a bond in the muslim community.

chater 2: 1ime ol 8alat chater 2: 1ime ol 8alat chater 2: 1ime ol 8alat chater 2: 1ime ol 8alat

8ala 8ala 8ala 8alat 1imes t 1imes t 1imes t 1imes

1. lach 8alat has a secilic aointed time

Verdict: lt had been established by a unanimous agreement that the live daily rayers should be erlormed on
their resective aointed times.
`.. l.l ,! < ! - ls .> .!L ! l.l |
l.l ' ls .l !.. !.
when you have linished As-8alat (the rayer - congregational), remember Allah standing, sitting down, and
lying down on your sides, but when you are lree lrom danger, erlorm As-8alat (lqamat-as- 8alat). Verily, the
rayer is enjoined on the believers at lixed hours. |An-Nisaa', 4:10!]

Lbadah ibn as-8amit narrated, the messenger ol Allah said, Allah has obligated live rayers. whoever excellently
erlorms their ablutions, rays them in their roer times." |malik and Ahmad]

2. 1imes ol each salat

lbn Abbas narrated that the Angel libreel led the lrohet to teach him the rayer times. On the lirst day, he rayed
all the rayers at the beginning ol their resective times and on the second day he delayed the rayers until just
belore the end ol their times lor all rayers excet maghrib where he instead rayed in on both days at the same
time, and then said, .the time ol each salat is between these two times." |1irmidhi]

1his hadeeth means that you have the otion ol raying the salat anytime between the two timings.

Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al 'Aas narrated, the messenger said: 1he time lor uhuhr is lrom when the sun has assed
its zenith and a man's shadow is equal in length to his height, until the time lor 'asr comes. 1he time lor 'asr lasts
until the twilight has laded. 1he time lor isha lasts until midnight. 1he time lor subh (lajr) rayer lasts lrom the
beginning ol the re-dawn so long as the sun has not yet started to rise. when the sun starts to rise, then sto
raying, lor it rises between the two horns ol the 8haytaan." |muslim]

!. 1he time ol dhuhr salat

1he start time: ly unanimous agreement, dhuhr starts when the sun declines (i.e. when the sun has assed its
zenith, which is the highest art ol the sky, and started to descend towards the west).

when the shadow starts stretching out towards the east, it means the sun is moving towards the west. when the
sun rises, your shadow stretches out towards the west. 1he shadow is the longest. As the sun moves u, the
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
2

shadow begins shrinking towards the erson until the sun hits the meridian. when the sun hits the meridian, the
shadow is under your leet. when the shadow starts stretching out on the other side, it is an indication ol the
beginning ol salat al-dhuhr.

1he extra shadow: 1he axis ol the earth shilts a lew degrees back and lorth deending on the season and is not
lixed. 1hese degrees cause the sun rays to hit the earth at an angle. 1hose around the equator receive the sun as
vertical as ossible, and at noon they do not have any shadow. when the sun is at its zenith, you will always have
an excess shadow above the equator. when the extra shadow begins stretching out, then that is the beginning ol
salat al-dhuhr. lvery day, the time changes.

1he end time:
lirst oinion: maalik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad and ahl al hadeeth
lt ends when the shadow ol everything is equal in length to the object itsell, lus the length ol its shadow at midday
(the shadow ol the object at the time ol the zenith - the extra shadow). ll the excess shadow was 6 inches and the
object itsell is 1 yard, then the end ol salat al dhuhr according this model is when the shadow is 1 yard - 6 inches.

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah
1he end ol its time is when the shadow ol everything becomes twice its length in addition to the shadow at midday.

Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated that the messenger said: when it is hot, delay the (dhuhr) salat until it
cools down, lor the intensity ol heat is lrom the exhalation ol lell." |lukhari and muslim]

1he relerable time:
1o delay it in the summer and hasten with it in the cooler seasons.

Anas narrated that the messenger said: 1he messenger used to hasten with uhuhr 8alat when the cold intensilies
(in winters), but when the heat intensilies (in the summer) he would ray it in cooler times." |lukhari]




w l
8hadow is longest
w l
8hadow shrinking.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
26






8cholar(s) Oinion ualeel
lmams malik,
8hali'ee, Ahmad
lt ends when the shadow ol everything is
equal in length to the object itsell, lus
the length ol its shadow at midday (the
shadow ol the object at the time ol the
zenith)

lmam Abu
lanilah
1he end ol its time is when the shadow ol
everything becomes twice its length in
addition to the shadow at midday.
Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated that the
messenger said: when it is hot, delay the (dhuhr)
salat until it cools down, lor the intensity ol heat is
lrom the exhalation ol lell." |lukhari and muslim]

8ome masajid lix the time lor salat al-dhuhr lor the jama'ah. can you ray at the beginning ol its time, or should
you wait until the jama'ah time7 ll you are at work and can ray at the early time, then ray at that time. ll you
can still make it at the congregational salah, then go to the congregation as well and ray it twice. 1he lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that one ol the signs ol the uay ol ludgment is that eole will delay the salah.

ln revious times, the mu'adhin was resonsible lor the timing ol the salah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) said the mu'adhin is the trustworthy erson.

w l
8hadow towards the last.
w l
8hadow right below you.
uhuhr starts
immediately
alter this.
w l
8hadow equal to height - excess shadow.
lnd ol dhuhr.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
27

4. 1he time ol asr salat
1he start time:
ly unanimous agreement, the time ol asr begins when the time ol dhuhr ends (considering the two oinions ol the
end ol dhuhr time).

1he end ol dhuhr salat is dillerent based on the luqahaa: therelore, they diller on the beginning ol salat al asr. 1he
majority oinion is that it begins when the shadow is equal to the height ol the object lus extra shadow.
According to lmam Abu lanilah, asr begins when the shadow is two times the height ol the object lus extra
shadow.

1he end time:
ly unanimous agreement, the time ol asr lasts as long as the sun has not set.

Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated the messenger said: le who has caught (rayed) one rakah ol asr
belore the sun set has caught his asr." |lukhari and muslim]

You must ray salat al asr belore the sun turns red. ll someone is rushed to make asr belore the sun goes down and
when he starts his salah the disc ol the sun reaches the horizon and when he linishes one raka'ah alter standing
alter the lirst ruku' and this is done belore the sun goes down, then the erson has rayed on time. As long as you
can still see art ol the sun, then you have rayed salat al asr. 1he erson is blameworthy lor the delay. 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) encourages eole to ray asr in articular on time. You should ray asr while
the sun is still bright.

1he relerable time:
lirst oinion: Abu lanilah
1o delay it as long as the sun has not changed its color.

8econd oinion: maalik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad
1o hasten with asr at the earliest time.

controversy: can a lanali ray asr earlier at the time ol asr not according to his oinion7 You should ray with
the jama'ah il you are not a comlete adherent to one articular madhab. ll you lollow the madhab literally 100/,
then you should delay the salah until the time you believe to be the beginning.
lt is no roblem lor a lollower ol another madhab to delay it until the time according to the lanali madhab because
it is still art ol the time lor the salah.

8ummary:
8alat al-asr - its start time:
8cholar(s) Oinion ualeel
lmams Abu lanilah, malik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad when dhuhr ends ljmaa'

8alat al-asr - its end time:
8cholar(s) Oinion
lmam Abu lanilah 1o delay it as long as the sun has not changed its color.
lmams malik, 8hali'ee and Ahmad 1o hasten Asr at the earliest time




Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
28

. 1he time ol maghrib salat
1he start time:
ly unanimous agreement, the time ol maghrib begins when the disc ol the sun has comletely set.

what il the sun is behind mountains7 You must allow lor some time to be sure it is maghrib time.
when the sun goes behind land that is llat, then it is maghrib time. 1he glow in the horizon is natural to be there
lor some time. 1he actual time lor maghrib is when the disc goes behind the horizon.

1he sun assed behind a san dune, and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) asked a comanion three times to
bring him lood. 1he sand dune is closer to the horizon than the mountain.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that the sun never stoed lor anyone excet lor Yusha when he was
lighting and made du'a to Allah to give him some extra time to win the battle belore the sun sets, and Allah held
the sun.

1he end time:
lirst oinion: maalik and 8hali'ee in the new madhab
maghrib has no extended time, it ends alter a time asses enough to erlorm wudu, covering, adhan, iqamah, and
live rakahs.
1his would be around 1-20 minutes in length.

lbn Abbas: .excet maghrib where he instead rayed it on both days at the same time." |1irmidhi]

8econd oinion:
maghrib ends when the twilight disaears lrom the horizon.

1hen they dillered over the actual twilight into two oinions:
a. 1he red twilight, according to 8hali'ee in the old madhab, and Ahmad and the muhaditheen and the
majority ol eole today

.maghrib time lasts until the evening glow disaears." |Abu uawood]

.the last time lor maghrib is when the horizon becomes dark." |Abu uawood]

Abdullah ibn Amr (radni A||anu 'annu): .the time lor maghrib lasts until the twilight has laded."
|muslim]

b. 1he white twilight, according to Abu lanilah

when the glow starts disaearing, it turns orange to red and then as the red twilight goes down, there is a
brightness or white twilight, which is like a belt above the horizon. 1his white twilight stretches and goes down as
well. Above the white twilight is a blue twilight which is a mixture between the blue, urle, and whiteness.

1he relerable time:
ly unanimous agreement - right alter the sunset.






Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
29

8alat al-maghrib - its end time:

8cholar(s) Oinion ualeel
lmams malik and 8hali'ee in one
oinion
maghrib has no extended time, it
ends alter a time asses enough to
erlorm wudu, covering, adhan,
iqamah, and live rakahs.
lbn Abbas: .excet maghrib where
he instead rayed it on both days at
the same time." |1irmidhi]

lmams Abu lanilah, 8hali'ee, and
Ahmad
maghrib ends when the twilight
disaears lrom the horizon.
8cholars diller in the time ol actual
twilight:

1) 1he white twilight (lmam Abu
lanliah)
2) 1he red twilight (lmam 8hali'ee
in his old madhab, and lmam
Ahmad)
ualeel lor lirst oinion:
.maghrib time lasts until the
evening glow disaears." |Abu
uawood]

ualeel lor second oinion:
.the last time lor maghrib is when
the horizon becomes dark." |Abu
uawood]

Abdullah ibn Amr (radni A||anu
'annu): .the time lor maghrib lasts
until the twilight has laded."
|muslim]

8ometimes the sahabah would ray two rak'at sunnah belore maghrib alter the adhan. 1his is relerable. 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, lray belore maghrib, ray belore maghrib, ray belore maghrib. lor
whoever who wishes." You can ray the two rak'at belore maghrib at home or in the masjid.

6. 1he time ol isha salat

1he start time:
ly unanimous agreement, it starts alter the twilight disaears (but then considering the dillerent views on which
twilight indicates the end ol maghrib time).

According to lmam maalik, the end ol maghrib does not constitute the beginning ol isha, and there is a buller zone.

1he end time:
lirst oinion: Abu lanilah
As long as the dawn has not yet risen.

8econd oinion: maalik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad
Lntil the end ol the lirst third ol the night or the lirst hall, and as a necessity until lajr time.

O: what is hall ol the night7 ls it the same as midnight7
8tart measuring the time at sunset until lajr and divide that time. lor examle: hall ol the night today is around
12:4 am.

1he most authentic oinion according to the evidences is hall ol the night.



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!0


1he relerable time:
lirst oinion: 8hali'ee
1o erlorm isha at the beginning ol its resective time.

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah, maalik, and Ahmad
1o delay isha to just belore one third or hall ol the night has assed.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) delayed isha until the sahabah almost slet in the masjid. when this
haened, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) came out and rayed isha and said, 1his is the time lor salat al
isha excet l do not want to create hardshis lor my ummah."

Abu lurayrah narrated, the messenger said: ll l was not alraid ol creating hardshi l would have ordered to delay
lsha to just the lirst third or hall ol the night. |1irmidhi and Nisa'i]

8alat al-isha - its end time:
8cholar(s) Oinion
lmam Abu lanilah As long as the dawn has not yet risen.
lmams malik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad
Lntil the end ol the lirst third ol the night, or the lirst hall, and as a
necessity until lajr time.

8alat al-isha - its relerable time:
8cholar(s) Oinion ualeel
lmam 8hali'ee
1o erlorm isha at the beginning ol
its resective time.

lmam Abu lanilah
1o delay isha to just belore one third
or hall ol the night has assed.
Abu lurayrah narrated, the
messenger said: ll l was not alraid
ol creating hardshi l would have
ordered to delay
lsha to just the lirst third or hall ol
the night. |1irmidhi and Nisa'i]

7. 1he time ol lajr salat

Virtue ol lajr salat: Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) said in 8urah Al lsra: 1he recitation ol lajr is indeed witnessed by
the largest number ol angels."

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: oive the glad tidings to those who walk in the darknesses with the
comlete and erlect light on the uay ol ludgment."

ladeeth: 1here is no salah heavier on the munaliq more than lajr and isha." lsha is dillicult because you have to
delay the comlort ol slee.

1he start time:
ly unanimous agreement, when the second dawn (al lajr ath-thani or al lajr as-saadiq) rises, that is the lateral
brightness sreading along the horizon and connected to it.


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!1

O: what is the lirst dawn (al-lajr al-awwal or al-lajr al-kaadhib)7
1he lalse dawn is the light that stretches vertically rior to the horizontal brightness that aears on the horizon.
low does this haen7 1he brightness ol the lalse dawn stretches across the horizon. lt is the rellection ol the
glow ol the sun ray. 1he light is rellected u lrom the earth until the light hits the earth tangentially. lajr begins
when the white thread starts sreading across the horizon.

Al lajr al awwal is the lirst dawn or is also called al lajr al kaadhib, meaning the lalse dawn. lt is the brightness
aearing in the background ol the sky. 1he true dawn is al lajr as saadiq.

1he end time:
ly unanimous agreement: as long as the sun has not risen. Lntil the comlete disc ol the sun is above the horizon.

1he relerable time:
lirst oinion: malik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad
1he early time during the darkness ol lajr (al-ghalas).
1hey relerred the beginning ol the time ol lajr, which is called al-ghalas, meaning the darkness ol lajr. lt is bright
in the horizon, but it is not bright outside.

Abu musa narrated: le (the messenger) ollered lajr 8alat at daybreak when the eole could hardly recognize
one another." |muslim]

labir narrated: .and lajr le (the messenger) used to oller it during (ohalas) time (when it was still dark)."
|lukhari and muslim]

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah
1he later time during the brightness ol lajr (al-islaar).
1his is aroximately !0-4 minutes rior to sunrise.

8ometimes the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would start the salah during al-ghalas time and linishes at al-
islaar time.

kali' bin lhadeej narrated, the messenger said: lray lajr during (lslaar) time, lor its greater lor your reward."
|1irmidhi]

O: what is the ruling on Ounoot (sulication) during salat al lajr7
1he 8hali'ee school believes that there must be qunoot during salat al lajr in the second rak'ah. 1he majority
disagree with them and say that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was making du'a lor a secilic occasion and
did not do it on a regular basis.

8alat al-lajr:
8cholar(s) Oinion ualeel
lmams malik,
8hali'ee, and
Ahmad
1he early time during the
darkness ol lajr (al-ohalas)
Abu musa narrated: le (the messenger) ollered lajr 8alat at
daybreak when the eole could hardly recognize
one another." |muslim]

labir narrated: .and lajr le (the messenger) used to oller it
during (ohalas) time (when it was still dark)."
|lukhari and muslim]
lmam Abu
lanilah
1he later time during the
brightness ol lajr (al-lslaar)
kali' bin lhadeej narrated, the messenger said: lray lajr
during (lslaar) time, lor its greater lor your reward."
|1irmidhi]
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!2

lorbidden lorbidden lorbidden lorbidden 1imes ol 8alat 1imes ol 8alat 1imes ol 8alat 1imes ol 8alat

1hese times are lorbidden lor salat excet lor the lard salawat.

1. Alter lajr
1here should be no salah erlormed alter lajr until the sun rises." ll you ray salat al lajr, then do not ray
anything else until the sun rises.

2. when the sun rises
You cannot ray the sunnah or make qada' lor the sunnah while the sun is rising.

!. when the sun is at the zenith
1his is -10 minutes rior to dhuhr time. 8alat ad-duha should not be rayed during this time.

4. Alter asr
No salat until alter the sun has comletely set.

. when the sun sets
1he reason lor the rohibition ol the rayer while the sun rises or sets: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
said the 8haytan goes in the direction ol the sun so that it rises or sets between his two horns and those who
rayed to the sun rayed in the direction ol the 8haytan.

Lqbah ibn Amir narrated: 1here are three times at which Allah's messenger used to lorbid us to lray or bury our
dead: when the sun begins to rise till its lully u, when the sun is at its height at midday till it asses the meridian,
and when the sun draws near to setting till it sets." |muslim]

Abu 8a'eed al-lhudri narrated, l heard the messenger ol Allah saying: No 8alat is to be ollered alter the morning
8alat until the sun rises, or alter Asr 8alat until the sun sets." |lukhari and muslim]

ll someone enters the masjid a lew minutes lor salat al maghrib and wants to ray tahiyyatul masjid, can he7 ll it is
a lew minutes belore maghrib, then kee standing or do not ray until hearing the adhan. ll it is 1-20 minutes
belore the adhan, then it is a salat with a sabab or reason, so it can be rayed.

According to the 8hali'ee madhab, il there is an occasion lor a secilic salah and it needs to be erlormed during
these occasions excet when the sun sets or rises, then you can ray it. lor examle: you need to ray salat al
istikhaarah and made wudu, can you ray it alter asr7 Yes. 8imilarly, a erson can ray two rak'at alter asr time
when they enter the masjid. 1here is an occasion lor these two rak'at and you are not raying alter asr because it is
alter asr but because there is a reason lor the rayer.

8cenarios to 1imes ol 8alat 8cenarios to 1imes ol 8alat 8cenarios to 1imes ol 8alat 8cenarios to 1imes ol 8alat

1. countries where the visibility ol the twilight becomes conlusing, and the day and night time become
irregular, when to they ray isha and lajr7
ln countries like 8candinavia, the sun may be resent lor lour months. 1here is no dillerentiation between
night and day. 1here are three oinions on this toic:
- 1he eole are not obligated to do the salawat, meaning they only ray dhuhr and asr. 1his is a
legitimate oinion but not necessarily correct. 1heir evidences are strong.
- most aroriate oinion: 1he eole lollow the closest normal region. 1hose in 8candinavia can
lollow the closest reason to the south (i.e. loland or oermany).
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!!

- what about il eole do not have access to technology7 1he third oinion is that they need to
estimate the time ol the salawat and distribute them evenly. 1he evidence: ladeeth ol Ad-uajjal.
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: 1he lirst day ol his arrival will leel like an entire year.
1he second day will be like a month. 1hen like a week and then the rest ol his days will be like
ours." 1he comanions asked how they will make the salah during that time, and the lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, lstimate."

2. ll someone rays salat belore its beginning time lor convenience, would it be accetable7
- 1his is not accetable. 1he solution will be discussed later.

!. ll someone delays salat lrom the start time until later time and then something wrong haens to him or
he/she dies, are they accountable lor this salat7
- 1he erson is not accountable lor the salah because the erson had the otion to delay or ray at
the earlier time. 1he erson is not accountable unless they delayed until minutes belore the end
ol the time because they already actually assed the time ol that salah.

4. ll a woman delays her salat until her eriod starts, is she accountable lor that salat7
- ll a sister knows her eriod will begin between dhuhr and asr and delays the salah lor salah, are
they accountable7 1here are dillerent oinions. 8haykh Yaser's oinion is that they are not
accountable lor that salah and do not have to make it u unless they delay it until the very last
ortion ol the salah time.

. ll a woman (student or working mom) becomes ure lrom her eriod during the time ol one ol the rayers
but was unable to shower until later during the day or later that night, is she accountable lor this delay7
- ll it does not create hardshi on the woman, then she should do it. lerlorm it at the earliest
ossible time.

6. ls it still obligatory to erlorm lard salat even during the rohibited time7
- Yes.

7. can someone ray during the rohibited times lor a articular reason other than lard salat, such as two
rakah uon entering a masjid7
- Yes.
- According to lmam Abu lanilah: No.

8avor the sweetness ol the salat:
- 8alat was divided throughout the day and the night so that you do not leel bored
- kemember, the time ol salat stretches long and shrinks short throughout the year deending on the season, it
is not always the same. You are always asking when the salah begins and ends. ll the time lor the salawat was
lixed, then you would never need to ask. Your mind is always busy to know when the salah is.
- You will lind this siritual break when you really need it, you will always need a time out as a reliel lrom the
stress ol this lile.
- 1he rohibited times, these are to lorce you not to turn into a monk who lorgets about this lile or the herealter.

Action ltem:
- 1ry to observe the sun lor two lull days.
- wake u early belore lajr and watch the white thread.
- Lse an object to mark the shadow throughout the day, to determine the beginning ol the time ol each salat.
- Lse that same object next day to determine the end time ol each salat.
- watch as the sun goes down, and raise your lord as you see the variation in colors through the horizon.
- can you identily the end ol maghrib and beginning ol isha according to the dillerent oinions7
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!4


orou Activity: 1is lor waking u lor salat al lajr
- llace alarm in the bathroom.
- make intention to wake u lor lajr.
- lave multile alarm clocks.
- Vibrating alarm clock.
- Alarm clock that lights u.
- oet married and have children.
- 1alk to yoursell belore going to slee.
- luy a rooster.

chater !: Adhan and lqamah chater !: Adhan and lqamah chater !: Adhan and lqamah chater !: Adhan and lqamah

Adhan & lqamah Adhan & lqamah Adhan & lqamah Adhan & lqamah

1. what is adhan7
1echnical delinition: A secilic call and ronouncement, given during the time ol rayers, as a notilication
and an indication to their starting time."

2. 1he virtue ol adhan
Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrates, the messenger (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, ll eole would
know what is there (as reward) in (calling lor) adhan and (raying) in the lirst row, they would have to draw
lots lor them (to avoid conllict over them)." |lukhari]

ll you are calling lor the adhan, then do it regularly.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: On the uay ol ludgment, the mu'adhins will come having the
longest necks." 1his is a sign ol their excellence. when the mu'adhin calls lor the adhan, he extends his neck
as much as ossible.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: On the uay ol ludgment, everything around the mu'adhin while
he was calling the adhan will testily lor him."

!. 1he excellence ol mu'adhin (one who calls adhan)
Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated the messenger ol Allah said: 1he imam is a guarantor, and the
mu'adhin is a trustee. O Allah! ouide the imams and lorgive the mu'adhins." |Abu uawood and Nisa'i]

when hearing the adhan, we assume that the mu'adhin has done his job and called the adhan at the correct
time. 1he mu'adhin should not allow the mistake ol calling the adhan at the wrong time to haen.

4. 1he story ol the adhan
ln makkah, the number ol muslims was small. 1hey could make jama'ah without any call. when the messenger
arrived in madinah, the number ol muslims started to increase. 1he messenger built masjid an-Nabi to oller
salat regularly. ly the second year ol hijrah, the number ol muslims had increased. 1he eole announced in a
loud voice. As-salat ul-jamiah (the salah lor jam'ah is ready)." 1hose who heard this call came to join the
salat. muslims lelt the need to lind a way to inlorm eole to come to the salat. kasulullah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) asked his sahabah lor their advice. 8ome sahabah suggested that the muslims, like the lews, should
blow a horn to announce the time lor the salat. Others said that the muslims ring bells as the christians do in
their churches. A lew roosed that the muslims, like the lire-worshiers, kindle a lire call to call eole to
ray. 1he messenger wasn't satislied with any ol these ideas. le waited to hear a better idea or to receive
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!

guidance lrom Allah. One day, Abdullah ibn 2ayd came to the messenger and said, O messenger ol Allah! l had
a beautilul dream last night." what was the dream you saw7" 1he messenger asked 2ayd. 2ayd answered,
l've seen that a man wearing green garments taught me the words ol the adhan and advised me to call eole
to rayer with these words." le then recited the words ol the adhan. 1he messenger recognized that the
dream ol 2ayd was true. le asked 2ayd to teach the words ol adhan to lilal. lilal stood u called the adhan.
1he voice ol lilal resounded throughout madinah. leole came to masjid an-Nabi, and Lmar ibn al lhattab
came and said, O messenger ol Allah, an angel taught me the same words in my dream last night." And the
messenger said, Alhumdulillah." |Abu uawood and lbn majah]

. 1he ruling ol the adhan
mustahab and highly recommended. 1he oinion ol the majority ol ulema is that it is mustahab. lmam 8hali'ee
believes it to be lard kilayyah (a community obligation). ll no one calls lor the adhan in a community, then the
entire community is sinlul lor this.

6. 1he conditions ol adhan
- 1he call should be given alter the start ol salat time.
- 1o be in Arabic language. 1his has never been done excet in 1urkey. lart ol the translormation ol the
country was lorcing the adhan to be called in the 1urkish language, and this was done lor many years until
alter the death ol Ataturk.
- Adhan should be erlormed by a muslim, male. women can call the adhan il it is done lor an only lemale
congregation.
- 1o be loud enough lor eole to hear. ll someone whisers the adhan, then it deleats the urose. 1he adhan
is a notilication ol the beginning ol the time ol salah. ll loud seakers are not allowed because ol regulation,
then they should try as much as they can (i.e. mu'adhin can stand outside to call the adhan, or even making the
adhan inside ol the masjid is sullicient).
- 1o maintain the order ol its statements.
what il the erson makes a mistake while calling the adhan7 uo you resume or start over7 1he adhan is
started over lrom the beginning.
- 1o be erlormed by one individual in its entirety, i.e. it cannot be divided. orou adhan used to be done in
8yria in uamascus. what about having multile mu'adhins in the same masjid with each calling in a dillerent
direction7 1his was discussed in books ol liqh and is not accetable. ll the masjid was so huge, then you can
have more than one mu'adhin, but they should be in directions where they cannot hear each other, but il there
are seakers and microhones, then one mu'adhin is sullicient.

8haykh Yaser believes that it is better to have one masjid call lor the adhan il there are lor examle ten masajid
within a very short radius. Not every masjid needs to call lor the adhan. ln Amman, lordan, there is one
mu'adhin lor all ol the masajid because they broadcast the adhan by radio lrom the central masjid.

1he main condition is that the mu'adhin should have a strong, dee voice. A strong voice does not mean a
beautilul voice. 1here is no benelit lrom having a solt voice call the adhan.

7. what are the words ol the adhan7
1he lollowing is the most oular lormat ol the adhan:

Allah is the oreatest, Allah is the oreatest.
Allah is the oreatest, Allah is the oreatest.
l bear witness that there is none worthy ol worshi but Allah.
l bear witness that there is none worthy ol worshi but Allah.
l bear witness that muhammad is the messenger ol Allah.
l bear witness that muhammad is the messenger ol Allah.
lasten to the rayer, hasten to the rayer.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!6

lasten to real success, hasten to real success.
Allah is the oreatest, Allah is the oreatest.
1here is none worthy ol worshi but Allah.

8hould all ol the words be connected together or searate7 1hey can be searate, and this is the most common
lorm in the Arabian eninsula. lxamle: Allahu Akbar. (sto) Allahu Akbar. (sto) Allahu Akbar. (sto) Allahu
Akbar.

ln the adhan lor lajr, the lollowing words are added alter layya 'ala-l-lalah:
lrayer is better than slee, lrayer is better than slee.
1he majority add this to the second adhan, which calls lor the actual time ol lajr. 8ome luqaha and ahl al
hadeeth say that it should be added in the lirst adhan ol lajr because you are waking eole u lor lajr. 8haykh
Yaser is in lavor ol adding this to the lirst adhan, but unlortunately it is not done.

O: Are there any other lorms ol adhan7
1he maliki lormat adds Allahu Akbar in the beginning and can be heard in North Alrica and libya and arts ol
8udan.

1he 8hi'a have their own way ol making adhan. Alter saying Allah is the oreatest, Allah is the oreatest.
l bear witness that there is none worthy ol worshi but Allah," they add a sentence: ash hadu anna Ali'un
waliyullah, Ali and his children are all inlallible.". Also, alter lasten to the rayer, hasten to the rayer.
lasten to real success, hasten to real success," they add a sentence.

8. low many adhans are there lor lajr salat7

lirst Oinion: maalik and 8hali'ee and Ahmad
1wo adhans, one belore the actual time ol lajr and one uon the start ol lajr time.

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah
1here should be one adhan lor lajr uon the start ol the actual time ol lajr.

1hird oinion: 8cholars ol ladith
ll there were two mu'adhins in one locality, then one should call belore the actual time and one lor the actual
time ol lajr.

1en to lilteen minutes is more than enough lor the time between the adhan. lt is ermissible lor the same
mu'adhin to make both ol the adhans.

8ummary ol oinions:
8cholar(s) Oinion
lmams malik, 8hali'ee, Ahmad 2 adhaans: 1 belore actual lajr and one at the start ol lajr time
lmam Abu lanilah 1 adhaan at the actual start ol lajr
8cholars ol ladeeth
ll there are two mu'adhins in one locality, then one should call
belore the time ol lajr and one at its start





Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!7

9. ltiquettes ol adhan
- lurilication. 1he mu'adhin does not have to have wudu to make the adhan, but it is better.

- lacing the qiblah. Originally, the mu'adhin used to stand somewhere in the masjid near a door or on a
minaret, and he turned around everywhere while calling the adhan. 1oday, since we have microhones,
the mu'adhin laces the direction ol the eole.

- calling lrom above an elevated area

- 8tanding while calling adhan. 1he mu'adhin should be standing while calling the adhan. ll the mu'adhin
sits down, it is accetable, but it is better to be standing.

- 1o insert the index lingers into the ears. le tries to cu his hands around his lace as much as ossible. 1he
reason this is done is because it amlilies the voice. le closes his ears so that he can raise his voice as loud
as ossible. 1his is not an obligation, and some ulema say one hand is enough, or it can even be done with
both hands down.

- 8lowing down while chanting the adhan. 1he adhan should be slow lor the eole to hear it.

- lollowing the rules ol tajweed. what about the mudood7 1he ulema say it is ok to rolong the mudood,
but without making it too much ol singing.

- 1urning the lace right and lelt uon saying the two hayya ala.". lt is simly turning the lace one side and
then the other side. 1urn right alter saying hayya 'ala as-salah" and turn lelt alter saying hayya 'ala-l-
lalah" or one in each direction7 linish the comlete line while lacing one direction or can you turn back to
the middle and linish7 lither way is line and all are accetable. lt deends on inlorming the eole. ll you
are on a minaret with neighborhoods surrounding it, then it is ok lor the mu'adhin to move around on the
minaret to call the adhan.

- 1he mu'adhin (who calls adhan) is better to call the iqamah. lt is ok lor someone dillerent to call the
iqamah.

- lor the listeners to reeat with the mu'adhin. 1hose listening should reeat alter the mu'adhin. when the
mu'adhin says hayya 'ala al-salah" and hayya 'ala-l-lalah", then the listener says la hawla wa la quwatta
illa billah." leole should be quiet during the adhan, but they are not obligated to be quiet. lt is highly
recommended to be quiet while the mu'adhin is calling lor adhan.

- Adhan should not be interruted by loreign seech. ll he seaks, it does not invalidate the adhan unless it
becomes a long conversation. ll he starts a conversation, then he should start over.

- leole who are in a masjid should not leave alter the adhan has been called. ll a erson is in the masjid and
hears the adhan lor the time ol salah, then he/she should not leave without laying in congregation lrom
the sunnah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) warned us that this is a sign ol hyocrisy il someone
leaves and it is an act ol the 8haytan. 1his ruling only alies to the masjid.







Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!8

10. 1he du'a alter the adhan

O Allah, Owner ol this erlect call and Owner ol this rayer to be erlormed, bestow uon muhammad al
waseelah (a station in laradise) and al ladeelah (a rank above the rest ol creation) and send him uon a raised
latlorm which you have romised him. Verily, You never lail in Your lromise."

he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that alter saying the adhan, then send salat uon me. |muslim]
Lsually, the mu'adhin does this to himsell. lt is bid'ah lor it to be done out loud.

11. what is the iqamah7
lqamah is the call to stand u in order to establish the salat."

12. what are the words ol the iqamah7
y unanimous agreement, the statements ol the adhan should be reeated in the iqamah and the statement qad
qaamat-is salat" (the salat has been established) should be added to it alter saying hayya 'ala-l-lalah."

1hey then dillered on the number ol times each statement is reeated in the iqamah to three oinions:

lirst oinion: 8hali'ee and Ahmad:
1o reeat the statements ol the adhan once each, and the statement qad qaamat-is salat" twice.

8econd oinion: maalik
8ame as the lirst oinion excet that the statement qad qaamat-is salat" should also be ronounced once.

