looe 1 of 65

WCL un1C ?Cuţ
LAW?L8S!
A lusLvţ ausLv aLLack on º1he Law" as a curlousţ anLlquaLed lnsLlLuLlon whlchţ Lhrouah ouLworn
proceduresţ Lechnlcal [araon and queer mummervţ enables a aroup of medlclneŴmen Lo
domlnaLe our soclal and pollLlcal llves and our buslnessţ Lo Lhelr own aalnŦ
l8Lu 8CuLLL
Þrofessor of Lawţ ?ale unlverslLv
WrlLLen ln 1939
ºWoe unLo vouţ lawvers! lor ve have Laken awav
Lhe kev of knowledaeť ve enLered noL ln vourselvesţ
and Lhem LhaL were enLerlna ln ve hlnderedŦ" Ÿ LukeŦ xlţ 32
ConLenLs
lŦ ,odern ,edlclneŴ,en Ŷ Þaae 2
llŦ 1he Law of Lhe Lawvers Ŷ Þaae 6
lllŦ 1he Wav lL Works Ŷ Þaae 10
lvŦ 1he Law aL lLs SupremesL Ŷ Þaae 13
vŦ no 1ax on ,ax Ŷ Þaae 24
vlŦ 1he Law and Lhe Ladv Ŷ Þaae 33
vllŦ lalrvŴ1ales and lacLs Ŷ Þaae 37
vlllŦ ,ore abouL Leaal Lanauaae Ŷ Þaae 43
lxŦ lncubaLors of Lhe Law Ŷ Þaae 48
xŦ A 1ouch of Soclal Slanlflcance Ŷ Þaae 33
xlŦ LeL's Lav uown Lhe Law Ŷ Þaae 38
Þreface
no lawver wlll llke Lhls bookŦ lL lsn'L wrlLLen for lawversŦ lL ls wrlLLen for Lhe averaae man and lLs purpose ls Lo Lrv Lo
planL ln hls headţ aL Lhe leasLţ a seed of skepLlclsm abouL Lhe whole leaal professlonţ lLs works and lLs wavsŦ
ln case anvone should be lnLeresLedţ l aoL mv own skepLlclsm earlvŦ 8efore l ever sLudled law l used Lo araue
occaslonallv wlLh lawvers Ŷ a foollsh Lhlna Lo do aL anv LlmeŦ Whenţ as frequenLlv happenedţ Lhev couldn'L explaln
Lhelr leaal polnLs so LhaL Lhev made anv sense Lo me l brashlv beaan Lo suspecL LhaL mavbe Lhev dldn'L make anv
sense aL allŦ 8uL l couldn'L knowŦ Cne of Lhe reasons l wenL Lo law school was Lo Lrv Lo flnd ouLŦ
AL law school l was luckvŦ 1en of Lhe men under whom l Look courses were sufflclenLlv skepLlcal and commonŴ
senslble abouL Lhe branches of law Lhev were Leachlna so LhaLţ unwlLLlnalv of courseţ Lhev served LoaeLher Lo forLlfv
mv hunch abouL Lhe phonlness of Lhe whole leaal processŦ ln a senseţ Lhev are Lhe lnLellecLual aodfaLhers of Lhls
bookŦ And Lhouah all of Lhem would doubLless sLrenuouslv dlsown Lhelr aodchlldţ l Lhlnk l owe lL Lo Lhem Lo name
LhemŦ LlsLed alphabeLlcallvţ Lhev areť
1hurman Arnoldţ now AsslsLanL ALLornevŴCeneral of Lhe unlLed SLaLesŤ Charles LŦ Clarkţ now !udae of Lhe uŦSŦ ClrculL
CourL of AppealsŤ Wllllam CŦ uoualasţ now !usLlce of Lhe uŦSŦ Supreme CourLŤ lellx lrankfurLerţ now !usLlce of Lhe
uŦSŦ Supreme CourLŤ Leon Creenţ now uean of Lhe norLhwesLern unlverslLv Law SchoolŤ WalLon PamllLonţ Þrofessor
of Law aL ?ale unlverslLvŤ Parold Lasklţ Þrofessor of ÞollLlcal Sclence aL Lhe London School of LconomlcsŤ 8lchard
!ovce SmlLhţ now a pracLlclna aLLornev ln new ?ork ClLvŤ Weslev SLuraesţ now ulrecLor of Lhe ulsLllled SplrlLs
lnsLlLuLeŤ and Lhe laLe Lee 1ullnŦ
looe 2 of 65

8v Lhe Llme l aoL Lhrouah law schoolţ l had declded LhaL l never wanLed Lo pracLlce lawŦ l never haveŦ l am noL a
member of anv barŦ lf anvone should wanLţ noL unreasonablvţ Lo know whaL on earLh l am dolna Ŷ or Lrvlna Lo do Ŷ
Leachlna lawţ he mav flnd a hlnL of Lhe answer Loward Lhe end of ChapLer lxŦ
When l was mulllna over Lhe noLlon of wrlLlna Lhls bookţ l ouLllned mv ldeas abouL Lhe bookţ and abouL Lhe lawţ Lo a
lawver who ls noL onlv able buL also exLraordlnarllv frank and percepLlve abouL hls professlonŦ ºSureţ" he saldţ ºbuL
whv alve Lhe show awav?" 1haL cllnched lLŦ
lŦ8Ŧ
CnAÞ1Lk I
MCDLkN MLDICINLŴMLN
º@e low ls o sott of ocosŴpocos scleoceŦ" Charles ,acklln
ln 18l8AL 1l,LSţ Lhere were Lhe medlclneŴmenŦ ln Lhe ,lddle Aaesţ Lhere were Lhe prlesLsŦ 1odav Lhere are Lhe
lawversŦ lor everv aaeţ a aroup of brlahL bovsţ learned ln Lhelr Lrade and [ealous of Lhelr learnlnaţ who blend
Lechnlcal compeLence wlLh plaln and fancv hocusŴpocus Lo make Lhemselves masLers of Lhelr fellow menŦ lor everv
aaeţ a pseudoŴlnLellecLual auLocracvţ auardlna Lhe Lrlcks of lLs Lrade from Lhe unlnlLlaLedţ and runnlnaţ afLer lLs own
paLLernţ Lhe clvlllzaLlon of lLs davŦ
lL ls Lhe lawvers who run our clvlllzaLlon for us Ŷ our aovernmenLsţ our buslnessţ our prlvaLe llvesŦ ,osL lealslaLors
are lawversŤ Lhev make our lawsŦ ,osL presldenLsţ aovernorsţ commlsslonersţ alona wlLh Lhelr advlsers and bralnŴ
LrusLers are lawversŤ Lhev admlnlsLer our lawsŦ All Lhe [udaes are lawversŤ Lhev lnLerpreL and enforce our lawsŦ 1here
ls no separaLlon of powers where Lhe lawvers are concernedŦ 1here ls onlv a concenLraLlon of all aovernmenL power
Ŷ ln Lhe lawversŦ As Lhe schoolbov puL lLţ ours ls ºa aovernmenL of lawversţ noL of menŦ"
lL ls noL Lhe buslnessmenţ no maLLer how blaţ who run our economlc worldŦ Aaaln lL ls Lhe lawversţ Lhe lawvers who
ºadvlse" and dlrecL everv Llme a companv ls formedţ everv Llme a bond or a share of sLock ls lssuedţ almosL everv
Llme maLerlal ls Lo be bouahL or aoods Lo be soldţ everv Llme a deal ls madeŦ 1he whole elaboraLe sLrucLure of
lndusLrv and flnance ls a lawverŴmade houseŦ We all llve ln lLţ buL Lhe lawvers run lLŦ
And ln our prlvaLe llvesţ we cannoL buv a home or renL an aparLmenLţ we cannoL aeL marrled or Lrv Lo aeL dlvorcedţ
we cannoL dle and leave our properLv Lo our chlldren wlLhouL calllna on Lhe lawvers Lo aulde usŦ 1o aulde usţ
lncldenLallvţ Lhrouah a maze of confuslna aesLures and formallLles LhaL lawvers have creaLedŦ
Cb[ecLlon mav be ralsed lmmedlaLelv LhaL Lhere ls noLhlna sLranae or wrona abouL LhlsŦ lf we dld noL carrv on our
aovernmenL and buslness and prlvaLe acLlvlLles ln accordance wlLh reasoned rules of some sorL we would have
chaosţ or else a reverslon Lo bruLe force as Lhe arblLer of men's affalrsŦ 1rue Ŷ buL beslde Lhe polnLŦ 1he polnL ls LhaL
lL ls Lhe lawvers who make our rules and a whole clvlllzaLlon LhaL follows Lhemţ or dlsreaards Lhem aL lLs perllŦ ?eL
Lhe Lremendous ma[orlLv of Lhe men who make up LhaL clvlllzaLlonţ are oot lawversţ pav llLLle heed Lo how and whv
Lhe rules are madeŦ 1hev do noL askţ Lhev scarcelv seem Lo careţ whlch rules are aood and whlch are badţ whlch are a
help and whlch a nulsanceţ whlch are useful Lo socleLv and whlch are useful onlv Lo Lhe lawversŦ 1hev shuL Lhelr eves
and leave Lo Lhe lawvers Lhe runnlna of a larae parL of Lhelr llvesŦ
Cf all Lhe speclallzed skllls abroad ln Lhe world Lodavţ Lhe averaae man knows leasL abouL Lhe one LhaL affecLs hlm
mosL Ŷ abouL Lhe Lhlna LhaL lawvers call 1he LawŦ A man who wlll dlscourse aL lenaLh abouL Lhe laLesL cure for
sLrepLococcl lnfecLlon or descrlbe ln deLall hls alleralc svmpLoms cannoL bealn Lo Lell vou whaL happened Lo hlm
leaallv Ŷ and plenLv dld Ŷ when he aoL marrledŦ A man who would noL dream of buvlna a car wlLhouL an lnLrlcaLe and
lllusLraLed descrlpLlon of lLs mechanlcal worklnas wlll slan a lease wlLhouL knowlna whaL more Lhan four of lLs forLvŴ
four clauses mean or whv Lhev are LhereŦ A man who wlll noL heslLaLe Lo crlLlclze or dlsaaree wlLh a Lralned
economlsL or an experL ln anv one of a dozen flelds of learnlna wlll followţ unquesLlonlna and meekţ whaLever advlce
hls lawver alves hlmŦ normal human skepLlclsm and curloslLv seem Lo vanlsh enLlrelv whenever Lhe lavman
encounLers 1he LawŦ
looe J of 65

1here are several reasons for Lhls mass submlsslonţ Cne ls Lhe averaae man's fear of Lhe unknown Ŷ and of
pollcemenŦ 1he law comblnes Lhe LhreaL of boLhŦ A nonŴlawver confronLed bv 1he Law ls llke a chlld faced bv a plLchŴ
dark roomŦ ,erclless [udaes lurk Lhereţ readv Lo [ump ouL aL hlmŦ (ºlanorance of Lhe law ls no defenseŦ") Cowed andţ
perforceţ LrusLlnaţ he Lakes hls lawver's handţ noL knowlna whaL false sLep he mlahL make unauldedţ nor whaL
punlshmenL mlahL Lhen lle ln walL for hlmŦ Pe does noL dare dlsplav elLher skepLlclsm or dlsrespecL when he feels
LhaL Lhe solemn volce of Lhe lawverţ Lelllna hlm whaL he musL or mav noL doţ ls backed bv all Lhe mlahLv and
mvsLerlous forces of lawŴandŴorder from Lhe Supreme CourL on down on Lhe cop on Lhe cornerŦ
1henţ Looţ everv lawver ls [usL abouL Lhe same as everv oLher lawverŦ AL leasL he has Lhe same Lhlna Lo sellţ even
Lhouah lL comes ln sllahLlv dlfferenL models and aL varvlna prlcesŦ 1he Lhlna he has Lo sell ls 1he LawŦ And lL ls as
useless Lo run from one lawver Lo anoLher ln Lhe hope of flndlna someLhlna beLLer or someLhlna dlfferenL or
someLhlna LhaL makes more common sense as lL would be useless Lo run from one lord dealer Lo anoLher lf Lhere
were no ChevroleLs or ÞlvmouLhs or even blcvcles on Lhe markeLŦ 1here ls no brand compeLlLlon or producL
compeLlLlon ln Lhe lawvers' LradeŦ 1he cusLomer has Lo Lake 1he Law or noLhlnaŦ And lf Lhe cusLomer should wanL Lo
know a llLLle more abouL whaL he's buvlna Ŷ buvlna ln dlrecL fees or lndlrecL fees or Laxes Ŷ Lhe lawvers need have no
fear of loslna buslness or someone else lf Lhev [usL plaln refuse Lo LellŦ
?eL lawvers can and ofLen do Lalk abouL Lhelr producL wlLhouL Lelllna anvLhlna abouL lL aL allŦ And LhaL facL lnvolves
one of Lhe chlef reasons for Lhe nonŴlawver's perslsLenL lanorance abouL 1he LawŦ 8rleflvţ 1he Law ls carrled on ln a
forelan lanauaaeŦ noL LhaL lL dealsţ as do medlclne and mechanlcal enalneerlnaţ wlLh phvslcal phenomena and
lnsLrumenLs whlch need speclal words Lo descrlbe Lhem slmplv because Lhere are no oLher wordsŦ Cn Lhe conLrarvţ
law deals almosL excluslvelv wlLh Lhe ordlnarv facLs and occurrences of evervdav buslness and aovernmenL and
llvlnaŦ 8uL lL deals wlLh Lhem ln a [araon whlch compleLelv baffles and befoozles Lhe ordlnarv llLeraLe manţ who has
no leaal Lralnlna Lo serve hlm as a LroLŦ
Some of Lhe lanauaae of Lhe law ls bullL ouL of LaLln or lrench wordsţ or ouL of old Lnallsh words whlchţ buL for Lhe
lawţ would lona aao have fallen lnLo dlsuseŦ A common sLreeL brawl means noLhlna Lo a lawver unLll lL has been
LranslaLed lnLo a ºfelonvţ" a ºmlsdemeanorţ" or a ºLorL"Ť and anv of Lhose wordsţ when used bv a lawverţ mav mean
noLhlna more Lhan a common sLreeL brawlŦ ,uch of Lhe lanauaae of Lhe law ls bullL ouL of perfecLlv respecLable
Lnallsh words whlch have been alven a queer and dlfferenL and excluslvelv leaal meanlnaŦ When a lawver speaksţ for
lnsLanceţ of ºconslderaLlon" he ls deflnlLelv noL referrlna Lo klndnessŦ All of Lhe lanauaae of Lhe law ls suchţ as ,rŦ
uoolev once puL lLţ LhaL a sLaLuLe whlch reads llke a sLone wall Lo Lhe lawman becomesţ for Lhe corporaLlon lawverţ a
Lrlumphal archŦ lL lsţ ln shorLţ a lanauaae LhaL nobodv buL a lawver undersLandsŦ Cr could undersLand ŴŶlf we are Lo
Lake Lhe lawvers' word for lLŦ
lor one of Lhe mosL reveallna Lhlnas abouL Lhe lawvers' Lrade ls Lhe unanlmous lnablllLv or unwllllnanessţ or boLhţ on
Lhe parL of Lhe lawvers Lo explaln Lhelr brand of professlonal pla LaLln Lo men who are noL lawversŦ A docLor can and
wlll Lell vou whaL a meLaLarsus ls and where lL ls and whv lL ls Lhere andţ lf necessarvţ whaL ls wrona wlLh lLŦ A paLlenL
elecLrlclan can explalnţ Lo Lhe saLlsfacLlon of a medlumŴarade menLallLvţ how a dvnamo worksŦ 8uL Lrv Lo pln down a
lawverţ anv lawverţ on º[urlsdlcLlon" or ºproxlmaLe cause" or ºequlLable LlLle" Ŷ words whlch he Losses off wlLh
auLhorlLv and apparenL famlllarlLv and whlch are parL of hls reaular sLock ln LradeŦ lf he does noL dlsmlss vour
quesLlon summarllv wlLh º?ou're noL a lawver' vou wouldn'L undersLandţ" he wlll dlsappear lnLo a cloud of leaal
[araonţ perhaps descendlna occaslonallv Lo Lhe level of a nonŴleaal absLracLlon or Lo Lhe scarcelv more saLlsfacLorv
explanaLlon LhaL someLhlna ls so because 1he Law savs LhaL lL ls soŦ 1haL ls where vou are supposed Lo savţ ºl seeŦ"
lL ls Lhls facL more Lhan anv oLher Ŷ Lhe facL LhaL lawvers can'L or won'L Lell whaL Lhev are abouL ln ordlnarv Lnallsh Ŷ
LhaL ls responslble for Lhe hopelessness of Lhe nonŴlawver ln Lrvlna Lo cope wlLh or undersLand Lhe soŴcalled sclence
of lawŦ lor Lhe lawvers' Lrade ls a Lrade bullL enLlrelv on wordsŦ And so lona as Lhe lawvers carefullv keep Lo
Lhemselves Lhe kev Lo whaL Lhose words meanţ Lhe onlv wav Lhe averaae man can flnd ouL whaL ls aolna on ls Lo
become a lawverţ or aL leasL Lo sLudv lawţ hlmselfŦ All of whlch makes lL verv nlce Ŷ and verv secure Ŷ for Lhe lawversŦ
Cf course anv lawver wlll brlsLleţ or snorL wlLh derlslonţ aL Lhe ldea LhaL whaL he deals ln ls wordsŦ Pe dealsţ he wlll
Lell vouţ ln proposlLlonsţ concepLsţ fundamenLal prlnclples Ŷ ln shorLţ ln ldeasŦ 1he reason a nonŴlawver aeLs losL ln
1he Law ls LhaL hls mlnd has noL been Lralned Lo Lhlnk loalcallv abouL absLracLlonsţ whereas Lhe lawver's mlnd has
been so LralnedŦ Pence Lhe lawver can leap llahLlv and loalcallv from one absLracLlon Lo anoLherţ or narrow down a
looe 4 of 65

aeneral proposlLlon Lo applv Lo a parLlcular caseţ wlLh an aalllLv LhaL leaves Lhe nonŴlawver bewlldered and behlndŦ lL
ls a preLLv llLLle plcLureŦ
?eL lL ls noL necessarv Lo ao lnLo semanLlcs Lo show LhaL lL ls a verv slllv llLLle plcLureŦ no maLLer whaL lawvers deal loţ
Lhe Lhlna Lhev deal wlt ls excluslvelv Lhe sLuff of llvlnaŦ When a aovernmenL wanLs Lo collecL monev and a rlch man
does noL wanL Lo pav lLţ when a companv wanLs Lo flre a worker and Lhe worker wanLs Lo keep hls [obţ when an
auLomoblle drlver runs down a pedesLrlan and Lhe pedesLrlan savs lL was Lhe drlver's faulL and Lhe drlver savs lL
wasn'L Ŷ Lhese Lhlnas are llvlna facLsţ noL alrv absLracLlonsŦ And Lhe onlv Lhlna LhaL maLLers abouL Lhe law ls Lhe wav
lL handles Lhese facLs and a mllllon oLhersŦ 1he polnL ls LhaL leaal absLracLlons mean noLhlna aL all unLll Lhev are
brouahL down Lo earLhŦ Cnce brouahL down Lo earLhţ once applled Lo phvslcal facLsţ Lhe absLracLlons become
noLhlna buL words Ŷ words bv whlch lawvers descrlbeţ and [usLlfvţ Lhe Lhlnas LhaL lawvers doŦ Lawvers would alwavs
llke Lo belleve LhaL Lhe prlnclples Lhev sav Lhev work wlLh are someLhlna more Lhan a compllcaLed wav of Lalklna
abouL slmpleţ Lanalbleţ nonŴleaal maLLersŤ buL Lhev are noLŦ 1hus Lhe laLe !usLlce Polmes was pracLlcallv a LralLor Lo
hls Lrade when he saldţ as he dld savţ ºCeneral proposlLlons do noL declde concreLe casesŦ"
1o dlsmlss Lhe absLracL prlnclples of 1he Law as belna no moreţ ln reallLvţ Lhan hlaŴsoundlna comblnaLlons of words
mavţ ln one senseţ be a Lrlfle confuslnaŦ Law ln acLlon doesţ afLer allţ amounL Lo Lhe appllcaLlon of rules Lo human
conducLŤ and rules mav be sald Lo beţ lnevlLablvţ absLracLlons LhemselvesŦ 8uL Lhere ls a dlfference and a bla oneŦ
ºAnvone who plLs on Lhls plaLform wlll be flned flve dollars" ls a rule andţ ln a senseţ an absLracLlonŤ veL lL ls easllv
undersLoodţ lL needs no lawver Lo lnLerpreL lLţ and lL applles slmplv and dlrecLlv Lo a speclflc facLual LhlnaŦ 8uL
ºAnvone who wlllfullv and mallclouslv splLs on Lhls plaLform wlll be flned flve dollars" ls an absLracLlon of an enLlrelv
dlfferenL colorŦ 1he Law has sneaked lnLo Lhe rule ln Lhe words ºwlllfullv and mallclouslvŦ" 1hose words have no real
meanlna ouLslde of lawvers' mlnds unLll someone who splLs on Lhe plaLform ls or ls noL flned flve dollars Ŷ and Lhev
have none afLerward unLll someone else splLs on Lhe plaLform and does or does noL aeL flnedŦ
1he whole of 1he Law Ŷ lLs concepLsţ lLs prlnclplesţ lLs proposlLlons Ŷ ls made up of ºwlllfullvs" and ºmallclouslvsţ" of
words LhaL cannoL posslblv be plnned down Lo a preclse meanlna and LhaL areţ ln Lhe lasL analvslsţ no more Lhan
wordsŦ As a maLLer of facLţ Lhe bulk of 1he Law ls made up of words wlLh far less apparenL relaLlon Lo reallLv Lhan
ºwlllfullv" or ºmallclouslvŦ" And vou can look Lhrouah everv blL of 1he Law Ŷ crlmlnal lawţ buslness lawţ aovernmenL
lawţ famllv law Ŷ wlLhouL flndlna a slnale rule LhaL makes as much slmple sense as ºAnvone who splLs on Lhls
plaLform wlll be flned flve dollarsŦ"
1haLţ of courseţ ls whv a nonŴlawver can never make rhvme or reason ouL of a lawver's aLLempLed explanaLlon of Lhe
wav 1he Law worksŦ 1he nonŴlawver wanLs Lhe whole buslness brouahL down Lo earLhŦ 1he lawver cannoL brlna lL
down Lo earLh wlLhouLţ ln so dolnaţ leavlna 1he Law enLlrelv ouL of lLŦ 1o sav LhaL Waaner Labor AcL was held valld
because flve ouL of Lhe nlne [udaes on Lhe Supreme CourL approved of lL personallvţ or because Lhev LhouahL lL wlser
pollcv Lo uphold lL Lhan Lo rlsk furLher presldenLlal aalLaLlon for a chanae ln Lhe membershlp of Lhe CourL Ŷ Lo sav Lhls
ls cerLalnlv noL Lo explaln 1he Law of Lhe caseŦ ?eL Lo sav Lhls makes a areaL deal more sense Lo Lhe lavman and
comes a areaL deal closer Lo Lhe LruLh Lhan does Lhe leaal explanaLlon LhaL Lhe AcL was held valld because lL
consLlLuLed a proper exerclse of Conaress' power Lo reaulaLe lnLersLaLe commerceŦ ?ou can probe Lhe words of LhaL
leaal explanaLlon Lo Lhelr depLhs and bolsLer Lhem wlLh oLher leaal proposlLlons daLlna back one hundred and flfLv
vears and Lhev wlll sLlll meanţ for all pracLlcal purposesţ exacLlv noLhlnaŦ
1here ls no more polnLed demonsLraLlon of Lhe chasm beLween ordlnarv human Lhlnklna and Lhe menLal processes
of Lhe lawver Lhan ln Lhe almosL unlversal reacLlon of law sLudenLs when Lhev flrsL encounLer 1he LawŦ 1hev come Lo
law school a normallv lnLelllaenLţ normallv curlousţ normallv recepLlve aroupŦ uav ln and dav ouL Lhev are sub[ecLed
Lo Lhe leaal llnao of [udaesţ LexLbook wrlLersţ professors Ŷ Lhose learned ln 1he LawŦ 8uL for monLhs none of lL cllcksŤ
Lhere seems Lo be noLhlna Lo Lake hold ofŦ 1hese sLudenLs cannoL flnd anvwhere ln Lhelr pasL knowledae or
experlence a hook on whlch Lo hana all Lhls sLranae Lalk of ºmens rea" and ºfee slmple" and ºdue process" and oLher
unearLhlv LhlnasŦ Lona and lnvolved explanaLlons ln lecLures and lawbooks onlv make lL all more confuslnaŦ 1he
sLudenLs know LhaL law evenLuallv deals wlLh exLremelv pracLlcal maLLers llke buvlna land and selllna sLock and
puLLlna Lhleves ln [allŦ 8uL all LhaL Lhev read and hear seems Lo sLem noL onlv from a forelan lanauaae buL from a
sLranae and forelan wav of LhlnklnaŦ
looe 5 of 65

LvenLuallv Lhelr confuslon founded Lhouah lL ls ln sLubborn and healLhv skepLlclsm ls worn downŦ LvenLuallv Lhev
succumb Lo Lhe barraae of prlnclples and concepLs and all Lhe meLaphvslcal reflnemenLs LhaL ao wlLh LhemŦ And
once Lhev have learned Lo Lalk Lhe [araonţ once Lhev have foraoLLen Lhelr recenL lnslsLence on maLLersŴofŴfacLnessţ
once Lhev have beaun Lo alorv ln Lhelr own aalllLv aL LhaL menLal hocusŴpocus LhaL had Lhem befuddled a shorL whlle
aaoţ Lhen Lhev have becomeţ ln Lhe mosL lmporLanL senseţ lawversŦ now Lhevţ Looţ have [olned Lhe selecL clrcle of
Lhose who can weave a compllcaLed lnLellecLual rlddle ouL of someLhlna so mundane as a sLrlke or an auLomoblle
accldenLŦ now lL wlll be hard lf noL lmposslble ever Lo brlna Lhem back LoL haL dlsarmlnalv dlrecL wav of Lhlnklna
abouL Lhe problems of people and socleLv whlch Lhev used Lo share wlLh Lhe averaae man before Lhev fell ln wlLh Lhe
lawvers and swallowed 1he LawŦ
Learnlna Lhe lawvers' Lalk and Lhe lawvers' wav of Lhlnklna Ŷ learnlna Lo dlscuss Lhe pros and cons ofţ savţ pure food
laws ln Lerms of ºaffecLaLlon wlLh a publlc conLracL" Ŷ ls verv much llke learnlna Lo work crvpLoarams or plav brldaeŦ
lL requlres concenLraLlon and memorv and some analvLlc ablllLvţ and for Lhose who become proflclenL lL can be a
sLlmulaLlna lnLellecLual aameŦ ?eL Lhose who work crvpLoarams or plav brldae never preLend LhaL Lhelr menLal
efforLsţ however dlfflculL and lnvolvedţ have anv slanlflcance bevond Lhe aame Lhev are plavlnaŦ Whereas Lhose who
plav Lhe leaal aame noL onlv preLend buL lnslsL LhaL Lhelr lnLrlcaLe raLloclnaLlon's ln Lhe realm of pure LhouahL have a
necessarv relaLlon Lo Lhe soluLlon of pracLlcal problemsŦ lL ls Lhrouah Lhe medlum of Lhelr welrd and wordv menLal
avmnasLlcs LhaL Lhe lawvers lav down Lhe rules under whlch we llveŦ And lL ls onlv because Lhe averaae man cannoL
plav Lhelr aameţ and so cannoL see for hlmself how lnLrlnslcallv empLvŴofŴmeanlna Lhelr plavLhlnas areţ LhaL Lhe
lawvers conLlnue Lo aeL awav wlLh lLŦ
1he leaal Lradeţ ln shorLţ ls noLhlna buL a hlahŴclass rackeLŦ lL ls a rackeL far more lucraLlve and more powerful and
hence more danaerous Lhan anv of Lhose mlnor and muchŴpubllclzed rackeLsţ such as ambulanceŴchaslna or Lhe
reaular defense of known crlmlnalsţ whlch make up onlv a Llnv parL of Lhe law buslness and aaalnsL whlch Lhe
respecLable members of Lhe bar are alwavs maklna speeches and Laklna acLlonŦ A !ohn WŦ uavlsţ when he exhorLs a
courL ln Lhe name of Cod and !usLlce and Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Ŷ andţ lncldenLallvţ for a fee Ŷ noL Lo leL Lhe federal
aovernmenL reaulaLe holdlna companlesţ ls plavlna Lhe rackeL for all lL ls worLhŦ So ls a !usLlce SuLherland when he
solemnlv forblds a sLaLe Lo lmpose an lnherlLance Lax on Lhe around LhaL Lhe Lransfer Ŷ an absLracLlon Ŷ of Lhe rlahL
Lo aeL dlvldends Ŷ anoLher absLracLlon Ŷ dld noL Lake place oeootoplcollv lnslde Lhe Laxlna sLaLeŦ And soţ for LhaL
maLLerţ are all Lhe Corcorans and Cohens and 1hurman Arnolds and Lhe resLţ whose chlef value Lo Lhe new ueal lles
noL ln Lhelr pollLlcal vlews nor even ln Lhelr admlnlsLraLlve ablllLv buL raLher ln Lhelr adepLness aL manlpulaLlna Lhe
words of 1he Law so as Lo make Lhlnas sound perfecLlv proper whlch oLher lawversţ bv manlpulaLlna dlfferenL words
ln a dlfferenL wavţ malnLaln are Lerrlblv lmproperŦ 1he leaal rackeL knows no pollLlcal or soclal llmlLaLlonsŦ
lurLhermoreţ Lhe lawvers Ŷ or aL leasL 99 44/100 per cenL of Lhem Ŷ are noL even aware LhaL Lhev are lndulalna ln a
rackeLţ and would be shocked aL Lhe verv menLlon of Lhe ldeaŦ Cnce blLLen bv Lhe leaal buaţ Lhev lose all sense of
perspecLlve abouL whaL Lhev are dolna and how Lhev are dolna lLŦ Llke Lhe medlclne men of Lrlbal Llmes and Lhe
prlesLs of Lhe ,lddle Aaes Lhev acLuallv belleve ln Lhelr own nonsenseŦ 1hls facLţ of courseţ makes Lhelr rackeL all Lhe
more lnsldlousŦ ConsecraLed fanaLlcs are alwavs more danaerous Lhan consclous vlllalnsŦ And lawvers are fanaLlcs
lndeed abouL Lhe sacredness of Lhe wordŴmaalc Lhev call 1he LawŦ
?eL Lhe saddesL and mosL lnsldlous facL abouL Lhe leaal rackeL ls LhaL Lhe aeneral publlc doesn'L reallze lL's a rackeL
elLherŦ Scaredţ befuddledţ lmpressed and lanoranLţ Lhev Lake whaL ls fed Lhemţ or raLher whaL ls sold LhemŦ Cnlv
once an aae do Lhe nonŴlawvers aeLţ noL wlseţ buL dlsausLedţ and rebelŦ As Parold Laskl ls fond of puLLlna lLţ ln everv
revoluLlon Lhe lawvers lead Lhe wav Lo Lhe aullloLlne or Lhe flrlna squadŦ
lL should noLţ howeverţ requlre a revoluLlon Lo rld socleLv of lawverŴconLrolŦ nor ls rlddance bv revoluLlon ever llkelv
Lo be a permanenL soluLlonŦ 1he Amerlcan colonlsLs had scarcelv freed Lhemselves from Lhe nulsances of 1he Law bv
pracLlcallv osLraclzlna Lhe preŴ8evoluLlonarv lawvers ouL of Lhelr communlLles Ŷ a facL whlch ls llLLle appreclaLed Ŷ
when a new and homeŴmade crop of lawvers sprana up Lo Lake over Lhe affalrs of Lhe babv naLlonŦ 1haL cropţ 130
vears laLerţ ls sLlll arowlna ln numbers and ln powerŦ
WhaL ls reallv needed Lo puL Lhe lawvers ln Lhelr places and ouL of Lhe seaLs of Lhe mlahLv ls no more Lhan a slashlna
of Lhe vell of dlanlfled mvsLerv LhaL now surrounds and proLecLs 1he LawŦ lf people could be made Lo reallze how
much of Lhe vaunLed ma[esLv of 1he Law ls a hoax and how manv of Lhe mlahLv processes of 1he Law are merelv
looe 6 of 65