1hird oinion: Abu lanilah
1he iqamah should be like the adhan in reeating each statement twice including the statement qad qaamat-is
salat".

lvery single school ol thought may have some dillerences among their jurists, but these are the general
oinions ol the madhabs.

8ummary ol oinions:
8cholar(s) Oinion
lmams 8hali'ee and Ahmad
lach statement x 1
'Oad qaamits salaat' x 2
lmam malik lvery statement x 1
lmam Abu lanilah lqamah should be identical to the adhan



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!9

1!. when should the eole stand u lor salat7
1he eole in the masjid should stand u and line u uon seeing the imam entering the rayer area to
erlorm the salat.

According to a hadeeth ol lilal (radni A||anu 'annu): 1he comanions would stand u the moment they saw the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) coming in, so they were ready and lined u.

14. 8cenarios related to adhan and iqamah
- can the adhan be given belore the beginning ol the salat time7
No. ll this is done in order to call eole lor salah, then it is a breach ol covenant because the mu'adhin is
like a trustee.

- can a blind erson call lor the adhan7
Yes. Abdullah ibn Abi makhtoum was blind and a mu'adhin. le would recognize the time lrom salah lrom
those around him.

- 8hould an individual call lor the adhan and iqamah il raying alone7
1here is no need lor the adhan. 1he adhan is to call the congregation, but it can still be done. 1here is no
iqamah lor the sunnah. ll eole are already gathered lor the salah, there is no need to call the adhan, but
it is mustahab and can be done.

- 8hould a erson who entered a masjid alter the salat was over, call lor adhan and iqamah7
Another adhan is not called lor, but you can call another iqamah.

- ls it ermissible to use the new universal adhan system7
1his system is unilying the masajid and using a radio to broadcast the adhan. 1he virtue ol the adhan
would die out, so it is better to call the adhan.

- which is better, reading the Ouran or reeating alter the mu'adhin7
keeating alter the mu'adhin is better during the time ol the adhan because the adhan has only that time.
loth cannot be done at the same time. lbn 1aymiyyah mentioned that al maqdool (the less valuable / less
relerred) can take recedence over the more relerred action. lor examle, il you come to the jama'ah
lor dhuhr but it has already begun, then you join the jama'ah and do not ray the sunnah lirst because it is
more virtuous. 1he time lor calling the adhan is more virtuous than reciting the Ouran.

- 8hould the adhan be called lor anything besides the call lor salat7
Yes. 1he adhan is called when there is a new baby and it reminds that he is the servant ol Allah. Another
occasion is il a erson is scared. 1he 8hayateen do not like the adhan and run away lrom it. ll you are
making rukiyyah, you call the adhan because the evil jinn hate the adhan.

- uoes the iqamah nullily the nall salat7
ll someone enters the masjid and started raying tahiyyatul masjid or is raying the sunnah lor dhuhr,
according to lmam Abu lanilah, continue until linished even il you are going to miss a rak'ah ol the lard
salah.

ladeeth: when the iqamah has been called, there should be no other rayer excet lor the obligatory
one." 1he ulema say that this hadeeth means that the sunnah salah is nullilied. Other luqaha say that
should be" means that it does not nullily the salah, but it is not right. ll you are at the beginning ol the
salah and know that you will not catch takbeeratul ihram, then leave that salah. ll you can linish the salah
belore the imam starts the obligatory salah, then go ahead and linish it.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
40

ll making a lard qada', then the adhan does not nullily the salah.

8avor the sweetness ol the adhan:
- Adhan is the most, il not the only, regular thing in the lile ol muslims.
- Adhan had amazed many non-muslims who visited muslim land. 8ome eole have embraced lslam because ol
the adhan.
- Adhan is what makes a land a muslim land.
- Adhan is the lirst thing a child should hear alter birth.
- Adhan has a rolound meaning, go beyond the sound ol it. lvery single minute, there is someone raising the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) or making adhan.

Action ltem:
- memorize the words ol adhan and iqamah
- listen to exert mu'adhins over the internet
- lractice the chanting ol adhan and iqamah
- Ask a learned erson or the imam to check your adhan style lor you
- oo to your local masjid belore salat time and take ermission to give adhan

chater 4: Anatomy ol 8alat chater 4: Anatomy ol 8alat chater 4: Anatomy ol 8alat chater 4: Anatomy ol 8alat

when we discuss the descrition ol salat, we need to break the salat into dillerent segments and arts. 8ome
ortions are essential lor the salat and some are crucial but not essential and others enhance the quality ol the salat
and some are actions that are considered mubaah, meaning il there is a need lor it then you can do it.

8huroot ol 8alat 8huroot ol 8alat 8huroot ol 8alat 8huroot ol 8alat

1. uelinition
linguistic meaning: 8huroot is a lural ol shart and it means the sign or the indicator.

8hart is a condition or stiulation. lt is something that recedes the salah, and some are included as rearation
lor the salah.

1echnical meaning: An evident and constant attribute whose absence necessitates the absence ol the hukm, but
whose resence does not automatically bring about its object. And it is searate lrom the essence ol the act itsell.

lxamle: tahaara or wudu is a condition ol salah. lt is not lrom the essence ol the act itsell because tahaara is not
art ol the salah and is comletely searate. 1he urilication is a condition to validate the salah. lowever, il you
have wudu, you do not have to ray. ll you want to ray, you must have wudu.

2. lre-requisites lor obligating salat
lre-requisites ol salat are the attributes sought to obligate salat on an individual, and they are not art ol salat
itsell.

lslam
ln order to obligate salat on anyone, they must be muslim. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) when he sent
mu'adh to Yemen, he told him to call them to testily that there is no god but Allah and muhammad is lis
messenger. ll they obey him, then command them to ray.



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
41

O: ls it obligatory on a convert to lslam to make u lor the missed salat during his/her liletime rior to lslam7
1hey are not obligated to do anything. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) told us that lslam destroys the ast
(excet the good actions).

luberty
Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) narrated: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: 1he en has been lilted lrom
three: lrom the child until he reaches uberty." |Abu uawood]

O: Are we obligated to order our minors to erlorm salat7
Yes. when you order them, you do not order them as an obligation lor them to erlorm the salat. You are ordering
them in order to train them and create a routine lor them. Once a routine is created, it is easier lor them to
erlorm the salat. Ayah: command your lamily and your household with the salah. 8how atience." lt is very
dillicult to convince children to ray. 8ometimes, in order to ensure their salah, you lose your khushoo'.

what about children advising their arents about the salah time7 1he child should wake u the arent when the
time lor salah start shrinking to the time where there will not be enough time to ray the salah. 1he child does not
have authority over the arent and can only give advice.

what about lor the wile7 1he wile has no authority to wake him u but can advise him. ll she advises him and he
does not wake u, then he cannot claim that he was sleeing and did not wake u.

1he arents have authority over grown children living in their homes.

, il l.l!. .L. !.l. il`. ! > i, .1-l 1.ll
And enjoin As-8alat (the rayer) on your lamily, and be atient in ollering them |i.e. the 8alat (rayers)]. we ask
not ol you a rovision (i.e. to give us something: money, etc.): we rovide lor you. And the good end (i.e. laradise)
is lor the muttaqn (ious - see V.2:2). |1a la 20:1!2]

8ound mind
when someone is sleeing, he has lost his sound mind temorarily, and this is natural. ll someone is sleeing, and
the time ol salah is nearing the end, are you obligated to wake them u belore the sun rises7 lt deends. lor
examle, the husband wakes u lor lajr and makes wudu' and then goes to wake u his wile belore leaving lor the
masjid, and when he returns and lind her still sleeing, then should he tell her to wake u to make the salah belore
the sun rises7 1here is a disute over the answer.

8haykh Yaser believes that when the time narrows so much near the end ol the salah time, then you are obligated
to wake them u. lor examle, il you have a roommate who is sleeing and it is nearing the end ol dhuhr time and
the erson begins arguing with you, then you have the right to tell them that you did your art and leave them. ll
you have authority over them, such as your children or wile, then you can command them to stand u to ray
salah.

O: what is the ruling on someone who loses his mind voluntary (by intoxication, or medication) or by lorce
(sickness or assing out), and remains as such until the time ol one salat or more exire7

!. conditions lor validating salat
conditions ol salat are the acts required and acquired to validate salat, rior to the establishment ol salat, and they
are not art ol the act ol salat itsell.


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
42

1o be erlormed alter the time has certainly started

O: what is the ruling on raying while doubting the start ol its time7
ll you know that the time ol dhuhr is around 1:00 but are not sure il it is 12: or 1:0 or 1:10, can you make a guess
and ray the salat7 No! ll you guess between 12: and 1:10, then you can ray alter 1:10 and not belore because
you are certain lor sure that it is alter 1:10 and are unsure il it is between 12: and 1:10.

You must ray the salah in the lixed time.

`.. l.l ,! < ! - ls .> .!L !
l.l | l.l ' ls .l !.. !.
when you have linished As-8alat (the rayer - congregational), remember Allah standing, sitting down, and lying
down on your sides, but when you are lree lrom danger, erlorm As-8alat (lqamat-as- 8alat). Verily, the rayer is
enjoined on the believers at lixed hours. |An Nisa 4:10!]

lurilication lrom minor and major ritual imurities

1here are two lorms ol tahaara: major and minor. 1he erson must be ure lrom both. 1he major urilication is
janabah. 1he minimum without janabah is making wudu'.

O you who have believed, when you rise to |erlorm] rayer, wash your laces and your lorearms to the elbows and
wie over your heads and wash your leet to the ankles.." |Al ma'idah :6]

Abu lurayrah narrated, the messenger said: Allah does not accet the lrayer ol a erson who has released gas
until he makes a new ablution." A erson lrom ladhramaut asked Abu lurayrah, what does releasing gas mean7"
le answered, wind with or without sound." |lukhari and muslim]

kemoval ol hysical lilth (imurities), lrom body and lace ol worshi

i.!. ,L
And your garments urily! |Al mudathir 74:4]

must be lree lrom najasah on the body and the clothes.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was one time erlorming the salah, and suddenly he took his shoes oll and
ut them on the side. lveryone then lollowed and did the same action. when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) linished the salah, he asked them why they took oll their shoes and they said it is art ol the salah. le (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that libreel came to him during the salah and told him that he had najasah on his shoes
so he removed them.

1he removal ol najasah should be considered in the lace where you ray. make sure that the area where you are
raying is ure. 1he lace might be ure but not clean, meaning it may be muddy or there may be dirt or trash
resent. 1rash is not najasah. 1his does not mean that you ray in a lilthy lace, but il you do not have an otion,
then try to clean as much as ossible and ray the salah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
4!

Anas narrated: A bedouin came and assed urine in one corner ol the masjid. 1he eole shouted at him but the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) stoed them until he linished urinating. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) ordered them to sill a bucket ol water over that lace and they did so." |lukhari]
1he ulema give the interretation: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was showing mercy as the man may
have hurt himsell il stoed. Also, it revented the najasah lrom being sread around. Also, it rotected the man
lrom showing his awrah to everyone.

lurilication is lor the body, clothes, and the lace where you are raying.

O: what is the ruling on raying while carrying najas (imure lilth) unaware ol it7
lxamles:
- ll a woman is carrying a baby who may have najasah in the diaer: the salah is valid as long as she does not
have direct contact with the najasah - il the diaer leaks, then she must sto the salah and clean hersell
and clothes and start the salah over
- A atient has a bag ol urine attached to the body: the erson can make the salah.
- ll a erson is in the salah and is unaware ol the najasah until making ruku', what does he do7 ll the najasah
was on the shoes or socks, then take them oll and continue with the salah. ll it is on the clothes, then sto
the salah and change and start over. laving najasah on the clothes at the beginning ol the salah and not
knowing it does not invalidate the salah. 1he salah is still valid. ll you know that there is najasah and
continue with it, then your salah is invalid. Note: il the erson had wied over the shoes or socks when
making wudu' then the removal ol invalidates the wudu', and the erson must make wudu' again.
- ll you are in a ublic bathroom and then have najasah on the clothes, then try to clean them. ll you cannot
clean it there and there is not enough time to go home and ray the salah on time, what do you do7
lurilication is very imortant and must be taken care ol.
- ll you rayed your salah comletely and then alter discovered that there is najasah, then your salah is
valid.
- ll the area where you are raying has najasah alter you started raying, then take a lew stes away lrom
the area and continue the salah.

covering the awrah
Awrah is a legal term. 1he delinition is more than just the rivate arts.
uelinition: Awrah is a term which denotes the arts ol the body that are not meant to be exosed in ublic.

_.. > />. s >`. l .. . | .> _..l
O children ol Adam! 1ake your adornment (by wearing your clean clothes), while raying and going round (the
1awal ol ) the la'bah, and eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, certainly le (Allah) likes not Al-musriln
(those who waste by extravagance). |Al A'raal 7:!1]

lbn Abbas said about this ayah: lt means roer clothing lor salat." 8ome eole misunderstood the ayah to mean
only lor the masjid, but it means lor the salat even while at home. lt is the dress that you leel comlortable wearing
when oening the door lor someone coming to your home. ll you leel comlortable wearing the clothing, then it is
aroriate lor salah. make something secial to wear lor the salat at home, and teach your children this as well so
that they understand the signilicance ol the salah.

Verdict: ly unanimous agreement, it is most relerable to lully dress u in the best manner in rearation lor
salat.

1hey then dillered on the minimum limit ol covering lor the validity ol salat:
- 1he awrah ol a man in salat
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
44

le has to cover what is between the navel and thighs.
1here is disagreement about the exosing ol the navel, thighs and knees.

- 1he awrah ol a woman
ler entire body must be covered, excet her hands and lace. (ll the socks reveal the color ol the skin, then
it is not accetable. ll the socks are skin color and do not reveal the color ol the skin, then they are
accetable).

O: what is the ruling on covering the leet in salat lor women7
lirst oinion: Abu lanilah
1he most relerable oinion in the madhab is that women are not obligated to cover their leet lor salat because
they are treated like the hands, but they ought to do so outside salat.

lven though lmam Abu lanilah allows a woman to uncover her leet in salah, it is an obligation lor the woman to
cover her leet while in ublic.

8econd oinion: maalik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad
women should cover their leet in salat and outside salat. 1his is the oinion ol the majority ol the luqaha and that
the woman's salah is invalid il she does not cover her leet. 8he can wear socks or a long dress that covers her leet
when she makes ruku' and sujood.

Lmm 8alaamah that she asked the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), can a woman ray in a long shirt (like a
long dress) and head covering without a loincloth7" le said, ll the shirt is long enough, llowing and covers the to
ol her leet (i.e. it's allowed to do)." 1his is related by Abu uawood. And many scholars attribute this statement to
Lmm 8alaamah.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was asked: can a woman ray in a long shirt7 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am) made it very clear that as long as it covers her entire body, then it is ok.

O: what is the ruling ol salat il the awrah was accidentally exosed7
ll it can be lixed quickly, then it is line. ll it will take a long time to lix, then the salah must be started over. 1his is
common lor men who wear tight clothing when making sujuood and the shirt rises and exoses their awrah. ll this
is done in every rak'ah, then the salah is invalid. ll it haens accidentally and the man tucks his shirt back into
the ants, then it is line lor the salah. men should make sure that they wear long shirts to cover the awrah while
making sujood.

1he evidence that it does not break the salah: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) commanded eole to give
the imamah to those who know the Ouran more, and in one small community, a boy at the age ol 7 knew the most,
and when he would make sujood, his awrah was revealed to the ublic, and women comlained that the imam
should cover his awrah. 1he men collected money and bought him nice clothes lor the salah. 1he young boy was
never as hay as when he received the clothes lor his imam osition. ll his salah was invalid, then they would
have had to relace him or re-ray the salah, which was not the case.









Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
4

8ummary ol oinions:
8cholar(s) Oinion ualeel
lmam Abu lanilah
1he most relerable oinion in the
madhab is that women are not
obligated to cover their leet lor salat
because they are treated like the
hands, but they ought to do so outside
salat.

lmams malik,
8hali'ee, and Ahmad
women should cover their leet in salat
and outside salat.
Lmm 8alaamah that she asked the lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), can a woman ray in a
long shirt (like a long dress) and head covering
without a loincloth7" le said, ll the shirt is long
enough, llowing and covers the to ol her leet
(i.e. it's allowed to do)." 1his is related by Abu
uawood. And many scholars attribute this
statement to Lmm 8alaamah

lacing the direction ol the qiblah
lirst scenario: il the la'bah was visible
ly unanimous agreement, il the erson can see the actual structure ol the la'bah (i.e. being in the laram in
makkah), he or she is obligated to lace the la'bah itsell.

what il you are in the laram and cannot see the actual la'bah because it is covered by a illar or the congregation7
Alhumdulillah there are circles to indicate where to ray. You must ray on these circles.
ll you are on the second or third lloor, are you lacing the la'bah7 No, you are arallel to the direction ol the
la'bah. 1he ulema argue about this issue. ls this sace above the la'bah equal to lacing the la'bah or not7 ls it ok
to have multile lloors around the la'bah or not7 According to the 8hali'ee madhab, you have to lace the la'bah,
so you cannot ray on the second or third lloor because you are lacing the sace above the la'bah. 1his is why the
crowd is very large downstairs while there is sace on the second and third lloors.

8econd scenario: ll the la'bah was not visible
lirst oinion: Abu lanilah, maalik, and Ahmad
1o lace and estimate the direction ol the la'bah is enough.

1he majority say to use your best judgment.

8econd oinion: 8hali'ee
lacing the Oiblah exactly is an obligation, and it has to be done by lollowing someone's knowledge ol the qiblah, il
not then by the best ijtihaad ossible.
why do they insist on this7 1he 8hali'ee school comes lrom ahl al kalam and they use logic and the methodology ol
ahl al kalam. 1hey discuss everything regardless ol the alication. According to the textual evidences, you have
to lace the direction ol the la'bah regardless ol the location. ll they are in another country, they are using their
best judgment. last month, a reort came out lrom the ministry ol lslamic Allairs in makkah that there are two
hundred masajid in makkah that are not lacing the actual direction ol the la'bah, and they lound this using laser
technology. 1he salah is acceted, but they need to lix the direction ol the Oiblah. 1he new technology would
solve the direction ol the Oiblah lor eole all over the globe - it hels you indicate the exact direction ol the
la'bah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
46

8haykh Lthaymeen one time during lajj season: 1hey were in mina and it was dhuhr time. As they started to
reare lor the Oiblah, some brothers brought a comass to check the direction. 1he shaykh asked: which way is
makkah7 1hey ointed and he started the salah. uo not stress yoursell out because you will not be able to
erlectly lace the la'bah. Lse your best judgment.

O: what is the exact direction ol the qiblah lor eole living in the west7 (North America in articular)
1here is a huge disute between ahl as sunnah wa ahl jama'ah and some sects who believe that the qiblah is to the
south east. Ahl as sunnah has two oinions: 1he maalikis hold the oinion that the direction ol the qiblah is to the
east directly. 1he majority, which is held by the rominent lslamic organizations such as l8NA, is that the qiblah
direction is the Nl. 8cientists say that the best direction is the Nl because the earth is not llat. ll you look at a llat
ma, then the direction is east, but the earth is round. 1he actual hysical measurement ol the qiblah will lead to
the Nl as the closest direction between America and makkah.

we live in America at dillerent degrees. oenerally seaking, it is Nl. lowever, you need to measure the degree
lrom the local location where you live. You need to check online to determine the exact degree. lor examle, ll
laso is !4-! degrees Nl and columbus is 42 degrees Nl. louston is 4 degrees Nl. Always remember when you do
it that you go by the comass to that direction. without a comass, make the best guess.

low do you determine the direction ol the qiblah7 lt is decided when you know one ol the lour major directions.
low do you determine one ol the major directions7 ll you can see the sun, then it is easy. You can check the
highways as well: even numbered highways travel east-west, and the odd-numbered highways travel north-south.
ll you do not see the highways, sometimes even the streets will give an indication and have: N., 8., l. or w. ll you
know boy scout skills, you may be able to determine the direction. Also, the direction ol the trees exosed to the
sun because the trees tilt in the direction ol the sun. check the darker side ol the tree: the more sun, the greener
the tree. 8ometimes you can also tell lrom the trunk ol the tree near the roots because il there are some lants
near the roots, then there are more in the direction ol the sun. ll there is no way to determine the direction ol the
qiblah, then use your best judgment and make the salah. ll it is at night and you are able to determine the north
ole lrom the stars, then your roblem is solved.

ll you realize alter you have rayed the salah that you rayed in the wrong direction, then il there is still time to
ray, you must ray the salah again.

ll you see someone raying in the wrong direction ol the qiblah, then you can turn them in the correct direction,
but do it gently and do not scare them.

8ummary ol oinions:
8cholar(s) Oinion
lmams Abu lanilah, malik, and
Ahmad
1o lace and estimate the direction ol the la'bah is enough.

lmam 8hali'ee
lacing the Oiblah exactly is an obligation, and it has to be done by
lollowing someone's knowledge ol the qiblah, il not then by the best
ijtihaad ossible.

8avor the sweetness ol the qiblah:
uo you know the signilicance ol moving the Oiblah lrom lerusalem to makkah7
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was hoing that the qiblah would be moved lor many years. Allah
(suunananu wa-ta'a|a) said: we see your lace leading with Allah to move the qiblah towards makkah." 1he
sweetness ol that is the sealing ol the deal with the children ol lsma'il and the lollowers ol lslam that they are now
the siritual leaders ol guidance. lt is moving ol the louse lrom lani lsra'il to lani lsma'il. lt is a great honor.
Lntil the uay ol ludgment, eole will not sto worshiing Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) at that lace. 1he only time
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
47

eole are not making tawaal is when there is salah. Also, remember that you are not the only one lacing that
direction at that moment. leole lrom the other side ol the globe are lacing the same direction. lt rovides a sense
ol unity. we have the leeling that we are all lacing the direction ol the qiblah. Non-muslims are amazed by the
idea ol lacing the same direction. lt gives a sense ol unity in our act ol worshi. lbrahim (alayhi salaam) made du'a
to Allah to make makkah a lace ol worshi, and Allah answered his du'a.

Action ltem:
- lor a lew days, carry with you a comass wherever you go.
- 1ry to guess the qiblah in dillerent locations wherever you go.
- check your guess with the comass and see how accurate you can get in linding the right direction.
- learn through this ractice how to identily the qiblah by using the sun and the shadow during dillerent times
ol the day and stars during the night. One ol the hardest times to determine the direction ol the qiblah is
during dhuhr time because the sun is in the middle ol the sky. You have to wait until the shadow stretches out
because it will shilt in one direction.

lssue ol lolding the sleeves and ants lor men: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) considered (lor men)
releasing the ants under the ankles as a sign ol arrogance: therelore, they should kee their ants above the
ankles. 1he ulema consider: is it a general rule or an act ol arrogance because ol the intention and does this aly
to the ants or only the thawb7 1here is one articular ortion related to our class: uuring salah, the lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) lorbade lolding the thawb in salah, which includes lolding the sleeves or the ants above the
ankles. ls it haraam7 lt is not haraam, but it is makrooh to do this. 1herelore, it is better that you unlold your shirt
sleeves and ant. ll you ut your ants down and it is below the ankles, then it is a rohibition. ll you lold them
u, then there is another violation ol lolding ants while in salah. what do you do in this case7 8haykh Yaser is in
lavor ol not lolding the ants above the ankles in salah in order to avoid the rohibition. lt is better to avoid both
rohibitions by wearing shorter ants.

what il the ants touch the ankle7 1his is ok. 1he rohibition is il they are below the ankle. what il someone says:
l try to ull my ants u and they kee going down. Abu lakr said to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) that
he was a thin erson and when he tried to wra his izhar around his waist, it would kee lalling. 1he lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: Ya Abu lakr, you are not one ol those who do it out ol arrogance so it is ok.

An-Niyyah, the intention lor salat
uelinition: lt is the act ol the heart concerning the actions ol the mukallal (the accountable arty)

when a erson makes wudu and goes to the masjid, he is doing these actions with the intention ol salah. 1he
determination lor what you are doing is the intention itsell. when you make the wudu and take the rayer rug and
ut it in the direction ol the qiblah, the intention is lor the resent salah, and you know which salah you are
raying. 1he actual intention is the act ol the heart.

Lmar narrated, the messenger (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: ueeds are judged by their intentions." |lukhari
and muslim]

8cenarios related to the niyyah:
- 8hould the niyyah in the heart match the actual act ol that articular salat7
Yes. You cannot make the intention lor dhuhr and ray asr, which may haen as a mistake. A mu'adhin said
that his imam had a heavy lunch alter dhuhr salah and took a na, and when he was woken u lor salat al-asr,
the imam started reciting aloud. 1he eole said, 8ubhanAllah." 1he imam stoed and then continued
reciting aloud. 1he eole again said, 8ubhanAllah." lor the third time, the imam began reciting aloud. 1he
eole again said, 8ubhanAllah." Out ol lrustration, he said, 1ayyib, assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah,
assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah" and then asked the congregation what was haening and they exlained
that it was salat al asr and not salat al maghrib.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
48


ll you are raying a lard salah, your intention must be lor the lard. 8imilarly with the sunnah.

- 8hould the niyyah be uttered by tongue7
1here is no such authentic evidence that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) uttered the intention out loud
excet lor the act ol lajj. 8ome ol the luqaha made an analogy (qiyas) and said that il the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) uttered it lor lajj, then it should be done lor salah in order to bring locus to the salah. ln the
8hali'ee and lanali madhahib, sometimes they ask you to say the niyyah. 1hey diller over what should be said.
1here is no secilic statement that should be said, and it is lelt lor eole. 8ome eole make it long while
others make it short. 1hey say: l intend to ray salat al dhuhr behind the imam" and then make the salah.
Others make a longer list such as: l intend to ray salah behind 8haykh Yaser lirjas in such and such masjid in
the lirst line alhumdulillah.". 1here is no need to say all ol these things. lt is considered to be bid'ah more
than sunnah because il the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) had done this, it would have been reorted.

- 8hould the niyyah start with the lirst takbir simultaneously7
when is the niyyah made7 uoes the niyyah begin when raising the hands or when you are standing in line or
when you are setting u your rayer rug7 All ol the rearations lor the salah are enough, and you do not have
to measure the beginning ol salah when you raise your hands. 1he 8hali'ee madhab is very meticulous and
lorce you to make the intention while raising the hands and while making the lirst takbir. ll it is missed, then
you must start the salah again. 8ome eole become obsessed so much and reeatedly make the lirst takbir
belore making the salah. 8imilarly, it extends to the wudu as well, and as they wash their lace, while they are
carrying the water to the lace, they must have the intention, and il they miss it, then they must reeat.

uo not lall into the waswasa. 1he actual act itsell as you move lor the salah is already deciding what you are
doing and is the intention inshAllah.

- 8hould the niyyah ol the ma'moom match the niyyah ol the imam7
1he ma'moom is the one lollowing the imam. ll the imam is raying asr, can you ray dhuhr behind him il you
had missed it7 According to lmam Abu lanilah, the intention must match the imam and this must be done.
can you ray lard behind someone who is raying nall7 8cenario: you come to the masjid lor salat at-taraweeh
and you have not rayed isha, can you join him in the salat at taraweeh and ray isha7 According to the
lanalis: no because the imam was made to be lollowed and this alies to the intention as well.

lowever, there is a hadeeth ol mu'adh ibn labal: le would ray isha with the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) in the masjid and then would lead his community in the salah in his neighborhood. when he led his
eole, he would be raying nall because he already rayed his lard, and the eole would ray their lard
behind him. One time, mu'adh recited all ol 8urah Al laqarah in the salah, and one ol the eole raying
behind him could not take it and ended the salah early and went home. 8ome eole told mu'adh what the
man had done, and mu'adh relied that the man is a munaliq. when the eole talked about it, someone told
the man that mu'adh called him a munaliq, and the man went to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) and
comlained that they are sheherds and send most ol their day in the sun and mu'adh led them with 8urah Al
laqarah. A comanion said he had never seen the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) as lurious when giving
advice and said: what is wrong with you7 Are you going to cause eole to leave the deen7 ll you are raying
by yoursell, read what you wish, but when you are leading the jama'ah, then recite a shorter surah." 1his is
unless he knows that the congregation wants to be led in a long salah and likes to listen to his oeration.

1he lanali madhab holds a valid oinion in not dillering with the imam in the niyyah because the hadeeth is
strong.



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
49

1he continuation ol the acts ol salat without long intermission
when you make your salah, continue without any long intermission. lor examle, someone recites Al latihah,
makes ruku', stands out ol ruku', makes sujood, comes out ol sujood and begins sneezing uncontrollably lor several
minutes, then the salah is now invalid. ll it is only lor a lew seconds, then the erson can continue with the salah.

ll the imam recites 8urah Al latihah then another surah and lorgets something in the middle and remains silent
trying to think ol the next ayah lor a long eriod ol time, then the salah is invalid.

1o avoid any loreign seech
ll someone sneezes and by mistake says 'alhumdulillah', then il it is a mistake it is line. ll someone resonds
'yarhamukum Allah', then the erson's salah is invalidated.

2ayd ibn Arqam narrated: we used to seak in salat, until the ayah '.and stand belore Allah in devout (lrame ol
mind)' (al laqarah 2:2!8) was revealed. 1herealter, we were ordered to remain silent and we were lorbidden lrom
talking." |muslim]

can the intention be changed during the salah7 lor examle, you started your dhuhr salah on your own and then
some other brothers entered the masjid and began to ray jama'ah lor dhuhr7 You can downgrade the intention
excet according to imam Abu lanilah and others who said: uo not nullily your deeds.

ll you are raying the sunnah ol maghrib and someone else joins you in jama'ah, can you ugrade your intention7
No. You ray your sunnah, and you do not have to recite loudly lor him to ray the lard.

can you change your intention lor the number ol rak'at lor witr7 lor examle, you had the intention to ray 1
rak'at and then as you ray you want to change it to ! rak'at, can this be done7 Allahu 'Alam.

uowngrading the intention is line, but you cannot ugrade the intention.

ll you start dhuhr salah and made the intention and then realized that it is asr time and not dhuhr time, what do
you do in this case7 ln this case, you sto the salah and make the takbir again and start over again. ll you are
raying in congregation, you have to make u the rak'ah again because you had the wrong intention.

ll someone rayed the lard salah but did not leel as though they had good khushoo' again, can they ray the salah
again7 1hey can, but it would be nall and not lard.

Arkan (lntegrals ol 8alat) Arkan (lntegrals ol 8alat) Arkan (lntegrals ol 8alat) Arkan (lntegrals ol 8alat)

1hese arkan have the same delinition ol the condition excet that they are art ol the essence ol the act itsell. 1his
means that they are art ol the salah itsell.

1. uelinition
linguistic meaning: arkaan is a lural ol rukn, which means the strong corner on which a structure is built

1echnical meaning: lt is an evident and constant attribute whose absence necessitates the absence ol the
hukm, but whose resence does not automatically bring about its object. And it is art ol the essence ol the act
itsell.

2. ladeeth al-musee' li 8alathi (the man who rayed incorrectly)
All ol the arkan come lrom one hadeeth.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
0

Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated, a man entered the masjid and the messenger ol Allah was sitting. 1he
man rayed two rak'ah and then came to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) and said salaam. 1he lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) relied the salaam and then said, oo back and ray lor you have not rayed." 8o the man
went back, rayed two rak'ah like he did the lirst time and then came back and reeated the salaam. 1he lrohet
(sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) relied the salaam and then said, oo back and lray lor you have not lrayed." 8o the
man went back, lrayed two raka like he did the lirst time and then came back and reeated the salaam. 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) relied the salaam and then said, oo back and lray lor you have not lrayed."
le said it three times until on the third time the man said, ly le who sent you with the truth O messenger ol
Allah, l do not know any better than this. 1each me." 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) then said, ll you
stand u lor 8alah say 'Allahu Akbar.' 1hen read what comes easy lor you lrom the Ouran. 1hen bow until you are
comlortable in your ruku'. 1hen stand u until you are standing u straight. 1hen rostrate until you are
comlortable in your 8ujood. 1hen sit until you are comlortable in your luloos -sitting. 1hen rostrate until you are
comlortable in your 8ujood. And do this in your entire 8alah." |lukhari and muslim]

ln this hadeeth, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) ronounced the arkaan and taught him how to erlorm one
rak'ah and said to do that in the entire salah. lased on this hadeeth, the ulema deline the arkaan ol the salah, and
il they are missed, then the salah is invalid and the act must be done again or the salah is invalid.

!. 1he Arkaan ol salat
(1he absence ol one ol the lollowing arkaan nullilies the salat)

lirst oinion: Abu lanilah
1here are six arkaan lor the salat (listed in the table)

8econd oinion: maaliki, 8hali'ee and Ahmad
1here are lourteen arkaan lor the salat (listed in the table)

1he reason lor the dillerences: lmam Abu lanilah holds dillerent usool (rinciles) based on his methodology
between determining what is lard and what is waajib, and he holds that lard is higher value than waajib. ll
something is not included as rukn, it does not mean that he does not count it at all, but it is not at as high a level ol
obligation lor lmam Abu lanilah.




















Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
1

8cholar(s) Oinion ualeel
lmam Abu
lanilah
1here are six arkaan lor the salat:
1. 1he oening takbir
2. 8tanding
!. kecitation ol Ouran
4. kuku'
. 8ujood
6. linal sitting

lmams
maalik,
8hali'ee, and
Ahmad
1here are lourteen arkaan lor the salat:
1. Al Oiyaam - standing lor those who are able to. 1his
means that il you can ray standing, then lor the lard
salah, you cannot ray while seated. ln some situations
in lndia or lakistan, they stand u lor salah on the
airlane and block the entire aisle. ll they cannot stand,
then they ray in the condition that they can.

low should a erson lie down7 lowever they can. 1hey do
not need to be shilted to lace the qiblah. ll it is easy to do so,
then it is line: otherwise, it is line lor them. 1his shows the
imortance ol salah that even il you have to sit, you must
still ray. 1his is a mercy ol Allah lor them that they can still
remember Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) even though they may
be in a dillicult situation.

2. 1akbeerat al-ihraam - the oening takbir
!. 1he recitation ol the Ouran
4. 1he kuku' - bowing down
. kising u lrom the kuku'
6. 1he sujood on seven bones - rostration
7. coming u lrom sujood
8. 8itting calmly between the two sajdas (rostrations)
9. 8itting during the last tashahhud
10. 1he recitation ol the last tashahhud
11. 1he recitation ol the salawat al-lbrahimiyyah
12. 1he tasleem - saying salaam at the end
lmran ibn lusain said, l was
sullering lrom hemorrhoids
(iles), so l asked the messenger
ol Allah and he said: lray
standing: il you are not able, then
sitting down: il you are not able
to do so, then lray lying down."

.ll you stand u lor 8alah say
'Allahu Akbar.' 1hen read what
comes easy lor you lrom the
Ouran. 1hen bow until you are
comlortable in your ruku'. 1hen
stand u until you are standing
u straight. 1hen rostrate until
you are comlortable in your
8ujood. 1hen sit until you are
comlortable in your luloos -
sitting. 1hen rostrate until you
are comlortable in your 8ujood.
And do this in your entire 8alah."

lbn Abbas narrated, the
messenger said: l have been
commanded to rostrate on
seven bones, on the lorehead -
and he ointed at his nose, the
hands (the alms), the knees and
the toes (ol the leet)." |lukhari
and muslim]

Ali ibn Abi 1alib narrated, the
messenger said: 1he key to the
8alat is urilication, 1ahreemuha
(it is entered) by 1akbir and
1ahleeluha (and exited) by
1asleem." |Ahmad]




Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
2


1) Al qiyam - 8tanding lor those who are able to
liqh scenarios:
- what constitutes standing7
what constitutes standing7 ll a erson can stand straight, then he cannot ray hunched over. One time
Lmar (radni A||anu 'annu) saw a man walking in the streets hunched over walking out ol humbleness and
asked il he was sick. 1he man said that he was not sick, so Lmar told him to stand straight or he would
beat him. when you stand in salah and want to show humility and khushoo', stand u straight and make
salah. Your backbone is straight.

- what is the limit ol standing7
what is the limit ol standing7 low much sace do you need7 can you oen your leet wide or should
they be ket closed7 ln the lanali madhab: lour lingers between the leet is enough. 1he sunnah: when
the sahabah would stand, they would stand shoulder to shoulder and loot to loot, and this cannot be done
unless the leet are oened shoulder width aart. women are suggested to kee their leet close together,
but there is no evidence lrom the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) to suort this.

- can someone use suort tool to stand u7
can someone reserve the sot next to the wall lor taraweeh7 No, a erson can use a cane il they are
disabled. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) one time entered the masjid and saw two roes and was
told that 2aynab when she was tired in rayer would hold onto them. le said to take them out and
everyone should ray as much as they can but should not over exaggerate.

- who is exemt lrom standing7
Anyone who is sick. ll you are extremely tired, can you sit down7 Yes. One time the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) rayed while sitting when he had an injury.

- low does someone who is excused sit lor salat7
can be seated on a chair or on the lloor. when sitting on the lloor, some ol the ulema say sitting can be
done cross-legged or tashahhud style. ll raying in congregation, then kee the tashahhud style because
it allows sace lor other eole.

8avor the sweetness ol qiyam:
- look down while raying. 8tanding is the lirst sign ol humility and humbleness. when you start your
salah, look down immediately. lee all ol your senses locused on what you will be doing.

2) 1akbeerat al-ihram - 1he oening 1akbir
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) then said, ll you stand u lor salah say 'Allahu Akbar'." |lukhari
and muslim]

liqh scenarios:
- uoes it have to be in Arabic7
Yes, it must be said in the Arabic language.

- uoes it have to be in the takbir lorm or could any word ol glorilication sullice7
can you say: Allahul-labeer. No.
1he madhab ol lmam Abu lanilah: You can begin with Allahu 'Adham. lecause they said it is accetable,
it does not mean that they have sanctioned it lor you anytime you wish. ll someone has said this, then
the salah is valid: however, in their descrition ol the salah, they do not romote it.


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
!


8avor the sweetness ol the takbeerat al-ihram:
- when you say Allahu Akbar, it is a reminder lor you that you are lacing the direction ol the qiblah and
the louse that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) longed to lace while making salah. You are
reminded that ummat muhammad carries the banner ol leadershi.
- Allah is greater than anything else you may think ol. kemember that Allah is greater than anything you
are wishing lor alter salah. when you are raising your hands, you are throwing everything behind your
back and saying that Allah is greater than anything.

Action item:
- 8tand u in lront ol a mirror
- check the way you stand
- kaise your hands as you are making takbir and see how your hands look like when you do that

!) 1he recitation ol the Ouran
- ly unanimous agreement the recitation ol the Ouran is an integral art ol the salat

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) then said, .1hen read what comes easy lor you lrom the Ouran."

- lut what is the ruling on the recitation ol the latiha7
lirst oinion: maalik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad
lt is a rukn. ll it is not recited, then the salah is not valid.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was raying and reciting 8urah Al 'Ala and one ol the comanions
began reciting along. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) when he linished the salah said: who was
reading with me7" 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) told the man: uo not do that again excet
Lmm Al Ouran." lased on this hadeeth, the majority say that the latiha is an integral art and must be
recited.

madhab lmam Ash-8hali'ee: recite latiha alter the imam is done regardless ol the salah.
Another madhab: kemain silent with the imam during lajr, maghrib, and isha unless you come late.
8haykh Yaser's oinion: lollow lmam 8hali'ee's oinion because ol the hadeeth ol Lbada ibn as-8amit.

Lbadah ibn as-8amit narrated, the messenger said, 1here is no salat lor him who does not recite the
Lmm al-Ouran (Al latiha)." |lukhari and muslim]

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah
lt is waajib (not lard), meaning that it is not rukn. ll latiha is not recited, then the salah is still valid. 1he
obligation is to recite anything ol the Ouran that comes easy. lowever, this is not the right thing to do
even according to the madhab. 1o erlect the salah: recite 8urah Al latiha.
lis rool: 8urah Al A'ral: when the Ouran is being recited, then listen to it. may Allah have mercy on
you." Abdullah ibn masood said that this is during salah. One ol lmam Abu lanilah's usools is to accet
the hadeeth ol a comanion who is laqih. lmam Abu lanilah held that Abdullah ibn Lmar and Abu
lurayrah were not luqaha as much as Abdullah ibn masood.







Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
4

8chool or madhab Oinion ualeel
lmams malik, 8hali'ee, Ahmad lt is a rukun
Lbadah ibn as-8amit narrated, the messenger said,
1here is no salat lor him who does not recite the
Lmm al-Ouran (Al latiha)." |lukhari and muslim]
lmam Abu lanilah lt is waajib

what is the ruling on the basmalah, saying bismillah al kahman al kaheem" aloud lor the imam in the
lahri salat7

lirst oinion: Abu lanilah, maalik, and Ahmad
le should not say it loud. According to the majority ol the luqaha, the basmalah should be ronounced
silently and Alhumdulillahi rabb al-'alameen" should be recited aloud.

Anas narrated: 1he messenger, Abu lakr, Lmar used to begin the salat with alhumdulillahi rabb al-
'alameen." |lukhari and muslim]

8econd oinion: 8hali'ee
le should start with the lasmalah. lmam 8hali'ee's oinion is that the basmalah is art ol 8urah Al
latiha: therelore, it must be said out loud.

Nu'aim al-mujmir narrated, l rayed behind Abu lurayah and he recited 'lismillah al kahman al
kaheem' and then recited Lmm al Ouran." |Nisa'i]

8ome ol the ulema tried to reconcile between the two incidents and said: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am) is sometimes sontaneous. 8ome reorted that he reorted the basmalah out loud and most ol
the time would recite it silently. 8haykh Al ludhayli used to do this intentionally and deliberately: he
would raise his voice with the basmalah slightly and then said it loud with 'alhumdulillahi rabb al-
'alameen'.

we do not know the reason behind it, but the majority ol reorts is that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) would start with 'alhumdulillahi rabb al-'alameen' aloud.

You do say: 'aoodhu billahi min ash-shaytan ar-rajeem in the salah belore reciting the latiha.

8chool or madhab Oinion ualeel
lmams Abu lanilah,
malik, Ahmad
le should not say it out loud
Anas narrated: 1he messenger, Abu lakr,
Lmar used to begin the salat with
alhumdulillahi rabb al-'alameen." |lukhari and
muslim]
lmam 8hali'ee le should recite the basmalah
Nu'aim al-mujmir narrated, l rayed behind
Abu lurayah and he recited 'lismillah al
kahman al kaheem' and then recited Lmm al
Ouran." |Nisa'i]




Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah


liqh scenarios:
- low articulate should the imam be in reciting Al-lathiha7
ln Arabic, the vowels make a big dillerence. 8ome luqaha may tolerate latha and dhamma as long as
there are not extensive mistakes, but il there are several mistakes in the latiha, then the salah is invalid.
1he latiha secilically must be recited in erlect recitation because it is a rukn. lerlect recitation does
not mean at the tajweed level but at the level ol grammar. le may not have the best recitation, but the
grammar must be correct.

- what il the imam has an accent7
1his does not break the salah. 8ome imams may say z instead ol u in wa la au-uaaleen." lt is not about
hildh but about erlection ol the recitation.

- 8hould the ma'moom recite the Our'an il the imam already does that7
1he ma'moom according to lmam Ash-8hali'ee must recite the latiha regardless ol the salah. According
to lmam Abu lanilah, the ma'moom should remain quiet regardless ol the salah. According to lmam
maalik: in lajr, maghrib, and isha the ma'moon does not need to recite the latiha, and should recite it
during dhuhr and asr. 8haykh Yaser lollows lmam Ash-8hali'ee's oinion.

- what is the ruling on Ameen"7
lmam Abu lanilah: say it quickly and silently.
lmam Ahmad & lmam 8hali'ee: rolong the recitation ol ameen". 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) said: ll you say 'ameen', the angels will also say 'ameen' with you and il your 'ameen' coincides
with their 'ameen', then Allah will lorgive your sins."

low should you rolong the 'ameen'7 1he ulema say lollow the rules ol tajweed and no longer than 6
harakat. when you say 'ameen', it is not about singing it. You are just saying 'ameen'.

1he meaning is: my lord, accet my du'a. 8urah Al latiha has a du'a in it, and the imam is making du'a
on your behall.

ll you go to a masjid where they do not say 'ameen' aloud, then do not recite it aloud. At the same time, il
someone else in a masjid says 'ameen', be easy on them.

- what does a new muslim who does not know the latiha do in salat7
we should teach them and hel them learn it as last as ossible, but until then, they can say a lew words
ol dhikr. 1each them one hrase ol dhikr to remember. when teaching them dhikr, teach them with the
meaning.

8avor the sweetness ol your recitation or recitation ol the imam:
lngage your senses in remembering the words ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a). ll it is a time lor you to read in dhuhr
and asr or in the third rak'ah in maghrib and isha, remember that you are reading the words ol Allah (suunananu
wa-ta'a|a) and standing belore Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a). You are showing how much you know lrom the words ol
your lord.

ll it is time to listen to the imam, show Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) that you are listening to the words. learn key
words such as lannah, nar, samawat, ard, the names ol the rohets, the Names ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).
when you know key words, then you can understand what the ayah is about. 1his is how you should locus on the
recitation ol the Ouran il you do not understand the language. lor the long salat such as taraweeh, then review the
translation belore the salah.


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
6

Action item:
- lractice your latiha with an exert.
- make sure you ronounce it correctly.
- ll you couldn't lind someone, look lor hel online.
Online resources: almudarris.org, reciter.org

4) 1he kuku' - bowing down
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) then said, .1hen bow until you are comlortable in your ruku'."

liqh scenarios:
- what constitute a erlect ruku'7
kuku' is to bow down. 1he actual ruku' is trying to make your back llat. lt was said that the back ol the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was so straight that il water was silled on his back, it would not
move anywhere.

1he head should not be raised or lowered but should be level as much as ossible. 1he hands hold onto
the knees. ln order to straighten the back, the elbows will have to stick out a little. ll you are raying in
congregation, kee your elbows in or kee them close to your body so you do not bother the erson next
to you. look at the osition ol the sujood according to the sunnah ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am).

- low long should the ruku' last lor7
1he erlect ruku' which the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to ractice was as long as the
recitation. ll you recite 8urah Al laqarah, then the ruku' should be the same length. lowever, it is not
mandatory to kee it that long. 1he mustahab/sunnah minimum is enough time to say 'subhana rabbi al-
'adheem' three times. 1he minimum is enough time to say 'subhana rabbi al-'adheem' one time.

- ll someone has health conditions with the back and cannot make lull ruku', then they should do as much
as they can with the intention ol bowing down lor the ruku'.

- ll the imam rolongs the ruku', then kee making dhikr. You do not have to say 'subhana rabbi al-
'adheem' an odd number ol times il the ruku' is rolonged because it may take away lrom your khushoo'
in salah.

Action item:
- lractice ruku' at home
- lave someone hel you by lacing a cu on your back. uoes it stand still7

) kising u lrom the ruku'
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) then said, .1hen stand u until you are standing u straight."

8ay 'sami Allahu liman hamidah' while rising lrom ruku'. 1his shows that some are so hasty in salah that
their salah will be invalid by rushing to the sujood right away.

O: what is the limit ol rising u lrom ruku'7
1here is no secilic time, but it is enough time lor your back bones to return to their original ositions.

8avor the sweetness ol ruku':
when you lace the qiblah having memory ol the la'bah, lrohet lbrahim, lrohet lsma'il, lrohet
muhammad (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) and all ol the believers lacing that direction and starting the
recitation with the words ol Allah and then having the ermission ol showing your humbleness and
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
7

humility to Allah, it is a ste towards your sirituality. 1his is all gradual submission: standing, bowing
down, and rostrating. lirst you show humility and humbleness and then bow down.

A sychological delinition ol ruku': utting your intellect / reason and the heart at the same level. leole
are the most roud ol the intellect, and when bowing, you are lacing them at the same level lor the sake ol
Allah, and when making sujood, your intellect is lower than the heart lor the sake ol Allah (suunananu wa-
ta'a|a). You are submitting your intellect and reason to Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).

6) 1he sujood on seven bones - rostration
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) then said, .1hen rostrate until you are comlortable in your
sujood."

lbn Abbas narrated, the messenger said: l have been commanded to rostrate on seven bones, on the
lorehead - and he ointed at his nose, the hands (the alms), the knees and the toes (ol the leet)." |lukhari
and muslim]

1he sunnah ol the sujood is to rostrate on seven bones: the lorehead - nose, 2 hands, 2 knees, right toes,
and lelt toes.

1he ulema say to be lirm in the sujood, meaning that you cannot ray on something that is not sturdy. ll
the rayer rug is too llully, then you cannot make your sujood roerly.

1he hands do not have to be stuck together or wide oen, but they should be in normal osition. 1he
lingers lace the direction ol the qiblah and should not be stuck near the nose. 1he hands should be at the
level ol the shoulder. uo not lace the hands in lront ol the head. 1he hands should be laced close to the
shoulders (i.e. at the shoulders) or in the area between the shoulders and ears. 1he lorearms should not
touch the ground. when raying individually, then the elbows should be stretched out. while raying in
congregation, then the elbows should be in. 1he leet should be close to each other with the toes lacing the
direction ol the qiblah.

ll ossible, the ground should be llat.

uoes not having the seven bones on the ground, does it invalidate the sujood7 ll three are not on the
ground, then they are not making roer sujood. low can this haen7 ll someone is holding the mushal
while raying, this may haen. lt may invalidate the sujood. Allahu 'Alam.

liqh scenarios:
- where to make sujood when there is no sace lor you.
make sujood on the back ol those who are in lront ol you. Advice: tell the erson in lront ol you belore
you do that. You can lace your hands on their backs and make the sujood as much as ossible or lace
your hands on their leet.

- ls it ermissible to kee the hands covered in the sujood because ol the weather7
ll it is too hot, the ground may burn the hands. can you susend the hands in the air7 No. You can kee
your hands covered in the sleeves on the ground and sisters can use the hijab. Also, lace something lor
your lorehead. 1o rotect lrom ice, you can kee your hands covered. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) would wra his hands with his dress or cloth and ket them covered because ol the weather. 1his
is ermissible.



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
8

- low should a erson lall to the sujood7 lands lirst or knees7
1he reorts are attributed to the age ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). when the lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was younger, he was able to make sujood hands lirst, and when he became older, it
became more dillicult and he used the knees lirst.

ln another hadeeth, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) lorbade us lrom resembling the camel when
making the sujood. low do you identily the sitting ol the camel7 watch the camel. when you see this, it
becomes more conlusing. ln the Arab culture, they have dillerent traditions. 8ome named the back legs
the hands ol the camel.

loth oinions are valid and neither invalidates the salah. lt is better to maintain one osition, either
hands lirst or knees lirst.

8avor the sweetness ol sujood:
when you ut your knees down, it is like leeling the ressure ol this lile. lutting the knees down is a
osition ol humiliation, stress, or deleat. lven though it leels like this, when this haens, it is the best
time to make the rayers. lt is a sign ol humility and sueriority because you have the lastest divine link
with Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a). 1he closest a servant is to his lord is when he is in sujood.

1he sujood is the 'knee-mail'. when you ut your knees down, connect with Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a)
on a regular basis. Also, in this osition, you are utting your intellect and reason in a osition lower
than the heart lor the sake ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).

Action item:
- Visit an online video website.
- look lor lootages on camels.
- 8ee how camels reach down to the ground. uo they reach by lront legs or back ones7

7) coming u lrom sujood
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) then said, .1hen sit until you are comlortable in your juloos.
(sitting)."

lalsah is the sitting between the two sajdahs.

O: low should the erson sit down lor this osition7

Al-iltirash: sitting on your lelt loot and roing u the right loot, ressing the toes to lace the direction ol
the qiblah. 1his osition is used between the two sajdahs and lor the middle tashahhud as well.

8ome suggest lor women exclusively to sit on their two leet with the thighs close to each other.

8) 8itting calmly between the two sajdahs (rostration)

9) 8itting during the last tashahhud







Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
9

10) 1he recitation ol the last tashahhud
1he 8hali'ee version:

At-1ahiyyatul-mubarakat, as-salawatuttayyibatu lillah. As-8alaamu alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa
barakatuh. As-8alaamu alayna wa ala ibadillahis-salihin Ashhadu alla 'ilaha illallah, wa ashhadu anna
muhammadar-kasulullah." |muslim]

1he translation: All comliments, blessed words, lrayers, ure words are due to Allah. leace be on you, O lrohet,
and also the mercy ol Allah and lis blessings. leace be on us and on the righteous slaves ol Allah. l bear witness
that none has the right to be worshied excet Allah, and (l bear witness) that muhammad is the messenger ol
Allah.

1he lanali version: (1his is the most oular even amongst the luqaha.)


At 1ahiyyaatu lilaahi was 8alawaatu wat tayibaatu As 8alaamu 'alaika ayyuhan nabiyyu wa kahmatullaahi wa
larakaatuh. As 8alaamu 'alainaa wa 'alaa 'ebaadillaahis saaliheen, Ash hadu allaa ilaah ilallaah, wa ash hadu anna
muhammadan 'abduhuu wa rasuuluh" |lukhari and muslim]

1he meaning ol the 1ashahhud:
All greetings, blessings and good acts are due to Allah. leace be uon you, O lrohet, and the mercy and blessings
ol Allah. leace be unto us, and unto the righteous servants ol Allah. l bear witness that none has the right to be
worshied excet Allah, And l bear witness that muhammad is lis servant and messenger.

As long as the version you are using is authentic, then you should stick to it. memorize one and use it.








Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
60

11) 1he recitation ol the salawat al-lbrahimiyyah


Allahumma 8alli ala muhammad, wa'ala aali muhammad, kama 8allayta ala 'lbrahim, wa'ala aali 'lbrahim 'lnnaka
hamidum majeed. Allahumma larik ala muhammad, wa'ala aali muhammad, kama larakta 'ala 'lbrahim, wa'ala Aali
'lbrahim. 'lnnaka lamidum majeed." |lukhari and muslim]

'O Allah, send rayers uon muhammad and the lollowers ol muhammad, just as You sent rayers uon lbrahim
and uon the lollowers ol lbrahim. Verily, You are lull ol raise and majesty. O Allah, send blessings uon
muhammad and uon the lamily ol muhammad, just as You sent blessings uon lbrahim and uon the lamily ol
lbrahim. Verily, You are lull ol raise and majesty.'

1here are other versions as well, but it is enough to master one.

Assalamu alayka ayuhan-nabi = eace be uon you O lrohet. ln Arabic, this assumes the erson to be
resent, but we know the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) has assed away. uuring the time ol the
comanions, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was there.
continue with this statement lor a lew reasons:
- 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) taught them this version.
- when the lrohet himsell used to recite the tashahhud, we assume he used to recite the same tashahhud
and did not say 'eace be uon me'
- ln the Arab culture and tradition and language, 'ayuha' can be maintained when the erson is not resent
- 1here were dillerent masajid or even when they rayed at home, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
was not resent at the moment when they were making the du'a

1he claim that this ronouncement should not be said comes lrom a hadeeth ol lbn masud who said that
now that he is gone we say something dillerent. Allahu 'Alam this is lrom ijtihad ol lbn masud which
should not be acceted.

whatever the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) uttered out ol adhkar should be maintained as they are,
which is lrom another hadeeth where the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) corrected the dhikr ol
someone.

12) 1he 1asleem - saying salaam at the end

Ali ibn Abi 1alib narrated, the messenger said: 1he key to the salat is urilication, tanrccmuna (it is
entered) by takbir and tan|cc|una (and exited) by tasleem." |Ahmad and Abu uawood]
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
61


liqh scenarios:
- low should the tasleem be ronounced7
Authentic narration is: Assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah and Assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah wa
barakatuh
ll you say one on one side, then you should say it on the other side as well. lt can be said Assalamu
alaykum wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh to the right and Assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah to the lelt.

- low many tasleems are obligated7
1he maliki school obligates only one tasleem to the right: Assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah and the
other one is nall but mustahab.

1he signilicance: il you came late and the imam said: assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah to the right,
then you can stand u even though he has not linished the second salaam. Also, il you broke your wudu
alter the lirst assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah, then you are sale and the salah is valid.

8ome luqaha mandate that when you say salaam, you look to the right shoulder and align your nose with
those next to you and simlilarly on the lelt side because you are giving your salaams to the angels on the
right and lelt side, but this is a wide stretch, and we are sreading salaam to those next to you on both
sides and don't know il we are saying it to the angels. 1his reminds those next to you that you are
linishing with eace.

1he sunnah ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) is that he would turn as much so that those behind
him could see the whiteness ol his check but not all the way back (just arallel to the shoulder).

ll someone cannot do stretch the neck to the right or lelt and leans slightly, that is line and the salah is
over.

lt does not matter how you say the salaam: lor examle, it can be said while turning the head or linished
when moving the head back to the middle, etc.

Action item:
- lractice your tashahhud and salawat with an exert.
- learn how to erlorm the two ositions ol sitting lor tashahhud

1!) At-tuma'neenah - being tranquil in every rakun
1his is not a rukn according to the madhab ol lmam Abu lanilah, which is why you see eole ray last.

O: what is the minimum ol being tranquil in every rakun7
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) described it as the bone returning back to the original osition.
lraying eacelully and slowly and gradually. According to the majority ol the luqaha, il someone is not
tranquil in the salah, then the salah is invalid. 1he majority ol the luqaha say that the salah is invalid lor
those who run to the salah and rush into it because they do not have tranquility and do not know what they
are saying.


14) maintaining the order ol the arkaan ol salat
ll you miss any one ol these integrals, the salah is invalid. ll it is done by mistake, the salah must be
erlormed again. ll someone is making salah and as linishing the recitation they make sujood, what should
they do7 8tart over7 No. You simly go back again lrom the osition ol sujood to the ruku' osition and
continue with the salah, but belore linishing the salah, erlorm the sujood as-sahw.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
62


ll someone remembers alter linishing the two sajdah and are standing u again and cannot remember il
they made one or two sajdah, then they are unsure il one ol the rukn is done roerly, then they have to
make a second sajdah, and then start the next rak'ah over again and then make sujood as-sahw at the end.

lor examle: someone comes back to the standing osition and as reciting latihah, they doubt il they
make the sajdah and then continue to the ruku' and then make the sajdah and then remember that they did
not make two sajdah in the lirst rak'ah, then what do they do7 1hey do not add a third sajdah. 1hey cancel
the entire lirst rak'ah and count the second rak'ah they are doing as their lirst and continue with that and
belore linishing the salah, they make sujood as-sahw.

ll you miss any ol the arkaan, then the rak'ah is invalid, or the entire salah is invalid.

ll you remember while making tashahhud that you lorgot the ruku', then you go back and make your ruku'
and then make sujood and then sit down lor the tashahhud and make sujood as-sahw again.

wajibaa wajibaa wajibaa wajibaat (Obligatory Acts ol 8alat) t (Obligatory Acts ol 8alat) t (Obligatory Acts ol 8alat) t (Obligatory Acts ol 8alat)

Omitting one ol the wajibaat ol salat does not nullily the salat, but can be comensated lor by sujood as-8ahw
(lorgetlulness).

1. 8aying takbir uon moving lrom one osition to another
ll someone remains silent the entire salah without saying the takbir, it does not invalidate the salah. lowever,
this is wrong, and sujood as-sahw should be done il it was out ol lorgetlulness. You do sujood as-sahw il you
lorget the takbeer lor most ol the salah and it does not need to be done il it was lorgotten once or twice.

2. 8aying 8ubhana kabbiyal-'Adheem" (lraise be my lord the 8ureme) in the ruku', at least once
8aying this once is the wajib. ll someone went to the ruku' and was comletely distracted and did not say
anything, they do not have to go back to the ruku' to say it, but they have to make sujood as-sahw.

!. 8aying sami'allahu liman hamidah" (may Allah answer he who raises him) as one returning back lrom ruku'
1his can be said any way (at the beginning ol rising, close to standing u erlectly, etc.). As a recommendation
lor the imam: say it alter you have moved hallway u because most ol the congregation may otherwise rise
belore you. 8imilarly with the takbir when moving between ositions.

loth the imam and the ma'moon should say sami'allahu liman hamidah". 8haykh lollows the other oinion,
which is not the majority which is that the imam says sami'allahu liman hamidah." ll you ray by yoursell,
then you say both.

O: who is resonsible to say kabbana wa lakal hamd"7 1he imam and the ma'moon.

lt is a common mistake to add the words: wa al-shukr".

4. 8aying subhana rabbiyal-'ala" (lraise be my lord the most ligh) in the sujood - at least once

. 8itting down and reciting the lirst tashahhud
ll someone is coming lrom the sujood and belore standing u and the knees are on the ground and the erson
remembers that he did not sit lor the tashahhud, then he remains sitting and says the tashahhud. lt is
comensated by sujood as-sahw.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
6!

ll the erson is hallway u, then it deends on the osition: il closer to standing, then the erson goes u, but
il he is closer to the sitting osition, then he sits down. lt is comensated by sujood as-sahw.

ll you are raying behind an imam who rayed normally and you are the only one who stood u, then you do
not have make sujood as-sahw. lt does not invalidate the salah il you are raying behind the imam.

ll the imam makes a mistake and the sisters are not aware ol it: lor examle, the imam goes to sujood because
ol ayat as-sajdah, and the sisters went to the ruku' and are waiting lor sami'allahu liman hamidah" but hear
Allahu akbar", then they realize that it was sujood at-tilawah. 1hey continue with the imam and do not have
to do anything unless they missed an entire rak'ah.

8unan (kecommended) Acts ol 8alat 8unan (kecommended) Acts ol 8alat 8unan (kecommended) Acts ol 8alat 8unan (kecommended) Acts ol 8alat

1he acts and statements ol salat which are ardoned il omitted and their absence does not nullily the salat, and
sujood as-sahw is not required to comensate lor them. ll they are done, you will receive reward lor them.

1. llacing a sutra (barrier) in the lront between the erson raying and the qiblah
1here should be something as high as the saddle ol the camel, or close to two leet high. You are raying behind
it to give an indication to those around you that you are raying and they should not ass in lront ol you. You
must hysically sto them il they try to cross in lront ol you unless you are blocking everyone and not raying
in the correct lace.

what il you do not have something as high as this7 1here is a weak hadeeth: il you do not have anything high,
then draw a line.

can you use a wall as a sutrah7 Yes.
You can use a illar ol a masjid. You can use someone who is raying in lront ol you.

what il you do not have anything in lront ol you7 low lar should eole go in lront ol you to cross7 leave
around two leet.

Abu 8a'id Al Oudri was raying salat al jumu'ah, and a young man lound the only assage to go through
between Abu 8a'id and the sutrah. Abu 8a'id ushed him back, and the young man got irritated and Abu 8a'id
lought with him not to ass. when the governor received the grievance ol the young man, Abu 8a'id said that
it was what the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) had told them to do.

ll it is a child who is unaware, then it is line.

ll a woman asses in lront ol you while raying, then it breaks the salah lor both men and women because you
do not know il she is on her menses. Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) was ollended by this, but Abdullah ibn Lmar who
narrated the hadeeth said that it was what the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) had said. lt invalidates the
salah even il you know that she does not have her menses because it is now a delault ruling. ll the woman
asses behind the sutrah or the distance enough to estimate the sutrah osition, then it does not invalidate the
salah.

1he sutrah does not have to be wide. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) olten used a stick.

2. kaising the hands on saying the takbir
ly unanimous agreement, raising hands with the oening takbir is recommended, but they dillered on raising
them with the other takbir.
kaise the hands with the alms ol the hand towards the qiblah.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
64


8ome say align with the ears and others say with the shoulders and others say women should align them with
the shoulders. koughly seaking, it is raising your hands above. 1here is no authentic narration that the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) touched his ears. 8ome insist that the thumbs be laced behind the ears or
the hears be held while saying the takbir, but there is no narration lor this.

lirst oinion: Abu lanilah and maalik
No raising hands in salat besides the one with oening takbir.
1hey have other evidences, but the authenticity ol the hadeeth may not be as strong as the hadeeth ol Abdullah
ibn Lmar.

Abdullah ibn Lmar narrated, 1he messenger ol Allah used to raise his hand at the oening ol salat, and he
would not do that again." |Al layhaqi]

8econd oinion: 8hali'ee and Ahmad
1here are lour ositions lor raising the hands in salat:
1) At the oening ol salat
2) lelore bowing lor ruku'
!) Alter rising u lrom ruku'
4) Alter linishing the lirst tashahhud
uo you raise the hands while still seated or when standing7 8ome ol the luqaha say it is done while still
sitting, and then you ush yoursell u. Other luqaha say that it is done alter standing u comletely.
lmam Ash-8hali'ee: raise your hands when you stand u erlectly (8haykh Yaser thinks that this is the
strongest oinion).

Abdullah ibn Omar narrated Allah's messenger used to raise both his hands u to the level ol his shoulders
when oening the 8alat: and on saying the 1akbir lor bowing. And on raising his head lrom bowing he used to
do the same and then say 8ami 'Allahu liman hamidah, kabbana walakal-hamd. And he did not do that (i.e.
raising his hands) in rostrations." |lukhari]
1he hadeeth ol Abdullah ibn Lmar is very clear and exlicit on where to raise the hands.