loalcal leaerdemalnţ Lhev would noL lona leL Lhe lawvers lead Lhem around bv Lhe noseŦ And people have recenLlv
beaunţ blL bv blLţ Lo caLch onŦ 1he areaL llluslon of 1he Law has been leaklna a llLLle aL Lhe edaesŦ
1here was ÞresldenL 8oosevelL's plan Lo add Lo Lhe membershlp of Lhe Supreme CourLţ ln order Lo aeL dlfferenL
declslonsŦ Lven Lhose who opposed Lhe plan Ŷ and Lhev of course lncluded almosL all Lhe lawvers Ŷ recoanlzedţ bv
Lhe verv passlon of Lhelr araumenLsţ LhaL Lhe plan would have been effecLlveť ln oLher wordsţ LhaL bv merelv
chanalna [udaes vou could chanae Lhe PlahesL Law of Lhe LandŦ And when Lhe PlahesL Law of Lhe Land was chanaed
wlLhouL even chanalna [udaesţ when Lhe same nlne men sald LhaL someLhlna was consLlLuLlonal Lhls vear whlch had
been unconsLlLuLlonal onlv lasL vearţ Lhen even Lhe mosL credulous of lavmen beaan Lo wonder a llLLle abouL Lhe
lmmuLablllLv of 1he LawŦ lL dld noL add Lo publlc awe of 1he Law elLher when 1homas uewev's arandŴsLand
prosecuLlon of a 1ammanv hack was suddenlv Lhrown ouL of courL on a LechnlcallLv so plddllna LhaL everv
newspaper ln new ?ork ClLv ralsed an edlLorlal howl Ŷ aaalnsL a more or less rouLlne appllcaLlon of 1he LawŦ And
such mlnor lncldenLs as Lhe recenL dlscoverv LhaL one of SLaLen lsland's leadlna law pracLlLloners had never passed a
bar examlnaLlonţ and so was noLţ offlclallvţ a lawverţ do noL lend Lhemselves Lo 1he Law's presLlaeŦ
?eL lL wlll Lake a areaL deal more Lhan a collecLlon of happenlnas llke Lhese Lo break downţ effecLlvelvţ Lhe
supersLlLlon of Lhe arandeur of 1he Law and Lhe hold whlch LhaL supersLlLlon has on Lhe mlnds of mosL menŦ lL wlll
Lake some undersLandlna of Lhe wordv empLlness and lrrelevance of Lhe leaal process lLselfŦ lL wlll Lake some cold
reallzaLlon LhaL Lhe lnconslsLencles and absurdlLles of 1he Law LhaL occaslonallv come lnLo Lhe open are noL [usL
accldenLs buL commonplacesŦ lL wlll Lake some awakenlna Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lralnlna ln 1he Law does noL make lawvers
wlser Lhan oLher menţ buL onlv smarLerŦ
Þerhaps an examlnaLlon of Lhe lawvers and Lhelr Lawţ seL down ln ordlnarv Lnallshţ mlahL help achleve Lhese endsŦ
lorţ desplLe whaL Lhe lawvers savţ lL ls posslble Lo Lalk abouL leaal prlnclples and leaal reasonlna ln evervdav nonŴ
leaal lanauaaeŦ 1he polnL ls LhaLţ so dlscussedţ Lhe prlnclples and Lhe reasonlna and Lhe whole solemn buslness of
1he Law come Lo look downrlahL slllvŦ And perhaps lf Lhe ordlnarv man could see ln black and whlLe how slllv and
lrrelevanL and unnecessarv lL all lsţ he mlahL be persuadedţ ln a peaceful wavţ Lo Lake Lhe conLrol of hls clvlllzaLlon
ouL of Lhe hands of Lhose modern purvevors of sLreamllned voodoo and chromlumŴplaLed Lheoloavţ Lhe lawversŦ
CnAÞ1Lk II
1nL LAW CI 1nL LAW¥Lk5
º@e low ls te ttoe emboJlmeot
Of evetvtloo tot´s excelleotŦ
lt os oo kloJ of foolt ot flowŦ´ Ÿ wŦ5Ŧ Cllbett
1he Law ls Lhe klllvŴloo blrd of Lhe sclencesŦ 1he klllvŴlooţ of courseţ was Lhe blrd LhaL lnslsLed on flvlna backward
because lL dldn'L care where lL was aolna buL was mlahLllv lnLeresLed ln where lL had beenŦ And cerLalnlv 1he Lawţ
when lL moves aL allţ does so bv flapplna clumsllv and uncerLalnlv alonaţ wlLh lLs eve unswervlnalv alued on whaL lles
behlndŦ ln medlclneţ ln maLhemaLlcsţ ln socloloavţ ln psvcholoav Ŷ ln everv oLher one of Lhe phvslcal and soclal
sclences Ŷ Lhe accepLed alm ls Lo look ahead and Lhen move ahead Lo new LruLhsţ new Lechnlquesţ new usefulnessŦ
Cnlv 1he Lawţ lnexorablv devoLed Lo all lLs mosL anclenL prlnclples and precedenLsţ makes a vlce of lnnovaLlon and a
vlrLue of hoarlnessŦ Cnlv 1he Law reslsLs and resenLs Lhe noLlon LhaL lL should ever chanae lLs anLlquaLed wavs Lo
meeL Lhe challenae of a chanalna worldŦ
lL ls wellŴnlah lmposslble Lo undersLand how 1he Law works wlLhouL fullv appreclaLlna Lhe LruLh of Lhls facLť Ÿ 1he
Law never admlLs Lo lLself LhaL Lhere can be anvLhlna acLuallv new under Lhe sunŦ ,lnor varlaLlons of old facLsţ old
machlnesţ old relaLlonshlpsţ vesŤ buL never anvLhlna dlfferenL enouah Lo boLher 1he Law lnLo LreaLlna lL oLherwlse
Lhan as an old frlend ln a new sulL of cloLhesŦ When corporaLlons flrsL came on Lhe leaal sceneţ 1he Law reaarded
Lhem as lndlvldual personsţ ln dlsaulseţ and soţ for mosL leaal purposesţ a corporaLlon ls sLlll conslderedţ and even
Lalked abouLţ as a ºpersonŦ" A LransporL alrplaneţ so far as 1he Law ls concernedţ ls noLhlna buL a newfanaled varleLv
of sLaaecoachŦ Such Lhlnas as slLŴdown sLrlkesţ holdlna companlesţ Þarls dlvorcesţ were LreaLed wlLh almosL
conLempLuous famlllarlLv bv 1he Law when Lhev flrsL appearedţ and Lhe same faLe undoubLedlv awalLs Lelevlslon
when lL arows up and bealns Lo Lanale wlLh 1he LawŦ lor all Lhls ls parL of a carefullv nurLured leaend Lo Lhe effecL
looe 7 of 65

LhaL 1he Law ls so omnlsclenL LhaL noLhlna men mav do can ever Lake lL unawaresţ and so allŴembraclna LhaL Lhe
prlnclples whlch wlll applv Lo men's acLlons 300 vears from now are merelv walLlna Lo be applled Lo whaLever men
happen Lo be dolna ln 2439 AŦuŦ
WhaL 1he Law purporLs Lo be ls a Lremendous bodv of deaLhless LruLhs so wlde ln scope and so lnflnlLe ln Lhelr
varlaLlons LhaL Lhev hold somewhereţ and ofLen hlddenţ wlLhln Lhelr vasLnesses Lhe soluLlon of everv concelvable
manŴmade dlspuLe or problemŦ Cf course Lhe LruLhs are phrased as absLracL prlnclplesţ and Lhe prlnclples are
phrased ln Lhe sLranae llnao of 1he LawŦ And so onlv Lhe lawvers Ŷ especlallv Lhose who have become [udaes or
ordalned lnLerpreLers of 1he Words Ŷ can ever flsh Lhe proper soluLlon ouL of 1he Law's vasLnessesŦ 8uL lL ls Lhe verv
kevsLone of Lhe whole sLrucLure of leaal mvLholoav Lo lnslsL LhaL all earLhlv problems can and musL be solved bv
reference Lo Lhls areaL bodv of unearLhlv absLracLlons Ŷ orţ ln shorLţ LhaL Lhev can and musL be solved bv Lhe lawversŦ
1he chlef reason whv lL ls so hard for Lhe ordlnarv man Lo aeL Lhe lawver's plcLure of 1he Law Ŷ as a supreme mass of
chanaeless absLracL prlnclples Ŷ ls LhaL Lhe ordlnarv man aenerallv Lhlnks of law as a composlLe of all Lhe llLLle laws
LhaL hls varlous aovernmenLs are forever passlna and amendlna andţ occaslonallvţ repeallnaŦ Conaress and sLaLe
lealslaLures and clLv counclls keep lavlna down rules and chanalna rulesŦ ls Lhls noL clear proof LhaL 1he Law moves
wlLh Lhe Llmes? 8rleflvţ lL ls noLŦ
1o Lhe lawverţ Lhere ls a vasL dlfference beLween 1he Law and Lhe lawsŦ 1he Law ls someLhlna bevond and above
everv sLaLuLe LhaL ever has been or could be passedŦ As a maLLer of facLţ everv sLaLuLeţ before Lhe lawvers allow lL Lo
mean anvLhlna Ŷ before Lhev leL lL have anv effecL on Lhe acLlons of men Ŷ has Lo be flLLed lnLo 1he Law bv
ºlnLerpreLaLlon" of whaL Lhe sLaLuLe ºmeansŦ" And anv apparenLlv harmless llLLle sLaLue ls llkelv Lo mean plenLv Lo a
lawverţ [usL as a sLaLuLe whlch seems Lo carrv dvnamlLe ln lLs words mav mean noLhlna bv Lhe Llme Lhe lawvers are
Lhrouah wlLh lLŦ
A few decades aao when Lhe famous ClavLon AcL was passedţ whlch was lnLended Lo preserve compeLlLlon and crack
down on monopollesţ a sLrona labor lobbv aoL Conaress Lo wrlLe SecLlon 20 lnLo Lhe new lawŦ SecLlon 20 had
pracLlcallv noLhlna Lo do wlLh compeLlLlon or monopollesŦ SecLlon 20 was lnLended Lo resLrlcL federal courLs from
aranLlna so manv ln[uncLlons aaalnsL unlon acLlvlLlesŦ Samuel Compersţ who was Lhen Lhe head man of Lhe unlonsţ
called SecLlon 20 ºlabor's ,aana CharLsŦ" 8uL Samuel Compers was no lawverŦ
8v Lhe Llme Lhe lawversţ headed bv Lhe Supreme CourLţ aoL Lhrouah wlLh SecLlon 20 lL meanL exacLlv noLhlnaŦ Chlef
!usLlce 1afLţ speaklna for Lhe lawversţ sald lL was loteoJeJ Lo mean exacLlv noLhlnaŦ 8eferrlna Lo 1he Law as
auLhorlLvţ he sald LhaL lL was clear LhaL SecLlon 20 was no more Lhan a resLaLemenL of 1he Law as lL had exlsLed
before Lhe ClavLon AcL was passedŦ nowţ Chlef !usLlce 1afL was ln no poslLlon Lo knowţ and would have consldered lL
lrrelevanL lf he had knownţ LhaL Lhe ClavLon AcL mlahL noL have been passed aL all lf lL had noL seemed clear Lo labor
LhaL SecLlon 20 aave sLrlkers Lhe rlahL Lo plckeL wlLhouL consLanL lnLerference bv Lhe federal courLsŦ 8uL Chlef !usLlce
1afL and hls courL of lawvers had Lhe lasL wordŦ 1hev made of labor's º,aana CharLa" someLhlna sLranaelv
resembllna Cermanv's ºscrap of paperŦ" And all ln Lhe name of 1he LawŦ
Cf courseţ Chlef !usLlce 1afL and hls courL would have found lL far more dlfflculL Lo do Lhls lf oLher lawvers had noL
plaved a leadlna parL ln wrlLlna Lhe ClavLon AcLŦ SecLlon 20 was full of Lhose Lvplcallv meanlnaless wordsţ llke
ºwlllfullv" and ºmallclouslvŦ" lL saldţ for lnsLanceţ LhaL federal courLs could noL sLop sLrlkers from plckeLlna ºlawfullvŦ"
ºLawfullvţ" accordlna Lo Chlef !usLlce 1afLţ meanL ln accordance wlLh 1he Law before ClavLon AcL was passedŦ 8efore
Lhe ClavLon AcL was passedţ Lhe lawvers had ruled LhaL [usL abouL all plckeLlna was aaalnsL 1he LawŦ 1herefore lL sLlll
wasŦ CŦ LŦ uŦ Andţ lncldenLallvţ Lhe Supreme CourL dld almosL Lhe same Lhlna wlLh Lhe whole of Lhe ClavLon AcL bv
plcklna on oLher meanlnaless leaallsLlc words Lo prove LhaL mosL LrusLs were noL LrusLs and mosL monopolles were
noL monopolles Ŷ accordlna Lo 1he LawŦ ?ou can chanae Lhe laws all vou pleaseţ buL vou can'L chanae 1he LawŦ And
1he Law ls whaL counLsŦ
lL wouldţ moreoverţ be a mlsLake Lo [ump Lo Lhe concluslon LhaL Chlef !usLlce 1afL and hls courL ºlnLerpreLed" SecLlon
20 of Lhe ClavLon AcL lnLo compleLe obllvlon merelv because Lhev dldn'L llke unlons or sLrlkes or plckeLlnaŦ lor 1afLţ
ln Lhe course of explalnlna aL areaL lenaLh whv SecLlon 20 dld noL reallv mean a Lhlnaţ wenL ouL of hls wav Lo lnclude
ln hls oplnlon a rouslna defense of labor unlonsŦ Cf courseţ Lhls defense dld noL do Lhe unlons anv aood afLer 1afL aoL
Lhrouah wlLh lLŦ 1he polnL ls LhaL 1afL was lnslsLlna Lo hls fellowŴlawvers Ŷ Lhe onlv people who ever read or
looe 8 of 65

undersLand [udlclal oplnlons Ŷ LhaL ls dlsappolnLlna Lhe unlons he was merelv followlna 1he LawŦ 1he cholceţ
however dlsLasLefulţ was forced upon hlmŦ lor lL ls parL of Lhe leaal leaend LhaL no lawver Ŷ noL even when he
becomes a Supreme CourL [usLlce Ŷ ever does anv more Lhan explaln whaL 1he Law ls and how lL appllesŦ Pe ls
merelv Lhe volce Lhrouah whlch Lhe areaL aospel ls made known Lo menŦ
,oreoverţ 1he Law can do sLranae Lhlnas Lo manŴmade laws even whenţ as verv rarelv happensţ such laws are noL so
full of ºwlllfullvs" and ºmallclouslvs" and ºlawfullvs" LhaL Lhev pracLlcallv lnvlLe Lhe lawvers Lo wrlLe Lhelr own LlckeLŦ
lor exampleţ Lhere was Lhe Cuffev Coal AcLţ lnvolvlna federal reaulaLlon of Lhe coal lndusLrvŦ 1he Supreme CourL flrsL
sald LhaL mosL of Lhe lmporLanL parLs of Lhe AcL were unconsLlLuLlonalŦ nowţ savlna LhaL a law ls unconsLlLuLlonal ls
reallv no more Lhan a convenlenL wav of savlna LhaL lL aoes aaalnsL 1he LawŦ 8uL Lhe whole ldea of consLlLuLlonallLv
and unconsLlLuLlonallLv ls so mlxed up wlLh noLlons llke paLrloLlsm and pollLlcsţ as well as wlLh Lhe mosL sacred and
compllcaLed of all leaal rulesţ LhaL lL deserves and wlll aeL full LreaLmenL a llLLle laLer onŦ 1he polnL here ls LhaLţ afLer
savlna parL of Lhe Cuffev AcL was unconsLlLuLlonalţ Lhe [udaes wenL on Lo sav LhaL Lhe aood parL had Lo be Lhrown
ouL wlLh Lhe bad parLŦ noL unreasonable perhapsţ on Lhe facL of lLŦ noL unreasonable unLll vou learn LhaL Conaressţ
foreseelna whaL Lhe Supreme CourL mlahL do wlLh parL of Lhe AcLţ had Laken parLlcular palns Lo wrlLe verv clearlv
lnLo Lhe AcL LhaL lf parL of lL should be held unconsLlLuLlonalţ Lhe resL of lL should ao lnLo effecL anvwavŦ And so ln
order Lo Lhrow ouL Lhe whole AcLţ Lhe CourL had Lo reason Lhls wavť Ÿ ÞarL of Lhls law ls unconsLlLuLlonalŦ 1he resL ls
consLlLuLlonalŦ Conaress sald Lhe consLlLuLlonalŦ ÞarL should sLand reaardless of Lhe resLŦ 8uL LhaL ls noL our ldea of a
proper wav of dolna LhlnasŦ We do noL belleve Conaress would wanL Lo do Lhlnas ln a wav LhaL does noL seem proper
Lo usţ who reallv know 1he LawŦ 1hereforeţ we do noL belleve Conaress meanL whaL lL sald when lL sald Lo leL Lhe
consLlLuLlonal parL sLandŦ 1hereforeţ we wlll Lhrow lL ouL alona wlLh Lhe unconsLlLuLlonal parLŦ ln Lhe name of 1he
LawŦ
1haL reasonlna ls noL a burlesqueŦ lL ls a shorLened verslon of parL of whaL Lhe Supreme CourL acLuallv saldţ Lhouah
Lhe CourL phrased lL ln mulLlŴsvllablc leaal lanauaaeţ ln Lhe case of CarLer aaalnsL Lhe CarLer Coal CompanvŦ And Lhe
resulL ls an exampleţ more obvlous buL no more exLreme Lhan Lhousands upon Lhousands of oLhersţ of how llLLle Lhe
laws wrlLLen bv our soŴcalled lawmakers reallv mean unLll Lhe lawvers have declded whaL Lhose laws mean Ŷ or don'L
mean Ŷ ln Lhe llahL of 1he LawŦ
1husţ Lhe common man ls dead wrona when he Lhlnks of law as a conalomeraLlon of all Lhe laws LhaL are passed bv
lealslaLures and wrlLLen down ln books Ŷ even Lhouah lL ls Lrue LhaL pracLlcallv all Lhose llLLle laws are phrased bv
lawvers ln leaal lanauaaeŦ 1hose llLLle lawsţ Lhose sLaLuLesţ areţ Lo a lawverţ Lhe leasL lmporLanL and leasL respecLable
of Lhree klnds of rules wlLh whlch Lhe lawvers dealŦ 1he oLher Lwo klnds of rules are Lhose LhaL make up whaL
lawvers call ºLhe common law" and Lhose LhaL make up ºconsLlLuLlonal lawŦ"
nowţ Lhe common law ls acLuallv closer Lo 1he Law wlLh a caplLal L Lhan anv consLlLuLlon or sLaLuLe ever wrlLLenŦ 1he
common law ls Lhe seL of rules LhaL lawvers use Lo seLLle anv dlspuLe or problem Lo whlch no consLlLuLlon or sLaLuLe
appllesŦ 1here lsţ for lnsLanceţ no wrlLLen rule Lo Lell Lhe lawvers (or anvbodv else) wheLher a nevada dlvorce ls aood
ln ÞennsvlvanlaŦ 1here ls no wrlLLen rule Lo Lell wheLher a man who orders a house bullL wlLh a baLhroom beLween
Lhe klLchen and Lhe panLrv has Lo Lake Lhe house and pav Lhe bullder lf evervLhlna else ls flne buL Lhe baLhroom ls
beLween Lhe llvlna room and Lhe coaLŴcloseLŦ ln boLh casesţ Lhe lawverŴ[udaes wrlLe Lhelr own answers wlLhouL
lnLerference from anv consLlLuLlon or sLaLuLeŦ ln boLh casesţ Lhe answers are sald Lo be flshed dlrecLlvţ nonŴsLopţ ouL
of Lhe mass of absLracL prlnclples LhaL make up 1he LawŦ
ConsLlLuLlonal law ls someLhlna else aaalnŦ A consLlLuLlonţ ln Lhls counLrv aL leasLţ ls halfwav beLween 1he Law and
an ordlnarv sLaLuLeŦ Llke a sLaLuLeţ lL ls phrased bv menţ a few of whom are usuallv noL lawversţ and ls wrlLLen down
ln deflnlLe lf ofLen nebulousŴmeanlna wordsŤ (Lhouah ln Lnaland Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lsn'L wrlLLen down anvwhere and
so ls lndlsLlnaulshable from 1he Law of Lnaland)Ŧ 8uL llke 1he Lawţ consLlLuLlonsţ excepL where Lhev deal wlLh Lhe
pure mechanlcs of aovernmenL Ŷ as ln alvlna each sLaLe Lwo senaLors or llsLlna Lhe lenaLh of a aovernor's Lerm of
offlce Ŷ are made up of absLracL prlnclples whlch mean noLhlna unLll brouahL down Lo earLh bv Lhe lawversŦ lf Lhls
sounds llke heresvţ conslderţ for lnsLanceţ Lhe uŦSŦ ConsLlLuLlon's wellŴknown auaranLee of freedom of speechŦ WhaL
does LhaL auaranLee meanţ pracLlcallv speaklna? lL dld noL sLop Lhe federal aovernmenL from puLLlna people ln [all
durlna Lhe World War because Lhev Lalked aaalnsL warŦ lL dld noL sLop Lhe pollce of Parlan CounLvţ kenLuckvţ from
beaLlna up people who Lrled Lo make speeches ln favor of unlons ln Parlan CounLvŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ LhaL
consLlLuLlonal auaranLee does prevenL Lhe exLreme resLrlcLlons of free speech whlch are common abroad LodavŦ
looe 9 of 65