8chool or
madhab
Oinion ualeel
lmams Abu
lanilah, malik
Only raise the hands lor the oening
takbir.
Abdullah ibn Lmar narrated, 1he messenger ol Allah
used to raise his hand at the oening ol salat, and he
would not do that again." |Al layhaqi]
lmams
8hali'ee,
Ahmad
kaise the hands:
1. At the oening ol salat
2. lelore bowing lor ruku'
!. Alter rising u lrom ruku'
4. Alter linishing the lirst tashahhud
Abdullah ibn Omar narrated Allah's messenger used to
raise both his hands u to the level ol his shoulders when
oening the 8alat: and on saying the 1akbir lor bowing.
And on raising his head lrom bowing he used to do the
same and then say 8ami 'Allahu liman hamidah, kabbana
walakal-hamd. And he did not do that (i.e. raising his
hands) in rostrations." |lukhari]

liqh scenarios:
- what does the raising ol the hands look like7
uescribed above.
- low high should the hands go u7
uescribed above.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
6

- when does one raise the hands alter linishing the lirst tashahhud7 while still sitting down or alter
standing straight u7
uescribed above.

!. lolding the right hand on the lelt hand
lirst oinion: Abu lanilah, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad
loth hands should be lolded, the right hand on the lelt hand

where does the chest" reler to7 According to the hadeeth ol Ali (radni A||anu 'annu), he used to hold the hands
under the navel.

1) llaced under the navel: Abu lanilah and Ahmad
2) llaced below the chest: 8hali'ee

8ahl ibn 8a'ad narrated, 1he eole were ordered to lace the right hand on the lelt lorearm in salat."
|lukhari]

8econd oinion: maalik
1he hands should be ut down on the side and not lolded u
According to lmam maalik, the hands are ket next to you, secilically in the lard salah. 1he maaliki school
says this to involve inclining on your body and hands and in order to remain straight.

1he right hand is on the lelt hand, or the right hand holds onto the wrist ol the lelt hand. Other schools say
that three lingers should be on the lorearm and hold the wrist. ln another narration, the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) would ush his hand lurther in and lace the right hand on the lelt lorearm. which osition
should we hold7 ll you look at all ol the ossibilities, it deends on the circumstances. ll the line is very tight,
then the hands will stretch in. ll you are raying by yoursell, then relax and hold onto the wrist. 1his is the
best osition. wa Allahu 'Alam.

llacing the hands on the waist (i.e. on the side) is wrong and rohibited in the salah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) lorbade us lrom standing like that, so we should avoid that osition.

ll you are squeezed so much that you are ushed one shoulder out and one shoulder behind, then do as much as
you can.

8ome ol the ulema gave concession during lajj that you cannot sto everyone lrom assing in lront ol you, but
you can ray in the back so that eole will not ass in lront ol you. move away lrom the assage ol eole and
avoid the crowd where eole ass. 8ome ol the ulema give the latwa as a concession to let it go because you
cannot let it go.

8chool or madhab Oinion ualeel
lmams Abu lanilah, 8hali'ee, Ahmad
loth hands should be lolded, the
right hand on the lelt hand
8ahl ibn 8a'ad narrated, 1he eole
were ordered to lace the right hand
on the lelt lorearm in salat."
|lukhari]
lmam malik
1he hands should be ut down on
the side, and not lolded u



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
66

4. looking down towards the sot ol one's rostration

Anas narrated, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, what is wrong with those eole who look towards
the sky during the 8alat7" lis talk grew stern while delivering this seech and he said, 1hey should sto |looking
towards the sky during the 8alat]: otherwise their eyes would be snatched away." |lukhari]

O: where to look during the ruku' and tashahhud7
1his is regardless ol whether in ruku' or standing. where do you look in sujood7 look straight. when making
tashahhud, look at the linger.

8avor the sweetness ol your osture in salat:
looking down is a sign ol humility. You are leading with Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) and looking down with
humbleness.

. commencing the salat with the rescribed du'a
uu'a al-istilta. According to the hadeeth ol Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu), the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) at the beginning ol salah was silent, and one day he asked him what he (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was
saying, so he was taught the du'a, which is the second du'a below.

One examle:

8ubhana kallah humma wa bi-hamdika watabara kasmuka wata 'ala jad-duka, wa la ilaha ghayruk, meaning You
are olorilied, O Allaah, and lraised: Your Name is llessed: Your majesty is lxalted, and none has the right to
worshied but You." |Abu uawood]

Another examle:

Allah humma ba'id baynee wa bayna khatayana kama ba'adta baynal mashriqi wal maghribi, Allah humma naq-
qinee min khatayaya kama yunaqqath thuwabul abyadu minad danasi , Allah hum maghsilnee min khatayaya bil
maee wath thalji wal bardi, meaning O Allah! 8earate me (lar) lrom my sins as you have searated (lar) the last
and west. O Allah! cleanse me ol my sins as white cloth is cleansed lrom dirt. O Allah! wash me ol my sins with
water, ice and snow." |lukhari and muslim]

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
67

8hould you recite several du'a together in one salah7 No. choose one and then recite the latiha.

6. 1a'meen (saying Ameen)
lirst oinion: Abu lanilah and maalik
8hould be ronounced silently

8econd oinion: 8hali'ee and Ahmad, ahl al hadeeth, Adh-uhahiriyyah
8hould be ronounced out loud during the salat in which recitation is done loudly

Nu'aim al mujmir said: l lrayed behind Abu lurairah. le recited lismillaahir--kaheem, then he recited
8uratul latiha, and when he reached walad daal-leen," he said Aameen" alter it, and the eole behind him
said Aameen"." |lukhari]

Abu lurayrah narrated the messenger said: when the imam says ohayril maghdubi 'alayhim walad daal-
leen," all ol you should say Aameen" because the Angels say Aameen" and he whose voice blends with that ol
the Angels, he would be lorgiven his ast sins." |lukhari]

8chool or madhab Oinion ualeel
lmams Abu
lanilah, malik
8hould be ronounced
silently.

lmams 8hali'ee,
Ahmad
8hould be ronounced
loudly when the rayer
is being recited loudly.
Nu'aim al mujmir said: l lrayed behind Abu lurairah. le recited
lismillaahir--kaheem, then he recited 8uratul latiha, and when he
reached walad daal-leen," he said Aameen" alter it, and the eole
behind him said Aameen"." |lukhari]

Abu lurayrah narrated the messenger said: when the imam says
ohayril maghdubi 'alayhim walad daal-leen," all ol you should say
Aameen" because the Angels say Aameen" and he whose voice
blends with that ol the Angels, he would be lorgiven his ast sins."
|lukhari]

7. A short silence belore and alter recitation ol the Ouran
when you are done reciting the surah alter latiha, do not go straight to the ruku' but have a short silence to
give a break between the recitation and the next osition in salah.

8. 8reading between the leet in the standing osition
1his sace should be shoulder-width aart.

9. keciting 8urah alter latiha
liqh scenarios:
- uoes the ma'moom recite a surah alter latiha7 1his is not waajib but a sunnah. Not reciting another
sunnah does not invalidate the salah. According to the majority ol the luqaha, the ma'moon should
recite a surah alter latiha in dhuhr and asr, but in lajr, maghrib, and isha the ma'moon should remain
silent alter latiha and listen to the imam. According to imam Abu lanilah, the ma'moon should not
recite anything in dhuhr and asr.

- can one recite a ortion ol a surah instead ol a lull one7
Yes. lowever, it must be at least one lull ayah. lor examle, you can recite: alil laam meem. can you
recite hall an ayah7 No! You must linish an entire ayah. what il as you were reciting you lorgot the
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
68

continuation ol the ayah7 You can change the surah and recite something else, or you can simly go to
the ruku'. uo not guess in the salah.

- ls it ermissible to reeat the same surah in both rak'at7
Yes, even il you were the imam. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) received the comlaint ol a
man who ket reeating 8urah Al lkhlaas in every rak'ah, and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
asked him why he did so, and the man relied that he loved that surah, and the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) said that Allah loved him lor that.

- low long should the recitation be7
As long as the congregation can allord. Lsually close to a age or 2/! ol a age. You can recite longer
surahs. One time the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) recited 8urah Al A'ral and another surah. ll
the congregation loves it, then it can be done.

10. keciting du'a between the two sujood
1here are many du'a that can be recited between the two sujood.

11. 1o sit down belore moving u lor the second or lourth rakah (lalsat-ul-istiraaha)
1his is called the resting osition. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would rest belore he stood u lrom a
hadeeth in 8ahih lukhari. 1his is a controversial osition in salah. lmam Abu lanilah does not consider this
art ol the salah. 1hose who consider as art ol salah say that the descrition ol the salah at the end ol the lile
ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) as the correct way ol salah. 1he comanion who narrated the story
saw the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) ray at the end ol his lile. 1hose who argue against it said that the
comanion saw the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) at the end ol his lile when he was tired and exhausted:
therelore, you just need to sit and catch your breath and stand.

lmam Abu lanilah says to use the leet to stand u without the hands. 1he other luqaha say that you ush with
your hands to stand u, and the last thing on the ground is your hands. low do you do this7 8hould you use
your lists or your oen hands7 1his is lrom one hadeeth that says: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
used his hands to ush himsell u 'ala hayyat al-'aajiz (meaning like an old man), which is using his hand. 1he
old man would not use his lists. 8ome ol the ulema argue that it is a tyo in the calligrahy and it is al-'aajin,
which is using the list. 1he argument is: which one is the authentic word in the text7 Allahu 'Alam. 8haykh
Yaser does not have a decision on this. 8ome eole cannot use their list because it will hurt and use their
hand.

Abu Oilaba, malik ibnul luwairith came to this masjid ol ours and said, 'l lray in lront ol you and my aim is
not to lead the lrayer but to show you the way in which the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to lray.' l
asked Abu Oilaba, 'low did he use to lray7' le relied, '1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to lray
like this 8heikh ol ours and the 8heikh used to sit lor a while alter the rostration, belore getting u alter the
lirst kak'a.' |lukhari]

12. 1o sit lor linal tashahhud in the osition ol tawarruk (to tuck the lelt loot under the right shin)
1he right loot is in the same osition and the lelt loot is ushed underneath the shin.

Abdullah ibn Az-2ubayr has another osition: this is mentioned in 8ahih muslim. lnstead ol utting the lelt
loot under the shin, he ut it between the thigh and the shin. lbn Oayyim Al lawziyyah argued that it was a
mistake lrom Abdullah ibn Az-2ubayr.

Abu lumaid As-8aidi said, l remember the lrayer ol Allah's Aostle better than any one ol you...On sitting in
the second kaka he sat on his lelt loot and roed u the right one: and in the last kak'a he ushed his lelt
loot lorward and ket the other loot roed u and sat over the buttocks." |lukhari]
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
69


1!. llacing hands on the thighs during the tashahhud
1hey are laced oen. lt does not matter il the hands are on the knees or the thighs. 8ome ol the ulema in
books ol liqh tried to make it a mechanical oinion, meaning the ti ol your lingers must be aligned with the
knees in the direction ol the qiblah. Other ulema (8h. Al Albani) said with the lelt hand grab the knee and with
the right hand kee it llat so that the linger can be raised lor tashahhud. 1he bottom line: uo not kee the
hands close to the stomach, and they should also not be laced between the thighs.

14. 1o oint out with the index linger during tashahhud
Abu lanilah: lee hand down until saying ash-hadu. and then ut the linger back.
8hali'ee: raise it when saying ash-hadu and kee it ointing.
malikis: move linger lrom beginning until the end. 8ome circle it and others do it as last as ossible.
ln 8ahih lbn lhuzaymah, the moving is mentioned: it is heavier than the steel on the 8haytan.

1he word isnara means sign in Arabic, and in the hadeeth there is no indication il it means remaining still or
moving.

lt is a matter ol the sunnah and not ol logic.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) ointed with the linger towards the qiblah. 8haykh Lthaymeen: 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would oint lrom the beginning ol the tashahhud and when making du'a,
then he would move the linger u and down. 1he du'a in the tashahhud begins with allahum salli 'ala
muhammad."

1he hadeeth mentions the word 'ishara, meaning 'sign' in lnglish. All ol these movements are called signs:
ointing only, moving the linger in a circle, moving the linger u and down. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) would raise his linger during the tashahhud. Abu lanilah's oinion: hand llat on thigh until reaching
ash hadu an la ilaha ilAllah, and then raise the linger, and when linished, then ut the linger down. 8haal'iee:
raise linger at ilAllah and kee it ointed until the end ol the salah. malikis: move the linger lrom the
beginning until the end ol the tashahhud, and some say u and down and some say in circles. Ahl al hadeeth:
move the linger last and heavily.

8haykh Lthaymeen: combined between dillerent evidences. lee hand lrom beginning ol the tashahhud (at
tahiyyatu.) and when starting Allahum salli. then he would move the linger u and down. 1he lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would invoke Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) and when doing that would move the linger.
moving the linger would be during the du'a, and not during the thana', when you are raising Allah (suunananu
wa-ta'a|a).

8haykh Yaser asked 8haykh Lthaymeen about this issue, and he said that this is not an issue that you should be
so technical about, and il the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) moved the linger u and down, then move the
linger u and down. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: lt is heavier than the steel on the 8haytan,
meaning he gets very irritated when he sees a erson doing this. 8haykh Yaser lollows the oinion ol 8haykh
Lthaymeen on this issue.

1here is an oinion ol scholars ol ahl al hadeeth that you raise your linger with every du'a, and they raise their
linger in between the two sajdahs as well because there is a du'a that is recited.

1. keciting the rescribed du'a alter tashahhud
when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) linished the tashahhud, he recommended that we make du'a. le
would lrequently seek Allah's rotection and reluge lrom lour things: lahannam, torment ol the grave, the
litnah and ordeals ol this lile and death, and the trial ol Ad-uajjal. 1here are dillerent versions ol the hadeeth.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
70

oenerally seaking, il you mention one ol these du'a seeking reluge in Allah lrom these lour things, then kee
reeating this du'a.

1here is no silence in the salah (excet in the madhab ol lmam Abu lanilah). lt is an oortunity to make your
own ersonal du'a until the imam linishes the salah. You can reeat the same du'a over and over again il you
want. You ask lor your own ersonal du'a: Allahumma hel me with my children, O Allah guide so and so. ln
the lard salah, il you do not know any du'a in Arabic and are waiting lor the imam to linish, then stick to the
du'a that you know in Arabic. 1here is a dillerence ol oinion over the issue ol language, so do not use a
language other than Arabic in the lard salah because it is so imortant.

16. 1o turn lace right and lelt uon ronouncing the linal salaam
make sure that as you make the salaam, that those behind you can see the whiteness ol the skin on your cheek.
Align your nose and sight with those on the right and lelt side to make sure that you are making your salaam to
the maximum extent.

8avor the sweetness ol the sunnah ol salat:
low close can you get to the examle ol kasulullah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)7
ln the beginning, it may be dillicult and you may lose some khushoo' to rectily the osition ol your salah, but
gradually it will be easily erlormed. As you do it, you will have the leeling ol lollowing the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) and you will be roud ol yoursell.

You are bringing yoursell closer to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
said: lray as you have seen me raying." 8ome eole try to only do the bare minimum. 1he more you memorize
and learn ol the sunan, the closer you become to the examle ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). As you are
raying the salah, you know that you are making the sunnah ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) and are
doing something to bring you closer to the examle ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am).

Action ltem:
- ll you don't know the du'a lor commencing the salat, it's about time to learn one
- ll you already know one, then it's about time to learn another one
- uo the same thing with the du'a alter tashahhud
1his will enhance the quality ol your ibaadah. when memorizing a du'a, have someone check your ronunciation.

can you recite the Ouran reversing the order ol the surahs7 lor examle, in the lirst rak'ah can you recite 8urah
An Nas and in the second surah recite 8urah Al lkhlaas7 Yes, but you cannot reverse the same surah. You cannot
start the lirst rak'ah with the last art ol the surah and in the second art ol the surah recite the beginning art ol
the same surah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) one time in salah rayed with 8urah Al laqarah and then
8urah An Nisa' and then 8urah Al lmran.

kiya' in salah: Abandoning the act out ol lear ol showing oll is showing oll as well. ll you are alraid ol showing oll,
continue what you are doing.

when returning lrom ruku' where do you lace your hands7 llace them by your side and not back where they
were belore the ruku' on the chest. 1he oinion can be argued by either evidence.

ll you miss an integral ol salah and do not go back to do it, then the rak'ah is invalid and il you continue without
lixing the roblem, then the salah is invalid. 1he wajibaat ol salah do not invalidate your salah il you do not do
them, and you must do sujood as-sahw il you miss it. 1he sunan ol salah add quality ol your salah.



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
71

makrooh (Abominable) Acts ol 8alat makrooh (Abominable) Acts ol 8alat makrooh (Abominable) Acts ol 8alat makrooh (Abominable) Acts ol 8alat

1hese acts do not nullily the salat, nor do they require sujood as-sahw as comensation. 1hey take away lrom the
reward acquired during salat.

1. 1o omit one ol the wajibaat intentionally.
lxamle: 8omeone misses Allahu Akbar" between ruku' and sujood and kee moving without saying the
takbir because they are raying alone.

2. moving without any excusable reason
1he 8haytan may be making their mind very busy thinking about other things. 1he 8haytan will always
lind ways to distract you in your salah. 1his is movement because you are so distracted. A erson may
start scratching the head and then leel itchy in other areas. lixing the hijab is ok because it is being done
lor the benelit ol the salah, and it is ok lor the man to be tucking in his shirt il it came out, but these should
not be done in every single raka'h.

what about rotecting a child lrom lalling or reventing harm lrom reaching someone7 uoing this would
not nullily the salah unless it involves a lot ol movement, in which case the erson should ray the salah
again.

!. 1o close the eyes
1ry to have a lain rayer rug with no designs. what il someone cannot locus and is so distracted7 lmam
Ahmad said that you can close the eyes il there is a necessity lor it. ll you think that your salah will become
invalid il you oen your eyes and you will lose your eace and tranquility, then close the eyes because
keeing the salah valid is more imortant than enhancing the quality ol the salah.

1his is makrooh unless there is a reason lor it. lor examle: il a erson is raying on camus and many
eole are walking around and distracting you, then you may close your eyes.

4. 1o look away lrom the sot ol one's rostration
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) told us: 1he 8haytan is stealing lrom your salah just as the lox
steals lrom the chicken. 1he 8haytan is stealing the reward by distracting you and causing you to look
somewhere else. 8ometimes eole when raying salah look and see who is coming in or they start looking
at their watches.

. 1o ray while in need ol going to the bathroom
what il you miss the salah in congregation7 lt does not matter. oo to the bathroom lirst.

what about the resence ol lood7 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said there should be no salah in
the resence ol two things: lood and the need to go to the bathroom. 1his means that the lood is already
resent on the table and not still in the kitchen being cooked.

many eole ray the salah quickly to enjoy the lood rather than the oosite, which is the way it should
be done.

6. Yawning
One or two times is ok, but il you must do it, then you must close your mouth. 8haykh Lthaymeen
recommended that the erson bite on the lower li to control it. ll unable to do that, then cover the mouth
with the lelt hand, which requires you to kee moving your hand. ll it kees haening, then rest lirst and
then ray salah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
72

7. 1o sread the lorearms on the ground
1he elbows cannot touch the ground in sujood. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) exlained that this
is like the animal or the dog when they sit down.

8. 1o wear clothes untidily
uo not ray casually at home. 1he limit is wearing something that you can wear when oening the door lor
guests. ll you cannot oen the door lor eole wearing certain clothes, then you should not ray in them.

9. 1o wear clothes that carry distractive designs or images
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) once received a gilt that had images / designs on it and rayed in it,
and when he linished the salah, he immediately took the clothing oll because it had distracted him so much
in the salah.

ll the clothing has ictures ol human beings or animals, then you should not be wearing it in the salah. ll
you are wearing it, then turn it inside out when raying.

10. 1o wear tight clothes
1he clothing must be a little loose even though it does not break the salah il she is wearing ants while
raying.

Action ltem:
- 1he next time you ray, watch how many times you move in your salat
- ll you wear something relatively tight, kee handy something loose to wear lor salat.

mubah (lermissible) Acts ol 8ala mubah (lermissible) Acts ol 8ala mubah (lermissible) Acts ol 8ala mubah (lermissible) Acts ol 8alat tt t

Acts that do not nullily the salat and do not lessen the reward.

1. 1o ray behind a human who is raying or sitting down.
ll you do not have a sutrah, you can use a erson as a sutrah. ll a erson moves while you are in your salah,
then what do you do7 ll someone is crossing in lront ol you, it is ok to move one ste lorward to revent
the erson lrom crossing in lront ol you. ll a erson asses hallway through in lront ol you, then let them
go because they have already assed.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) moved towards the qiblah to revent a goat lrom crossing in lront
ol him.

2. 1o move and take action in order to remove an eminent harm.
ll something harmlul is resent, you have to remove it. You can maintain your salah while moving. ll it
will only take one ste lor you to remove the harm, then it is ok. ll you are going to be chasing the harm
(i.e. insect), then it is better to linish this and then ray the salah.

!. 1o assist the imam il he makes a mistake.
men should say: 8ubhanAllah". women should cla (i.e. hit the right hand on the outside ol the lelt three
times). ll you are raying salah at home and want to remind someone to take action such as oening the
door lor someone, then you can say 8ubhanAllah" out loud while in salah.

can you assist the imam by mentioning words7 lor examle: the imam missed a sajdah and stood u and
does not understand why eole are saying 8ubhanAllah." 1he ulema say that il the imam is not getting it
by eole saying 8ubhanAllah", then you can say one or two words maximum. According to the madhab
ol lmam Abu lanilah, you cannot seak during the salah and cannot say any words.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
7!


laughing does break the salah. what constitutes laughing7 oiggling breaks the salah, meaning shaking
and vibrating with laughter. 8miling, even il it was a wide smile, does not break the salah. According to
lmam Abu lanilah, laughing not only breaks the salah but also breaks the wudu. 1here is a hadeeth ol
disutable authenticity that they hold to be valid.



4. 1o resond to the salaam by raising the hand.
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to raise his hand when someone would say salaam while he
was raying. 1his can be done in lard and nall salah.

. 1o resond to a caller by sign.
can you resond to children's questions in salah7 You can give gestures but not answer them. Asma came
to the masjid and saw everyone in salah alter salat al asr and did not know why everyone was raying and
asked Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna). Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) in her salah raised her hand and ointed her
linger to the sky and Asma asked, Ayah7" Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) nodded her head yes. ll it becomes a
conversation, then it invalidates the salah.

8avor the erlect act ol your salat:
Are you aware ol the rukn, sunan, wajibaat, and makrooh actions ol the salah7 1he closer you are to imlementing
the rules, then the closer to the examle ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), and the sweeter your salah will
be.

lave a rivate session with yoursell and ask yoursell this question: low conscious are you now when you erlorm
your salat7 Number the actions ol your salah and see how much you can retain lrom your salah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
74

Ouiz:
One ol the lollowing is not a delinition ol salat:
a. lnvocation
b. mmercy
c cc c. .. . oi oi oi oiv vv ving ing ing ing
d. louses ol worshi

Our lord l have settled some ol my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred louse our lord that
they may establish rayer.:" 1he lrohet who said that:
a. lsmael
b bb b. .. . lbrahim lbrahim lbrahim lbrahim
c. Yaqoob
d. None ol the above

when salat was lirst rescribed, maghrib was:
a. ! rak'ah
b. 4 rak'ah
c cc c. .. . 2 22 2 rak'ah rak'ah rak'ah rak'ah
d. we don't know

lor sure, one ol the lollowing is accountable lor salat
a. minor
b. lnsane
c cc c. .. . w ww woman oman oman oman
d. Non-muslim

uenying the obligation ol salat removes the erson lrom lslam is the oinion ol:
a. lmam Ahmad
b. lmam Abu lanilah
c. lmam 8hali'ee
d dd d. .. . All ol above All ol above All ol above All ol above

witr salat is wajib according to the school ol:
a aa a. .. . lmam lmam lmam lmam Abu Abu Abu Abu lanilah lanilah lanilah lanilah
b. lmam malik
c. lmam 8hali'ee
d. lmam Ahmad

1he time ol asr begins when the time ol dhuhr ends is the oinion ol:
a. lmam Abu lanilah
b. lmam malik
c. lmam 8hali'ee
d dd d. .. . All ol the All ol the All ol the All ol the above above above above

.excet maghrib where he instead rayed it on both days at the same time. most likely suorts the end time lor
maghrib salat according to the school ol:
a aa a. .. . malik malik malik malik
b. Ahmad
c. Abu lanilah
d. None ol the above

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
7

1he brightness in the horizon that extends vertically rior to the time ol lajr:
a. 1rue dawn
b. 8econd dawn
c. lslaar time
d dd d. .. . Al lajr al kaadhib Al lajr al kaadhib Al lajr al kaadhib Al lajr al kaadhib

One ol the lollowing rayers is invalid:
a. lajr during islar time
b bb b. .. . u uu uhuhr when the sun is still at its zenith huhr when the sun is still at its zenith huhr when the sun is still at its zenith huhr when the sun is still at its zenith
c. lsha at the beginning ol its time
d. maghrib when the sun has set

One ol the lollowing is not a re-requisite ol the salat:
a. luberty
b. 8ound mind
c cc c. .. . l ll lthnicity thnicity thnicity thnicity
d. lslam

One ol the lollowing is not a rukn in salat:
a aa a. .. . l ll lolding the right hand on the lelt olding the right hand on the lelt olding the right hand on the lelt olding the right hand on the lelt
b. 1he ruku'
c. 1he sujood
d. 8tanding il caable

1he term tasleem means:
a aa a. .. . 1 11 1o say salaam a o say salaam a o say salaam a o say salaam at the end ol salat t the end ol salat t the end ol salat t the end ol salat
b. 1o recite bismillah at the beginning ol salat
c. 1o rostrate
d. 1o bow down

One ol the lollowing orders is correct:
a. 1asleem, sujood, ruku' tashahhud
b bb b. .. . 1 11 1akbeer, ruku' sujood, tasleem akbeer, ruku' sujood, tasleem akbeer, ruku' sujood, tasleem akbeer, ruku' sujood, tasleem
c. 1ashahhud, tasleem, takbeer latihah
d. kuku', latiha, sujood, tasleem
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
76

chater : ltiquette ol 8alat chater : ltiquette ol 8alat chater : ltiquette ol 8alat chater : ltiquette ol 8alat

1he uescrition ol 8alat 1he uescrition ol 8alat 1he uescrition ol 8alat 1he uescrition ol 8alat

Overview ol ositions and actions ol salat:

Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrates that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) stated:
1. when you stand lor salat, say takbir (jakauir)
2. kecite lrom the Ouran what you know by heart (ira maa tavassara ma`aka mina| ouran)
!. low until you leel at ease (irkaa` natta tatmainna raakc 'ann)
4. kaise your head and stand u straight (irjaa` nattaa taa`tadc|a aa imann)
. 1hen, rostrate until you leel at ease during rostration (summas jud nattan tat ma innan saajidann)
6. 1hen sit with calmness until you leel at ease (do not hurry)
7. And do the same in all your salat (rayers) |lukhari ch. 8:4!6]

uuration ol ositions:

Al lara noted that the lollowing ositions ol the lrohet's (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) salat were ol aroximately
equal duration:
1. lowing
2. lrostration
!. 8itting in between the two rostrations
4. 8tanding alter the two rostrations
. 8tanding alter the bowing |lukhari, ch. 24:44]

1. lace the Oiblah

|lukhari, look ol As-8alat ch. 24:261]

2. 8ay 1akbeer
when you stand lor salat, say takbir (jakauir)." |lukhari, ch. 8:4!6]

!. kaise hands
Allah's messenger (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would raise hands to shoulder (vas ja`u vadavnc nadnwa mankcuavnc)
level during:
- Oening ol as-salat with takbir
- 8aying takbir when bowing into ruku'
- kaising head lrom bowing and saying: sami A||anu |iman namidan, rauuana wa |aka|-namd |lukhari, ch. 1:42]

malik b. luwairith reorted: 1he messenger ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) raised his hands oosite his ears
at the time ol reciting the takbir (i.e. at the time ol beginning the rayer) and then again raised his hands oosite
the ears at the time ol bowing and when he lilted his head alter bowing he said: Allah listened to him who raised
lim, and did like it (raised his hands u to the ears). |muslim, look 4, 762]

Nala' related that when lbn Lmar stood lor the third rak'ah, he would raise his hands - an action he ascribed to the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) |Nisa'i]

Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) said, when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) stood lor rayer, he would
raise his hands (with them being) oen." |Nisa'i]

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
77

4. llace right hand on the lelt wrist and lorearm
keorted wa'il ibn lajr, Once when l rayed with the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) then he ut his right
hand over the back ol his lelt wrist and lorearm." |Nisa'i]

. words between 1akbir and recitation
keorted Abu lurayrah, when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) made the oening takbir, he would be quiet
lor a little while belore his recitation. l asked him, 'O messenger ol Allah, may my lather and mother be sacriliced
lor you, why are you quiet between the (oening) takbir and your recitation7 what do you say (at that time)7' le
said, 'l say, O Allah, make the distance between me and my sins as lar as you have made the distance between the
last and the west. O Allah, cleanse me ol my sins as a white garment is cleansed ol dirt. O Allah, urily me lrom
my sins by snow, rain and hail."

6. kecite surah al-latihah
As-8amit reorted that Allah's messenger said, whoever does not recite Al-latihah in his salat, his salat is invalid.
(|a sa|aata |cman |am vara ucjaatinati| kitau)" |lukhari ch 8:4!]

7. 8ay ameen
Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) reorted that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, when the imam
recites .anavri| maanduui a|avnim wa|ad da|ccn.' 1hen say 'amccn' (along with the imam), lor the angels say 'amccn'
when the imam says 'amccn'. And whichever erson's 'amccn' coincides with that ol the angels, he will have his
ervious sins lorgiven." |Nisa'i]

8. kecite something lrom the Ouran, in addition to al-latihah
kala'ah ibn kala' narrated that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, ll you have something lrom the Ouran,
recite it. ll not, then say the tamheed, takbir and the tahleel and then bow." |Nisa'i]

9. kaise hands

10. 8ay takbir
Ali reminded believers ol the lrohet's (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) salat: say takbir on each rising and bowing
|lukhari ch. 21:41]

11. low
lt is reorted that Lqbah ibn Amr would bow with his arms searated, his hands on his knees, and his lingers
oened beyond his knees. le said, 1his is how l saw the messenger ol Allah ray." |Nisa'i]

Abu lumaid reorted that when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) bowed, he would be straight, his head
neither u nor down, and he would lace his hands on his knees as il he was holding them." |Nisa'i]

most ol the du'a in the ruku' are words ol raise. You cannot make sulication lor things that you want during
the ruku'.

12. kise lrom the bowing osition and make backbone uright
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, Allah, mighty and 8ublime, does not look at the rayer ol the slave
who does not make his backbone uright between his bowings and rostrations." |Ahmad and 1abarani]

1!. kaise hands

14. lrostration #1
Al Abbas ibn Abdul muttalib reorted that he heard the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) say, when a slave (ol
Allah) rostrates, seven body arts rostrate with him: his lace, his hands, his knees, and his leet." |Nisa'i]
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
78


maimuna, the wile ol the Aostle ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) reorted: when the messenger ol Allah (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) rostrated himsell, he sread his arms, i.e. he searated them so much that the whiteness ol
his armits became visible lrom behind and when he sat (lor jalsa) he rested on his lelt thigh.

when Allah's messenger said 'sami A||anu |iman namida', none ol us bent his back until the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am) rostrated and then we would rostrate alter him. |lukhari ch. !:411]

uo not ut your lorearms llat with elbows touching the ground like a dog (wa |a vausutn dncraa 'avnc ka| ka|uc)"
|lukhari ch. :!!1, also ch. !!:466]

1. 8it alter comleting rostration
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, Allah, mighty and 8ublime, does not look at the rayer ol the slave
who does not make his backbone uright in between his bowings and rostrations." |Ahmad and 1abarani]

lbn Lmar reorted that it is lrom the 8unnah to kee the right loot uright, with its toes ointing toward the
qiblah, and to sit uon the lelt loot. |Nisa'i]

16. lerlorm rostration #2
One rak'ah is comlete alter rostration #2.

17. 8itting osition
lbn Lmar reorted that it is lrom the sunnah to kee the right loot uright, with its toes ointing toward the
qiblah, and to sit uon the lelt loot. |Nisa'i]

lbn Lmar reorted that when the messenger ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) sat lor the tashahhud, he laced
his lelt hand on his lelt knee, and his right hand on his right knee, and he raised his right linger, which is next to
the thumb, making sulication in this way, and he stretched his lelt hand on his lelt knee. |muslim]

Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) reorted, .and he used to lace his lelt loot llat (on the ground) and raise u the right:
he rohibited the devil's way ol sitting on the heels, and he lorbade eole to sread out their arms like a wild
beast. And he used to linish the rayer with the taslim." |muslim, look 4 ladeeth 100]

8it down belore standing u lor the second or lourth rak'ah:
malik ibnul luwairith came to this masjid ol ours and said, 'l ray in lront ol you and my aim is not to lead the
rayer but to show you the way in which the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to ray.' l asked Abu Oilaba,
'low did he use to ray7' le relied, '1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to ray like this shaykh ol ours
and the shaykh used to sit lor a while alter the rostration, belore getting u alter the lirst rak'ah.'" |lukhari]

8itting osition in the last sitting ol the salat:
Abu lumaid As-8aidi said, l remember the lrayer ol Allah's Aostle better than any one ol you...On sitting in the
second kaka he sat on his lelt loot and roed u the right one: and in the last kak'a he ushed his lelt loot
lorward and ket the other loot roed u and sat over the buttocks." |lukhari]

1awus reorted: we asked lbn Abbas about sitting on one's buttocks ('ala alqad mein, in lrayer). le said: 'lt is
8unnah'. we said to him: we lind it a sort ol cruelty to the loot. lbn Abbas said: 'lt is the 8unnah ol your Aostle
(may eace be uon him)'. |muslim]

18. kaising hands when standing alter third rak'ah
Nala' related that when lbn Lmar stood lor the third kak'ah, he would raise his hands - an action he ascribed to
the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). |Nisa'i]
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
79


lrostration ol lorgetlulness
Abu 8a'id al-lhudri reorted: 1he messenger ol Allah (may eace be uon him) said: when any one ol you is in
doubt about his lrayer and he does uot know how much he has lrayed, three or lour (rak'ahs), he should cast aside
his doubt and base his lrayer on what he is sure ol, then erlorm two rostrations belore giving salutations. ll he
has lrayed live rak'ahs, they will make his lrayer an even number lor him, and il he has lrayed exactly lour, they
will be humiliation lor the devil. |muslim]

19. 1asleem

1ry to lollow the imam's statement and say what he says. lor examle, il the imam says: assalamu alaykum wa
rahmatullah wa barakatuh", you say the same.

'Amr ibn 8a'd related that his lather said, l saw the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) making the salaam on his
right side and on his lelt side until l could see the whiteness ol his cheeks." (muslim)

Alter 8alat
Abu Lmamah reorted that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, lor whoever recites the verse ol the
throne (Al-laqarah:244) at the end ol every lrayer, nothing will revent him lrom entering laradise excet that
dies." |Nisa'i]

1he 1he 1he 1he uillerence between men and women in kegards to Ollering 1heir 8alat uillerence between men and women in kegards to Ollering 1heir 8alat uillerence between men and women in kegards to Ollering 1heir 8alat uillerence between men and women in kegards to Ollering 1heir 8alat

1his is ol great disute amongst the luqaha. 1here is no authentic statement lrom the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) stating how a woman's salat is dillerent. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, lray as you have
seen me raying." 1he dillerences are mentioned in books ol liqh, and they are mentioned here not as an
endorsement but so that you know what some luqaha say.

O: ls there any dillerence between the way women ray lrom the way men ray7

malik ibnul luwairith narrated, the messenger said, lray as you have seen me ray." |lukhari]

1he recommendations ol the luqaha' based on multile accounts in the sunnah:
1. women cover their entire body excet lor the lace and the hands, and men cover between the navel and
the knees
2. men raise their hands to their ears and women to their shoulders. (1his is to give extra modesty to the
women)
!. men sread their hands out in sujood and women bring them to their sides
4. women bring their stomachs close to their thighs, and men do not
. ln the sitting osition, women bring their knees close to each other and men sread them out
6. women sit on their heels and men sit on their lelt loot and ro u their right loot
7. 1o correct the imam's mistake, men say 8ubhanAllah" and women cla with the hands |1his is agreed
uon]
8. 1he lemale imam lor a grou ol women stands u in the middle ol the lirst row
9. 1he lemale imam does not recite out loud in case men were resent
10. According to lmam Abu lanilah: women lace their hands on the chest while standing, and men lace
their hands lower




Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
80

8avor the sweetness ol your salat
low to achieve khushu' in salat:
what is khushu'7
1he meaning ol khushu' is concentration. 1he ulema soke about the delinition ol 'aqama as-salat'. lt has to do
with what you do belore the salah, during the salah, and alter the salah. 8alah should be the reason lor you to sto
doing the haraam. 8alah should revent eole lrom committing sins.

1hings to do belore you start your salat:
1. lreare lor the salat ahead ol time. ll salah in the masjid starts at 1:!0, do not come at 1:29 because you will
not have time to make wudu' and ray the sunnah. ll you are at home, start rearing lor the salah earlier
than when you lan to ray. locus on your lard more than anything else.

2. uo not challenge your stomach and eat lirst
Abu uarda said it shows how wise the erson is to linish his business belore raying the salah.

!. ll you need to answer the call ol nature, then do it lirst

4. uo not ray il you were overtaken by slumber or latigue. locus on the lareeda lirst and do not send time
on the nall at the exense ol the lareeda.

. make a thorough wudu, enough time rior to your salat.

6. uress nicely lor your salat. ll you have work clothing that is distracting, it is better to kee an outer
garment with you to cover yoursell.

7. 8elect a lace or sot where there will be less or no distractions. lt is better to designate one area ol your
house as a musalla. 8ome ol the comanions did this. making it a lace lor salah does not mean that you
make it a temle, but it is about having a lace to ray where you have eace and tranquility.

8. come early to your salat whether at home or in the masjid.

9. kace lor the lirst row, in order to have less distraction.

10. lray as close as ossible to the imam.

11. keeat the words ol adhan alter the mu'adhin

12. lray your nall salat. 8how dedication to the salah. ll you lall short on the sunnah, you will always maintain
the lard. ll you do not maintain the sunnah, then you will lall short on the lard. As you ray more, the
quality ol your salah imroves. You have adjusted your mind and heart to ray the salah.

1!. lray behind a sutra

14. kead some Ouran (esecially what you lan to recite in your salat). lor those who do not seak Arabic, read
the translation belore you start the salah.

1. make some du'a and dhikr. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said the time between the adhan and
iqamah is a time when du'a is acceted.

16. ll raying in the masjid, do not talk too much with eole until alter salat is over.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
81

17. uo not look around and get distracted in the masjid, locus on this ucoming event (salat).

18. ll raying in congregation, straighten your lines lor the salat. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said
that il you do not do this, then the 8haytan comes between you and distracts you.

19. contemlate about the greatness ol whom you are standing belore.

20. kemember the salal and how they erlorm their salat. 8ome ol the salal would remember they were
standing belore Allah and would become ale or shaky. kemember that you are ollering the salah to Allah
(suunananu wa-ta'a|a).

21. contemlate over the excellences and virtues ol khushu'.

22. kemember to consider this your linal salat. kemember that this could be your last salah.

loints to observe while one is in salat:
1. contemlate over the word Allahu Akbar while raising your hands u. You are throwing everything behind
your back and locusing on the salah.

2. considering the status ol ihsan, lray as il you see Allah, il not then that as le sees you."

!. lold your hands, the right on the lelt and look with your eyes down in humility. You are utting yoursell in
a osition ol humbleness to Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).

4. Observe the sunnah and correct way ol salat

. lring tranquility to your salat and slow down the ace ol your recitation.

6. 8tart with commencing du'a

7. contemlate over the ayat you recite, or try to understand what the imam is reciting. You cannot read a
translation while in salah (i.e. during salat at-taraweeh).

8. leautily the Ouran with your voice. ll you master tajweed, you will have a beautilul recitation.

9. kemember that Allah answers you as you recite the latiha. Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) that the latiha is
between lim and lis slave.

10. 8avor the sweetness ol each osition in salat

11. Adhkar ol salah, learn more than just one

12. Never look around or u

1!. Never let the designs ol the rayer rug distract you

14. 8trive when overwhelmed with yawning

1. make lots ol du'a, esecially in the sujood


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
82

Actions to observe alter the salat is over:
1. uo not move lrom your osition right away. 1he sunnah ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) is to
make tasbeeh in the same lace. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said the angels make du'a lor you
until you move lrom your osition or break the wudu. 1each your children this as well.

2. uo your tasbeeh

!. uo your dhikr and du'a

4. keview your salat, and evaluate yoursell

. lray your nall salat

6. look lorward to the next salat

liqh 8cenarios:
- can the one who is raying close the eyes to avoid distractions7 lt deends on the situation as exlained
above.

- low to deal with the excessive was-wa-sa (whisers ol the 8haytan) in salat7 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am) said there is a 8haytan who exclusively distracts you in the salat. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am) recommended that il a erson is overwhelmed by this, then turn to lelt and blow three times and
say: a'oodhu billah as-8amee Al Aleem min ash 8haytan ar rajeem min hamzihi.

- uoes excessive was-wa-sa nullily the salat7
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that a erson may not get any reward lrom his salah. lt does
not necessarily nullily the salah unless the erson is sure that he missed something.

Action ltem:
- ll you chase two rabbits, both will escae. 8o locus on your salat and look lor the other rabbits alter salat
when it is time lor salah, locus on the salah.
- lreare your own list to do belore you start your salat
- kead a book that exlains the excellences and virtues ol salat
- 1each others these techniques in order to hel you get yoursell the best out ol it.

1he lost 8alat uhikr 1he lost 8alat uhikr 1he lost 8alat uhikr 1he lost 8alat uhikr

Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated, the messenger said: whoever glorilies Allah at the end ol every salat
!! times (subhanAllah) and raises Allah !! times (alhamdulillah), and utters the word ol oreatness !! times
(Allahu Akbar) that is ninety nine, then comletes it with one hundred saying: 'la ilaha ilAllah wahdahu la shareeka
lah lahul mulk wa lahul hamd wa huwa 'ala kulli shay in qadeer' (1here is no god but Allah alone who has no
artner, to lim belongs the kingdom, to lim raise is due, and le is Omniotent) his shortcomings will be
lorgiven, even il it is as large as the lroth in the sea." |muslim]

1his hadeeth alies to lard salah and not the sunnah. uhikr is made alter the lard salah.

low do you count your dhikr7 1he sunnah is to use the right hand. 1he lelt hand could be used to kee track ol
the counting, but some ulema do not agree with this. 1he hands are designed to raise Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) encouraged us to use our hands and said that they will testily lor us on the
uay ol ludgment.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
8!

liqh scenarios:
- what should be said alter salah7 Allahu Akbar, Astaghlirullah ! times, 8ubhanAllah !! times, Alhumdulillah
!! times, Allahu Akbar !! times, |a i|ana i|A||an., Ayat al-kursi, the ! quls. look in books ol adkhar.

- ls it ermissible to use counting aid, such as tasbeeh or beads7 lt is accetable to use counting aids, but it is
more rewarding to use the hand. 8haykh Yaser heard this lrom 8haykh Lthaymeen and 8haykh lin laaz.
1hose who use the tasbeeh have the reort ol Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) which may not be authentic that
she used to use date stones to count the tasbeeh. 1here is another conllicting reort that the lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) disliked a erson using stones to count.

- 8hould this dhikr be erlormed in congregation7
ln some cultures, dhikr is made in congregation. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was very
sontaneous, meaning that alter salah, there was no a secilic rotocol to lollow. 1here are some ahadeeth
indicating that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would linish the salah and immediately leave. One
time the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) lelt immediately alter salat al asr and went to the house, and
the comanions asked him what had haened, and he said that he remembered that he had some gold
sadaqah in his house and wanted to give it away belore the sun set. Another narration indicates that the
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) immediately stood u alter he linished his salat and rayed. ln other
narrations, he would seak with the congregation, secilically alter lajr, and would ask il anyone had seen a
dream the night belore and would interret it. 1he longer you remain in your sot, the better because the
angels will make du'a lor you, and once you are done, move on to raying your sunnah.

ll dhikr is done in congregation to teach, then this is line until they learn. lor examle: teaching children.

8avor the sweetness ol dhikr alter salat
- ll you envy those who ractice yoga, here is your chance. when you linish your salah, locus on what you have
done. You ask Allah lor lorgiveness il you have done anything wrong. lven though the salah may have been
good, it can always be better. lt is a time lor contemlation.

- uhikr is your meditation moment
when you linish your salah, locus on what you have done. You ask Allah lor lorgiveness il you have done
anything wrong. lven though the salah may have been good, it can always be better. lt is a time lor
contemlation.

- kelax, and locus on your dhikr

8alat al 8alat al 8alat al 8alat al- -- -musaalir (1raveler 8alat) musaalir (1raveler 8alat) musaalir (1raveler 8alat) musaalir (1raveler 8alat)

Al Al Al Al- -- -Oasr (shortening the salat) Oasr (shortening the salat) Oasr (shortening the salat) Oasr (shortening the salat)

8alah originally started as two rak'ah.

| ... N l />l. -!> .1. l.l | .> >. _%! , |
_,>l ' />l s !..
And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame uon you lor shortening the rayer |esecially] il you
lear that those who disbelieve may disrut |or attack] you. lndeed, the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy.
|An-Nisa' 4:101]
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
84


Ya'la ibn Lmaiyyah said: l said to Lmar ibn Al lhattab: 'lxlain to me why the eole shorten the salat when
Allah says, 'And when you go lorth.|the receding verse] and those days are gone now!' Lmar said: 'l wondered
about that too and l mentioned that to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) and he said: '1his is a charity that
Allah, the lxalted, has bestowed uon you, so accet lis charity.'" |lukhari and muslim]

1his hadeeth shows that Lmar (radni A||anu 'annu) alter the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would shorten his
salah when he would travel. 8hortening the salah was never abrogated.

meaning ol qasr: meaning ol qasr: meaning ol qasr: meaning ol qasr: Oasr means to shorten the salawat that are made ol lour rak'ah (dhuhr, asr and isha) to two
rak'ah. 1he word 'qaseer' means 'short.' Oasr is to shorten something.

kuling ol qasr: kuling ol qasr: kuling ol qasr: kuling ol qasr: what is the ruling on qasr salat lor the traveler7

lirst oinion: Abu lanilah
lt is wajib lor the traveler to shorten the salah.

8econd oinion: malik
lt is highly recommended.

1hird oinion: 8hali'ee and Ahmad
lt is ermissible concession.

All use the same hadeeth as rool. when salah was rescribed lirst it was two rak'ah, and then it was increased in
the residency and remained two lor the traveler. Abu lanilah said that based on this hadeeth the qasr salah is two
rak'ah. Lthman (radni A||anu 'annu) when he went lor umrah would not shorten, and based on this, the ulema say
that it is ermissible to shorten. ll it is a charity, you have the otion to take it or reject it.

Ahl al hadeeth such as 8haykh Al Albani and Al 8hawkanee agree with lmam Abu lanilah on this issue.

8chool or madhab Oinion
lmam Abu lanilah lt is wajib
lmam malik lt is highly recommended
lmams 8hali'ee, Ahmad lt is ermissible concession

1he minimum distance to allow qasr: 1he minimum distance to allow qasr: 1he minimum distance to allow qasr: 1he minimum distance to allow qasr:

lirst oinon: Abu lanilah, malik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad

1he distance ol traveling three days and three nights or two days and two nights by camels (aroximately 81 km
or 0 miles).

oalveston is 60 miles lrom louston, and according to this oinion, it is considered travel.

1he erson is considered a traveler alter assing the distance ol 0 miles.




Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
8

8econd oinion: orou ol ious redecessors
1here is no secilic distance as long as it is called salar", or traveling.
1hey base traveling based on custom or 'url and what the community considers to be travel. ll the majority ol the
oulation considers it travel, then it is travel. ll the majority does not consider it travel, then it is not travel.

lxamle: NY and Nl. ll the eole ol NY are asked il they considered Nl a travel, most ol them would say yes. ll
the eole lrom Nl are asked il they considered NY a travel, then they would say no. 1he eole ol Nl have a
reason to commute to NY, but the eole ol NY do not have a reason to go to Nl. many eole live in Nl and
commute to NY lor work.

According to this oinion, distance becomes irrelevant to them.

ll a erson is a commuter, then they have lost the value ol travel and have become a commuter. 1his is similar to
those who went outside ol makkah to collect wood and return back and were not considered travelers.

what il you have two homes7 You are only a traveler in between the two laces but not in either destination. ll it
is your brother's home or your arent's home and you do not have your own rivate designated lace there, then
you are considered a traveler.

lrom usool al liqh: rulings ol shari'ah are based on the constant evident attribute that does not lluctuate. lor
examle, how do you establish the obligation ol salat al dhuhr7 1here must be an evident, visible, constant
attribute. when it comes to travel, the constant evident attribute is the actual term itsell 'travel.' uelining travel
has nothing to do with hardshi because hardshi varies.

8chool or madhab Oinion
lmams Abu lanilah, 8hali'ee, malik,
Ahmad
uistance ol traveling aroximately
81 km / 0 miles
orou ol lious lredecessors
1here is no secilic distance, as long
as it is called 'salar'

where does the qasr start lrom7 where does the qasr start lrom7 where does the qasr start lrom7 where does the qasr start lrom7
lt starts alter leaving the structures ol the city limits.

uo you have to ass the 0 miles belore making qasr7 You can make your qasr belore you ass the 0 miles as long
as you have assed the city limits and are considered traveling. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to
take advantage ol this when he travelled and he would go leave belore salat al dhuhr and at the end ol salat al
dhuhr time, he would ray qasr.

lor how long does the traveler maintain qasr7 lor how long does the traveler maintain qasr7 lor how long does the traveler maintain qasr7 lor how long does the traveler maintain qasr7
ly unanimous agreement, as long as the traveler does not intend residency in one locality, he or she can still
ractice qasr.

ll you intend residency, then you lose the status ol the traveler.

what is the time what is the time what is the time what is the time- -- -eriod that constitutes residency7 eriod that constitutes residency7 eriod that constitutes residency7 eriod that constitutes residency7
1his is the most controversial question between ahl al hadeeth and ahl al liqh.
lirst oinion: Abu lanilah
1 days and u

Anyone intending to stay in one locality lor 1 days and u, then as soon as they arrive, they sto raying qasr.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
86


8econd oinion: malik, 8hali'ee and Ahmad
4 days and u

ll you intend to stay lor lour days, then you lose the status ol a traveler alter arriving.

what il you intend to stay lor 7 days7 According to Abu lanilah, you can ray qasr. 1he muhaditheen do not
measure it by days. 1his is the oinion ol 8haykh Lthaymeen as well. 1hey measure it by the concet itsell and as
long as you are considered musalir, you can ray qasr. ll you travel to lgyt and are visiting a lriend's house or are
staying in a hotel, according to this oinion, you are considered a traveler and can ray qasr and can break your
last il it was kamadan. 1he luqaha ol ahl al hadeeth say residency is measured by concet. Once you have the
intention to live and reside there, then you are not a traveler. 8haykh lbn 1aymiyyah and others say that il a
erson is studying in the L8 lor lour years, they can consider themselves a traveler. lt is a valid oinion when it
comes to liqh.

8chool or madhab Oinion
lmam Abu lanilah 1- days
lmams 8hali'ee, malik, Ahmad 4- days

what is the ruling on combing between the rayers during travel7 what is the ruling on combing between the rayers during travel7 what is the ruling on combing between the rayers during travel7 what is the ruling on combing between the rayers during travel7
lam'u means combining. combining salat means, joining the day rayers (dhuhr and asr) together at either time ol
each, and joining the night salat (maghrib and isha) together at either time ol each.

lajr remains in its actual time. You can combine dhuhr and asr and you can combine maghrib and isha.

Lsually the most convenient is to ray dhuhr and asr at the beginning ol the time ol asr.

1he lorms ol combining:
lam'u 1aqdeem, il the later salat was erlormed during the time ol the earlier one.
lamu' 1a'kheer, il the earlier salat was delayed until the time ol the later one.



You must ray them both together at the same time, meaning you can not leave an hour time ga in between. You
can ray dhuhr and asr combined at any time lrom the beginning ol dhuhr until close to the end ol asr. According
to lmam Abu lanilah, you cannot combine, but you must shorten the salah. You treat both salawat like one salah,
and you treat the duration ol both salawat as the time lor one salah.

lirst oinion: malik, 8hali'ee and Ahmad
lt is ermissible.

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah
lt is not ermissible excet lor the lujjaj (ilgrims) on Arala day between dhuhr and asr and on muzdalila night
between maghrib and isha.
lam`u 1a`kheer lam`u 1aqdeem
lnd ol Asr lnd ol uhuhr / leginning ol uhuhr
leginning ol Asr
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
87


8chool or madhab Oinion
lmams 8hali'ee, malik, Ahmad lt is ermissible
lmam Abu lanilah
lt is not ermissible excet lor the lujjaj
(ilgrims) on Aralat day between dhuhr
and asr and on muzdalilah night between
maghrib and isha.

liqh scenarios:
- what il the erson remains undecided7 what does he or she do7 ll you are undecided, then you are a
traveler, even il it is lor 2 or ! months. ll you are overseas waiting lor a business deal that kees extending
day alter day, then you are a traveler.
- what il the traveler joins a congregational salat in a local masjid7 can he still ractice qasr7 You cannot
ractice qasr behind an imam who is a resident. You can ray behind a traveling imam and continue with
two more rak'ah to linish the salah.
- what il the travel includes hoer traveling i.e. staying lew days in each locality but lor a total duration ol
more than the minimum duration ol residency7 1he erson is still considered a traveler lor the entire time
because he is not residing in one lace lor more than 4 / 1 days. ll a erson stays in larachi lor a lew days
and then lslamabad lor a lew days, then lor the entire journey the erson is considered a traveler.
- 8hould a traveler still ray the nall salat7 1he sunnah lor the traveler is to not ray the sunnah salawat
excet lor the sunnah ol lajr and witr. 1he traveler can ray qiyam al layl as much as he wants. 1he nall
mutlaq can be rayed as much as he wants.

Action ltem:
- Ask eole randomly in your local area about the distance ol travel.
- check with them the cities nearest to you, how near or lar will your lindings go7

combining lard 8alat combining lard 8alat combining lard 8alat combining lard 8alat

According to lmam Abu lanilah, there is no such thing as combining between salawat. 1he majority ol the luqaha
allow you to combine between salawat lor dillerent reasons, but diller on the reasons.

lecause ol the rain. 1his cannot be done il you are going to be in the same lace lor dhuhr and asr.
lecause ol excessive lear. ll there is a situation that revents eole lrom going to the masjid, then they can
combine the salawat.
lecause ol excessive ressing need. lmam 8haali'ee and maalik: rain and extreme lear only, and lmam
8haali'ee adds: cold weather. lmam Ahmad allows lor any extreme need such as a woman who has an extreme
situation in the house or the sick erson.
Ahl al hadeeth allow jami' based on the hadeeth ol lbn Abbas il someone has a ressing need besides these
occasions such as a student who may have an exam lor 6 or 8 hours or lor a surgeon who has a 10 hour surgery.

lbn Abbas narrated, the messenger ol Allah combined the uhuhr and Asr and then the maghrib and lsha in
madinah without there being any danger or rain." lbn Abbas was asked: what did he desire by that action7"
le relied: le did not want any hardshi lor his ummah." |muslim]

Abdullah Ash-8hakeer narrated to laabir that Abdullah lbn Abbas rayed asr and started his lecture. 1he sun went
down and the horizon was getting darker and darker and he did not stand u lor salat al maghrib. A man was
sitting there and said, As-salah lbn Abbas." lbn Abbas continued with his talking. Alter some time, the man said
the same thing. lbn Abbas became very uset and said, Are you going to teach me about salah7 we used to ray
with the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) combining dhuhr and asr or maghrib and isha without rain or there
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
88

being any lear because he did not want any hardshi lor his ummah." 8ome ol the ulema and the madhab ol lmam
Ahmad give eole this concession with the condition that you avoid making it a habit. lor examle, il this
haens once or twice a month, it may be tolerated.

1here is one lorm ol combination called jam'u as-sughari, which is a suerlicial jam'u and some ol the luqaha
suggested and said that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) had delayed dhuhr until the end ol its time and
rayed asr at the beginning ol its time so that every salah is rayed at its roer time. low is this argument
deleated7 lamu' 1akheer.

liqh scenarios:
- A student who has an exam that extends between the time ol two rayers, can he combine the salat7
lxlained above.

- A mother who is going to the mall and lears she won't be back on time lor salat, can she combine the salat7
According to lmam Ahmad's oinion, then it is a ressing need, and as long as it is not a habit, then it is line
lor her to do this.

- ls it ossible to oller the image ol combining between the two salat by delaying the lormer salat rior to the
end ol its time, and raying the later one right at the beginning ol its time7
1he ulema say that this can be given to someone who has a ressing need such as a erson who has a
roblem controlling his gas. Also, lor a women who has istihaada (irregular bleeding).

- ll the legal excuse lor combining the two salat ceased to exist belore the time ol the later salat starts, is the
erson obligated to reeat that salat on its original aointed time7
1he rain: it was raining during salat al maghrib and maghrib and isha were then combined. 1hen alter
raying isha, there was no longer any rain, do you have to ray salat al isha again7 No, because you rayed
it when the legal excuse existed.

- low do you make your salat in the airort7
lraying in the chael is the best lace. leave the chael in a better state than when you lelt it! 1he chaels
are usually neutral and have no crosses. ll it was a church, then you ray outside.

8avor the sweetness ol these concessions:

1his shows the mercy ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a). 1his is a concession. Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) did not create
us to worshi lim according to lmam 8haali'ee or lmam Abu lanilah but according to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am), and they made their best judgment.

1eaching children low to lray 1eaching children low to lray 1eaching children low to lray 1eaching children low to lray

Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas, narrated that the Aostle ol Allah said, command your children to make 8alat when
they become seven years old, and sank them lor it (8alat) when they become ten years old, and arrange their beds
(to slee) searately." |Abu uawud]

One ol the hardest things to do is to convince your child to stand next to you in salah. ll the children are standing
together behind you, then they may not even ray or may be lighting with each other the entire time. 1each them
the etiquette ol erlorming the salah in the best way.

1he best way: maintain and observe the du'a ol the lrohet lbrahim (alayhi salaam) regularly:
my lord! cause me and (some) ol my ollsring to remain constant in rayer (salat). And O our lord! Accet my
sulication."
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
89

make this du'a in every salah and every oortunity that you have.

children are taught through routine.
Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas, narrated that the Aostle ol Allah said, command your children to make salat when
they become seven years old, and sank them lor it (salat) when they become ten years old, and arrange their beds
(to slee) searately." |Abu uawud]

8ome eole may ask: shouldn't we teach them the sirituality ol the actions7 1hey may not understand it. Once
they reach 10 years old, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said they can be discilined, meaning to sank
them.

As a arent or older sibling, you must be the lirst to lollow the routine. uo not let them hear the adhan and have
them make the wudu and be ready to ray without you being there. ll you break their habit and routine then you
lose their loyalty and they will not listen to you when you talk to them about salah.

when making salah, make an ambience. lave a secial area lor the salah. As long as the area is clean without
designs, it is the best lor then. 1each the children how to make adhaan and iqamah. 1each the children to
engage in it.

uo not teach them to ray through bribery or threat. uo not give them money lor salah. 1hey need to learn to
ray because they need to ray.

lor lajr salah, which is the most dillicult lor arents, wake them u and have them ray the salah and then go
back to bed. leeing them awake with activities is also an otion.

ll the mother is not obligated to wake u lor lajr because she is on her menses, then is she obligated to wake u
her children lor lajr salah7 lt is a mutual ellort between husband and wile.


chater 6: uealing with lrror chater 6: uealing with lrror chater 6: uealing with lrror chater 6: uealing with lrrors in 8alat s in 8alat s in 8alat s in 8alat

messing L in 8alat messing L in 8alat messing L in 8alat messing L in 8alat

Acts that nullily salat:
1. loreign seech
8aying something that is not lrom the salah. lxamle ol imam and ma'moon: lmam was reciting jaad and the
correct word was waad so the ma'moon corrected him twice. 1he imam then asked, waad7" 1his has now
become a conversation.

2. lating or drinking
ll it is something insignilicant lelt in your mouth, then that is line. ll you lind something signilicant in your
mouth, then take a tissue and sit it out so that you do not swallow it. can gum or lood be stored in your
mouth during salah7 No!

!. continuous loreign acts
lor examle: lixing hijab, checking lor keys, etc. 1hese acts continuously will nullily the salah.

4. lxosure ol awrah deliberately
ll the awrah is exosed by mistake and then covered, then it does not nullily the salah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
90

. losing the state ol urilication
ll you are raying by yoursell, then go make wudu. You do not have to make salaam because your salah is
invalid immediately. ll a erson leels shy because they are raying in congregation, then grab your nose and
lake that you have a nosebleed. 1ry to go across in lront ol the line where you are raying and then start
leaving. lt is ok to walk in lront ol everyone because il the imam has a sutra, then that is the sutra lor
everyone. ll it is imossible to leave the masjid, then sit down and wait until they linish the salah and then go
make wudu and ray.

6. oetting in contact with najasa
ll you leel najasa lrom a holding a child in your arms, then you must break your salah to go wash it oll. ll it was
on the shoes, then you can take oll the shoes and continue. lor men, il it was on the shirt, then they can take
oll the shirt and continue the salah.

7. laughing

8. lesitation in regard to the intention
A erson may have begun with the intention to ray lard and then think that they will make it sunnah and
then they think that they will make it lard, and this invalidates the salah because the intention must be clear at
the beginning ol the salah.

9. Omitting a rukn without returning back to it
lor examle: missing a ruku' and going to sujood. ll you do not cancel that rak'ah and linish the salah, then
your salah is invalid. You must add another rak'ah.

10. Omitting one ol the wajibaat without a valid reason
1he ulema say that skiing the middle tashahhud lor no valid reason excet lor skiing it because it is not
rukn, then it invalidates the salah.

11. kacing the imam
many eole try to linish belore the imam. ll your reach the ruku' belore imam and the same with both
sujoods, then it invalidates the salah. oo to the osition alter the imam is done ronouncing his takbeer. 1ake
extra recaution. ll the imam is ol those who say the takbeer belore going to the osition, then give some more
time il you can observe the imam. 1hose who cannot observe the imam should move based on the takbeer.

12. 1he arrival ol water lor someone who rays with tayammum (dry ablution)
ll you hear ol water being resent, then you must make wudu and ray.

1!. 1o give salaam deliberately rior to reaching the end
You cannot resume il you have stoed in the middle ol a salah.

14. 1o return back to the middle tashahhud alter standing u to the third rak'ah

Acts that allow the dearture lrom salat:
1. 1o rescue someone who is in the lace ol harm
lxamles: a child may be about to touch something that will cause him harm, a snake or scorion is resent.

2. 1o rotect roerty and ossessions lrom ossible thelt
lmam Abu lanilah was asked about where to look when making wudu in the river and il a erson should lace
the qiblah, and he relied that the man should look in the direction ol the clothes so that no one would steal
them.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
91

!. A woman tending the lood on the stove
ll she lorgets something on the stove, then it may be dangerous.

4. An urgent need lor the bathroom
You do not resume lrom where you lelt oll il you have lelt the salah, but you start over lrom the beginning.

. 1o answer the call ol arents (in the nall salat)

8ujood As-8ahw (lrostration due to lorgetlulness)

As-sahw in Arabic means lorgetlulness.

1he reasons lor alying 8ujood as-sahw:
1. lorgetlulness

Abdullah ibn luhaynah narrated, 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) led them in uhuhr 8alat and when he
stood u at the end ol the lirst two kak'ah and did not sit, the eole stood u with him. when he linished the 8alat
and the eole exected him to do the 1asleem, he uttered the 1akbir while sitting and made two 8ajda belore
saying the 1asleem, then he uttered the 1asleem." |lukhari]

lrom the hadeeth: he made the lull tashahhud belore giving the tasleem and then made the two sujood: say Allahu
Akbar and say the same du'a in the sujood and say Allahu Akbar and make a second sujood and say the same du'a,
and then Allahu Akbar and then the tasleem.

- ly adding what is not lrom the salat, such as:
1) keciting the latiha in tashahhud
2) 1o give salaam in any osition belore its actual time. 1his does not necessarily invalide the salah
and can be rectilied by sujood as-sahw.
!) 1o rolong the sitting osition between the two sujood
4) 1o add an extra rak'ah to the salat

- ly omitting what is known to be art ol the salat such as:
1) 1he lirst tashahhud

2. uoubt

Abu 8a'eed al-lhudri narrated the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: ll one ol you has some doubts during
his 8alat and he does not recall (the number ol rak'as) he has lrayed, three or lour, then he should cast aside his
doubt by erlorming 8alat according to what he was certain ol |the lesser amount] and then making two sajda
belore the 1aslim.." |muslim]

1his is robably the most common reason lor sujood as-sahw.

what does 'what he was certain ol' mean7 ll you are wondering whether it is your !
rd
or 4
th
rak'ah, then you are
certain ol the third and doubting the lourth, so you go with the third. You are certain ol the lesser. ll you think it
is your lirst rak'ah and then later realize lor sure that it is the second rak'ah, then you still need to make sujood as-
sahw because ol the earlier doubt.

ll you make more than one mistake, then you still make only one sujood as-sahw.