Pow Lellţ Lhenţ whlch free speech ls aood and whlch ls badţ under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon? Cnlv bv asklna Lhe lawverŴ
[udaesŦ And how can Lhev LellŤ how do Lhev declde? Slmplv bv referrlna Lo our old frlendţ 1he Lawţ ln order Lo
ºlnLerpreL" Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ
1he Law ls Lhus superlor Lo consLlLuLlonsţ [usL as lL ls superlor Lo sLaLuLesŦ And accordlna Lo Lhe leaal leaendţ lL ls
nelLher consLlLuLlons nor sLaLuLes whlch flnallv deLermlne Lhe rules under whlch men llveŦ lL ls 1he Lawţ worklna
unlmpeded Lo produce Lhe common lawţ worklna Lhrouah Lhe words of consLlLuLlons Lo produce consLlLuLlonal lawţ
worklna Lhrouah Lhe words of boLh sLaLuLes and consLlLuLlons Lo produce sLaLuLorv lawŦ All Lhree klnds of law are
merelv obedlenL offsprlna of LhaL areaL bodv of absLracL prlnclples whlch never chanaes and whlch nobodv buL a
lawver even preLends Lo undersLandŦ
!usLlce Polmes was ln effecL Lalklna abouL 1he Law as a wholeţ when he sald of lLs nearesL and dearesL offsprlnaŤ
º1he common law ls noL a broodlna omnlpresence ln Lhe skvŦ" 8uL !usLlce Polmesţ as he well knew when he sald
LhaLţ was dlssenLlna noL onlv from a declslon of Lhe Supreme CourL buL from Lhe oplnlons of mosL lawvers abouL 1he
LawŦ lor pracLlcallv everv lawver Lhlnks and Lalks of 1he Law as a sorL of omnlpoLenLţ omnlsclenL presence hoverlna
around llke Cod over Lhe affalrs of menŦ ?eL everv lawver purporLs Lo be able Lo undersLand and lnLerpreL a larae
parL of LhaL presence for Lhe beneflL of Lhose who are noL lawvers Ŷ aL a prlceŦ
1he sLranae Lhlna lsţ howeverţ LhaL lawversţ for all Lhelr alleaed lnslahL lnLo Lhe areaL mvsLervţ are never able Lo
aaree abouL Lhe presence or lLs lnLerpreLaLlonţ when lL comes down Lo applvlna 1he Law Lo a slmpleţ speclflc facLual
problemŦ lf Lhe lawvers aareedţ we would noL have appellaLe courLs reverslna Lhe [udamenLs of Lrlal courLs and
superŴappellaLe courLs reverslna Lhe [udamenLs of appellaLe courLsţ and superŴsuperŴappellaLe courLs Ŷ or supreme
courLs Ŷ reverslna Lhe [udamenLs of superŴappellaLe courLsŦ 1he facL ls LhaL everv lawver clalms Lo know all abouL
1he Law Lo a speclflc dlspuLeŦ Whereas no nonŴlawver cares ln Lhe sllahLesL dearee whaL 1he Law ls unLll lL comes
down Lo applvlna 1he Law Lo a speclflc dlspuLeŦ
lL ls all verv well for a lawver Lo savţ ouL of hls knowledae of 1he Lawţ LhaL a ºmorLaaaor" has ºleaal LlLle" Lo a
bulldlnaŦ 1haL ls verv preLLv and sounds verv lmpresslveŦ 8uL lf Lhe morLaaaor Lhen wanLs Lo know lf he can sell Lhe
bulldlnaţ and on whaL Lermsţ and lf he has Lo pav Laxes on lLţ and lf he can klck Lhe morLaaaee ouL lf Lhe morLaaaee
comes snooplna aroundţ Lhe lawvers wlll bealn Lo dlsaareeŦ lL ls all verv wellţ Looţ for a lawver Lo sav LhaL 1he Law
forblds ºlnLerference wlLh Lhe freedom of conLracLŦ" 8uL when 37 respecLable lawvers of Lhe laLe LlberLv Leaaue
declare unanlmouslv LhaL emplovers need pav no aLLenLlon Lo Lhe Waaner Labor AcLţ because lL lnLerferes wlLh
freedom of conLracLţ and Lhen Lhe Supreme CourL Lells Lhem Lhev are 100Ʒ wronaţ Lhe 37 lawvers undoubLed
knowledae of 1he Law bealns Lo look [usL a Lrlfle fuLlleŦ
1he Lawţ as a maLLer of facLţ ls all Lhlnas Lo all lawversŦ lL ls all Lhlnas Lo all lawvers slmplv because Lhe prlnclples on
whlch lL ls bullL are so vaaue and absLracL and lrrelevanL LhaL lL ls posslble Lo flnd ln Lhose prlnclples boLh a
[usLlflcaLlon and a prohlblLlon of everv human acLlon or acLlvlLv under Lhe sunŦ
And how does 1he Lawţ Lhenţ ever aeL brouahL down Lo earLhlv affalrs? ln whaL wav does lL acLuallv succeed ln
bulldlna reaulaLorv fences around men's conducL? 1he answer ls [usL as slmple as lL ls complexŦ 1he answer ls LhaL
Lhe lasL bunch of [udaes whlch aeLs a shoL aL Lhe soluLlon of anv speclflc problem has Lhe declslve word on 1he Law
as lL affecLs LhaL problemŦ 1he soluLlon whlch LhaL lasL bunch of [udaes alves Lo LhaL problem ls 1he Law so far as LhaL
problem ls concerned Ŷ even Lhouah everv oLher lawver ln Lhe world mlahL suppose 1he Law was dlfferenLŦ lL mlahL
noL Lhen be lrrelevanL Lo ask [usL whaL a [udae lsŦ And lL was an unusuallv candld [udae who recenLlv aave Lhe besL
answer Lo LhaL quesLlonŦ ºA [udaeţ" he saldţ ºls a lawver who knew a aovernorŦ"
1he lawvers who knew aovernors Ŷ or who knew presldenLs Ŷ or who knew enouah wardŴleaders (where [udaes are
elecLed) Ŷ brlna 1he Law down Lo earLh ln all sorLs of dlfferenL and confllcLlna wavsŦ A homeŴowner who beaLs up a
Lrespasslna hobo mav be a hero ln one sLaLe and a crlmlnal ln anoLherŦ 8uL no maLLer whlch he lsţ Lhe leaal appralsal
of hls acLlons wlll flL perfecLlv lnLo Lhe areaL and ublqulLous framework of 1he LawŦ lorţ no maLLer how dlfferenLlv
dlfferenL [udaes ln dlfferenL places mav declde Lhe same human problemţ or declde lL dlfferenLlv ln Lhe same place aL
dlfferenL Llmesţ Lhe areaL leaend of 1he Law as sLeadfasL and allŴembraclna ls alwavs adhered LoŦ ueclslons mav
chanae or dlffer or confllcL buL 1he Law budaes noLŦ
looe 10 of 65

And lL ls necessarv Lo undersLand Lhls kevsLone of leaal reasonlna Ŷ and Lo accepL lL as a facL no maLLer how slllv lL
mav sound Ŷ before lL ls posslble Lo undersLand Lhe sLranae processes of 1he LawŦ lL ls necessarv Lo reallze LhaL 1he
Law noL onlv sLands sLlll buL ls proud and deLermlned Lo sLand sLlllŦ lf a 8rlLlsh barrlsLer of 200 vears aao were
suddenlv Lo come allve ln an Amerlcan courLŴroomţ he would feel lnLellecLuallv aL homeŦ 1he cloLhes would asLonlsh
hlmţ Lhe elecLrlc llahLs would asLonlsh hlmţ Lhe archlLecLure would asLonlsh hlmŦ 8uL as soon as Lhe lawvers sLarLed
Lalklna leaal Lalkţ he would know LhaL he was amona frlendsŦ And alven a couple of davs wlLh Lhe law booksţ he could
Lake Lhe place of anv lawver presenL Ŷ or of Lhe [udae Ŷ and perform Lhe whole leaal mumboŴ[umbo as well as LheŦ
lmaalneţ bv conLracLţ a 8rlLlsh suraeon of 200 vears aao plopped lnLo a modern hosplLal operaLlna roomŦ Pe would
llLerallv undersLand less of whaL was aolna on Lhan would anv passerŴbv brouahL ln from Lhe sLreeL aL randomŦ
1he lawţ alone of all Lhe sclencesţ [usL slLs Ŷ aloof and pracLlcallv moLlonlessŦ ConsLlLuLlons do noL affecL lL and
sLaLuLes do noL chanae lLŦ Lawvers Lalk wlse abouL lL and [udaes purporL Lo ºapplv" lL when Lhev lav down rules for
men Lo followţ buL acLuallv 1he Law Ŷ wlLh a caplLal L Ŷ has no real relaLlon Lo Lhe affalrs of menŦ lL ls permanenL and
chanaeless Ŷ whlch means LhaL lL ls noL of Lhls earLhŦ lL ls a mass of vaaue absLracL prlnclples Ŷ whlch means LhaL lL ls
a loL of wordsŦ lL ls a broodlna omnlpresence ln Lhe skv Ŷ whlch means LhaL lL ls a bla balloonţ whlch has Lhus far
escaped Lhe leLhal plnŦ
CnAÞ1Lk III
1nL WA¥ I1 WCkk5
ºŧte lowless scleoce of oot lowţ
@ot coJeless mvtloJ of pteceJeot
@ot wllJetoess of sloole lostoocesŦ" Ÿ Alfredţ Lord 1ennvson
ln order Lo demonsLraLe up Lo Lhe hllL LhaL Lhe whole of 1he Law ls a hoaxţ a balloonţ a loL of empLv wordsţ lL would
presumablv be necessarv Lo Lake each prlnclple and subŴprlnclple and counLerŴprlnclple of 1he Law ln Lurn and dlvesL
each one of lLs dazzllna leaal Lrapplnas so LhaL Lhe nonŴlawver could see LhaL Lhere was noLhlna lnslde anv of LhemŦ
Þlalnlvţ LhaL would be lmposslbleŦ 1he lawverŴ[udaes alone Lurn ouL each vear hundreds upon hundreds of books full
of noLhlna buL reflnemenLs of 1he Law and lLs prlnclplesŦ 1remendous llbrarles overflow wlLh volumes whlch are noL
even abouL 1he Law buL whlch oteparL of 1he LawŦ (Lawversţ lncldenLallvţ spend mosL of Lhelr worklna llves Lrvlna Lo
make a small denL ln Lhe mounLalns of llLeraLure LhaL help make up 1he LawŦ) ?eL lL mav perhaps serve Lhe aeneral
deflaLlnaţ or dlsroblnaţ purpose Lo Lake Lhe leaal panLsţ sLep bv easv sLepţ off a few slmple and enLlrelv Lvplcal
examples of 1he Law ln acLlonŦ
1he fleld of Law known as ConLracLs ls one of Lhe mosL seLLledţ mosL venerableţ and leasL pollLlcallv compllcaLed
flelds of LawŦ lL ls Lhe fleld of Law LhaL deals wlLh Lhe aareemenLsţ buslness or oLherwlseţ LhaL men Ŷ or companles
(buL companlesţ rememberţ are noLhlna buL men Lo 1he Law) Ŷ make wlLh each oLherŦ 1hose aareemenLs usuallv
conslsL of one man promlslna Lo do one Lhlnaţ such as Lo dla a dlLchţ and anoLher man promlslna Lo do anoLher Lhlnaţ
such as Lo hand over $30Ŧ Cf courseţ lf men could be LrusLed Lo keep Lhelr promlses Lhere would be no excuse for a
Law of ConLracLs Ŷ buL Lhen lf men could be LrusLed Lo acL decenLlv ln aeneral Lhere would be llLLle need for Law of
anv klndŦ As a maLLer of facLţ onlv aamblers LrusL each oLher Lo keep Lhelr promlsesţ for 1he Law wlll noL sLoop Lo
enforce a aambllna aareemenL or beLŦ 1he whole Law of ConLracLs ls based on Lhe ldea LhaL men ln aeneral cannoL
be LrusLed Lo keep Lhelr promlsesţ and around Lhls area of muLual mlsLrusL 1he Law lavs down lLs prlnclplesŦ
1he flrsL prlnclple ls LhaL before vou can have a ConLracL LhaL 1he Law wlll upholdţ vou musL have an Cffer bv one
parLv and an AccepLance bv anoLher parLvŦ (Cnlv 1he Law lnslsLs on maklna a ºparLv" ouL of a slnale personŦ) WhaL
Lhenţ ln Lhe flrsL placeţ ls a leaal Cffer? lL ls someLhlna qulLe dlfferenL from an ordlnarv nonŴleaal offerţ ln Lhe sense
LhaL Lhe man ln Lhe sLreeL mlahL use LhaL wordŦ A lawver would scoff aL Lhe noLlon LhaL mosL offers were CffersŦ
lor lnsLanceţ lf a man savs Lo hls aardenerţ º1onvţ l'll alve vou flfLv dollarsţ" LhaL ls noL a leaal CfferŦ lf a man savs Lo
hls aardenerţ º1onvţ l'll alve vou flfLv dollars lf vou'll dla a dlLch for meţ" LhaL ls noL an Cffer elLherŦ 8uL lf Lhe man
savs Lo hls aardenerţ º1onvţ lf vou'll dla a dlLch for meţ Lwo feeL deep and Lhree feeL wldeţ runnlna from Lhe
norLhwesL corner of Lhe house Lo Lhe plapenţ and flnlsh lL bv Wednesdav week (Lhouah 1he Law would frown on
looe 11 of 65

such colloqulal phraslna)ţ l'll pav vou flfLv dollars when vou aeL lL doneţ" LhaL ls an CfferŦ And lncldenLallvţ lf 1onv
savs ºCŦkŦţ 8ossţ" LhaL's a fullŴfledaed AccepLanceŦ
WhaL ls lL LhaL makes Lhe Lhlrd proposlLlon a leaal Cfferţ whereas Lhe flrsL Lwo were noL? 8rleflvţ lL ls Lhe facL LhaL lL
ls deflnlLe enouah so LhaL when 1onv savsţ ºCŦkŦţ 8ossţ" Lhe boss knows and 1onv knows andţ mosL lmporLanLţ anv
[udae would know exacLlv whaL 1onv was expecLed Lo doŦ Cf courseţ Lhe whole quesLlon of wheLher someLhlna ls an
Cffer or lsn'L an Cffer ls based on Lhe assumpLlon LhaL 1onv and hls boss mav some dav end up ln courL over Lhelr
conversaLlonŦ And on LhaL baslsţ lL seems falr enouah Lo sav LhaL lf 1onv promlsed Lo do someLhlna deflnlLeţ he made
a ConLracL (whlch means onlv LhaL a courL wlll hold hlm Lo hls promlse or soak hlm for breaklna lL) and lf he dld noL
promlse Lo do someLhlna deflnlLeţ he dld noL make a ConLracLŦ 8uL Lhe phonv parL ls Lhe wav 1he Law brlnas lnLo Lhe
plcLure one of lLs lrrelevanL aenerallLles Ŷ hereţ Lhe absLracL ldea of a leaal Cffer Ŷ ln Lalklna abouL and deallna wlLh a
slmple buslness arranaemenLŦ
lf 1onv and hls boss should ever aeL lnLo courL over Lhe undua dlLchţ 1he Law of Lhe case would be solemnlv sLaLed
llke Lhlsť Ÿ 1he proposlLlon was deflnlLeŤ tetefote lL was a valld CfferŤ tetefote once lL was accepLedţ Lhere was a
valld ConLracLŤ tetefote 1onv musL dla or pavŦ Cr elseť Ÿ 1he proposlLlon was Loo lndeflnlLeŤ tetefote Lhere was no
valld CfferŤ tetefote Lhere was no ConLracLŤ tetefote1onv need do noLhlnaŦ 1he polnL ls LhaL Lhe quesLlon of Lhere
belna or noL belna an Cffer ls uLLer nonsenseŦ 1he whole buslness could be reduced verv slmplv Lo Ŷ Lhe proposlLlon
was deflnlLeţ Lherefore 1onv musL dla or pavŤ orţ Lhe proposlLlon was lndeflnlLeţ Lherefore 1onv need do noLhlnaŦ 8uL
of courseţ Lo slmpllfv leaal reasonlna even Lo Lhls small exLenL would make Lhe case lmmedlaLelv much more
comprehenslble Lo Lhe nonŴlawverţ and would leave Lhe lawvers wlLh no speclal and mvsLlfvlna llnao ln whlch Lo
dlscuss a slmple llLLle problemŦ ,oreoverţ lL would leave 1he Law ouL of Lhe plcLureŦ 1he Lawţ rememberţ ls LhaL
before vou have a ConLracLţ vou have Lo have noL an offerţ noL even a deflnlLe offerţ buL a leaal CfferŦ
1o aeL back Lo Lhe dlLchţ suppose 1onvţ lnsLead of savlnaţ ºCŦkŦţ 8ossţ" had saldţ ºl dla hlm for slxLv bucksţ 8ossţ" and
Lhe boss had Lhen saldţ ºCŦkŦţ 1onvŦ" 1he averaae man would sav LhaL Lhev had come Lo Lerms and lf 1he Law
enforces LhaL klnd of Lhlnaţ LhaLƌ' flneŦ 1he Law would enforce lLţ all rlahLţ buL noL ln Lhose wordsŦ 1o 1he Lawţ 1onvƌ'
commenL would flrsL have Lo be a CounLerŴCfferţ lnvolvlna an lmplled 8e[ecLlon of Lhe Crlalnal Cfferţ and Lhe boss's
ºCŦkŦ" would Lhen become an AccepLance of Lhe CounLerŴCfferŦ And lfţ bv anv chanceţ Lhe boss had come back aL
1onv wlLh ºPow abouL flfLvŴflve?ţ"tot would have been a CounLerŴCounLerŴCffer lnvolvlna an lmplledţ eLcŦ lL Lakes
Lhree vears Lo aeL Lhrouah law schoolŦ
1he AccepLance of an Cffer ls noL alwavs so slmple as an ºCŦkŦţ 8ossţ" or an ºCŦkŦţ 1onvţ" elLherŦ lor lnsLanceţ Lhe
boss mlahL have descrlbed Lhe dlLch he wanLed and how much he would pav for lLţ and 1onv mlahL have sald
noLhlnaţ and Lhen Lhe boss mlahL have seL ouL for Lhe 8ť20 Lraln leavlna hls Cfferţ as lL wereţ hanalna ln mldŴalrŦ
1hree davs laLer he comes back and flnds Lhe dlLch all duaŦ uoes he have Lo pav Lhe flfLv dollars he Cffered for lL?
Anv moron would savţ of course he doesŦ 8uL whvţ accordlna Lo 1he Law? ApparenLlv Lhere was no AccepLanceţ and
vou can'L have a valld ConLracL wlLhouL an AccepLanceţ and mav be bv Lhls Llme Lhe boss has declded he doesn'L
wanL Lhe dlLch anvwavţ or LhaL flfLv dollars ls Loo much Lo pav for lLŦ
1he Law slldes ouL of Lhls one neaLlv and easllvŦ 1he dlaalna of Lhe dlLchţ savs 1he Lawţ amounLs Lo an AccepLanceŦ
now Lhe dlaalna of Lhe dlLch amounLed Lo Þerformance Loo Ŷ anoLherţ and more or less obvlousţ leaal concepL Ŷ buL
LhaL does noL sLop lL from belna an AccepLance aL Lhe same LlmeŦ And lf 1he Law could noL flnd an AccepLance
somewhereţ Lhere would be no valld ConLracL and 1onv mlahL never aeL hls flfLv dollarsŦ Whlch would be obvlouslv
slllvŦ !usL abouL as slllv as looklna all around for an accepLable AccepLance before vou see Lo lL LhaL he does aeL paldŦ
Supposeţ Lhouahţ LhaL when Lhe boss aeLs home 1onv has dua noL Lhe whole dlLch buL half of lLŦ And Lhe boss Lhen
savsţ ºl don'L wanL Lhe dlLch and l won'L pav for lL so don'L flnlsh lLţ" and 1onv savsţ º8uL 8ossţ vou promlsedţ" and
proceeds Lo flnlsh Lhe dlLch and sue for hls flfLv dollarsŦ 1he courL wlll Lhen seLLle down Lo decldlnaţ under 1he Lawţ
noL wheLher lL was falr for Lhe boss Lo Lake back hls promlse afLer Lhe dlLch was half duaţ buL wheLher
dlaalna olf Lhe dlLch dld or dld noL amounL Lo an AccepLance of Lhe CfferŦ lor before 1onv aeLs pald Lhe courL musL
flnd a valld ConLracL and before lL flnds a valld ConLracL lL musL flnd an AccepLanceŦ
Þrobablv 1onv would aeL hls flfLv dollars lf he had dua half Lhe dlLch bv Lhe Llme hls boss backed downŦ 8uL lf 1onv
had onlv shoveled a few spadefuls of earLh bv Lhe Llme hls boss aoL home and sald Lhe dlLch wasn'L wanLedţ Lhose
looe 12 of 65

few spadefuls would never amounL Lo enouah AccepLance Lo saLlsfv a courLŦ 1hus lL becomes apparenL LhaL
somewhere alona Lhe dlLch's pro[ecLed courseţ somewhere beLween Lhe sLarL and Lhe flnlsh of Lhe [obţ 1he Lawţ
sLooplna Lo earLhţ flrsL flnds a maalc llneŦ 1henţ lf Lhe boss caLches 1onv one lnch on one slde of Lhe llneţ 1he Law wlll
lnLone Ŷ no AccepLanceţ no ConLracLţ no flfLv dollarsŤ whereas lf 1onv ls one lnch on Lhe oLher slde of Lhe llneţ 1he
Law wlll lnLone Ŷ AccepLanceţ ConLracLţ pav upŦ 8uL nelLher 1he Law nor anv lawver can ever Lell vou ln advance
where LhaL maalc llne lsŦ A lawver can onlv Lell vou whaL 1he Law lsŦ 1he Lawţ vou mav rememberţ ls LhaL vou have Lo
have an AccepLance of an Cffer before vou have a ConLracLŦ
AnoLher areaL absLracL concepL ln Lhe Law of ConLracLs ls someLhlna called ConslderaLlonŦ 1here has Lo be
ConslderaLlonţ as well as Cffer and AccepLance and a number of oLher solemnŴspoken leaallsmsţ before a ConLracL ls
aood ln Lhe eves of 1he LawŦ ÞuLLlna lL verv rouahlvŤ ConslderaLlon aenerallv means LhaL a conLracL has Lo be LwoŴ
sldedŤŤ each ºparLv" Lo lL has Lo have someLhlna alven hlm or promlsed hlm or done for hlm ln reLurn for whaL he
alves or promlses or doesŦ ln l´offolte 1onvŴandŴbossţ Lhe ConslderaLlon for 1onv's promlse Lo dla a dlLch was hls
boss's promlse Lo pav 1onv flfLv dollarsţ and Lhe ConslderaLlon for Lhe boss's promlse wasţ ln Lurnţ 1onv's promlse Ŷ
orţ lf 1onv dldn'L promlseţ Lhe acLual dlaalna of Lhe dlLch became Lhe ConslderaLlonŦ (1husţ a commonŴorŴaarden
dlaalna of a dlLch can be dlanlfled bv 1he Law lnLo an AccepLanceţ a ConslderaLlonţ and a Þerformanceţ all aL Lhe
same LlmeŦ)
1heoreLlcallvţ Lhe purpose of lnslsLlna on ConslderaLlon ls Lo see Lo lL LhaL a ConLracL ls a falr baraalnŦ AcLuallv
howeverţ 1he Law Llme afLer Llme flnds ConslderaLlon ln an exLremelv unfalr baraaln Ŷ and falls Lo flnd ConslderaLlon
where Lhe proposlLlon looks relaLlvelv falrŦ lf a man savs Lo a panhandlerţ ºl llke vour faceţ so Lomorrow l'm aolna Lo
alve vou a dollarţ" Lhere ls no ConslderaLlon for Lhe promlseţ and so Lhere ls no ConLracLţ slnce 1he Law does noL
Lake such esLheLlc values lnLo accounLŦ 8uL lf a man savs Lo a panhandlerţ ºlf vou'll alve me LhaL claareLLe ln vour
handţ l'll alve vou a hundred dollars Lomorrowţ" and Lhe bum hands over Lhe claareLLeţ Lhen Lhere ls ConslderaLlon
for Lhe promlseţ and Lhere mav well be a valld ConLracLţ and lf Lhere were enouah wlLnesses Lo Lhe LransacLlon who
wlll swear Lo lL ln courLţ Lhe panhandler mav even aeL hls hundred dollarsŦ
lor Lhe Law of ConLracLs rarelv pavs aLLenLlon Lo surroundlna clrcumsLancesŦ So far as 1he Law ls concernedţ a man
offered Lo pav a hundred dollars for a claareLLe and aoL Lhe claareLLeŦ lor all 1he Law knowsţ Lhe Lwo men mav have
been losL ln Lhe mlddle of a deserL and Lhe claareLLe Lhelr lasL smokeţ or Lhe claareLLe mav have belonaed Lo lranklln
8oosevelL or mav have been auLoaraphed bv 8abe 8uLhŦ AL anv raLeţ someone offered a hundred dollars for lL and
aoL lLŦ And a claareLLe Ŷ or a maLchţ for LhaL maLLer Ŷ can be preLLv aood ConslderaLlonţ even for a promlse Lo pav a
hundred dollarsŦ
nowţ a aood half of Lhe volumlnous Law of ConLracLs ls concerned wlLh whaL ls aood ConslderaLlon and whaL ls noL
aood ConslderaLlonŦ As a maLLer of facLţ once Cffers and AccepLances and a few oLher llLLle Lhlnas are ouL of Lhe
wavţ Lhe whole quesLlon of wheLher a courL wlll or wlll noL uphold a promlse comes down Lo a quesLlon of wheLher
Lhere was or wasn'L aood ConslderaLlon for lLŦ AL leasLţ LhaL ls Lhe leaal wav of puLLlna lLŦ 8uL a nonŴlawverţ unLralned
ln leaal loalc and Lrvlna Lo flnd a deflnlLlon of ConslderaLlon LhaL made sense Lo hlmţ mlahL well puL Lhe whole
buslness compleLelv ln reverseŦ Pe mlahL sav LhaLţ so far as he can seeţ ConslderaLlon ls whaL Lhere ls when a courL
upholds a promlse and whaL Lhere lso´t when a courL refuses Lo uphold a promlseŦ ln oLher wordsţ Lhe whole
quesLlon of wheLher a courL ls aolna Lo sav Lhere ls ConslderaLlon or noL comes down Lo a quesLlon of wheLher Lhe
courL ls aolna Lo uphold Lhe promlse or noLŦ And Lhouah Lo a lawverţ such a noLlon would amounL Lo blasphemvţ
Lhere ls no doubL aL all LhaL from a pracLlcal sLandpolnLţ Lhe apparenLlv naive nonŴlawver ls exacLlv rlahLŦ lor
exampleť Ÿ
Suppose a chorus alrl has Lwo wealLhv admlrersŦ Cne of Lhem promlses her a fur coaL for ChrlsLmasŦ 1he oLher
promlses a dlamond braceleLŦ Cn ChrlsLmas davţ Lhe fur coaL arrlves buL Lhe braceleL doesn'LŦ Can Lhe chorus alrlţ do
vou supposeţ ao lnLo courL and sue for Lhe braceleL and aeL lLţ on Lhe Lheorv LhaL Lhe flrsL admlrer's promlse of a fur
coaL was aood ConslderaLlon for Lhe second admlrer's promlse of a braceleL? 8rleflvţ she cannoLŦ And Lhe whole ldea
of Laklna Lwo promlsesţ made bv separaLe people Lo a Lhlrd personţ and calllna one of Lhem ConslderaLlon for Lhe
oLher soundsţ of courseţ uLLerlv fanLasLlcŦ
?eL suppose Lhe Lwo admlrers frequenLed noL onlv Lhe same alrl buL Lhe same churchŦ And suppose Lhe church was
puLLlna on a subscrlpLlon drlve for fundsŦ And each man aareed Lo conLrlbuLe a Lhousand dollarsŦ And Lhe man who
looe 1J of 65

promlsed Lhe braceleL pald up buL Lhe man who aave Lhe fur coaL dld noL Ŷ presumablv because he could no lonaer
afford LoŦ Could Lhe church ao lnLo courL and sue for Lhe Lhousand dollars and collecL lL? 8rleflvţ lL couldŦ lL couldţ
moreoverţ on Lhe Lheorv LhaL each of Lhe promlses Lo pav a Lhousand dollars was aood ConslderaLlon for Lhe oLher
oneŦ
A cvnlc mlahL explaln all Lhls on Lhe around LhaL 1he Law approves of alfLs Lo churches and does noL approve of alfLs
Lo chorus alrlsŦ 1he cvnlc would noL be far wronaŦ CerLalnlv Lhe sLranae docLrlne wherebv muLual promlses Lo alve
monev Lo worLhv causes are consldered aood leaal ConslderaLlon for each oLher developed ouL of noLhlna more
compllcaLed Lhan a deslre on Lhe parL of Lhe courLs Lo keep people from welchlna on such promlsesŦ 1he Lawţ ln
order Lo uphold such promlsesţ had Lo flnd ConslderaLlon somewhereţ and found lLŦ Cr as Lhe naive lavman would
puL lLţ ConslderaLlon was whaL Lhere wos when Lhe courLs wanLed Lo uphold a promlse and whaL Lhere woso´t Ŷ and
lsn'L Ŷ when Lhe courLs [usL plaln don'L careŦ
Þerhaps Lhe sLranaesL of Lhe manv Lhlnas LhaL 1he Law lumps LoaeLher as amounLlna Lo ConslderaLlon for a ConLracL
ls a seal on a plece of paperŦ A man can wrlLe downţ ºlţ !ohn uouahţ promlse Lo pav 8lchard 8oaue flve hundred
dollars on Lhe flrsL of !anuarvţ" and slan lL and alve Lhe paper Lo 8oaue and sLlll never pav a cenLţ provlded 8oaue
cannoL prove LhaL uouah aoL someLhlna Ŷ some ConslderaLlon Ŷ ln reLurn for Lhe promlseŦ 8uL lf uouah drops a blob
of seallna wax nexL Lo hls slanaLure and makes a mark ln lLţ or lf he [usL draws a clrcular squlaale bv hls name and
puLs ln lL Lhe lnlLlals LŦSŦ (whlch are Lhe abbrevlaLlon for Lhe LaLlnţ and Lherefore leaalţ words for ºseal") Lhen uouah
wlll have Lo pavŦ Pe wlll have Lo pav even Lhouah he aoL absoluLelv noLhlna ln reLurn for hls promlseŦ Pe wlll have Lo
pav because 1he Law lona aao declded LhaL a sealţ real or lmlLaLlonţ aLLached Lo a promlseţ amounLed Lo aood
ConslderaLlon for LhaL promlseţ desplLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhe man who makes Lhe promlse puLs Lhe seal LhereŦ
1hlsţ of courseţ ls a lona wav awav from Lhe orlalnal ldea of ConslderaLlon as someLhlna alven Lo or promlsed Lo or
done for Lhe man who makes Lhe promlseŦ 1he Law's excuse mav be Lo Lhe effecL LhaL no man would be fool enouah
Lo seal a promlse unless he wete aolna Lo aeL someLhlna ouL of lL for hlmselfŦ ?eL lL happens LhaL seals were flrsL used
on conLracLs as xs mlahL be used Lodav Ŷ as subsLlLuLes for Lhe slanaLures of Lhose who could noL slan Lhelr namesŦ
And so 1he Lawţ ln honorlna Lhe seemlna solemnlLv of a sealţ ls ln effecL maklna a sLupld subsLlLuLe for a slanaLure
worLh more Lhan Lhe slanaLure lLselfŦ lL ls also savlnaţ as our naive lavman would puL lLť Ÿ 1he Law wanLs Lo uphold
promlses wlLh seals aLLachedŤ slnce 1he Law cannoL flnd anv oLher ConslderaLlon for such promlses lL wlll [usL LreaL
Lhe seals Lhemselves as ConslderaLlon and leL Lhlnas ao aL LhaLŦ
WlLhouL plllna up examples anv furLherţ lL lsţ Lhenţ apparenL LhaL ConslderaLlon can mean Lhe dlaalna of half a dlLchţ
lL can mean a claareLLeţ lL can mean a promlse bv a LoLal sLranaer Lo alve monev Lo a churchţ or lL can mean a plece
of seallna wax on a sheeL of paperŦ ?eL lL ls also apparenL LhaL none of Lhese Lhlnas has Lhe sllahLesL concelvable
relaLlon Lo anv of Lhe oLhersŦ And Lhe llsL of unrelaLed Lhlnas LhaL lawvers mav label ConslderaLlon or LhaL
[udaes ove labeled ConslderaLlon runs llLerallv lnLo Lhe mllllonsŦ
1he polnL ls LhaL Lhe soŴcalled concepL of ConslderaLlon ls boLh meanlnaless and useless unLll vou know everv one of
Lhe counLless facL slLuaLlons abouL whlch courLs have saldť Pereţ Lhere ls ConslderaLlonţ or Pere Lhere ls no
ConslderaLlonŦ 8uL once vou know all Lhose facL slLuaLlonsţ whaL has ConslderaLlon become? lL has become an
enormous and shapeless arabŴbaaţ so full of unrelaLed parLlculars LhaL lL ls [usL as meanlnaless and [usL as useless as
lL was beforeŦ
1haL same mass of parLlculars mlahL [usL as well be lumped LoaeLher and called lnfaLuaLlonţ or Cmskalubţ or 8lnaoŦ
Anv of Lhese words would be [usL as helpful as Lhe word ConslderaLlon ln Lrvlna Lo solveţ or auesslna how Lhe courLs
wlll solveţ anv new problem LhaL comes up Ŷ whlch ls afLer all Lhe sole lealLlmaLe funcLlon of 1he LawŦ 1he new
problem lLself wlll lnvolve a seL of facLsŦ 1haL seL of facLs wlll look someLhlna llke oLher seLs of facLs abouL whlch Lhe
courLs have lnLoned ConslderaLlonŦ lL wlll alsoţ lnevlLablvţ look someLhlna llke oLher seLs of facLs abouL whlch Lhe
courLs have lnLoned no ConslderaLlonŦ unLll a courL lnLones ConslderaLlon or no ConslderaLlon abouL Lhe new
problemţ no lawver ln Lhe world can know wheLher Lhls new seL of facLs belonas lnslde or ouLslde Lhe ConslderaLlon
arabŴbaaŦ
WhaL ls Lrue of Lhe word ConslderaLlon lsţ moreoverţ equallv Lrue of Lhe words Cffer and AccepLance and of everv
soŴcalled concepL ln Lhe Law of ConLracLsŦ lL ls equallv Lrue of everv soŴcalled concepL ln Lhe LawŦ ÞerlodŦ lor no leaal
looe 14 of 65