8ome ulema added the category ol mistakes, but this can be included under the category ol lorgetlulness.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
92

O: when should the sujood as-sahw take lace - belore or alter the tasleem7
1he luqaha have dillerent oinions. ln lukhari, it is mentioned: le should comlete the salat then he should say
tasleem and then erlorm sujood as sahw."

1 - Alter the tasleem
2 - lelore the tasleem
! - lt deends. lor addition, you make it alter the salaam. ll you omitted something, then you make it
belore the salaam. |1his is 8haykh Yaser's oinion]

ln lukhari, it is mentioned: le should comlete the salat then he should say tasleem and then erlorm sujood as-
sahw."

ll you add something to the salah (i.e. stood u lor a lilth rak'ah), then the sujood as-sahw should be alter the
salaam. Alter the tashhud is done comletely, you say the tasleem, then say Allahu Akbar lor sujood, Allahu Akbar
and sit, Allahu Akbar lor sujood, Allahu Akbar to sit, say tasleem.

According to the madhab ol lmam Abu lanilah, they make one salaam to the right and then sujood as-sahw and
then the lull tashahhud again belore the tasleem.

O: 8hould a erson say the tashahhud alter sujood as-sahw7
lmam lbnul lusayn narrated: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) led them in salat and lorgot, he then made
two sajdahs, and then said the tashahhud and uttered the tasleem." |Abu uawood]

O: ll someone lorgets to make his sujood as-sahw, is their another sujood as-sahw to comensate lor this missed
sujood7
ll you lorget to do the sujood ol lorgetlulness, then you do not do anything. You do not have to ray the salah
again to lix it.


making L missed 8alat: lart 1 making L missed 8alat: lart 1 making L missed 8alat: lart 1 making L missed 8alat: lart 1

lraying alter the exiration ol time (Oadaa')

ly unanimous agreement salat should be erlormed as qadaa' il time had exired because ol deliberate negligence,
overslee, lorgetlulness or even mere doubt.
ll someone did not ray the salah, they should ray the salah once they remember.
Abu Oatada narrated, the eole comlained to the messenger about over-sleeing and missing their 8alat. 1he
messenger relied: 1here is no negligence in sleeing: negligence is when someone is awake. whoever overslees
and misses his lrayer or lorgets to do it, let him lray as soon as he remembers it." |Nisa'i and 1irmidhi]

One sahabi was lamous lor heavy sleeing and always comlained. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said
that il you are doing your best, then it is line. ll you go to bed alter isha and have several alarms and take all the
measures to wake u and you still did not wake u lor lajr, then alhumdulillah you tried your best. ll someone
slees one hour belore lajr and is not taking the measures, then it is a sin.

O: when does a missed salat become due7
Anyone who overslees or lorgets about a salah should erlorm the salah when they remember. lmmediately alter
you lirst remember that articular salah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
9!

ll someone wakes u late lor the salah, should they make the collee, etc. lirst7 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) once was traveling with a sahabah and they went on lor a long ride at night. 1hey were extremely tired and
exhausted, and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was worried about the salah. lilal said he would be on
watch. le lell aslee and woke u to see Lmar and Abu lakr standing over him. when he oened his eyes, he saw
the sun. le was anicked lor causing the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) to miss the salah. 1hey were alraid to
wake u the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) because he may be receiving revelation while sleeing, and then
Lmar started walking around saying Allahu Akbar. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) woke u and saw the
sun and asked, where is lilal7" le asks him, what have you done to us7" lilal said that he was taken by what
had taken him as well. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) ordered the entire cam to move lrom that sot
because it was a lace where the 8haytan was resent. moving an entire cam takes some time. 1hey rode
somewhere and then the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) ordered lilal to call the adhan, and then they rayed
their sunnah and said the iqamah and rayed in congregation. 1his is the etiquette: lollow the same sequence in
order.

liqh scenarios:
- ll someone reents alter a long negligence ol his or her salat are they obligated to make u lor all the ast
years7
1he majority ol the luqaha in traditional madhahib say that the erson must make them u. lbn 1aymiyyah
and many ol the salal say that a erson is not obligated to make u all ol the salawat because Allah will order
that their nall salawat be looked into: however, they are encouraged to do as much nall salah as they can.

- ll someone lalls in a coma that lasts lor days, are they obligated to make u lor the missed salat7
1his erson resumes with the salawat when they wake u and do not make u lor the missed salawat. ll it was
a short duration such as two days, then lor each salah that they ray, they can ray an extra one to make u lor
that salah.

- ll someone misses more than one salat, which one should he or she start with7
maintain the order ol the salawat. ll you miss dhuhr, asr, maghrib and isha and it is time lor isha, then you
kee the order ol the salawat and ray dhuhr then asr then maghrib then isha. According to lmam maalik, the
erson rays the salat lor that time lirst (i.e. isha lirst then dhuhr, asr, and maghrib).

8avor the sweetness ol the mercy ol Allah
- You are a human being
- You can always make u lor your mistakes.
Allah knows our caacity as human beings. ll you make a mistake, then do not be aranoid. ll you need to re-do
your salah because the mistake cannot be lixed by any means, then go ahead and do it. 1ake the right course and
remember that it is lrom the mercy ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) to do the right thing.

chater 7: lraying in congregation chater 7: lraying in congregation chater 7: lraying in congregation chater 7: lraying in congregation

Abu 8ulayman ad-uarani said: 1he salal used to console themselves three days il they missed the
oening takbir (with the imam), and seven days il they missed the whole congregational salat."

1hey treated their congregational salat as a living being and would console each other lor missing them.

Abu lurayrah and Abdullah ibn Lmar narrated, the messenger (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: lrayer in
congregation is better than raying alone by twenty-live - and in one reort - by twenty-seven degrees." |lukhari
and muslim]
we do not have any evidence seaking about the degrees, but they are not just hasanat.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
94

congregational 8alat congregational 8alat congregational 8alat congregational 8alat

1. kuling ol congregational salat

ly unanimous agreement, it is more relerable lor women to ray at home, and men at the masjid, but they
dillered regarding the requirement ol the congregational rayer on men, to lour oinions:
(1here is hikmah: women take care ol the household and lamily, and it would be dillicult lor her to attend the
rayer in congregation with the children. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) gave them the reward lor going
to the masjid while raying at home.)

lirst oinion: 8hali'ee
lard kilayyah (community lard). ll there is a very small community (i.e. 0 eole), and they do not ray in jam'ah,
then they are all sinlul lor not erlorming that ibaadah.

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah and malik
8unnah mu'akkadah (highly recommended)

1hird oinion: Ahmad
lard Ayn (ersonally obligatory)

lourth oinion: uhahiri
kukun

ll some ulema regarded it to be lard ayn, then regardless ol which oinion you lollow, it is something to be taken
very seriously. 1he evidences are the same lor salat al-jama'a in general. All use the same evidences excet their
interretation is dillerent.

lbn Abi makhtoum, the blind sahabah, asked the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) il he could ray at home, and
the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that he can ray at home, but then he immediately called him back and
asked, can you hear the adhan7" lbn Abi makhtoum relied yes, and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) told
him that he must go to the masjid.

8chool or madhab Oinion
lmam 8hali'ee lard lilayyah
lmams Abu lanilah, malik 8unnah mu'akkadah
lmam Ahmad lard 'Ayn
uhahiri 8cholars kukun

2. 1he value ol congregational salat
Abu lurayrah narrated, the messenger said: l lelt a strong desire to command a man to lead the eole in lrayer.
1hen command some men to letch lirewood, then go to the eole who have lelt oll lraying in congregation and
set their houses on lire. ly the One in whose hand the soul ol muhammad is, il one ol them knew that he would
lind a lat meaty bone or two line shee hooves in the masjid, he would surely come to attend the 'lsha." |lukhari
and muslim]

- what constitutes a congregation lor salat7
1o establish a congregation, only two eole are needed: imam and ma'moom. 8ometimes the lrohet (8Aw80
would ray at night, and lbn Abbas would come and ray with him in congregation. Once he stood on his lelt,
and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) moved him to the right ol him.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
9


- low should eole line u in congregational salat7
8houlder to shoulder and loot to loot. men line u lirst and then the women in the back. lt is better to kee
the children scatter in the line and with the arents.

- 8hould women attend the congregational salat7
lt is ermissible lor women to attend the congregational salat. lor their own sake and the reward, it is better
lor them to ray at home. what il a woman desires to go to the masjid7 legally, the husband cannot say no to
her. 8he can go lor lajr and isha to the masjid. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, You are not
allowed to lorbid the lemale servants ol Allah lrom attending the houses ol Allah."

2ubayr ibn marwan was a jealous man and did not want his wile to go to the masjid lor salah in jama'ah. One
night, she wanted to go to the masjid, and he ket quiet and alter his wile lelt, he went out and hid lrom her
and sanked her. 8he ran home, and he went to the salah. le came home and asked her why she did not go,
and she said, leole have changed comletely."

8ome masajid and some cultures do not make secial quarters lor women, and in some laces, the area is
comletely searate and they have no idea what the imam is doing. 1hey must have an access to see so that
they can lollow the imam.

- when does a congregational salat count lor a latecomer7
ll the erson catches the last ruku', then the erson has caught the congregational salah. ll the imam is in the
linal sujood or tashahhud, you should still join the congregation, and alter the imam says salaam, continue with
your salah.

- 8hould there be more than one congregational salat in one masjid7
At the same time: No! ll you come late during the taraweeh time, do not start the congregational salah. 1here
should not be two jama'ah at the same time. 1hey can join the imam who is raying taraweeh and ray isha.

- ll someone who did his salat enters a masjid, should he or she join the congregational salat7
ll you make your salah in one masjid that rays asr according to the 8hali'ee school and then go to a masjid
where they lollow the lanali madhab and lind them raying asr, then you must join them. 1his relers to the
original congregation with the ollicial imam. ll you come at 2:!0 alter the ollicial jama'ah, then you do not
have to join them.

what is the ruling on salat al jama'ah7
lor women, it is relerable lor them to ray at home. lor men, it is relerable lor them to ray in the masjid.
According to lmam 8hali'ee it is a community lard lor men. According to Abu lanilah and malik, it is highly
recommended. According to lmam Abu lanilah, it is lard ayn without an excuse. According to the uhahiri
madhab, it is rukn il you are caable ol raying in congregation.

lmam and ma'moom lmam and ma'moom lmam and ma'moom lmam and ma'moom

1he congregation can be made u ol two eole. A husband and wile can be jama'ah, and the wile should stand
behind her husband in a second line.

kules ol the lmam
1. conditions ol the imam: 1he imam should be,
A muslim.
Ol sound mind. 1he erson must have his lull laculties while making the salah. losing senses by choice: taking
drugs or alcohol. losing senses by lorce: unconscious.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
96

male.
women cannot lead the salah. ll there is one man amongst 100 women, a woman cannot lead the jama'ah. ll the
man cannot lead, then the man should ray by himsell, and the women should have their own congregation.

O: can a woman lead salat lor an all-lemale congregation7 1his is an issue ol discussion amongst the luqaha.

lirst oinion: 8hali'ee and Ahmad
Yes, a woman can lead in an all-lemale congregational salat.

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah
lt is strictly abominable. lt is makrooh, meaning it is not haraam but very disliked.

1hird oinion: malik
lt is invalid.

lrool: Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) used to lead her household.

8chool or madhab Oinion
lmams 8hali'ee, Ahmad
Yes, a woman can lead in an all-
lemale congregational salat.
lmam Abu lanilah lt is strictly abominable.
lmam malik lt is invalid.

who reached the age ol uberty
lveryone agrees on being an adult. what about the age ol 11 or 127

lirst oinion: 8hali'ee
A minor who reached the age ol recognition can lead the salat.
1his means that il the child is 8 or 9, and knows what the say and the value ol what they are doing, then they can
lead the salah. ll they can ray erlectly by themselves, then they can lead the salah lor others. ll the child when
raying by themselves would not have a valid salah, then they cannot lead the salah lor others.

ladeeth:
Amr ibn 8alaama narrated, l lead congregational 8alat during the liletime ol the messenger ol Allah when l was a
child ol seven years old." |lukhari]
1he reason why the boy led the salah was because he knew the most Ouran ol the congregation. 1here is a rule in
liqh: anyone whose salah is valid lor himsell, then it can be valid lor others.

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah, malik, and Ahmad
1he imam has to be an adult who reached the age ol uberty.
1he child must be 14 or 1 years old to be sure.

8chool or madhab Oinion ualeel
lmam 8hali'ee
A minor who reached the age
ol recognition can lead the
salat.
Amr ibn 8alaama narrated, l lead congregational 8alat
during the liletime ol the messenger ol Allah when l was
a child ol seven years old." |lukhari]
lmams Abu lanilah,
malik, Ahmad
1he imam has to be an adult
who reached the age ol
uberty.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
97


1o know the basic rulings ol salat
1he erson should know sujood as-sahw. 1he imam must know the basics ol the rulings ol salah.

1o know how to read the Ouran roerly
ln articular: 8urah Al latihah, because it is rukn according to the majority.

2. Abominable acts in leading salat
lmam should not be someone who is oenly lasiq (disobedient) or mubtadi' (innovator)
1his means someone who is oenly disobedient to Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) such as owning a convenience store
that sells alcohol. lart ol the ibtida' is someone who is known to be oenly 8hi'a (i.e. has leelings against the
sahabah).

lmam should not lead il eole dislike his leading
8ome eole lorce themselves into the osition ol imam. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said it may be a
reason to be admitted to lahannam il eole really dislike you leading the salah.

lmam should not rolong the salat in general
lrolonging the salah more than average. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) instructed mu'adh to recite 8urah
Ash 8hams, 8urah Al 'Ala and others. 8ome masajid have secial imams and eole love to ray behind them just to
enjoy the salah behind him, and they want him to recite longer. ll this is the case, then it is ok to do it occasionally
but not always.

lmam should not rolong any act ol salat in order to let the latecomers join in
ll you go to the ruku' and hear eole running and jogging lrom the arking lot to the masjid, should you rolong
the ruku' to let them join in7 No! You will not hold the entire community cative to reward the latecomers lor the
salah because you will then teach the eole a bad habit. 8hould the imam unish the latecomers7 (l.e. move lrom
ruku' to standing when hearing the latecomers come in) No! lray the salah normally.

liqh 8cenarios:
- who has the riority to lead salat7 8hould the imam be haliz7
No. 1he imam should not be haliz. 8ome ol the sahabah were not ol the hulladh but still led each other in salah.
1he imortant art ol the salah is to know how to recite the Ouran. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said:
the leader lor the eole should be the one who is arananum.

what does arananum mean7 1) the one who recites the Ouran the most - i.e. memorized the most. 2) the one who
can is excellent in his recitation and can read it erlectly. ll the haliz will be missing in his recitation and lalling
into mistakes, then the erson who can recite erlectly should lead the salah unless there is an aointed imam. ll
there is an aointed imam, then he should lead the salah even il he is not haliz and not erlect in his recitation.

- low erlect should the imam be articulate in his recitation ol the Ouran7
1he latihah is the most imortant art. ll he recites it like he is singing or reciting oetry or making grammatical
mistakes, then he should not lead the salah. ll the imam makes mistakes while leading the salah you are in, then
you cannot ray behind this individual, so you should leave and ray on your own or ray in another congregation.
ll you cannot understand the recitation ol the imam, then you cannot ray behind him.

ll his grammar is erlect, but his tajweed is horrible, then it is line to ray behind him. ll there is someone else
who is better in recitation and that imam is not the assigned imam, then try to have the other erson lead the
salah.

1he articulation ol the letters can be tolerated il it is the best that they can do.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
98


- can the imam lead while seated lor a legitimate excuse7
ll the imam had an injury or surgery and is raying sitting on a chair, then the imam can lead while sitting, but he
should give it to someone else. ll the imam leads sitting lrom the beginning ol the rayer, then the entire
congregation should also ray sitting and lollow him. ll while he is trying to stand u, he hurts his back or knee,
and then continues the rayer sitting, then the congregation can continue raying while standing. 1his haened
once to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) who lelt sick during the salah. 1hey started the salah standing. On
one occasion, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) had hurt his knee and started the salah sitting, and he saw the
congregation standing and instructed them to sit down lrom the beginning ol the salah with him.

what il the imam is disabled and he is the best in terms ol eloquence and knowledge ol Ouran7 ln this case,
because it is a ermanent condition and will not change, then the congregation will ray standing.

ll the imam starts his salah lrom the beginning while sitting, then the entire congregation should start the salah
sitting. ll the imam starts his salah standing and then remains sitting at some oint in the salah, then the
congregation should continue while standing.

- can someone ray behind an imam ol a dillerent madhab7
Yes! As long as they are lrom ahl as sunnah wa al jama'ah, it is line.

- can the imam be someone who already did his salat earlier7
Yes. 1he hadeeth ol mu'adh ibn labal who would ray with the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) and then lead
the salah in his community.

- who should lead salat in the house ol the host7
ll you are visiting someone, then the host should lead the salah even il he was the least qualilied unless he gives
you ermission to lead the salah. uo not embarrass the host and ask someone other than the host to lead the salah.

- 8hould the imam take care ol the alignment ol the lines belore he starts his salat7
Yes. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would go through the lines himsell or he would assign eole in each
line to check the lines. 1he imam should look around and check the lines.

- what haens il the imam breaks his wudu7
1he imam should ull someone lrom behind and lace him in the osition ol imam. le should give him the
microhone il he has one. le should not make conversation. ll he was in a osition ol recitation, should he
continue what he was reciting7 continue with what you know. ll he was in the middle ol latihah, then he should
read the latihah. 8hould the imam linish by making salaam and then leave7 lis salah is already gone, so he does
not need to make the tasleem.

Action ltem:
- lractice being an imam with a lriend or lamily at home.
- lractice this lor a day salat and a night salat to recite out loud.
- 1hen try that with a larger congregation.
- 8ee how stresslul the imam osition can be.

kules ol the ma'moom
1. low should the ma'mooms (men, women, and children) line u behind the imam7
ll it is one individual: the man lines u next to the imam on the right side ol the imam. 1here is no solid evidence
suggesting that the one erson stes behind the imam. One time, lbn Abbas joined the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) on the lelt side, and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) ulled him to his right side, and he said that he
stood next to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am).
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
99


ll another erson comes to join in, where should he stand7 ll there is sace in the back, then ta the ma'moom
already resent, and both should stand in a line behind the imam. ll there is no sace in the back, and you want to
join the jama'ah, there are two otions: kee the imam in the middle and stand on his lelt, or il there is sace in
the lront, then ta the imam so that the imam moves lorward.

lray shoulder to shoulder and loot to loot. ll you oen your leet the width ol your shoulders, then it will all lall
into lace.

women ray behind the men. ll the children can kee osition in salah, then ut them in one line, but il they are
going to be distracting, then kee them with the adults. ll the child kees moving ositions, then kee the adults in
one line with the child in lront ol the arent.

lt is better lor eole to lill the right side and then balance the lelt side il they come late.

ll you come late and there is no sace, then should you start a second line by yoursell or ull someone lrom the
lirst line7 lull someone lrom the lirst line because the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) lorbade us lrom
standing alone behind the line. ll you come late and there is no sace in the lirst line, then ull someone gently.
1ry to ull someone lrom the side ol the line. Once someone else joins in, then someone who was ulled can move
back to his osition in the lront. 1ry to do this with someone who knows you or someone who may know about the
ruling.

2. 8hould the ma'moom see or hear the imam to validate his/her salat7
8haykh Ash 8hinqitee believes it is mandatory to see the imam or at least the congregation in lront ol them. ln
some masajid, the women's sections are comletely blocked lrom the men's section and they only have the
microhone. women should have access to the men's congregational area through video or windows. what il
there is a distance such as in makkah7 lines extend lor miles. As long as the lines are connected, then that is
considered congregational salah. connected means that they can see the line in lront. ll there is a highway
between the lines but you can still hear, then you are art ol the congregational. listening by the radio does not
make you art ol the jama'ah. ll your masjid is not equied with a way lor women to see, then you must talk to
them. lt is not recommended lor women to be comletely blocked.

!. 8hould the ma'moom recite anything in his/her salat7
Ahl al hadeeth and lmam Ash 8hali'ee: 8urah Al latihah.

lirst oinion: 8hali'ee
le should recite latiha and another surah in the silent salat, and the latiha only in the salat done aloud.

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah
le should not recite anything in both kinds ol salat. 1his also alies to the ruku' and sujood.

1hird oinion: malik and Ahmad
le should recite in the silent salat but not in the one done aloud.

8chool or madhab Oinion
lmam 8hali'ee
kecite latihah - 8urah in silent salat and the latihah
only in the salat done out loud.
lmam Abu lanilah le should recite anything in either tye ol salat.
lmams malik, Ahmad
le should recite in the silent salat but not in the one
recited out loud.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
100


8avor the sweetness ol congregational salat:
- leel the societal bonding in jama'ah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) gave a lew analogies to
understand why we ray this way. le once told the sahabah: uon't you like to stand in line belore your lord
just as the angels do when they stand belore their lord7" 1hey relied yes. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) said that they lill the lirst line lirst and then strengthen their connection to each other by standing
shoulder to shoulder and loot to loot. 1his gives a sense ol community. Olten times you will have the
emloyee and emloyer raying next to each other in salah. when this is done lrequently, il you have any
roblems with the eole, they will go down to the minimum.

- leel the concet ol leadershi in lslam.
lven il you do not like the imam, you cannot disagree with him in salah. You cannot linish belore the imam and
must lollow him. 1his harmony gives a sense ol leadershi.

making making making making L lor missed 8alat: lart 2 L lor missed 8alat: lart 2 L lor missed 8alat: lart 2 L lor missed 8alat: lart 2

1he ma'moom as the latecomer (masbooq)

ltiquette ol the latecomer lor salat (al-masbooq)

Abu lurayrah narrated, the messenger said: when you hear the lqamah, walk your way to the 8alat lace with
tranquility and dignity, and do not hurry u. And whatever ortion ol the 8alat you get (with the lmam) oller it,
and comlete alterwards whatever you missed." |lukhari]

1. le should walk with tranquility to the line, not run.
2. llace and steady himsell in line
!. le should not stand alone behind the lines
4. 8tart with the oening takbir (takbeeratul ihram)
. uo his moving takbir (il needed)
6. lollow the imam in whichever stage he may be
7. when the imam gives his tasleem, the masbooq should stand u to make u lor the missed rak'ahs

loin the osition ol the imam in whatever osition he is in. loin immediately in the osition he is in. low do you
join in7 One or two takbeer7 You must have two takbeer: one lor takbeeratul ihram, and the second lor the
osition that you are moving to.

O: when can the masbooq count the rak'ah7
count the rak'ah il you are able to go into the ruku' osition and say 'subhana rabbi al-adheem' one time belore the
imam says 'sami Allahu liman hamidah'.

O: what does the masbooq make u lor, is it the missed art ol his salat or the remaining art7
ll you came lor salat al isha and lound the imam in the third rak'ah, and the imam is reciting silently, when the
imam linishes the salah, you need to make u lor two missed rak'ah. lmam Abu lanilah said that you are making
u lor the missed rak'ah, so in this case, you will be reading out loud when making u lor the lirst and second
rak'ah. According to the majority, you are comleting your salah. 1he two rak'ah you rayed with the imam were
your lirst and second rak'ah, even though they were his third and lourth, so when you stand u, you ray your
third and lourth rak'ah, and you only need to recite 8urah Al latihah silently.

8alat al maghrib: il someone joins the imam in the third rak'ah, then according to lmam Abu lanilah, you will ray
two rak'ah without tashahhud in the middle. According to the majority, you will be comleting your salah, so you
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
101

will stand u and ray one rak'ah with latihah and a surah and sit lor the middle tashahhud and then stand u lor
the third rak'ah.

lor the madhab ol lmam Abu lanilah, you are making u lor what you missed with the imam.

kules ol masjid kules ol masjid kules ol masjid kules ol masjid

2ayd ibn 1haabit narrated, the messenger (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, 1he best rayer ol a man is the one he
erlorms in his house, excet lor the obligatory rayer." |lukhari and muslim]

1. 1he entire earth is a masjid.

Abu uharr asked the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), what was the lirst masjid bulit on the earth7" le said:
1he masjid al-laram (in makkah)." Abu uharr asked: which one was next7" 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) said: 1he al-Aqsa masjid (in lerusalem)." Abu uharr asked: low much time was there between (the
building ol) the two." 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) relied: lorty years." 1hen, he said: wherever you
may be, at the time ol 8alat, you may lray: lor it (the earth) is all a masjid." |lukhari and muslim]

1he masajid were the lirst houses built on earth, showing how imortant they are.

2. 1o be built in residential areas.

Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) narrates, the messenger ordered that a masjid be built in a residential district and that it
would be cleaned and erlumed." |Ahmad and Abu uawood]

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) immediately constructed his masjid in madinah in the center ol the city.
1he houses were surrounding the masjid. 1his has become the habit and tradition ol muslims all over the world. ln
losnia, old towns and villages have the masajid in the center with the houses surrounding them, but in the new
towns, the masajid are larther lrom the centers ol the cities.

1hey should be built in residential areas so that eole will be coming lor lajr and maghrib and isha and not just
dhuhr and jum'uah.

htt://www.youtube.com/watch7v=y_bltALLloL
8earch in You1ube: --'' -'= ---

liqh scenarios:
1. what is the ruling on building a multiurose masjid or center7
lt is very imortant lor muslim communities to build a masjid designed to meet this urose. 1he old masajid in
our communities in America are designed to be a rayer area only. ln the month ol kamadan, more eole come
lor salah. 1he masajid should be designed lor this. lave lacilities lor serving lood.

1he masjid ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was a masjid, a school, a hotel, and a courthouse. lt was a
multi-urose center.

2. ls it ermissible to have a grave in the masjid7
No! ll the masjid has a grave, then you cannot ray in that masjid. ll a masjid was built on to ol a grave as a
shrine, then the entire structure must be torn down because it was not made lor Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
102

!. can a menstruating woman stay in the masjid7
1he musallah area: no. ll she is assing through and getting something, then that is ok. One time, the lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) asked Aisha to give him the rayer rug, and she relied that she had her eriod, and he said
that it is not in her hand. 8ome ulema say that this means it is the will ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a), and others
took it literally and said that the blood is not in her hand.

4. can non-muslims enter the masjid7
Yes, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) hosted a delegation lrom Yemen lor their entire stay in the masjid.
ladeeth in lukhari: a risoner ol war stayed in the masjid lor three days. le was released alter three days and
three nights, and he lelt and then came back and took the shahadah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) asked
him why he delayed saying the shahadah, and he relied that he did not anyone to say that he became muslim out
ol lorce or lear. le became muslim because he saw how muslims behaved in the masjid and how they treated each
other.

. can sale and trade take lace in the masjid7
No. ll there are donations, then this is dillerent because it is lor a non-rolit cause. ll there is something made and
being sold with the money going to the masjid, this is ok.

6. ls it ermissible to serve lood and drink in the masjid7
Yes.

7. ls it ermissible to slee in the masjid7
Yes.

8. low decorative should the masjid be7
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) mentioned that this is a sign ol the uay ol ludgment.

9. what is the ruling on bringing children into the masjid7
lt is mustahab. lowever, teach the children the etiquette ol the masjid.

ltiquettes ol ooing to the masjid ltiquettes ol ooing to the masjid ltiquettes ol ooing to the masjid ltiquettes ol ooing to the masjid

1. 1he du'a lor going to the masjid

O Allah, lace within my heart light, and uon my tongue light, and within my ears light, and within my eyes light,
and lace behind me light and in lront ol me light and above me light and beneath me light. O Allah, bestow uon
me light." |lukhari and muslim]
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
10!


You want the hysical light in this world and on the uay ol ludgment.

2. 1he du'a lor entering the masjid

l take reluge with Allah, 1he 8ureme and with lis Noble lace, and lis eternal authority lrom the accursed devil.
ln the name ol Allah, and lrayers and eace be uon the messenger ol Allah. O Allah, oen the gates ol Your mercy
lor me."

lnter the masjid with the right loot. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) liked to use the right side lirst. Aisha
(radni A||anu 'anna) said that when wearing shoes, he would start with the right loot, and when taking the shoes oll,
he would start with his lelt loot lirst. 8mall details such as this kee you aware ol your ibaadah at all times and
aware that Allah is watching over you.

1he sunnah is to ray two rak'ah belore sitting down.

!. uressing u lor the masjid
lor ladies, this does not mean to dress u as il you are going to a arty. uress u with humbleness. ll the husband
sees his wile dressing imroerly and she is wearing erlume or make u, then the husband has the right to tell his
wile that she will not go to the masjid. You are going to the masjid lor salah and not lor a arty. ll a woman is
going to the masjid alter a arty belore a arty, then wear an abayah over the clothing, and she can wear the make-
u in the bathroom ol the masjid.

4. uo not raise the voice in the masjid.

. ll you come lor jumu'ah late, do not ush your way to the lirst line. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
lorbade us lrom going over the necks and shoulders ol eole. 1he excetion: il eole are not sitting
roerly. 1oday, many eole sit in the back so that they can leave right away, and there are many gas lelt in
the lront.

6. lee the masjid clean.

7. kesect the rules ol the masajid. ll the masjid has by-laws, then lollow them. lt is a great honor to clean the
masjid. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) inlormed us that a woman entered lannah because she would
swee the masjid. when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) did not see the woman who cleaned the
masjid, he was told that she assed away the day belore, and he asked where she was buried. 1hey took him to
her grave, and he erlormed salat al janazah on her even though she was already in her grave.


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
104


8. 1he du'a lor leaving the masjid


ln the name ol Allah, and lrayers and eace be uon the messenger ol Allah. O Allah, l ask You lrom Your lavour.
O Allah, guard lrom the accursed devil."

leave the masjid with the lelt loot so that your right loot is the last to leave the masjid.

Action ltem:
- ll you are already someone who goes to the masjid, then add one more salat to your schedule.
- ll you don't go to the masjid regularly, then it is about time to start.
- memorize the du'a, you will need it.




Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
10

0 00 0! !! ! | || | lart 1 lart 1 lart 1 lart 1wo: Other lorms ol 8alat wo: Other lorms ol 8alat wo: Other lorms ol 8alat wo: Other lorms ol 8alat

chater 1: 8alat an chater 1: 8alat an chater 1: 8alat an chater 1: 8alat an- -- -Nalilah (8uerogatory 8alat) Nalilah (8uerogatory 8alat) Nalilah (8uerogatory 8alat) Nalilah (8uerogatory 8alat)

8alat 8alat 8alat 8alat- -- -un un un un- -- -Nalilah (8uerogatory 8alah) Nalilah (8uerogatory 8alah) Nalilah (8uerogatory 8alah) Nalilah (8uerogatory 8alah)

ln Lrdu, nall means the regular sunnah erlormed with the live daily salawat. ln Arabic, anything rayed besides
the lard salawat is considered nall. 1hey are then given secilic categories and tyes.

1. lts virtue
> < _%! - ': ls !>l '!-' '.. 1,. !-' -.. . <
!. ! > ,. >.l il l: 1.l /Sl: >N ~ -,>
L: ! 1l-.`! .`! ls . .>- ~l 1-l . !>l s < _%!
ls >l.l . ,- ,> !Ls '
29. muhammad (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) is the messenger ol Allah, and those who are with lim are severe against
disbelievers, and mercilul among themselves. You see them bowing and lalling down rostrate (in rayer), seeking
lounty lrom Allah and (lis) good leasure. 1he mark ol them (i.e. ol their laith) is on their laces (loreheads) lrom
the traces ol (their) rostration (during rayers). 1his is their descrition ln the 1aurat (1orah). but their
descrition in the lnjeel (oosel) is like a (sown) seed which sends lorth its shoot, then makes it strong, it then
becomes thick, and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers that le may enrage the disbelievers with
them. Allah has romised those among them who believe (i.e. All those who lollow lslamic monotheism, the
keligion ol lrohet muhammad (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) till the uay ol kesurrection) and do righteous good
deeds, lorgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. laradise). |Al lath 48:29]

kabi'a ibn malik (la'b) al-Aslami narrated, l used to stay with the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) at night and
wait uon him to bring water lor ablution and so lorth. One day he told me: wish anything you like lrom me!"l
said, l ask your comany in laradise." le relied, Anything else7" l said, 1hat is all." le said, 1hen hel me to
achieve this lor you by devoting yoursell olten to rostration." |muslim]
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) could not guarantee him what he wanted because it is lrom Allah
(suunananu wa-ta'a|a), so he told him to hel him to hel him achieve this by increasing in the nall.