concepL means anvLhlna or can mean anvLhlnaţ even Lo a lawverţ unLll lLs supposed conLenL of meanlna has been
deLalledţ ln Lerms of lLs preclse pracLlcal appllcaLlonţ rlahL down LoL he case LhaL was declded vesLerdav And once Lhe
concepL os been so deLalledţ lL ls Lhe deLallsţ noL Lhe concepLţ LhaL maLLerŦ 1he concepLŸ no more Lhan a word or
seL of words ln Lhe sLranae vocabularv of 1he Law Ŷ mlahL [usL as well be Lossed ouL Lhe wlndowŦ
1husţ Lhe lavman who would have deflned ConslderaLlon as whaL Lhere ls when a courL upholds a promlse and whaL
Lhere lso´t when lL refuses Lo uphold a promlse ls absoluLelv rlahLŦ ConslderaLlon Ŷ and everv oLher soŴcalled concepL
or prlnclple of 1he Law Ŷ amounLs Lo a vaaue leaal wav of sLaLlna a resulLţ applled Lo Lhe resulL oftet Lhe resulL ls
reachedţ lnsLead of belnaţ as Lhe lawvers and [udaes sLouLlv preLendţ a reason for reachlna Lhe resulL ln Lhe flrsL
placeŦ
8v Lhe use of Lhese concepLsţ Lhe lawvers bewllder Lhe nonŴleaal world andţ Loo ofLenţ Lhemselvesţ lnLo supposlna
1he Law and lLs rullnas are sclenLlflcţ loalcalţ foreordalnedŦ ?eL no concepLţ or comblnaLlon of concepLsţ or rule bullL
ouL of concepLs Ŷ as all leaal rules are bullL Ŷ can of lLself provlde an auLomaLlc soluLlon Lo Lhe slmplesL concelvable
human problemŦ Llke Lhe svmbols on a docLor's prescrlpLlonţ lL can provlde no more Lhan an lmpresslve afLerŴLheŴ
declslon descrlpLlon of whaL Lhe [udaes orderŦ And whaL Lhe [udaes order ls 1he LawŦ
now a superŴlnLelllaenL and superŴouLspoken lawver or [udae mav occaslonallv admlL LhaL hls leaal breLhren are
elLher fools or llars when Lhev clalm LhaL Lhe words and concepLs and prlnclples of 1he Law are anv more Lhan
sLaLemenLs of resulLs ln leaal lanauaaeŦ 8uL Lhls same rare member of Lhe professlon wlll probablv ao on Lo defend
Lhe vasL vocabularv of 1he Law Ŷ Lhe ConslderaLlons and ,allces and uomlclles and all Lhe resL Ŷ on Lhe Lheorv LhaL
lL provldes aL leasL a sorL of leaal shorLhandţ a convenlenL medlum ln whlch lawvers can Lalk Lo each oLher abouL
Lhelr LradeŦ
When one lawverţ dlscusslna a case aL a cockLall parLv as lawvers alwavs doţ shooLs lnLersLaLe Commerce or
Þrlvlleaed CommunlcaLlon aL a fellow member of Lhe barţ wlLh LhaL wellŴknown alr of sLudled nonchalance whlch
chlldren affecL when Lalklna pla LaLln before Lhelr eldersţ Lhe second lawver has a aeneral ldea whaL Lhe flrsL ls
Lalklna abouLŦ So Looţ does a [udae aeL a aeneral ldea of whlch wav Lhe araumenL ls drlfLlna when a lawver Losses off
a leaal phrase ln courLŦ And when Lhe [udae ln Lurn packs hls oplnlons wlLh such phrasesţ Lhe lawvers who read Lhose
oplnlons aeLţ lf noLhlna moreţ a vaaue sense of LradlnaŴfamlllarŴaroundŦ ShorLhand lf vou wlllŤ Lhouah lL ls a
shorLhand whlch all Loo easllv becomes unbearablv lonaŴwlndedţ as anvone who has ever Lrled Lo read a lease or a
sLaLuLe or a [udlclal oplnlon well knowsŦ
?eLţ lL ls preclselv ouL of Lhe consLanL and careless use of a loose crafL llnao LhaL Lhe lawvers' bllnd falLh ln Lhe
sacredness of words has arownŦ ,eLlculouslv Lralned ln Lhe mumboŴ[umbo of leaal concepLsţ sub[ecLed Lo lL everv
mlnuLe of Lhelr worklna llvesţ Lhe law bovs passlonaLelv belleve ln Lhe words Lhev have learned Lo useŦ 1o Lhemţ uue
Þrocess of Law ls noL [usL a handv wav of referrlna Lo a bunch of old declslonsŤ lL ls a flahLlna prlnclpleŦ And even such
leaal lovelles as a CovenanL 8unnlna WlLh Lhe Landţ or an LsLaLe ln lee 1allţ Lake on subsLance and dlanlLvŦ
nor ls lL onlv Lhe plalnLţ ordlnarv lawvers who Lake Lhelr funnv words and Lhelr wordŴmade absLracLlons serlouslvŦ So
Loo do Lhe lawvers who have been canonlzed as [udaesŦ ,osL [udaes are more llkelv Lhan noL Lo supposeţ when Lhev
order a pavmenL made ºbecause" Lhere was ConslderaLlon for a ConLracLţ LhaL Lhev have acLuallv reasoned from Lhe
absLracL Lo Lhe concreLeŤ LhaL Lhe unearLhlv concepL called ConslderaLlon has acLuallv dlcLaLed Lhelr [udamenLŦ As
Lhouah Lhe absLracLlonţ ConslderaLlonţ had subsLanceţ meaLţ bodvŦ As Lhouah lL were posslble for Lhe human mlnd Lo
pull a speclflc resulL ouL of an absLracL concepLţ llke a rabblL ouL of a haLţ wlLhouL flrsLţ knowlnalv or unknowlnalvţ
puLLlna Lhe resulL loto Lhe concepLţ so lL can laLer be found LhereŦ
A courL wlll solemnlv purporL Lo declde wheLher 1onv ls aolna Lo be pald for dlaalna a dlLch Ŷ on Lhe basls of wheLher
Lhere was ConslderaLlon Lo supporL a ConLracLţ [usL as Lhouah Lhe ldea of ConslderaLlon conLalned wlLhln lLselfţ llke a
command from Codţ Lhe rlahL answer (or oov answer)Ŧ A courL wlll solemnlv purporL Lo declde LhaL Lhe SLaLe of new
!ersev mav noL reaulaLe LlckeL scalpers Ŷ for Lhe reason LhaL Lhe sale of LheaLer LlckeLs ls a buslness noL AffecLed
WlLh a Þubllc lnLeresLŦ A courL wlll solemnlv purporL Lo declde LhaL Lhe federal aovernmenL mav noL supervlse waaes
ln Lhe coal lndusLrv Ŷ on Lhe around LhaL Lhose waaes have onlv an lndlrecL LffecL on lnLersLaLe CommerceŤ (and
Lhen Lhe same courL wlll solemnlv purporL Lo declde LhaL Lhe federal aovernmenL mav force a sLeel companv Lo deal
wlLh a unlon Ŷ on Lhe around LhaL sLeel waaes have a ulrecL LffecL on lnLersLaLe Commerce)Ŧ As Lhouahţ ln each caseţ
looe 15 of 65

Lhe leaal phrase used were anvLhlna more Lhan a clrcumloquaclous sLaLemenL of Lhe resulLţ raLher Lhan a reason for
arrlvlna aL lLŦ As Lhouahţ ln oov caseţ anv absLracL leaal phrase could concelvablv conLaln Lhe rlahL kev Ŷ or anv kev Ŷ
Lo Lhe soluLlon of a concreLe soclal or pollLlcal or human problemŦ
ueallna ln words ls a danaerous buslnessţ and lL cannoL be Loo ofLen sLressed LhaL whaL 1he Law deals ln ls wordsŦ
ueallna ln lonaţ vaaueţ fuzzvŴmeanlna words ls even more danaerous buslnessţ and mosL of Lhe words 1he Law deals
ln are lona and vaaue and fuzzvŦ ,aklna a hablL of applvlna lonaţ vaaueţ fuzzvţ aeneral words Lo speclflc Lhlnas and
facLs ls perhaps Lhe mosL danaerous of allţ and 1he Law does LhaLţ LooŦ ?ou can call a cow a quadruped mammal lf
vou wanL LoŤ vou can also call a caL a quadruped mammalŦ 8uL lf vou aeL lnLo Lhe hablL of calllna boLh cows and caLs
quadruped mammalsţ lL becomes all Loo easv Lo sllp lnLo a llne of reasonlna wherebvţ slnce caLs are quadruped
mammals and caLs have klLLens and cows are also quadruped mammalsţ Lherefore cows have klLLens LooŦ 1he Lawţ
vou mav rememberţ calls boLh claareLLes and seallna wax ConslderaLlonŦ
CnAÞ1Lk IV
1nL LAW A1 I15 5UÞkLML51
ºwe ote ooJet o coostltotlooţ bot te coostltotloo
ls wot te joJoes sov lt lsŦ" Ÿ Charles Lvans Puahes
1he Supreme CourL of Lhe unlLed SLaLes ls aenerallv raLed Lhe besL courL ln Lhe counLrv lf noL ln Lhe worldŦ lLs
declslons are supposed Lo be Lhe wlsesLţ Lhe mosL enllahLenedŦ lLs members are kowLowed Lo as Lhe cream of Lhe
leaal professlonţ sLeeped noL onlv ln Lhe LechnlcallLles of leaal loalc buL ln Lhe wondrous wavs of absLracL [usLlce as
wellŦ lLs powers are enormousŦ 8v Lhe maraln of a slnale voLeţ lLs nlne members can overLurn Lhe declslons of
mavorsţ aovernorsţ sLaLe lealslaLuresţ presldenLsţ conaressesţ and of anv oLher [udae or aroup of [udaes ln Lhe unlLed
SLaLesŦ Lven Lhe dlrecL wlll of Lhe people as expressed ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and lLs amendmenLs can be brouahL Lo
nauahL bv Supreme CourL ºlnLerpreLaLlon" of consLlLuLlonal lanauaaeŦ 1he nlne men ln black robes hold Lhe enLlre
sLrucLure of Lhe naLlon ln Lhe hallowed hollows of Lhelr handsŦ
lL would noLţ Lhenţ seem Loo unreasonable for anv clLlzen Lo suppose LhaL Lhe decrees of Lhese solons musL of course
be as lmpreanable Lo crlLlclsm or rldlcule as manŴmade decrees can ever beŦ Lven lf lL be Lrue LhaL 1he Law ln Lhe
maln amounLs Lo Lhe manlpulaLlon of lmpresslveţ lrrelevanL words bv a closed corporaLlon of wellŴLralned wordŴ
[uaalersţ 1he Law as handed down from Supreme CourL helahLs should surelv have more sense and subsLance Lo lLŦ
Lven lf lL be Lrue LhaL Lhe mass of pracLlclna aLLornevs and llLLle [udaes are foollna Lhemselves and Lhe publlc when
Lhev clalm LhaL 1he Law as Lhev know and use lL ls a loalcal sclence lnsLead of a pseudoŴsclenLlflc fraudţ surelv Lhe
nlne Lop men of Lhe crafL musL leave fewţ lf anvţ loopholes ln Lhelr loalc and fewţ lf anvţ cracks ln Lhe lnLellecLual
armor of Lhelr declslonsŦ
8uL lfţ bv anv chanaeţ Lhe solemn leaal lncanLaLlons of Lhe Supreme CourL lLself can be shown up as empLvţ lnepLţ or
llloalcal raLlonallzaLlons based on noLhlna more subsLanLlal Lhan bla words wlLh blurred meanlnasţ Lhen lL would noL
seem Loo unreasonable for anv clLlzen Lo suppose LhaL 1he Law as a whole ls a loL of noxlous nonsenseŦ
ÞracLlcallv all Lhe cases LhaL reach Lhe Supreme CourL Ŷ and reachlna Lhe Supreme CourL ofLen means aolna Lhrouah
Lhree or four lower courLs ln Lurnţ over a perlod of vears Ŷ are of one of Lhree klndsŦ 1here areţ flrsLţ Lhe oLherwlse
ordlnarv law cases whlch happen Lo lnvolve people or companles from dlfferenL sLaLesŦ An lowa farmer makes a
conLracL Lo sell hls hoas Lo a Chlcaao packlnaŴhouseţ and Lhev aeL lnLo a flahL over Lhe LermsŦ Cr a Callfornla LourlsL
runs down a pedesLrlan ln ,lsslsslpplŦ Cr a new ?ork newspaper publlshes a llbelous sLorv abouL a vlralnla
aenLleman (and Lhe aenLleman prefers lawvers Lo plsLols)Ŧ
Crdlnarllvţ llLLle dlspuLes of Lhls naLure are handled ln Lhe sLaLe courLsŦ lf Lhe farmer had sold hls hoas ln ues ,olnes
or Lhe careless drlver had run down a fellowŴÞasadenan or Lhe newspaper had wrlLLen abouL a Þark Avenue
debuLanLeţ noL even Lhe Amerlcan 8ar AssoclaLlon lLself could have carrled Lhe case Lo Lhe Supreme CourLŦ 8uL ln Lhe
earlv davs of Lhe naLlonţ lL was supposed Ŷ and wlLh some reason Ŷ LhaL anv sLaLe courLţ dlsposlna of a dlspuLe
beLween a local llLlaanL and a resldenL of anoLher sLaLeţ mlahL Lend Lo favor Lhe home bov and alve Lhe sLranaer a
raw dealŦ So lL was wrlLLen ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon LhaL cases lnvolvlna llLlaanLs from Lwo or more sLaLes mlahL be Lrled
looe 16 of 65