2. lts signilicance

Abu lurayrah narrated, the messenger said: 1he lirst worshi that the servant will be questioned about on the
uay ol ludgment is lrayer. ll his lrayers are done roerly, he will be saved. ll not, he will be among the losers. ll
the obligatory lrayers are not enough to save him, Allah will ask: 'Are there otional lrayers done by my servant so
that they could comlement the obligatory lrayers7' Other worshi will be the same." |Abu uawood and 1irmidhi]
ll your lard are not erlect, then the nall make u.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
106

ls it obligatory to ray nall salah7 No. You are not accountable lor it, but you are missing a lot ol reward by
raying the salah regularly.

liqh scenarios:
- which ol the nall salawat is better, those erlormed during the day or those during the night7
uuring the night. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was asked about the best ol the salah, and he said salat al-
layl

- ls it better to erlorm nall salat in the masjid or at home7
lor both men and women, it is better to be erlormed at home. lor lajr salah: it is better to ray the sunnah at
home and then ray the lard at the masjid il you can catch the iqamah lor the lard. when you reach the masjid,
you ray tahiyattul masjid.

- can we ray nall salat while seated, even il we have no excuse7
Yes, but you take hall ol the reward lor when you ray standing.

- ls it better to erlorm nall salat individually or in congregation7
lt does not matter excet lor the nall salah that is done belore lajr, belore / alter dhuhr, alter maghrib, and alter
isha (sunnah rawaatib).

- 8hould nall salat be erlormed in units ol two or units ol lour7
Lnits ol two is better. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said night rayer is to be erlormed in two units.

- can nall salat be erlormed during the rohibited times lor salat7
ll there is no reason, then do not ray. ll you are coming into the masjid, then there is a reason. Youyoray that.
1o ray salat al istikhaarah, then you ray that. ll you are raying to ask lor lorgiveness then you can do that.

lorms ol Nall 8alat lorms ol Nall 8alat lorms ol Nall 8alat lorms ol Nall 8alat

1. Ar-kawaatib
kawaatib = regular. 1hey have secilic and aointed times as well.

1) 1hat they are ten rak'at
- 1wo belore lajr
- 1wo belore dhuhr
- 1wo alter dhuhr
- 1wo alter maghrib
- 1wo alter isha

Abdullah ibn Omar narrated, l mastered lrom the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) ten (voluntary) kak'aat, two
kak'aat belore the uhuhr 8alat and two alter it: two kak'aat alter maghrib 8alat in his house and two kak'aat alter
'lsha 8alat in his house, and two kak'aat belore lajr 8alat." |lukhari and muslim]

2) 1hat they are twelve rak'at
- lour belore dhuhr

Lmm labeeba narrated, she heard the messenger say: whoever lrays twelve (voluntary) kak'aat in a day and a
night, a house will be built lor him/her in laradise." |muslim]

ln another version: lour kak'aat belore uhuhr and two alter it: and two kak'aat alter maghrib and two alter 'lsha
and two kak'aat belore lajr." |1irmidhi]
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
107


leole in the duniyah brag about having homes in many dillerent cities. what about lannah7 uon't you want
multile houses there7

!) 1hat they are lourteen rak'at
- lour belore dhuhr and lour alter

Aisha narrated, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said: whoever lrays regularly lour kak'aat belore uhuhr
and lour kak'aat alter uhuhr, Allah will lorbid him lell-lire." |Ahmad]

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that Allah loves the deed that is continuous even il it is little. 8tick to
one lormat.

liqh scenarios:
- ll someone misses any ol ar-rawaatib, can he make u lor it (qadaa')7 No, excet lor the two rak'ah belore lajr.
1hese two rak'ah can be rayed alter salat al lajr, which is an exemtion lrom the rohibition. 8haykh Yaser
agrees with 8haykh 8hinqitee who said to ray it alter the sun has risen.

- ls it ossible to ray ar-rawaatib in congregation7 Ar-rawaatib should be erlormed individually.

2. Al witr
1he single rayer (odd number ol rak'aat) done alter salat al-isha. 1his is searate lrom the rawaatib but has its
own value as well. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would never miss this salah even when he was traveling.
lt is an odd number: 1, !, , 7, etc.

- when does its time start, and when does it end7 Once salat al-isha has been rayed. 1he end time is lajr time.
lven lor those who believe that isha ends at hall ol the night, witr extends until lajr.

- low many rak'at is witr salat7 According to lmam Abu lanilah: ! like salat al maghrib. According to the
majority: the minimum is one. Also, according to the majority ol the luqaha, do not ray it like maghrib. ll
you are raying or 7, then it is seven continuous rak'ah with tashahhud at the end.

- what should be recited in it7
lt is the same as any other salah excet that the majority ol the luqaha usually ray two rak'ah lirst and the imam
recites 8urah Al 'Ala and 8urah Al laliroon, and in the last rak'ah, the imam usually recites 8urah Al lkhlas.
According to the madhab ol lmam Abu lanilah: recite the three quls.

- what is the ruling ol qunut in witr salat7 1he majority ol the luqaha say that the qunut is otional. 8ome do
not allow lor qunut to be made in witr. According to lmam Abu lanilah: it is art ol the witr and erlormed
belore going to the ruku' and the du'a is made silently. when linished, the imam says Allahu Akbar and moves
to the ruku'.

1he most oular now is two rak'ah and then one rak'ah witr and the du'a is made alter the ruku'. what should be
said in the du'a7 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) instructed Ali (radni A||anu 'annu) to say a du'a. many
imams then add on du'a alter this.

- when should the qunut be recited, belore or alter the ruku'7
lt is mostly racticed alter the ruku'. uu'a an-nawazil, which is lor catastrohes, is usually recited alter coming
back lrom the ruku'. lrom the hadeeth ol Anas, he saw the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) making the qunut
belore the ruku'.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
108

- ls it ossible to recite the qunut in any language besides Arabic7
letter to recite in Arabic. ll you cannot, then stick to the du'a lrom the hadeeth ol Ali (radni A||anu 'annu).

- what il someone misses witr salat7
You can make u lor it during the next day. lray sometime between sunrise and dhuhr to make this u. lowever,
you need to make it an even number ol rak'ah. ll your witr is normally one rak'ah, then ray two during the day. ll
your witr is normally three rak'ah, then ray lour during the day.

ll the sun was not yet u, then you can ray witr belore raying lajr. You would ray witr one rak'ah and then ray
the sunnah ol lajr and then the lard ol lajr.

- what to do il you wake u lor qiyam at night alter you've already rayed witr7 uo you have to re-do your witr7
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said there should be no two witr in one night. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am) said to make witr the last thing that you ray.

8haykh Yaser believes that the witr should be maintained, so ray the witr again at the end ol the qiyam. wa
Allahu 'Alam.

8hould you ray one rak'ah lirst to even the witr you rayed the night belore and then ray witr at the end ol the
qiyam7 No. 1his is like raying witr three times.

!. Ad-uuha
1he salat during the lorenoon time. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) did not maintain this salah regularly
but encouraged us to ray it. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) made these two rak'ah as equivalent to giving
charity on behall ol all ol the joints ol your body.

Abu uharr narrated that the messenger said: .1he words 'lraise be to Allah' is a charity: the words 'olory be to
Allah' is a charity: the words '1here is no god but Allah' is a charity: the words 'Allah is oreat' is a charity: enjoining
the good is a charity: detaining lrom evil is charity. And ad-uuha lrayer ol two units substitutes all ol these."
|muslim]

- when is the best time to ray dhuha7
when the sun becomes bright and gets hot. Around 9 or 10 am. 1he sahabah would ray ad-duha when the baby
camels would start walking around in the desert because the heat on the sand was too much to sit.

- low many rak'aat does salat ad-duha consist ol7
According to the hadeeth mentioned during the conquest ol makkah when he erlormed ad-duha, he erlormed 8
rak'ah. You have the otion to ray 2, 4, or 8 rak'ah. 8ome ulema consider the 8 rak'ah as being the sunnah ol the
conquest out ol gratitude.

4. Ash-shurooq (or ishraaq)
1he salat erlormed alter sunrise.

'le who erlorms lajr 8alat with lamaat and remains seated in the same lace while engaging in uhikr until alter
sunrise and therealter erlorms 2 kak'aat Nall 8alat, (lshraaq), he will obtain the reward ol one lajj and one
Lmrah.' |1irmidhi]

lray salat in the masjid in congregation and stay in lace and make dhikr until the sun rises. Alter the sun rises,
ray two rak'ah, and you will have the reward ol this. uoes this mean in the masjid or in the same sot7 8haykh
Yaser believes that this means staying in the same sot.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
109

O: ls this salat the same as salat ad-duha7 No!

what about women who do not go to the masjid7 1hey can erlorm this at home. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) once saw Lmm 8alamah making dhikr in the masjid and lelt and came back and lound her doing the same
thing, and he said that he has said a lew words ol dhikr lour times that is equivalent to what she had done.

. Oiyam al-layl
1he salat that is done anytime during the night alter isha salat.

Oiyam al-layl is every salah erlormed alter salat al-isha. Oiyam al layl can be done anytime alter salat al-isha.
1herelore, it can be done belore sleeing, in the middle ol the night, or at the end ol the night.

O: what is the dillerence between qiyam al-layl and tahajjud7 1ahajjud is a title given exclusively to the night
rayer alter slee. 1he salah erlormed belore sleeing is generally called qiyam al layl.

1) lts virtue
ll you can master qiyam al layl, then nothing can stand in lront ol you in this lile.

uo not ever disregard lraying at night! lecause it was a custom ol righteous eole belore you. worshiing at
night brings one closer to Allah, atones lor ones sins, kees the body lrom illnesses, and revents one lrom
erlorming sinlul acts." |1irmidhi]

2) A sign ol goodness
Abdullah bin Omar, told lalsa one ol his dreams, in order lor it to be interreted by the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am). lalsa was the sister ol Abdullah and the wile ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). 1he lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said when interreting the dream: Abdullah is a great erson. Yet, it would be suerb il he
lrayed at night!" lrom that day on, Abdullah never abandoned lraying at night." |lukhari]

!) 1he best time lor it
1he messenger was once asked: ln which art ol the night is worshi more likely to be acceted7" le relied: 1he
acts ol worshi that are done in the second hall ol the night..." |Abu uawood]

1he best time is the last third ol the night. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would olten barely linish his
witr belore witr time.

4) 1o be erlormed alter awakening lrom slee
1he most virtuous lrayer excet the obligatory lrayers is the one ollered by becoming awake alter slee at
night." |muslim]

ll you do not think that you can maintain qiyam al layl late, then ray it belore sleeing.

) lengthy standing

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to lray at night until he is lootsore. le was once asked: O the
messenger ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) why do you strain yoursell though Allah declared in the Our'an (in
chater 48) that you were lorgiven ol all your sins7" le relied: 8hould not l be a thanking servant7" |lukhari]

O: which is more virtuous in qiyam layl, long standing or long sujood7
ln qiyam al layl, the long standing is better than the long sujood.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
110

Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) said he used to ray the lirst lour and do not ask how beautilul and nice they were. 1hen
he would take rest and ray lour more.

6) why is it hard to wake u7

when you slee 8atan ties three knots on the back ol your neck. And he says to each knot 'let a long night stay
with you.' when you wake u and cite the name ol Allah one ol the knots unties. when you make ablution another
knot unties. And when you oller a lrayer all ol the knots untie. 1hus, you wake u hale and hearty in the morning.
Otherwise, you wake u aslee and downhearted." |lukhari]

lt is dillicult because ol many reasons both hysical and because ol our behavior and ractice during the day. ll
you do not have a healthy body, you will need longer slee. ll you are stressed out during the day, you will have a
hard time waking u.

1he biggest reason lor not waking u is the 8haytan, who ties knots behind the back ol your head. ll you mention
Allah, then one not is released. when you make wudu, the second is released. when you ray salah, all ol the knots
have been untied.

7) 1o hel one another
ll a man wakes u at night and also wakes his wile u to oller two units ol lrayer together, Allah registers their
names among those who remember Allah most." |Abu uawood]

let Allah show mercy to the man who wakes u at night to lray, and also wakes his wile u to do so. let Allah
show mercy to the woman who wakes u at night to lray, and also wakes her husband u to do so!"

8) 8incerity is a must
1here are many who worshi at night, yet they get nothing out ol it. 1hey just stay awake." |Ahmad]

1his is the most imortant art ol qiyam al layl. ll you are not sincere, then you will lose your ibaadah. 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said that some eole will get nothing lrom the long standing in the night
excet lor latigue.

1he deed can be nullilied long alter it has been done. Never show oll about qiyam al layl.

liqh scenarios:
- ls it ossible to ray qiyam al-layl while holding the Ouran7
Yes, but it is better to recite what you know and reeat it instead ol holding the mus-hal. lt is line to kee reciting
8urah Al lkhlas and reeating it.

- can someone make du'a in sujood in any language besides the Arabic7
uuring the nall salat, this is ok. ln the lard salah, you can only ronounce in Arabic.

Action ltem:
- low to reare yoursell lor qiyam al-layl

6. 1ahiyyat al-masjid
1he salat erlormed uon entering the masjid.

Abu Oatada narrated, the messenger said: let one ol you lray two units ol lrayer when s/he enters a mosque
belore sitting down!" |lukhari]

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
111

what constitutes a masjid7 A lace designated lor salah lor the live daily rayers and jumu'ah. ll it is a lace
designated lor salah but not the live daily rayers but jumu'ah is rayed there, then it is a musallah and not a
masjid.

when you enter the masjid, you are required to ray two salat belore sitting down. ll someone enters the masjid,
they should not sit belore raying two rak'at.

liqh scenarios:
- what il someone enters the masjid while the jama'ah has already been established7
loin the jama'ah straight away.

- what il someone enters the masjid during the rohibited times, can he still ray it7
According to lmam 8hali'ee, there is a reason lor the salah, and you can ray it. According to lmam Abu
lanilah, you cannot ray the salah because it is a time ol rohibition.

- what il someone enters the masjid on lriday while the khateeb is already on the mimbar giving the khutbah,
should he sit down or ray7
le should ray two rak'at and make it short.
According to Abu lanilah: sit down because the khutbah is more imortant.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was giving a khutbah one day and a man came in and sat down. 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) stoed the khutbah and asked the man il he had rayed two rak'ah. 1he
man relied that he had not, and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) told him to stand u and ray two
rak'ah and make it short.

- what is the tahiyyah ol al-masjid al-laram in makkah, is it two rak'at or tawaal7
ll it is at the arrival to the city, then it is the tawaal. ll you are in makkah now lor a lew days, you don't have to
make the tawaal and can ray two rak'ah and sit down. You can make the tawaal.

ll it is your habit to ray the lour sunnah belore dhuhr and you come to the masjid belore dhuhr rayer, then you
do not need to ray 2 tahiyyatul masjid - 2 sunnah - 2 sunnah because the two rak'ah ol sunnah can count as
tahiyyatul masjid. 1ahiyyatul masjid is not an exclusive salah unless there is no other reason lor you to ray. lor
examle, il you have already rayed dhuhr and the sunnah ol dhuhr, then it is a secial reason to ray.

what il you just came to the masjid to ick u your child lrom lslamic school or to go to the ollice7 You do not
need to ray the two rak'ah because you are not lanning to stay.

can you ray the sunnah with the intention ol tahiyyatul masjid as well7 Yes.

ll you sit down and start talking to eole, then it is too late lor tahiyyatul masjid. 1here is no qadaa' lor tahiyyatul
masjid.

7. Al-istikharah
1he salat done seeking guidance lrom Allah lor a articular matter.

labir bin Abdallah said: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would instruct us to lray lor guidance in all ol our
concerns, just as he would teach us a chater lrom the Our'an. le would say, ll any ol you intends to undertake a
mater then let him lray two suererogatory units (two kak'aat Nall) ol lrayer and alter which he should
sulicate:
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
112



'O Allah, l seek Your counsel by Your knowledge and by Your ower l seek strength and l ask You lrom Your
immense lavor, lor verily You are able while l am not and verily You know while l do not and You are the lnower
ol the unseen. O Allah, il You know this allair -and here he mentions his need- to be good lor me in relation to my
religion, my lile, and end, then decree and lacilitate it lor me, and bless me with it, and il You know this allair to be
ill lor me towards my religion, my lile, and end, then remove it lrom me and remove me lrom it, and decree lor
me what is good wherever it be and make me satislied with such.'" |lukhari]

Any word beginning with alil-seen-ta means soliciting something or asking lor something. lstikharah means
soliciting guidance / choice. lstisharah is soliciting something to do with mashoorah, meaning soliciting lor advice.
lstikharah is soliciting guidance and choice lrom Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).

1he comanions used to make istikhaarah lor things that were even insignilicant. whenever there is something
signilicant in your lile that you need to make a decision about, then seek the guidance ol Allah. lstisharah is lrom
eole. lelore making istikhaarah, start with the istisharah. lased on the inlormation you have collected, start
lormulating your otions.

make wudu and ray two rak'ah with the intention ol istikhaarah. when you are done lrom the salah, raise the
hands and make the du'a. You make the du'a alter you are done with the two rak'ah. uuring the salah, what are
you locused on7 You locus on the salah and not on the matter you are making istikhaarah about. what il you do
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
11!

not know how to make the du'a in Arabic7 make it in lnglish. what il you have not memorized it7 You can read it,
but it is better il it comes out lrom the heart. lt is better to memorize it and use it lrequently.

liqh scenarios:
- what matters should one ray istikhaarah lor7
8ignilicant matters in your lile. lven lor things you may consider insignilicant.

- low olten should one reeat salat al-istikharah lor the same matter7
One time is enough. lray istikhaarah until you have the leeling that it is what you want or what you leel
comlortable with.
One is more than enough il done roerly.

- low does a erson get a resonse lor his/her istikhaarah7
Nothing dramatic will haen. lt may be a good leeling or a good word. You may hear something that
coincides what you are asking lor. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) used to like good omens, like
hearing someone say something good.

- ls it obligatory to lollow the result ol salat al-istikharah7
ll you do not leel good about it, should you go by your leeling7 what il the resonse that you get makes you
leel conlused or nervous7 8hould you go by the leeling7 ls it ok to go against what you leel7 what il the
leeling was very good, then can you say no7 lt is otional. lstikhaarah is not binding on you.

You make istikhaarah when you have not decided. ll you have decided, then there is no need to make
istikhaarah.

ll a woman has her eriod, can she just make the du'a without raying the two rak'at7 Yes, she can make the
du'a.

can you have someone ray the istikhaarah lor you7 No. lstikhaarah is lor yoursell. leole can ray lor you
but not make the salat al istikhaarah lor you.

1he istisharah is about collecting inlormation and data.

8. Al wudu
1he salat erlormed alter one makes wudu.

Abu lurayrah narrated, the messenger said to lilal at the time ol lajr 8alat: 1ell me lilal ol the deeds you have
done since becoming a muslim lor which you exect the best reward, lor l heard the sound ol your sandals in lront
ol me in laradise." lilal relied: l have done nothing in the hoe ol best reward excet ol ollering Nall 8alat
immediately alter doing wudu at any hour ol the day or the night." |lukhari and muslim]

ll you ray two rak'at sunnah alter making wudu, then this also lullills this salah, similar to tahiyyatul masjid.

Always remain on tahaarah, and when you go to the bathroom, make wudu, and it can be the quick wudu ol
washing each art once. when you go to the masjid, you can make the total wudu lor the salah. lilal (radni A||anu
'annu) used to ray the two rak'ah during the day and the night.





Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
114

9. At tawbah
1he salat done alter someone does a sinlul act that requires reentance.

Abu lakr narrated that the messenger said, 1here is noone who commits a sin, goes and erlorms ritual ablutions,
and then lrays two kak'aat alter which they seek Allah's lorgiveness excet that le lorgives them." Alter this, he
(eace and blessings be uon him) recited Allah most ligh's words, sulicate:
And those who, when they do an evil thing or wrong themselves, remember Allah and imlore lorgiveness lor
their sins - who lorgives sins save Allah only7 - and will not knowingly reeat (the wrong) they did." |Al lmraan
!:1!] |Abu uawood and Nisa'i]

10. Al-haaja
1he salat erlormed when someone is in need ol something.

1here is no god but Allah the clement and wise. 1here is no god but Allah the ligh and mighty. olory be to Allah,
lord ol the 1remendous 1hrone. All raise is to Allah, lord ol the worlds. l ask you (O Allah) lor everything that
leads to Your mercy, and Your tremendous lorgiveness, enrichment in all good, and lreedom lrom all sin. uo not
leave a sin ol mine (O Allah), excet that You lorgive it, nor any concern excet that You create lor it an oening,
nor any need in which there is Your good leasure excet that You lullill it, O most mercilul!" |1irmidhi and lbn
majah]

1his is disutable in terms ol authenticity. 1he hadeeth is not conlirmed to be authentic, but it is mentioned in
books ol liqh and salah. 1he hadeeth is da'eel and not authentic, but you can memorize the du'a and use it on a
regular basis.

11. At-tasabeeh / at-tasbeeh
1he salat done with amle tasbeeh lor the sake ol glorilying and raising Allah.

1asbeeh / tasabeeh comes lrom the word subhanAllah because the tasbeeh is reeated lrequently. 1he hadeeth ol
lbn Abbas:

lbn Abbas narrated, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said to his uncle Abbas: O Abbas, my dear uncle, shall l
give you, shall l gilt you, shall l bestow on you ten secial gilts. ll you do what l am going to tell you shortly, you
will gain the lollowing ten benelits: Allah will lorgive all your sins: both the lirst and the last, the old and the new,
the conscious ones as well as the unconscious, the small and the big, the rivate and the ublic - ten things
altogether. You should erlorm lour kak'aat (ol 8alah), and in the lirst kak'aat you should read latiha and a 8urah.
Alter having done so, while still standing, read the lollowing: 8ubhaana Allah, waal-hamdu lillaah, walaa ilaaha illa
Allaah, wa Allaahu akbar" 1 times, then you go to kuku' and recite the above again 10 times, then lilt your head u
lrom kuku' and say, while standing, the same words 10 times, then, go to 8ujood and say the same thing 10 times,
then, rise lrom 8ujood and while sitting say it again 10 times. Alterwards, you should go back to 8ujood again, and
say the same words 10 times, then, raise your head lrom 8ujood and, again, say the same thing 10 times: lt adds u
to a total ol 7 1asbeehs in each kakah. You must do the same in each ol the lour kak'aat. ll you can do so once a
day than do so: ll you can do it once in every lumu'ah do so: il you cannot, then do it once a month, il you cannot,
do it once a year, il you cannot, do it once in your lile-time at least." |Abu uawood, lbn majah and lbn lhuzaymah]

1his hadeeth is very weak. 1herelore, the establishment ol salat at-tasabeeh is not authentic. 8ome luqaha
recommend to do it at least once in your lile in case it was authentic.





Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
11

12. Al-awwabeen
1he salat erlormed in six rak'ah alter maghrib salat and done continuously with one saaam or with two or three
salaams.

Ammar ibn Yasir said:"whoever lrays six kak'aat alter maghrib, his sins will be lorgiven even il they were as much
as the rising loam carried by the sea tide." |At 1abarani]

lbnul mubarak said: whoever ollers a lrayer between the evening and late-night lrayer, it is called the
'Awwabeen' lrayer."

1his hadeeth is also weak, so this is not authentic.

1!. Al-mutlaq
Absolute and unrestricted salat. lt is not decided by any timing or number ol rak'at. lart ol it is what you ray
lrom sunrise until salat al dhuhr.

1) lour belore asr salat
2) 1wo belore maghrib salat
!) letween adhan and iqamah
4) ln the three masajid (makkah, madinah, and lerusalem)
) uuring times ol distress
6) Any time during the day ol night.

lart ol nall mutlaq is also qiyam al layl. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said qiyam al layl should be
erlormed in two rak'ah.

8avor the sweetness ol the variety ol the nawalil:
- 1here are day rayers
- 1here are night rayers
- And let the cometition begin

8ome ol us are day worshiers and some ol us are night worshiers. lor every occasion and every matter in your
lile, there is a divine connection with Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) , whether you are stressed out our overjoyed.
lee track ol what you do and what you do not do. 1he more nall salawat you add, the better your lareeda will be
because you exercise during your nall.

Action ltem:
- 1here are many nawalil rayers that you need to ut in your daily schedule.
- You know what to do.

chater 2: chater 2: chater 2: chater 2: Other congregational lrayers Other congregational lrayers Other congregational lrayers Other congregational lrayers

1. 8alat al-jumu'ah (lriday lrayer)

1) lts virtues

Abu lurayrah narrated, the messenger ol Allah said: lriday is the best ol days. lt was on this day that
Adam was created, it was on this day that he was granted entry into laradise, it was on this day that he was
removed lrom laradise, and the day ol resurrection will also take lace on this day." |muslim]

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
116

2) 1he ruling on lriday salat
lt is a lard ayn lor men who have reached the age ol uberty who are residents and not traveling. lor
women, it is mubaah.

Abdullah ibn Omar narrated, the messenger said: leole should abstain lrom leaving out lriday lrayer. ll
not, Allah the most ligh will ut a seal over their hearts whereby they will lall into severe negligence."
|muslim]

!! _%! | l.ll ->l -`! || , < ' .l >l .> >l |
`. l-. '
O you who believe (muslims)! when the call is roclaimed lor the 8alat (rayer) on the uay ol lriday
(lumu'ah rayer), come to the remembrance ol Allah |lumu'ah religious talk (lhutbah) and 8alat (rayer)]
and leave oll business (and every other thing), that is better lor you il you did but know! |Al lumu'ah 62:9]

ll a man does not attend jumu'ah three consecutive times, then a seal will be laced on his heart. make
sure to break the cycle ol three times, and do not let it go three consecutive times.

- what il the masjid has no searate area lor women, then can they ray in the back ol the masjid7
women can ray in the back ol the masjid. ll men and women maintained the same modesty ol the
sahabah, then there would be no need to maintain the barriers.

- ls jumu'ah rayer a searate salat or a substitution lor dhuhr7
8ome luqaha consider it a substitution: therelore, there is sunnah ol the salat al-dhuhr. Other luqaha say
that it is a comletely searate salah and the timing is a little dillerent based on this. lased on the choice
ol ruling, you would allow lor combining jumu'ah and asr when there is rain or when traveling. 8haykh
Yaser does not consider it to be a substitution lor dhuhr: therelore, it cannot be combined with asr during
travel.

- what is the ruling on leaving jumu'ah lor work or school7
ll you make a strong case in the school district, you can have excused leave lor salat al-jumu'ah. ly law,
they cannot lire you lor religious uroses. You must show dedication in your work belore asking lor
ermission. ll you cannot do it, then do not miss salat al-jumu'ah three consecutive times.

!) what is the time ol jumu'ah7
- ls it the same as dhuhr7
8ome ulema say that it is the same time as salat al-dhuhr. lut there is a hadeeth ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) that he rayed salat al-jumu'ah one time, and when they lelt, they were looking lor the
traces ol the shadow. 1his means that the sun is barely in the zenith, which is not dhuhr time because that
is when the sun moves out ol the zenith osition. 1herelore, they rayed belore dhuhr time. low early
can you make salat al-jumu'ah7 8ome communities have taken it to extreme measures and have arranged
two jama'ahs: one belore dhuhr and one alter. ln some communities there is 4 minutes dillerence, which
may be too much. 1he best time ol doing it is to start the khutbah 20-2 minutes belore the actual time ol
dhuhr, and when the khutbah is over, dhuhr has just started and the rayer is made in dhuhr time.




Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
117

- can there be two jumu'ahs in one masjid7
ln this society, we do not have any other choice by law because il the masjid caacity cannot exceed a
certain number, then one ol three otions must be done:
1) lxand the masjid
2) lray on rented area (i.e. a hotel)
!) luild another masjid
lt is better to have only one single jumu'ah.

4) what is the minimum number ol eole required to establish the jumu'ah salat7
According to lmam ash-8hali'ee: 40 men. women are not obligated to ray jumu'ah. According to this
oinion, il you have 100 women and ! men, you cannot ray salat al jumu'ah and must ray dhuhr.
Another oinion: 12 men
Another oinion: 2 (the imam and the ma'moom)

) ls a masjid one ol the requirements to establish jumu'ah7
No. (ll you are traveling, you do not have to ray jumu'ah). ll you are staying in a town, then you must go
to salat al-jumu'ah regardless ol whether you are there lor 1 or 2 days. ll you are traveling in a car on the
way to ll laso, do you have to sto in 8an Antonio to ray salat al jumu'ah7 No.

6) low is jumu'ah salat erlormed7
- lmam ascends the mimbar and begins with salaam and then sits down.

O: can the khateeb be a lemale7

- Adhan is called.
O: low many adhans are there lor jumu'ah7
At the time ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), it was only one adhaan. uuring the time ol Lthman
(radni A||anu 'annu), another adhaan was added because the ummah had exanded and no one had watches
to know when to come. le ordered one ol the mu'adhineen to call the adhan in the marketlace. All ol the
merchants, business eole, and customers then know that the time ol jumu'ah is coming soon, and by the
time they go to the masjid, the actual adhan ol the salat al-jumu'ah will be called.

1oday, in muslim countries they make one adhan, and then eole stand u to ray two rak'ah and then
call the other adhan. 1here is no sunnah to ray in between the two adhaan. ln America, we do not need
the lirst adhaan because eole have watches, and the adhaan is done in the masjid and not outside to
remind anyone. 8hould we sto using the lirst adhaan7 1his is an argument. 8haykh Al Albani believed
that there is no need lor the lirst adhaan. 1he other shuyookh say it was an ijma' ol the sahabah, so it
became a sunnah established by the khulalaa', and the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said to lollow his
sunnah and the sunnah ol the righteous khulalah. 1herelore, you can continue this adhan just as Lthman
(radni A||anu 'annu) established it.

1he reward is lrom the second adhan.

- lmam erlorms the khutbah.
1he sunnah is to begin the khutbah with alhumdulillah, thanaa', and salawat on the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) and then the khutbah.

O: 8hould there be any halaqah belore jumu'ah salat7 No. many masajid today lollow a articular school ol
thought (lanali) that the khutbah is mandatory to be given in Arabic even though no one understands it,
so they make u lor it by having the imam give a halaqah in lnglish belore. lt is even a disute amongst
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
118

the scholars ol the lanali madhab. 1he urose ol the khutbah is to give it in a language that the eole
comrehend.

O: what is the ruling on the khutbah lor jumu'ah7 1he khutbah lor jumu'ah is waajib, but it is not a rukn,
meaning that il someone comes late and misses the khutbah but attends the salah, then it is accetable.
lmam Abu lanilah mandates that you attend the last ortion ol the khutbah.


O: low should the khutbah start7
Alhumdulillah, thanaa', then the khutbah.

O: what is the ruling on the du'a alter khutbah7
1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) did not maintain a certain etiquette. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni
wa sa||am) sometimes linished and went to the salah. ll the imam makes du'a at the end ol the khutbah,
then say ameen silently, and you do not have to raise your hands.

O: what il someone misses the khutbah7 ls his salat still valid7

O: can the khutbah be done in any language besides Arabic7
Yes, it can be done in the language that the eole can understand.

O: low long should the khutbah be7
1he shorter the khutbah, the better according to the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). A sign ol the
understanding and wisdom ol the erson is the short khutbah and the long salah. 8ometimes a khutbah
would last no longer than three or lour minutes, because the urose ol the khutbah is to give a message.
8ome ol the luqaha today use the khutbah lor education and rovide many details. lt is all about giving a
short message.

- lqama is called
O: can someone else besides the one who called the adhan call lor the iqama7

- lraying two rak'at with the recitation being done out loud.
O: what should the imam recite lor jumu'ah salat7 1he sunnah ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) is
to recite 8urah Al 'Ala and 8urah Al ohashiyah. On other occasions: 8urah Al lumu'ah and 8urah Al
munaliqoon

O: can another imam lead the salat other than the khateeb7
1he khutbah can be given by one erson and the salat led by another. lt is relerable lor the same erson
to do both.

liqh 8cenarios:
- 8hould dhuhr salat be rayed alter jumu'ah salat as a recaution7
No. 1his is a bid'ah.

- Are women obligated to attend jumu'ah7 8hould they be discouraged7
No, they are not obligated. 1hey should not be discouraged. lt is ermissible.

- ls jumu'ah salat still obligatory on a traveler7
No, unless you stay in a town and are awake. ln this case, you should ray with the eole.

- ls there any nall salat lor jumu'ah7
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
119

1here is no nall belore jumu'ah. You ray two rak'ah alter il you ray at home, and ray lour rak'ah alter the
salat il you ray in the masjid.

- what il lid lalls on lriday, what should we do with jumu'ah salat7
ll you ray salat al lid, then you do not ray salat al jumu'ah, but you still need to ray dhuhr salat. You can
ray the lid salat and also ray salat al jumu'ah alterwards.


Action ltem:
whenever you go to jumu'ah, make sure you do the lollowing:
- 8tart your rearation lor jumu'ah the night belore.
- uo the ossible hygienic rearation lor lriday.
- make sure to ray lajr in the masjid.
- 1ake your ghusl belore jumu'ah, il you cannot then belore you leave in the morning.
- make lriday a secial occasion and dress u lor it in a halal way.
- come to jumu'ah as early as ossible. whoever comes late will not be registered lor jumu'ah records. when
the imam stands on the mimbar, then the angels close the records.
- make sure to ray as many nawaalil as you can belore you sit down. lray in sets ol two rak'ah.
- kecite 8urat al-lahl. 1his can recite anytime between lajr salat and sunset on lriday.
- listen to the khutbah and benelit lrom the dhikr.

2. 8alat al lid

1) when does lid salat take lace7
1here are two lids. lid al litr is the lirst day ol 8hawwal. lid al Adha is the 10
th
day ol uhul lijjah, which is
the day alter Aralat.

2) what is the ruling on salat al-lid7
1he ulema have dillerent oinions regarding the ruling. 1he majority oinion is that it is sunnah al-
mu'aqqadah, meaning that it is a highly recommended sunnah. Ahl al hadeeth believe it is waajib, meaning
it is mandatory unless there is a valid excuse.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) instructed to take women (even on their eriods), elderly, and
children to the salat al lid. women on their menses should attend the khutbah and the celebration.

!) what is the exact time lor each salat7
lid Al Adha is rayed earlier than lid al litr. lor lid Al litr, you need to give the eole extra time to ay
their zakat. lor lid al Adha, you need to give time lor eole to slaughter the animals. 1he salah begins
alter the sun rises. lt is when the sun is higher than the height ol a sear above the horizon lor lid al Adha.
when the height is two sears above the horizon, it is time lor lid al litr. most masajid here give more
time to allow eole time to come to the masjid.

lid Al Adha: lid Al litr:



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
120


4) where should salat al-lid be erlormed: a masjid or a musallah7
lt should be erlormed in a musallah or oen sace. A lace where eole can gather together. can it be
rayed in a soccer lield or a baseball lield7 Yes. You can ray anywhere that is ure and clean. 1he larger
the lace, the better. lt is more virtuous to ray in the convention center than the masjid. 1he urose is
to bring as many muslims together to enjoy the celebration ol 8alat Al lid. lt is ok to ray in the masjid.

) Are there any sunnan lor salat al-lid7
No, there is no sunnah belore or alter. uo you ray two rak'at when you go to the musallah7 No, you just
sit down.

ll raying salat al lid in the masjid, you should ray tahiyyatul masjid because it has nothing to do with
salat al lid but with entering the masjid.

6) what is the ruling on the takbeer belore salat al-lid7
lt is mustahab that you start your takbeer belore salat al eid al litr lrom the night belore, meaning once
they announce that it is lid al litr.

Abdullah ibn Lmar used to start his takbeer lrom the beginning ol the month ol uhul lijjah. 1he most
oular oinion today, is that you start making the takbeerat alter lajr salah on the uay ol Aralat, which is
the 9
th
ol uhul lijjah until three days alter lid.

7) ls there any adhan or iqamah lor the lid salah7
No.

8) low is salat al-lid erlormed7
- lmam starts with the salat. 1his is the oosite ol salat al-jumu'ah.

O: low many takbeers are there in each rak'ah7
1he ulema have dillerent oinions:
lmam Abu lanilah: in lirst rak'ah, and ! in second rak'ah
majority: 7 alter takbeeratul ihram and alter takbeerat ol rising lrom sujood.

low does the imam count7 lress your lingers as you raise your hands so that you know where you are.
1here is nothing said in between the takbeerat.

O: when is the takbeer ol the second rak'ah said7
According to lmam Abu lanilah, when standing u lrom sujood, you start reciting, and belore ruku'
that is when you recite the takbeer and then you move to the ruku'.
1he imam says takbeer to rise lrom sujood and waits lor the ma'moom to stand u and then starts the
takbeerat.

O: low should the ma'moomeen do their takbeer7
uo the eole behind the imam have to raise their hands as well7 Yes.
uo the eole behind the imam have to raise their voices7 No, they do not have to raise their voices
loud and can say it normally.

O: what to do il the imam lorgot or missed some ol the takbeerat7
1here is no sujood as-sahw and you just continue.

O: what should the imam recite in the salat7
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
121

1he etiquette is to recite 8urah Al 'Ala in the lirst rak'ah and 8urah Al ohashiyah in the second rak'ah.

- lhutbah starts alter salaah

O: what is the ruling on the khutbah lor salat al-lid7 1he khutbah is an otional act. ll you would like
to attend you can, but il you want to go out, then you can.

O: low many khutbahs should the sermon include7
One or two7 1his is an issue ol disute amongst the luqaha. 8ome say that it is just like salat al jumu'ah
with two khutbahs and a rest in the middle. Others say that it is just one khutbah.

O: 8hould the imam commence the khutbah with takbeer7
No. 1here is no need to start with the takbeer. le can include the takbeer in the khutbah.

liqh scenarios:
- can salat al-lid be done in multile laces within one town at the same time7
Yes. lt is better to have one, but accetable to have more than one.

- ls it ermissible to erlorm salat al-lid more than once in the same masjid7
According to regulations here, yes because there is no other otion. muslims should rovide a service to have
khutbah lor lid in one large lace.

- 8hould women who have a legal excuse come to salat al-lid7
Yes, but they do not ray with the eole.

- ll someone misses salat al-lid, should they still ray it, and how7
1hey do not do a second jama'ah, but you can ray it on your own just as the imam would have done it with the
7 and takbeerat.

- ls a traveler obligated to ray salat al-lid7
ll you are in a town, then you ray it with the congregation, but il you are on the road, then you do not have to.

lor the khutbah: 8omething cheerlul lor the occasion.

8avor the sweetness ol the lid celebration:
- clean yoursell lor this beautilul occasion. Always look nice and relreshed and smell good wherever you go.
- wear the best ol what you have, clothes and erlume. 8isters should not use erlume when they go out unless
it is an all women gathering.
- come early and join the takbeer crowd, enjoy the rhythm.
- celebrate the beauty ol lid with all the community, and lollow the lrohetic (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
etiquette.

!. 8alat at-1araweeh (kamadan night rayers)

Abu lurayrah (radni A||anu 'annu) narrated, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said, whoever sends a night
ol kamadan ollering rayer with a sincere beliel and hoe that he will get reward lor it, his ast sins are lorgiven."
|lukhari and muslim]
1his includes salat at-taraweeh and salat at-tahajjud and any salat that you erlorm in kamadan.

1) low did salat at-taraweeh start7

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
122


2) low many rak'at is it7
lour oinions:
- light rak'at
- 1wenty rak'at
- 1hirty six rak'at (maliki school)
- No secilic number

All have some valid evidences:
8 rak'ah - hadeeth Aisha (radni A||anu 'anna) in lukhari and muslim: 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
never rayed more than 11 rak'ah. 1his is 8 lus ! rak'ah lor witr. 8he also said regarding the quality ol his
salah: his lour rak'ah were lengthy and beautilul. ll you are lollowing 8 rak'ah, then lollow the number and the
quality.

ll you ray the sunnah ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), then you need to ray the quality 8 rak'ah.

20 rak'ah - Narration that Lmar (radni A||anu 'annu) when he saw the eole scattered making their own
taraweeh, he had them all ray behind Lbayy ibn la'ab and they rayed 20 rak'ah because not all the eole
may be able to ray that standing that long. 1hey base it on the hadeeth ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) to ray two rak'ah by two rak'ah.

1he malikis have no actual evidence but raying two by two. ll you recite less, then make them more rak'at,
which is a lalse argument. lt is about lollowing the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am), which has no limit two
by two.

lollow the congregation and ray with them. what il someone wants to add more alter the imam linishes7
You can add one rak'ah when the imam linishes his witr to make it two lor yoursell, and ray later at home and
then linish with the witr belore salat al lajr.

!) low should it be erlormed - by two units or lour7 1wo rak'ah. Abu lanilah relers lour rak'ah together
but recite out loud in all lour rak'ah.

4) ls congregation a rerequisite lor taraweeh7
No. lt was initiated by the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) when there was no congregation lor it, and
then eole started to join him.

) ls erlorming it in a masjid a rerequisite lor its validity7
No, you can ray at home.

6) low much ol the Ouran should be recited in taraweeh7
As much as eole can enjoy. ll linishing the Ouran causes him to lose the congregation, then he should
read less than that. ll linishing the Ouran is going to cause him to recite very last, then he should recite
less. 1he eole should be tranquil and at eace in the salah.

4. 8alat al-lhusool and lusool (rayer during solar and lunar eclise)

1his salat is done whenever we observe a secilic natural henomenon ol the solar or lunar eclise. lusool is the
solar eclise. lhusool is the lunar eclise.

Aisha said: 1here was a solar eclise during the time ol the messenger ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am).
1. le stood u to lray and rolonged his standing very much.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
12!

2. le then bowed and rolonged very much his bowing.
!. le then raised his head and rolonged his standing much, but it was less than the (duration) ol the lirst
standing.
4. le then bowed and rolonged bowing much, but it was less than the duration ol his lirst bowing.
. le then rostrated
6. le then stood u and rolonged the standing, but it was less than the lirst standing.
7. le then bowed and rolonged his bowing, but it was less than the lirst bowing.
8. le then lilted his head and then stood u and rolonged his standing, but it was less than the lirst
standing.
9. le then bowed and rolonged bowing and it was less than the lirst bowing.
10. le then rostrated himsell: then he turned about, and the sun had become bright, and he addressed the
eole.
le raised Allah and lauded lim and said: 1he sun and the moon are two signs ol Allah: they are not eclised on
account ol anyone's death or on account ol anyone's birth. 8o when you see them, glorily and sulicate Allah,
observe the lrayer, give alms. O Lmmah ol muhammad, none is more indignant than Allah when lis servant (male
or lemale) commits lornication. O Lmmah ol muhammad, by Allah, il you knew what l know, you would wee
much and laugh little. O Allah, witness, l inlormed them." |muslim]

1) what is the ruling on this lorm ol salat7

1he two rak'at are rayed in a secilic lormat. 1his is mentioned in detail in the hadeeth ol Aisha (radni
A||anu 'anna). 1here is a long recitation ol the Ouran. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) starts the
salah and recites the Ouran. when linished reciting, he moves to the ruku'. 1he lrohet (8Aw80 remained
in the osition ol ruku' close to the duration ol the recitation ol the Ouran, so il he stood lor hall an hour
reciting, then the ruku' was hall an hour. 1hen the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would rise lrom the
ruku' and lace hands back on the chest and recites latihah again. 1hen another surah is recited, and it is a
long recitation but shorter than the lirst one. 1hen the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) moved to the
ruku' lor a length ol time close to the length ol the recitation. 1hen the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
ose lrom the ruku' osition and moved to the sujood and rolonged the sujood close to the duration ol the
ruku'. 1hen rise lrom sujood and then second sujood ol the same length. 1his is now one rak'ah. 1here
were two ruku' and two sujood. ln the second rak'ah, the same thing is reeated. 1he tashahhud is then
said and then the salaam.

1he salah should be as long as the duration ol the eclise.

Attending the salah is highly recommended (sunnah mu'akkadah).

Alter the salah, there is a short seech. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) gave a general talk about
the reason lor erlorming the salah.

2) what is the signilicance ol this salat7
1o show the greatness ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a). we need to become closer to Allah (suunananu wa-
ta'a|a).

!) what is the descrition ol this salat7

4) 8hould the recitation be out loud or silent7
Abu lanilah: silently
majority ol the luqaha: recite out loud.


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
124

) what is the ruling on the khutbah7
lt is not art ol the salah at all. 1here is no khutbah ol the salah but there is a general seech or talk
exlaining what haened.

6) when should the salat start exactly7
lt should start at the beginning ol the eclise and end when the eclise is over.

7) low long should this salat last lor7

8) ls there any adhan or iqama lor this salat7
No. low are eole notilied7 1hey should notily the eole a day belore or the week belore. can they
make adhaan to bring eole to the masjid7 Yes.

9) can this salat be erlormed while someone is traveling7
Yes, you can. ll driving, it deleats the urose ol the long standing in the salah.

10) can this salat be erlormed lor other natural henomena such as earthquakes7
No because it was only done lor one urose.

lt can be erlormed individually or in congregation.

Action ltem:
- lractice this lorm ol salat even il there was no eclise. lust lor training uroses.
- check online to see the ucoming eclise events.
- mark your calendar and get ready to do it on your own.
- letter than that, bring some lriends and lamily and lead eclise salat lor them or someone do that lor you.
- And the best - encourage your masjid to call lor it.

ll you are not trained to do it, then it will come like a cultural shock. ll you have trained, then it is a joy to erlorm
this salah.

ll you know that it is haening because ol current technology but cannot see it because ol cloud cover, then you
can still ray this salah.

uoes it have to be in your region7 Yes. ll it is announced that there is an eclise in calilornia or New York and it is
not visible in your city at all, then you do not have to ray it.

. 8alat al-istisqaa' (rayer lor the request ol rain)

lstisqaa' means soliciting suiva, which means drinking water. lt is to ask Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) lor the rain.
Abu lurayrah narrated, 1he lrohet ol Allah (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) went out one day to make 8alat-ul-
lshtisqaa' and rayed two kak'aat with us without any Adhan or lqamah. 1hen, he addressed us and sulicated
Allah and turned his lace toward the qiblah, with his hands raised. Next, he reversed his cloak, lacing its lelt side
on his right side and its right side on his lelt side.' |Ahmad and lbn majah]

1) what is the ruling on salat al-istisqaa'7
1wo oinions:
lirst oinion: malik, 8hali'ee, and Ahmad
lt is an emhasized sunnah. 8unnah al-mu'akkadah (highly recommended sunnah).


Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
12

8econd oinion: Abu lanilah
1here is no congregational salat lor istisqaa'. lt is only making du'a.

8chool or madhab Oinion
lmams malik, 8hal'iee, Ahmad lt is an emhasized sunnah.
lmam Abu lanilah 1here is no congregational salat.

2) when is the exact time ol istisqaa'7
1here is no secilic time in terms ol what day or when. lt can be done any day, and the best time to
erlorm it is in the morning around the same time ol salat al lid. lased on this, it is better to have it done
on a weekend when eole can attend.

!) uescrition ol salat al-istisqaa'7
1wo rak'ah. kecite out loud in both rak'ah. lt is lollowed by a khutbah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) used to recite two rak'ah like jumu'ah. 1he order is like salat al lid with the khutbah alter the salah.

4) ls there a khutbah lor salat al-istisqaa'7
1he khutbah advises eole to show humbleness, humility, remorse, and seeking mercy lrom Allah
(suunananu wa-ta'a|a).

) low humble should eole and the imam look like during their salat7
ls it like salat al lid with eole dressed u, or should eole be dressed humbly7 leole need to come out
showing humility and humbleness and not showing oll in their clothes because they need to show their
need to Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).

6) 8hould eole reverse their jackets and outer garment7

when the khateeb linishes the du'a, il he is wearing a cloak or outer garment, he should take it and switch
it over, meaning reverse it by utting the lelt side on the right shoulder and right side on the lelt shoulder
and walks home wearing it like this. 1he eole should do this as well il they have something above their
thawb. women should not do this. what about jackets7 ll they can be reversed easily, then it is ok lor the
men to reverse this.

ll someone has a head dress or turban, should it be turned uside down7 No. 1here is no need to reverse
these. lt is only the outer garment.

why is the reversal done7 lt is like a gesture asking Allah to reverse our situation to a better situation the
same way we reverse our outer garments.

7) 8hould eole last belore they go out lor salat al-istisqaa'7
1here is no need, but some luqaha said that it is a sign ol humility. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am)
said it can be done to show humility and humbleness.

8) 1he du'a made during the khutbah:
1he imam laces the eole and advises them, and when the imam is done advising the eole, he turns
around and raises his arms high and makes the du'a.

O Allah, give us rain. O Allah, give us rain. O Allah, give us
rain."

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
126

'O Allah, (make it rain) around us and not uon us. O Allah,
make it uon the hills, small mountains, bottom ol the
valleys, and lantations.'


'O Allah, give us a saving rain, good and roductive, general
and heavy, now and not later, benelicial and not harmlul.'

6. 8alat al-lhawl (rayer during the time ol lear or danger)
1his is a lorm ol congregational salah erlormed during a time ol danger or lear. lt is mainly erlormed during
the time ol war, and secilically seaking in war zones.

| . ! l l.l 1.l !L . i- >!l .>l` >l
.!.l !L ,> `l l. l.l i- >!l > .>l` %!
, l l-. s >.>l` />.-. l l. '# > -!> ls |
' >. ,L . _., -.. >.>l` > > | < s _,>ll
!.s !
when you (O messenger muhammad) are among them, and lead them in As-8alat (the rayer), let one arty ol
them stand u |in 8alat (rayer)] with you taking their arms with them: when they linish their rostrations, let
them take their ositions in the rear and let the other arty come u which has not yet rayed, and let them
ray with you taking all the recautions and bearing arms. those who disbelieve wish, il you were negligent ol
your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you il you ut away your arms
because ol the inconvenience ol rain or because you are ill, but take every recaution lor yourselves. Verily,
Allah has reared a humiliating torment lor the disbelievers. |An-Nisaa' 4:102]

1) kuling on salat al-lhawl
You are in a time ol trouble and a war zone and in a combat zone, and you are still obligated to make salah
in congregation. 1his has been conlirmed not only in the Ouran but also in the sunnah ol the lrohet (sa|
A||anu a|avni wa sa||am). 1he narrations mention several dillerent lormats ol erlorming salat al khawl,
which means that it is erlormed in dillerent ways deending on the circumstances such as il there is a
large number, il you are lacing the enemy, ollensive / delensive ositions, etc.

when the circumstances require you to ray this salah, then it must be rayed.

2) what are the reasons lor salat al-khawl7
1o kee the jam'ah together even though it is a time ol war. You are connected to Allah in the best way.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
127

!) uescrition ol salat al-khawl7
ll the enemy is not in the direction ol the qiblah: (you are caming somewhere and the enemy is
somewhere and you do not know il you will be attacked or not).
8ome ol the eole are taking osition to guard and rotect the army and the cam, and they kee looking
in all directions. You ray two rak'ah because you are travelers. 1he imam rays with the rest one rak'ah
(recitation, ruku', rise lrom ruku', two sajdahs, rise lrom sajdah). 1he imam remains standing while those
lollowing linish one more rak'ah and make salaam. As each erson linishes, they trade ositions with a
erson who had been guarding. 1he remaining eole join the imam with a takbeer (someone gives the
imam a gesture that everyone is there). 1he recitation is made, ruku', rise lrom ruku', two sajdahs. 1he
imam sits down lor the tashahhud and the lollowers stand u and make u lor the missed rak'ah. 1he
imam gives an estimated time lor them to linish their tashahhud, and the imam and the lollowers say the
tasleem together.

lor salat al maghrib, two rak'ah are rayed with the lirst grou, and the third rak'ah is rayed with the
second grou.

1he reason to break it u is to kee one congregation. ll you are not traveling, then you ray two rak'ah
with the lirst grou and two rak'ah with the second grou. You would combine the salah.

ll the enemy is in the direction ol the qiblah:
8tand in congregation lacing their cam. 1wo lines are made. when the imam rays the lirst rak'ah, they
ray it together. 1he imam recites latihah and a surah, and the imam and lirst line go down in ruku' and
sujood together. 1he second line kees monitoring the situation and does not look at the lace ol sujood.
1he imam and the lirst line stand u together, and then the second line makes the ruku' and sujood. when
the second line stands u lor the second rak'ah, everyone lollows in the recitation ol latihah and the surah,
and then again the imam and lirst line make ruku' and sujood together, and when they sit lor the
tashahhud, the second line makes ruku' and sujood. 1he tashahhud is made, and the tasleem is then said
together.

ll the team in the back sees an attack coming, what do they do7 kun and try to delend yoursell. what
about il you are in the combat zone, what do you do7 You ray as you move, whether you are riding,
driving, or walking and regardless ol the qiblah direction, you make ruku' and sujood by bowing your head
or even your eyes.

what about tahaarah and wudu7 1ayammum is the easiest way.

1he weaons are ket with them the entire time.

4) Are eole obligated to erlorm during time ol danger in congregation7
) low should the salat be erlormed during actual combat7
6) can eole during the time ol lear and actual combat delay their salat until more convenient time7

Action ltem:
- lractice this lorm ol salat with some lriends or lamily
- lxchange roles, be an imam and a ma'moom on dillerent occasions.

1he beauty ol salat al khawl is that even in time ol danger and dire necessity, you need the divine link with Allah
(suunananu wa-ta'a|a) and you run towards lim. lven in such circumstances, you need to kee your salah and to
kee it in congregation. lt teaches you that you kee your entire community and army under one leadershi.
1here are many benelits.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
128


lig Action ltem:

- 8avor the sweetness ol the uivine link exerience. lach erson has his own unique exerience in salah.
- write down what you have learned lrom this class.
- make lan to ut it into ractice.
- 8hare the knowledge with others.

Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) brought the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) to the seventh heaven to give the
command lor salah. live days belore assing away, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) advised on the salah.
1he last time the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was sighted, he was looking through the window at his
community in the salah. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) showed the imortance ol salah until the end.

linal 1hought:

what makes you:
1. lray less than you should be7
2. lray later than you should be7
!. lray wrong when you shouldn't be7
4. lray not when you should be7



Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
129

0 00 04 44 4 | || | O& O& O& O&A AA A

ls it ermissible lor there to be more than one jumu'ah in the same masjid7 ll yes, than can the lirst one be rayed
belore the time ol dhuhr or not7 ll we are not allowed to do it belore salat al dhuhr time, am l obligated to come to
the lirst one, or do l have the otion to ick one7 ll l choose to come to the lirst one, do l have to maintain that one
regularly, or can l go to the one which is more convenient7

ll a mu'adhin makes a mistake, can you seak u and correct him7 Yes, you can. le will reeat the statement and
continue with the adhan.

ls the red twilight resent belore the sun comletely sets7 1here will be a time between red and orange. while the
sun is setting, it is orange, and when it is deeer in the horizon, then the red twilight begins aearing.

According to the maalikis, the time lor maghrib is enough to make rak'ah: ! lard - 2 sunnah.

what is 8haykh Yaser's oinion on the end time ol maghrib7 1he oinion ol the red twilight.

8hould a sister reeat alter the adhan while she is unable to ray7 Yes, this is dhikr.

can women ray while wearing ants7 lt is not the roer hijab. 1he rayer is accetable but not erlect.

ln some schools ol thought, they say that men should not wear anything that does not cover the elbows out ol
resect and modesty. 1here is no such evidence stressing the imortance ol covering the head or covering the
body in that way, but it is out ol modesty. lt was a tradition ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) that he
would cover his head not only during salat but during other allairs as well because it was an Arab tradition. 1he
lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) had dillerent kinds ol turbans. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was
never seen in ublic without a head covering during rayer. Allahu 'Alam about him covering his head while at
home. ln one occasion, lbn Abbas narrated that the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was raying without a head
cover - Allahu 'Alam the reason why. oenerally seaking, it is a sign ol modesty lor men to cover their heads.

ll a sister starts the jama'ah belore the actual jama'ah time and the jama'ah starts in the masjid, then she needs to
sto.

1he men cannot see the women's section: No one is allowed to establish jama'ah belore the actual time ol the
jama'ah.

ll a woman rays dhuhr or asr in a masjid where there is no video or way to see the brother's side, then how does
she know which rak'ah is being rayed and what is she to do7 Once the shaykh lorgot the ruku' in salah and went
to the sujood and the women did not know what was haening. 8haykh Ash-8hinqiti's oinion: lt is wrong to
block visibility between the imam and the ma'moon. 1here needs to be at least a window or curtain as a
concession.

ll a woman is raying and the sleeves slide u when she rays sujood, then il it is accidental it would not invalidate
the salah, but il it occurs in every single sajdah, then the salah is invalidated. lor women to begin the salah without
the roer cover, then this is wrong and the salah is invalid.

ll you did not ray asr yet, then can you ray sunnah even though it is time lor asr, or should you just ray asr
immediately7 You can ray as many sunnah as you want until you ray your asr.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
1!0


can you ray any sunnah belore making u lor the lard that you missed7 Yes.

when the imam linishes both tasleem, then the ma'moon can say the tasleem.

ll you missed dhuhr and go to the masjid and the imam is leading salat al asr, then you can join him with the
intention ol dhuhr because both are 4 rak'at. ll you miss asr, you can join the congregation lor maghrib and can
continue with the lourth rak'ah. ll you miss maghrib and join the imam lor isha, then it is a roblem and in this
case, do not join the imam with the intention ol maghrib but with the intention ol nall. You then ray maghrib and
isha alter.

ll you are a traveler and are raying in dhuhr in the masjid and the imam has already rayed two rak'at, what do
you do7 uo you linish with the imam because you rayed 2 rak'at or do you stand u and ray 2 more rak'at
because the imam rayed 4 rak'at7 ll you join the imam who is a resident, then you ray 4 rak'at. ll the imam was
traveling but rayed 4 rak'at, then you ray 4 rak'at.

when traveling, you need to shorten the salat. combining the salat is otional. You can maintain each salat at its
resective time.

ll you rayed lard at home and then come to the masjid and lind them raying in jama'ah, it is obligatory to join
them in jama'ah. when you join them, you should have the intention ol nall. what about asr7 lt will be nall alter
your asr, and you join them in the congregation.

ln the lard salah, the du'a and the adhkar must be in Arabic, but in the nall salah, you can make du'a in your own
language il you do not know the Arabic.

ll someone grows u in a locality where they lollow one school ol thought and do not have the qualilications to do
the research, then lollow the madhab. ll a erson has the ability to do research and can study evidences, then they
can decide which oinion to lollow. what about those living in the west7 lollow the imam ol your community il
you trust their knowledge and their deen.

You can combine because ol need and necessity.

ll the imam rays a very last salah and you miss two arkaan with him, then the salah is invalid and you searate
and linish the salah on your own. ll you start the salah with the imam and you start your du'a at the beginning ol
the salah, and by the time you are linished, the imam moves to ruku' and you have not read Al latihah, then what
do you do7 ll you try to recite latihah quickly and the imam says sami Allahu liman hamidah and you missed the
ruku' with him, then the salah with your imam is invalid, so you searate lrom the congregation and continue on
your own.

ll a man is wearing shorts in the salah and when he makes ruku' or sujood his knees show, this is line, but il his
thighs show, then it invalidates his salah.

uuring the times women cannot ray, they should take advantage ol the time to review and imrove adkhar. make
adhkar, memorize adkhar and du'a, read books.

ll someone has an excessive gas roblem, then by the recommendation ol a doctor, the ulema say that the erson
makes wudu' lor every salah, meaning once dhuhr time begins, they make wudu, ray the sunnah / lard / sunnah
and that is it even il they break the wudu during the salah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
1!1

ll a cell hone rings and it is in a urse, then you need to turn it oll. ll the urse is at the back ol the masjid, then
you need to break your salah and go to the urse and turn oll the hone.

1he camel uts the lront arms down lirst and then the back legs and then lully down.

ll you have wudu and want to break the salah, then you leave the salah with tasleem. ll you break the salah
because ol breaking the wudu, then there is no need lor tasleem because the salah is invalid anyway.

crying in salah is line. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would sometimes cry in salah. ll it is to the extent
ol wailing, you are not allowed to raise your voice to that level. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) did not
allow us to raise our voices when raying searately. le said, uo not raise your voices over each other."

ll you are making salah and lorget to recite a surah in addition to surah Al latihah, do you have to make sujood as-
sahw7 No.

ll you are distracted and then come back to your salah and know exactly where you are in the salah, then you do
not need to make sujood as-sahw. lt only harms the reward you receive in your salah.

8ujood as-sahw is not needed lor verbal mistakes such as saying subhan rabbi al-adheem in the sujood.

ln the 8hali'ee school, il you slee llat on your back (i.e. dozing), then it invalidates your wudu even though you
have awareness and are not dee sleeing.

Najasah: there are dillerent categories. llood is considered najas.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) allowed the sunnah ol lajr and witr to be rayed qada'. 1he sunnah ol witr
is made u during the day: il you ray !, then ray 4 or il you ray 1, then ray 2.

ln America, most eole live 10-1 minutes drive to reach the masjid. 1he obligation to come to the masjid is not
because ol the distance but because they live in America. we must maintain our deen and kee the masjid alive
and maintain community bonds. 1he obligation evolves not because ol distance to the masjid but because ol our
secial circumstances.

lor women living in makkah and madinah, it is better lor them to ray at home because the lrohet (sa| A||anu
a|avni wa sa||am) instructed the women there that it is better to ray at home. 1he excetion is lor travelers.

ll you discover najasah on your clothing alter you have linished the salah, then you do not need to ray the salah
again because the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) when he discovered the najasah on his shoes, then took oll
his shoes and continued raying, indicating that the earlier art ol the salah was valid. ll you know that you have
najasah somewhere on your clothing but do not know where and decide to continue raying, then the salah is
invalid.

You do not make du'a in the ruku' excet lor the statements the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) instructed us to
say. 1hese are words ol thanaa', meaning words ol raise ol Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a).

making du'a: raise your hands and cu them u. when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) asked lor rain, he
raised his linger and made du'a. On another occasion, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) made du'a with his
hands down and this was when he was making thanaa', and when asking Allah (suunananu wa-ta'a|a) lor something
he would turn them alm u. You can cu your hands and bring them close to the body, raise your hands above
your head, align your hands with your shoulder. On ladr, the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) was raising his
hands so high that his uer garment lell oll ol his shoulders.
Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
1!2


when you make du'a, the best direction is the direction ol the qiblah.

ll raying outside, it is better to kee your shoes on unless you are not able to make the roer sitting osition in
sujood.

ll someone is already leading salah and is oenly lasiq, then can you lollow him7 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa
sa||am) said: lray behind every good and bad. ll the imam is a good erson, and il the imam was bad, you ray
behind him. lis osition ol leadershi and imamah is on himsell because he knows he is doing wrong.

can the imam delay the iqamah il he is running late7 ll this is accetable in the community, then this is line, but il
eole do not like it, then they should not wait lor the imam. ll it is something common, then you need to change
the imam. ll it is an emergency, then it is a dillerent case. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) never had a
secilic timing lor the iqamah, and the iqamah would be called when the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) came
in. 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) would call lor the iqamah when he saw the eole, so il they were
coming early, then the iqamah would be called early, and il they were coming late, then he would delay the iqamah.
we do not have an excuse because we have watches.

1he sunnah ol the lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) during the rain: he would exose himsell a little to the rain.
le would roll u his sleeves and let the rain touch his skin, and he said it was just created lresh by Allah (suunananu
wa-ta'a|a). 1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said it is one ol the times when du'a is acceted.

ll you miss three arkaan with the imam, then your salat is invalid and you must start over.

ll you are traveling and go the masjid lor jumu'ah, then you ray asr time on time and shortened.

when you are raying on the lane, then you make your takbeer while seated and recite normally, and bow down a
little lorward lor the ruku', and then when going to the sujood, go lower lrom the ruku' osition.

1he lrohet (sa| A||anu a|avni wa sa||am) said to use olive oil lor lood and treatments. kub your body with it because
it comes out lrom a blessed tree. ll eole suller lrom hasad, magic, or 'ayn, then grab a cu ol olive oil and read
the Ouran over it and rub the body with it and it will be healing and treatment.

can any sunnah be rayed alter lajr salah or asr salah7 No, unless there is a reason lor it. ll you want to make a
decision and ray salat al istikhaarah, then try to wait until alter the shurooq because it is not long.

can a woman make khutbah lor jumu'ah lor an all women congregation7 No.

ll a woman rays lajr at home and stays in her osition making dhikr until alter the sun rises and rays salat ash-
shurooq, then inshAllah she will receive the same reward.

1he school ol lmam Abu lanilah is a very rational school, and they can justily things rationally without a textual
daleel.

lt is not the sunnah to leave the imam who is raying salat at-taraweeh. 1he sunnah is to ray with the imam until
the end, regardless ol il he rays 8 or 20.

You can make one ol the rawaatib sunnah as istikhaarah.

Oabeelat losna
uivine link uivine link uivine link uivine link - -- - liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah liqh ol 8alah
1!!

low olten do you ray tahiyyatul masjid il you are going back and lorth to the masjid7 ll you are in the masjid and
then go to the arking lot and then come back and then go into the garden area and then come back, there is no
need to ray a second tahiyyatul masjid because you are in the area ol the masjid.

lor sunnah belore dhuhr: you can also ray lour rak'ah connected and recite latihah and a surah in each rak'ah.

8haykh Yaser holds the oinion that the time lor salat al jumu'ah is the time ol dhuhr. 1he khutbah can be read
belore.