bv Lhe federal courLsŤ and anv case Lrled ln Lhe federal courLs mav evenLuallv aeL up Lo Lhe Supreme CourLŦ
lncldenLallvţ Lhls prlvlleae of Laklna cerLaln leaal squabbles ouL of Lhe hands of Lhe sLaLe courLs ls all LhaL lawvers
mean when Lhev Lalk aravelv of ºlnvoklna dlverslLv of clLlzenshlpŦ"
When Lhe Supreme CourL deals wlLh a case of Lhls klndţ lL Losses around such absLracL concepLs as ºconslderaLlon"
and ºconLrlbuLorv neallaence" and Lhe resL wlLh Lhe same abandon as does anv oLher courLţ and lL reaularlv purporLs
Lo flnd Lhe speclflc answer Lo Lhe problem ln some vaaue buL ºconLrolllna" aeneral prlnclpleŦ ?eL lL ls perhaps unfalr
Lo examlne or [udae Lhe CourL on Lhe score of Lhese casesŦ ln Lhe flrsL placeţ Lhev are Lhe leasL lmporLanL LhaL come
before Lhe CourLŦ lurLhermoreţ ln mosL of Lhese casesţ Lhe CourL ls handlcapped Ŷ alLhouah bv a rule of lLs own
maklna Ŷ ln belna bound Lo follow 1he Law as lald down bv Lhe sLaLe courLs ln prevlous slmllar casesŦ ln oLher wordsţ
Lhe CourL ls merelv seelna Lo lL LhaL sLaLe Law ls falrlv applledŦ lL ls ln Lhe oLher Lwo klnds of cases LhaL come before lL
Ŷ and Lhese lnclude pracLlcallv all Lhe slanlflcanL and publlclzed declslons Ŷ LhaL Lhe Supreme CourL ls reallv on lLs
ownŦ
1he second klnd of case LhaL reaularlv reaches Lhe CourL ls Lhe klnd LhaL lnvolves some dlspuLe abouL Lhe meanlna of
Lhe wrlLLen laws of Lhe unlLed SLaLesŦ noL lL mlahL seem LhaL Conaressţ whlch has noLhlna else Lo do buL wrlLe lawsţ
should be able Lo seL down clearlv ln black and whlLe whaL lL ls orderlna done or noL doneţ so LhaL Lhe servlces of a
courL would noL be needed Lo Lell people whaL Lhe laws meanŦ 8uL Lhe flrsL caLch ls LhaL Lhese sLaLuLes are alwavs
phrased bv lawversţ ln Conaress or ouLţ so LhaL lL frequenLlv does requlre Lhe serves of oLher lawvers Lo dlsenLanale
Lhe meanlna from Lhe verblaaeŦ And when Lhe oLher lawvers dlsaareeţ as Lhev are sure Lo do lf Lhere are fees on
boLh sldes of Lhe dlspuLeţ Lhen lL Lakes a courLţ and lL mav Lake Lhe Supreme CourLţ Lo Lell Lhe second aroup of
lawvers whaL Lhe flrsL aroup of lawvers meanL when Lhev wroLe Lhe sLaLuLeŦ
1here lsţ moreoverţ anoLher caLchţ and lL was referred Lo a couple of chapLers backŦ Lven when Lhe words of a
sLaLuLe appearţ aL leasL Lo a noŴlawverţ Lo have a perfecLlv plaln and deflnlLe meanlnaţ vou can never be sure LhaL a
courL wlll noL up and sav LhaL Lhose words mean someLhlna enLlrelv dlfferenLŦ 1he Supreme CourL ls no excepLlonŦ
1here was Lhe Llme lL sald LhaL SecLlon 20 of Lhe ClavLon AcL meanLţ llLerallvţ noLhlna aL allŦ 1here was Lhe Llme Lhe
CourL ruled LhaL Lhe clause of Lhe Cuffev Coal AcLţ dlrecLlna LhaL lf parL of Lhe AcL be declared unconsLlLuLlonal Lhe
resL of Lhe AcL should ao lnLo effecL anvwavţ meanL Lhe exacL opposlLe of whaL LhaL clause saldŦ And Lhere have been
counLless oLher examples of meanlnaŴmanallna when Lhe CourL has underLaken Lo ºlnLerpreL" Lhe sLaLuLes of Lhe
unlLed SLaLesŦ
lor lnsLanceţ when Conaress flrsL passed an esLaLe Laxţ Laxlna Lhe Lransfer of monev or oLher properLv aL deaLhţ rlch
men rushed Lo Lhelr lawvers Lo flnd ouL how Lhev could aeL around Lhe Lax wlLhouL alvlna awav Lhelr wealLh before
Lhev dledŦ 1he commonesL andţ bv and laraeţ Lhe mosL effecLlve dodae suaaesLed and used was for Lhe rlch man Lo
puL hls properLv ln LrusL Ŷ whlch of course onlv meanL alvlna Lhe properLv Lo someone else Lo keep for hlm bv Lhe
use of Lhe proper leaal rlamarole Ŷ and sLlll Lo keep several sLrlnas on Lhe properLv hlmselfŦ Pe mlahL keep Lhe rlahL
Lo Lake Lhe properLv back anv Llme he wanLed lLŦ Pe mlahL alve up Lhls rlahL buL lnslsL on aeLLlna Lhe lncome from Lhe
properLvţ whlch was usuallv sLocks and bondsţ as lona as he llvedŦ Pe mlahL keep Lhe rlahL Lo dlrecL Lhe manaaemenL
of Lhe properLvţ or Lo sav who should aeL lL aL hls deaLhŦ AL anv raLeţ Lhe ldea was LhaL slnce he no lonaer ºowned"
Lhe properLv leaallvţ (leaallv Lhe LrusLee ºowned" lL for hlm) he couldn'L be Laxed for alvlna lL Lo hls wlfe or hls
chlldren aL hls deaLhţ even Lhouah LhaL mlahL be exacLlv whaL he had ordered Lhe LrusLee Lo doŦ
8uL Conaressţ foreseelna some such subLerfuae from Lhe sLarLţ had wrlLLen lnLo Lhe esLaLe Lax lawţ ln leaal buL
comparaLlvelv comprehenslble lanauaaeţ a speclal provlslonŦ 1he provlslon was LhaL anv Lransfer of properLvţ even
Lhouah noL done ln Lhe usual wav of maklna a wlllţ whlch was ºlnLended Lo Lake effecL ln possesslon or en[ovmenL aL
deaLh" should be soaked under Lhe esLaLe LaxŦ And verv soon Lhe quesLlon arose Ŷ and was carrled up Lo Lhe
Supreme CourL Ŷ wheLher an esLaLe Lax had Lo be pald on properLv LhaL a man had puL ln LrusLţ orderlna Lhe LrusLee
Lo pav hlm Lhe lncome as lona as he llved and Lhen Lo Lurn over Lhe properLv Lo hls son aL hls deaLhŦ
CerLalnlv Lhls would seem Lo be one of Lhe exacL slLuaLlons LhaL Conaress had been Lalklna abouLŦ 1he man kepL rlahL
on en[ovlna hls lnLeresL and hls dlvldends unLll he dledŦ 1he son was noL even prlvlleaed Lo smell Lhe sLocks and
bonds unLllţ aL hls faLher's deaLhţ Lhev were Lurned over Lo hlmŦ lrom hls sLandpolnL lL was Lheţ and noL unLll Lhenţ
LhaL hls ºpossesslon and en[ovmenL" of Lhe properLv ºLook effecLŦ"
looe 17 of 65

noL aL allţ sald Lhe Supreme CourLţ ln subsLanceţ when lL was asked Lo ºlnLerpreL" and applv Lhe sLaLuLeŦ ln Lhe flrsL
placeţ we have a aeneral prlnclple Lo Lhe effecL LhaL Lax sLaLuLes are Lo be sLrlcLlv consLrued ln favor of Lhe LaxpaverŦ
1rueţ we also have a aeneral prlnclple of sLaLuLorv consLrucLlon LoL he effecL LhaL words are Lo be read ln Lhe llahL of
Lhelr cusLomarv and accepLed meanlna (presumablv Lhe CourL dld noL care Lo denv LhaL ºen[ovmenL" meanL
ºen[ovmenL") buL Lhe prlor prlnclple seems her Lo carrv more welahLŦ 1he facL LhaL varlous sLaLe courLs have
lnLerpreLed ldenLlcal words ln Lhelr sLaLe deaLh Lax sLaLuLes so as Lo cover Lhe Lvpe of Lransfer here aL lssue (Lhe sLaLe
courLs hadţ almosL unanlmouslv) ls noL conLrolllna upon us (Lhe 5opteme CourL)Ŧ llnallv Lhere ls Lhe compelllna facL
LhaL Lhe decedenL (lŦeŦ Lhe dead man) had compleLelv dlvesLed hlmself of LlLle Lo Lhe properLv before hls deaLhŦ
(lndeed he hadţ accordlna Lo 1he Lawţ buL Conaress had sald noLhlna abouL leaal LlLleŤ lL was Lhe Laklna effecL of
en[ovmenL LhaL was supposed Lo maLLerŦ) AL anv raLeţ concluded Lhe nlne solonsţ Lhe dodae worksŤ Lhe sLaLuLe
doesn'L cover Lhls caseŤ no LaxŦ
1he pavŴoff came Lhe verv dav afLer Lhe declslon was handed downŦ Cn LhaL dav Conaress amended Lhe sLaLuLe so
LhaL Lhe esLaLe Lax even more speclflcallv applled Lo Lransfers of properLv ln whlch Lhe orlalnal owner huna on Lo Lhe
lncome for hlmself unLll hls deaLhŦ Cf course a couple of Lax lawvers hopefullv asked Lhe Supreme CourL Lo rule LhaLţ
under cerLaln clrcumsLances aL leasLţ Lhls dldn'L mean whaL lL sald elLherŦ 8uL Lhls Llme Lhe CourL upheld Lhe LaxŤ Lhls
Llme Lhe second prlnclple of sLaLuLorv consLrucLlon as ouLllned above ouLwelahed Lhe flrsL prlnclpleŦ
lor veL anoLher example of Supreme CourL ºlnLerpreLaLlon" of wrlLLen lawsţ Lake Lhe old Conaresslonal sLaLuLeţ sLlll
on Lhe booksţ whlch savs LhaL collecLlon of federal Laxes mav noL be en[olned ºln anv courL" Ŷ a leaal ln[uncLlon
belnaţ of courseţ no more Lhan a courL order forblddlna someone from dolna someLhlnaŦ 1he ldeaţ wheLher wlse or
unwlseţ was Lo keep lnnumerable ln[uncLlon sulLs from holdlna up Lhe collecLlon of federal revenuesŤ lf a manţ or a
companvţ LhouahL a Lax was Loo bla or Loo raw or [usL plaln llleaalţ he was supposed Lo pav lL anvwav and Lhen sue Lo
aeL lL backŦ CerLalnlv Lhe sLaLuLe lLself wasţ and lsţ so shorLţ blunLţ and slmple LhaL no senslble personţ no nonŴlawverţ
could posslblv mlss lLs meanlnaŦ 8uL sLranaelv enouahţ Lhe commonesL wav of proLesLlna a new federal Lax Lodav ls
Lo sue for an ln[uncLlonŦ 1he Supreme CourLţ ln Lhe course of ºlnLerpreLlna" Lhe sLaLuLe ln Lhe llahL of aeneral
prlnclples of Lawţ has so cluLLered lL wlLh excepLlons LhaL Lhe excepLlons all buL bloL ouL Lhe sLaLuLeŦ
Lxamples could be mulLlplled almosL lndeflnlLelvŦ lor when Lhe Supreme CourL seLs ouL Lo Lell Conaress and Lhe
world whaL an acL of Conaress reallv meansţ onlv Lhe skv and such absLracL leaal prlnclples as can be drawn from Lhe
skv are Lhe llmlLŦ And all LhaL Conaress can doţ afLer such an ºlnLerpreLaLlonţ" ls paLlenLlv Lo amend or rewrlLe Lhe
sLaLuLe wlLh Lhe fervenL hope LhaL mavbe Lhls Llme Lhe words used wlll mean Lhe same Lhlna Lo Lhe Supreme CourL
LhaL Lhev mean Lo ConaressŦ
8uL ln Lhe Lhlrd klnd of case LhaL Lakes up Lhe Llme of Lhe Supreme CourLţ Lhere ls no aeLLlna aroundţ afLerwardţ whaL
Lhe CourL has decldedŦ 1here ls no aeLLlna around Lhese declslonsţ LhaL lsţ shorL of amendlna Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ
chanalna Lhe [udaes who make up Lhe CourLţ orţ mosL dlfflculL of allţ chanalna Lhe [udaes' mlndsŦ 1he Lhlrd klnd of
case Ŷ Lhe mosL lmporLanL of all Ŷ lncludes all Lhose dlspuLes ln whlch someone clalms LhaL a sLaLe law or a federal
law Ŷ or some acLlon Laken under such a law Ŷ ºoffends" Lhe uŦSŦ ConsLlLuLlonŦ Pere Lhe Supreme CourL has Lhe flnal
wordŦ WhaL lL decldes and whaL lL savs ln Lhese cases make up LhaL holv hunk of 1he Law known as ConsLlLuLlonal
LawŦ
lrom Lhe pracLlcal or nonŴleaal vlewpolnLţ ConsLlLuLlonal Law adds upţ slmplvţ Lo a llsL of all Lhose lnsLances where
Lhe Supreme CourL as sald Lo Conaress or Lo a sLaLe lealslaLureţ º?ou mavn'L enforce LhaL sLaLuLeţ" Ŷ or where lL has
sald Lo a federal or sLaLe execuLlve offlcer or admlnlsLraLlve boardţ º?ou mavn'L carrv ouL LhaL rullnaŦ" 1he lnsLances
where Lhe CourL has saldţ º?ou mav" don'L counL Ŷ from a pracLlcal vlewpolnLŦ 1hereţ Lhe slLuaLlon would have
remalned exacLlv Lhe same lf Lhe Supreme CourL had never sald anvLhlnaŦ
And lL ls worLh noLlclna LhaL onlv aovernmenLsţ or people who are performlna aovernmenL [obsţ ever aeL spanked bv
Lhe CourL for belna unconsLlLuLlonalŦ 1he ConsLlLuLlon proLecLsţ wlLhln cerLaln llmlLsţ free speechŤ buL a man who
holds hls hand over anoLher man's mouLh Lo keep hlm quleLţ Lhouah he mav aeL hauled lnLo courL for mlnor assaulL
and baLLervţ wlll never aeL charaed wlLh vlolaLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1husţ whaL ConsLlLuLlonal Law deals wlLh ls Lhe
resLrlcLlons on cerLaln forms of aovernmenL acLlon whlch are lald downţ ln Lhe name of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ bv Lhe
Supreme CourLţ whlch ls Ŷ alLhouah manv people are prone Lo foraeL Lhlsţ Ÿ no more Lhan one branch of Lhe federal
looe 18 of 65

aovernmenL lLselfŦ And all LhaL ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ Laklna lL ln Lhe more leaal senseţ amounLs Lo ls Lhe cumulaLlve
efforLs of Lhe Supreme CourL Lo explalnţ [usLlfvţ or excuse Lhe resLrlcLlons lL lavs downŦ
now Lhe baslc Lheorv of all ConsLlLuLlonal Law ls boLh slmple and senslbleŦ lL ls LhaL lf Conaress or anv sLaLe or clLv or
vlllaae enacLs a law LhaL ls forbldden bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ LhaL law mlahL [usL as well never have been enacLedŦ lL can
be lanoredŤ lL ls no aoodŤ lL ls unconsLlLuLlonalŦ 8uL Lhe flreworks sLarL when lL comes down Lo a quesLlon of who ls
aolna Lo Lell wheLher laws are unconsLlLuLlonal Ŷ and howŦ
lor Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLselfţ as ls llLLle reallzedţ nowhere alves LhaL rlahL Lo Lhe Supreme CourLŦ 1he Supreme CourL
earlv assumed LhaL rlahLţ so far as sLaLe laws were concernedţ and nobodv ob[ecLed much because nelLher Conaress
nor Lhe ÞresldenL wanLed Lo boLher Lo check up on sLaLe lawsŦ 8uL Lhe Supreme CourL was much more cauLlous
when lL came Lo Lelllna Conaress and Lhe ÞresldenL LhaL federal laws were unconsLlLuLlonalŦ Cnlv once ln more Lhan
slxLv vears afLer Lhe blrLh of Lhe naLlon dld Lhe CourL dare Lo peep LhaL lL LhouahL an acL of Conaress was lmproperŦ
And Lhe hablL of lnformlna Lhe oLher Lwo branches of Lhe aovernmenL LhaL some measure Lhev had approved was
downrlahL llleaal never reallv blossomed lnLo full flower unLll Lhe LwenLleLh cenLurvŦ lL ls sLlll aL leasL arauable LhaL
Conaress or Lhe ÞresldenL or Lhe Lwo of Lhem LoaeLher have as much rlahL and as much ablllLv Lo declde wheLher a
proposed federal sLaLuLe dlsobevs Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or noL as have Lhe nlne bold menŦ
?eLţ aranLlna LhaL bv cusLom lf bv noLhlna moreţ Lhe lasL word does belona Lo Lhe Supreme CourLţ Lhe quesLlon
remalns Ŷ howţ and how wellţ has Lhe CourL exerclsed Lhls powerful prlvlleaeţ as applled Lo Lhe laws of Lhe sLaLes as
well as Lo Lhose of Lhe naLlon? Pave lLs consLlLuLlonal declslons been models of loalcţ sLaLesmanshlpţ and [usLlce? Cr
have Lhevţ perhapsţ been cuL ouL of Lhe same old leaal cheeseŴcloLh Ŷ absLracL concepLsţ amblauous wordsţ and
ambldexLrous prlnclples?
1here are some parLs of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon LhaL are wrlLLen ln such plaln lanauaae LhaL nobodvţ noL even a lawverţ
could verv well mlsLake whaL Lhev meanŦ 1here lsţ for lnsLanceţ Lhe provlslon LhaL Lhe unlLed SLaLes shall noL aranL
LlLles of noblllLvŦ 1here ls Lhe provlslon LhaL each senaLor's Lerm shall be for slx vearsŦ 1here ls Lhe provlslon LhaL Lhe
sLaLes shall noL coln monevŦ Cbvlouslvţ lf Conaress had voLed Lo make Charles Llndberah a duke lnsLead of an armv
colonelţ or lf a federal sLaLuLe were passed exLendlna all senaLors' Lerms Lo elahL vearsţ or lf Lhe Cklahoma
lealslaLure were Lo enacL a blll Lo seL up a sLaLe mlnL and sLarL Lurnlna ouL sllver dollarsţ anv of Lhose laws would be
clearlv unconsLlLuLlonalŦ 8uL lL would scarcelv be necessarv Lo ask Lhe advlce of Lhe Supreme CourL on such maLLersŦ
Anv subŴmoron could alve Lhe rlahL answerŦ
1here are oLher parLs ConsLlLuLlon LhaL are noL wrlLLen so plalnlvŦ lL mav be LhaL Lhev use hazv leaal words or lL mav
be LhaL Lhe words Lhev useţ Lhouah falrlv clear aL Lhe Llme of wrlLlnaţ have slnce acqulred a nebulous quallLv Lhrouah
consLanL leaal masLlcaLlon of Lhelr meanlnaŦ lL ls ouL of Lhese parLs of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Ŷ andţ for LhaL maLLerţ ouL of
parLs LhaL are nowhere wrlLLen ln Lhe documenL aL all Ŷ LhaL ConsLlLuLlonal Law ls reallv bullLŦ
Whenever a lawver appears before Lhe Supreme CourL and asks Lhe CourL Lo declare a sLaLe sLaLuLe
unconsLlLuLlonalţ Lhe chances are beLLer Lhan Len Lo one LhaL he ls baslna hls plea on Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL Lo
Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1he chanaes are almosL as aood LhaL he ls baslna hls plea on one llLLle clause ouL of one of Lhe flve
secLlons of LhaL lonaesL of all Lhe amendmenLsŦ 1he chances areţ ln shorLţ LhaL he ls clalmlna LhaLţ bv Lhe sLaLuLe ln
quesLlonţ hls cllenL has been ºdeprlved of properLv wlLhouL due process of lawŦ"
lor mosL of ConsLlLuLlonal law as applled Lo sLaLe sLaLuLesţ and as lald down bv Lhe Supreme CourLţ revolves around
LhaL llLLle phraseŦ Cn Lhe basls of LhaL phrase aloneţ Lhe CourL has kllled hundreds upon hundreds of sLaLe aLLempLs
Lo reaulaLe or Lax buslness and buslnessmenŦ As a maLLer of facLţ lL ls pracLlcallv lmposslble for a sLaLe Lo pass such a
sLaLuLe Lodav wlLhouL havlna a leaal howl carrled Lo Lhe Supreme CourL Lo Lhe effecL LhaL Lhe sLaLuLe ºvlolaLes Lhe
due process clause of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLŦ"
WhaL Lheţ accordlna Lo lLs offlclal lnLerpreLerţ does Lhe llLLle clause mean? When ls a deprlvaLlon of properLv noL a
deprlvaLlon of properLv? Surelv everv Lax lsţ ln a senseţ a deprlvaLlon of properLv and some sLaLe Laxes are perfecLlv
leaalŦ And whaL ls lmplled bv LhaL lovelv llmpld leaallsmţ ºdue process of law"?
looe 19 of 65

1o help lL answer Lhese quesLlons Lhe Supreme CourL has evolved Ŷ and Lhls wlll be a bla surprlse Ŷ a baLch of
aeneral prlnclplesŦ 1here ls Lhe aeneral prlnclple LhaL a reaulaLlon whlch ls a proper exerclse of Lhe sLaLe pollce
power ls valld buL LhaL a reaulaLlon whlch does noL fall wlLhln Lhe pollce power ls deprlvaLlon of properLv wlLhouL
due process of lawŦ 1here ls a aeneral prlnclple LhaL buslnesses affecLed wlLh a publlc lnLeresL mavţ bv and laraeţ be
reaulaLed buL LhaL Lo reaulaLe a buslness noL so affecLed ls a dŦoŦpŦwŦdŦpŦoŦlŦ 1here ls a aŦ pŦ LhaL a Lax on anvLhlna
over whlch Lhe sLaLe has [urlsdlcLlon ls properţ buL LhaL a Lax on someLhlna over whlch Lhe sLaLe has no [urlsdlcLlon ls
a dŦoŦpŦţ eLcŦ And so onŦ
Cf courseţ [usL whaL sLaLe pollce power ls and [usL whaL a buslness affecLed wlLh a publlc lnLeresL amounLs Lo and
[usL whaL sLaLe [urlsdlcLlon Lo Lax means lsţ ln each caseţ anoLher and lonaer sLorvŦ 1here are subŴprlnclples and subŴ
subŴprlnclples and excepLlonsŦ And of courseţ Looţ Lhere ls noL a word ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon abouL pollce power or
buslnesses affecLed wlLh a publlc lnLeresL or sLaLe [urlsdlcLlon Lo LaxŦ 8uL Lhls facL does noL sLop Lhe Supreme CourL
from uslna such concepLs as Lhe basls of ConsLlLuLlonal LawŦ Lven Lhe PlahesL CourL of Lhe Land lavlna down Lhe
Supreme Law of Lhe Land reverLs Lo Lhe same old hocusŴpocus of solemn words spoken wlLh a sLralahL faceţ and
meanlnaţ lnLrlnslcallvţ noLhlnaŦ
lf Lhls lndlcLmenL sounds Loo sLronaţ conslder whaL a member of Lhe CourL once had Lo sav abouL Lhe uses Lo whlch
hls breLhren puL LhaL llLLle clause of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLŦ 1hese are Lhe words of Lhe laLe !usLlce Polmesť Ÿ
ºl have noL veL adequaLelv expressed Lhe more Lhan anxleLv LhaL l feel aL Lhe everŴlncreaslna scope alven Lo Lhe
lourLeenLh AmendmenL ln cuLLlna down whaL l belleve Lo be Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlahLs of Lhe sLaLesŦ As Lhe declslons
now sLand l see hardlv anv llmlL buL Lhe skv Lo Lhe lnvalldaLlna of Lhose rlahLs lf Lhev happen Lo sLrlke a ma[orlLv of
Lhls CourL as for anv reason undeslrableŦ Ŷ Cf course Lhe words 'due process of law' lf Laken ln Lhelr llLeral meanlna
have no appllcaLlon Lo Lhls caseŤ Ÿ we should be slow Lo consLrue Lhe clause ln Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL as
commlLLlna Lo Lhe CourLţ wlLh no aulde buL Lhe CourL's own dlscreLlonţ Lhe valldlLv of whaLever laws Lhe SLaLes mav
passŦ"
!usLlce Polmes' brlef warnlna abouL Lhe LempLaLlon Lo follow personal preferences where 1he Law ls so amorphous
and lndeLermlnaLe was spokenţ as usualţ ln dlssenLŦ 8uL whaL dld he lmplv bv hls reference Lo ºLhe words 'due
process of law' lf Laken ln Lhelr llLeral meanlna"? WhaL dld LhaL llLLle clause of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLţ slnce
lnflaLed bv Lhe Supreme CourL Lo Lremendous slanlflcanceţ orlalnallv mean? lL makes an lnLeresLlna sLorvŦ
1he lourLeenLh AmendmenL was one of Lhree amendmenLs added Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon shorLlv afLer Lhe Clvll War Lo
proLecL Lhe clvll rlahLs of Lhe nearoesŦ 1he flrsL of lLs flve secLlons lncluded Lhe commandţ presumablv lnLended Lo
prevenL persecuLlon of Lhe exŴslavesť Ÿ ºnor shall anv sLaLe deprlve anv person of llfeţ llberLvţ or properLv wlLhouL
due process of lawŦ" 8uL Lhe words used ln LhaL clause had appeared ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon beforeŦ
1hev had appeared ln Lhe llfLh AmendmenL as parL of Lhe orlalnal 8lll of 8lahLsŦ 1hereţ sevenLvŴseven vears before
Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL was adopLedţ lL was decreedť Ÿ ºnor shall (anv person) be compelled ln anv crlmlnal
case Lo be a wlLness aaalnsL hlmselfţ noL be deprlved of llfeţ llberLvţ or properLv wlLhouL due process of lawŦ"
8ecause Lhe llfLh AmendmenL was sald Lo resLrlcL onlv Lhe feJetol aovernmenLţ lL was felL necessarv Lo place Lhe
same resLrlcLlon on Lhe sLaLesţ ln Lhe lourLeenLhŦ
WhaLţ Lhenţ was Lhe ºdue process" buslness lnLended Lo mean? Pow dld lL happen Lo have been coupled wlLh Lhe
prohlblLlon aaalnsL maklna a man Lake Lhe sLand aaalnsL hlmself ln a crlmlnal Lrlal? lL was no accldenLŦ lor ºdue
processţ" before Lhe Supreme CourL beaan Lo bulld aeneral prlnclples around lLţ meanL noLhlna more compllcaLed
Lhan ºproper procedureŦ" And belna deprlved of llfeţ llberLvţ or properLv wlLhouL due process of law meanL onlv
belna hanaed (deprlved of llfe)ţ [alled (deprlved of llberLv)ţ or flned (deprlved of properLv) wlLhouL a proper LrlalŦ
1husţ Lhe ºdue process" clause was orlalnallv lnLended Lo applv onlv Lo crlmlnal casesŦ 1he ldea LhaL anv sLaLuLeţ
much less a nonŴcrlmlnal one llke a Lax or a reaulaLlon of buslnessţ afLer belna properlv passed bv a lealslaLureţ
slaned bv a aovernorţ and enforced accordlna Lo lLs Lerms bv [udaesţ could amounL Lo a deprlvaLlon of
anvLhlna wltoot Joe ptocess of low would once have been lauahed ouL of courLŦ ?eL Lhe Supreme CourL has bullL
Lhe bulk of lLs ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ as applled Lo Lhe sLaLesţ on preclselv LhaL sLranae supposlLlonŦ lL has Laken a slmple
phrase of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon whlch orlalnallv had a plaln and preclse meanlnaţ LwlsLed LhaL phrase ouL of all
looe 20 of 65

recoanlLlonţ rlnaed lL around wlLh vaaue aeneral prlnclples found nowhere ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ and Lhen ponLlflcallv
mouLhed LhaL phrase and Lhose prlnclples as excuses for Lhrowlna ouLţ or ma[esLlcallv upholdlnaţ sLaLe lawsŦ
nor should lL be supposed LhaL Lhe slllv houseŴofŴcards loalc of ConsLlLuLlonal Law works onlv ln whaL mlahL be called
unproaresslve wavsŦ 1rueţ mosL of Lhe sLaLe sLaLuLes Lhe Supreme CourL has condemned as ºvlolaLlna" Lhe ºdue
process" clause of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL have been such measures as mlnlmum waae lawsţ laws proLecLlna
labor unlon acLlvlLlesţ laws and rullnas seLLlna publlc uLlllLv raLesţ cerLaln Lvpes and uses of lncome and lnherlLance
Laxesţ and oLher resLrlcLlons on Lhe buslness of maklna monev and keeplna lLŦ 8uLţ as menLloned beforeţ Lhe wordŴ
maalc of leaal processes recoanlzes no soclallv slanlflcanL llmlLaLlonsŦ ConsLlLuLlonal Law can be [usL as llloalcal and
lrrelevanL on Lhe llberal sldeŦ
1here areţ for lnsLanceţ as few people are awareţ no words anvwhere ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon proLecLlna freedom of
speechţ freedom of Lhe pressţ freedom of rellalonţ or freedom of assemblv aaalnsL lnfrlnaemenL bv Lhe stotesŦ 1he
sole reference Lo Lhese clvll llberLles ln Lhe whole ConsLlLuLlon ls ln Lhe llrsL AmendmenLŦ All LhaL Lhe llrsL
AmendmenL savs lf LhaL ºcoootess shall make no law respecLlna an esLabllshmenL of rellalonţ or prohlblLlna Lhe free
exerclse LhereofŤ or abrldalna Lhe freedom of speechţ or of Lhe pressţ or Lhe rlahL of Lhe people peaceablv Lo
assemble and Lo peLlLlon Lhe aovernmenL for a redress of arlevancesŦ"
?eLţ as almosL evervone ls awareţ Lhe Supreme CourL has on occaslon proLecLed clvll llberLles aaalnsL lnfrlnaemenL bv
sLaLe law or bv clLv ordlnance (clLles belna conslderedţ leaallvţ as merelv subŴdlvlslons of sLaLesţ sub[ecL Lo Lhe same
consLlLuLlonal Laboos)Ŧ Puev Lona's aLLempL Lo aaa Lhe opposlLlon press under a Loulslana sLaLuLe was called
unconsLlLuLlonal bv Lhe CourLŦ So were ,avor Paaue's efforLs Lo clamp down on freedom of speech under a !ersev
ClLv ordlnanceŦ Whv unconsLlLuLlonal Ŷ lnasmuch as lL was surelv noL Conaress LhaL passed elLher of Lhese
measures? 1he answer lles once more ln Lhe wellŴworn ºdue process" clause of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLŦ Laws
such as Lheseţ sald Lhe CourLţ deprlve people of llberLv wlLhouL due process of lawŦ A worLhv senLlmenL
unquesLlonablvţ buL [usL as llloalcal and [usL as unwarranLed bv Lhe Lrue meanlna of Lhe consLlLuLlonal phrase as all
Lhe oLher and less popular ºdue process" declslonsŦ
1here lsţ moreoverţ a clear danaer ln leavlna Lhe proLecLlon of clvll llberLles aaalnsL sLaLe lnfrlnaemenL Lo Lhe whlms
and aeneral prlnclples and leaal loalc of Lhe Supreme CourL Ŷ lnsLead of wrlLlna lnLo Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ as should have
been done lona aaoţ a broad and deflnlLe proLecLlon of Lhose llberLles aaalnsL all lnfrlnaemenLŦ lorţ [usL as Lhe CourL
has held LhaL some sLaLe resLrlcLlons of freedom of speech and Lhe resL are badţ under Lhe ºdue process" clauseţ so lL
can holdţ and has heldţ LhaL oLher resLrlcLlons are oot ouLlawed bv Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLŦ Where Lhe loalc of
Lhe leaal rule ls so Lenuousţ Lhe CourL can blow now hoLţ now coldŦ As ls Lrue of pracLlcallv all ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ lL ls
lmposslble Lo Lell whaL Lhe CourL ls aolna Lo call unconsLlLuLlonalţ unLll Lhe CourL has aone lnLo lLs Lrance and evoked
a splrlL ln Lhe shape of a ºconLrolllna" prlnclpleŦ
1houah Lhe bulk of ConsLlLuLlonal Law as applled Lo Lhe sLaLes sLems ln a mvsLlc manner from Lhe ºdue process"
clause of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLţ lLs parenL clause ln Lhe llfLh AmendmenL has noL been used or needed so
ofLen as an excuse for calllna federal laws unconsLlLuLlonalŦ 8allwav workers were doubLless lnLeresLed Lo learn LhaL
Lhe Conaresslonal ouLlawlna of vellow doa conLracLs Ŷ conLracLs forblddlna membershlp ln a labor unlon Ŷ deprlved
Lhe rallroad companles of llberLv and properLv wlLhouL due process of lawŦ Women who worked ln WashlnaLonţ uŦCŦţ
were doubLless fasclnaLed Lo hear LhaL Lhelr emplovers had been slmllarlv deprlvedţ bv a Conaresslonal acL seLLlna
mlnlmum waaes for womenŦ 8oLh Lhe rallwav men and Lhe WashlnaLon women were probablv especlallv lmpressed
Lo be Lold bv Lhe Supreme CourL LhaL anLlŴunlon dlscrlmlnaLlon and sweaLshop waaes were proLecLed aaalnsL
Conaresslonal lnLerference bv none oLher Lhan Lhe Amerlcan 8lll of 8lahLs Ŷ of whlch Lhe llfLh AmendmenL lsţ of
courseţ a parLŦ
8uL Lhe Supreme CourL's peL reason for calllna federal laws unconsLlLuLlonal ls even more compllcaLed Lhan Lhe ºdue
process" aaaţ and even harder Lo Lrace back Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLselfŦ 1he aeneral ldea ls LhaL Lhe federal
aovernmenL mav noL do anvLhlna LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon does noL speclflcallv sav lL mav doŦ 1hls noLlon ls whaL ls
known as ºsLrlcL consLrucLlon" of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ and lL ls all mlxed up wlLh Lhe sloaan of ºsLaLes' rlahLs" whlch ls a
verv nlce and verv handv pollLlcal sloaan for Lhose who do noL llke whaL Lhe federal aovernmenL happens Lo be dolna
aL Lhe momenLŦ
looe 21 of 65

1he chlef reasons usuallv alven bv Lhe Supreme CourL for backlna Lhe sLrlcL consLrucLlon prlnclple Ŷ lnsLead of Lhe
conLradlcLorv ºloose consLrucLlon" or leLŴLheŴfederalŴaovernmenLŴdoŴanvLhlnaŴLhe ConsLlLuLlonŴdoesn'LŴsavŴlLŴ
mavn'LŴdoŴprlnclple Ŷ are Lwo ln numberŦ 1he flrsL reason ls LhaL Lhe loundlna laLhersţ ln personţ were sLrlcL
consLucLlonlsLs and lnLended Lo hoaŴLle Lhe federal aovernmenL when Lhev wroLe Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 8uL LhaLţ as everv
hlsLorlan knowsţ ls uLLer nonsenseŦ 1he loundlna laLhersţ almosL Lo a man avowed enemles of ºsLaLes' rlahLsţ" were
ouL Lo alve Lhe federal aovernmenL all Lhe rope Lhev could posslblv alve lLŦ SLlllţ as Lhe presenL uses of Lhe ºdue
process" clauses lndlcaLeţ a llLLle maLLer llke hlsLorlcal lnaccuracv ls never allowed Lo lnLerfere wlLh a aeneral
prlnclple of LawŦ
1he second reason Lhe CourL alves for lLs zealous proLecLlon of ºsLaLes' rlahLs" ls Lhe ConsLlLuLlon's 1enLh
AmendmenLŦ (1hose amendmenLs bealn Lo look more lmporLanL Lhan Lhe whole orlalnal ConsLlLuLlonŤ and Lo anv of
Lhe leaal Lrlbe Lhev areŦ) WhaL Lhe 1enLh AmendmenL savs lsť Ÿ º1he powers noL deleaaLed Lo Lhe unlLed SLaLes bv
Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ nor prohlblLed bv lL Lo Lhe sLaLesţ are reserved Lo Lhe sLaLes respecLlvelvţ or Lo Lhe peopleŦ" So farţ
so aoodŦ 8uL Lhe quesLlon remalns Ŷ whaL powers ote deleaaLed Lo Lhe unlLed SLaLes bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlon? And lL ls ln
answerlna LhaL quesLlonţ whlch ls lefL hanalna ln mldŴalr bv Lhe 1enLh AmendmenL and whlch ls more confused Lhan
clarlfled bv Lhe resL of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ LhaL Lhe CourL has so ofLen performed back somersaulLs of loalc rlahL lnLo
Lhe camp of Lhe sLrlcLesL sLrlcL consLrucLlonlsLsŦ Allţ of courseţ ln Lhe name of 1he Law Ŷ and Lhe loundlna laLhersŦ
1here lsţ for lnsLanceţ a clause of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon (Lhe orlalnal ConsLlLuLlonţ for a chanae) Lo Lhe effecL LhaL º1he
Conaress shall have power Lo lav and collecL Laxesţ duLlesţ lmposLsţ and exclsesţ Lo pav Lhe debLsţ and provlde for Lhe
ŧ aeneral welfare of Lhe unlLed SLaLesŦ" Lawvers and law professors and [udaes have wrlLLen LracLs and LreaLlses and
whole books abouL Lhe meanlna of Lhls clauseŦ 1he sLrlcL consLrucLlon bovs sav lL means LhaL Conaress can collecL
Laxesţ eLcŦ lo otJet to pav Lhe debLs and provlde for Lhe aeneral welfare of Lhe peopleŦ 1he loose consLrucLlon bovs
sav lL means LhaL Conaress can collecL Laxes ooJ olso pav debLs ooJ olso Ŷ wlLh laws LhaL aren'L necessarllv Lax laws Ŷ
provlde for Lhe aeneral welfareŦ ?ou can auess whlch slde Lhe Supreme CourL ls onŦ Whv? Whvţ because LhaL's whaL
Lhe loundlna laLhers meanL Ŷ whlchţ as a maLLer of hlsLorlcal recordţ Lhev almosL surelv dldn'LŤ and because of Lhe
1enLh AmendmenL Ŷ whlch obvlouslv has noLhlna whaLsoever Lo do wlLh Lhe caseŦ
lL was on a llne of soŴcalled reasonlna of Lhls sorLţ onlv more exLremeţ LhaL Lhe Supreme CourL Lhrew ouL Lhe orlalnal
AarlculLural Ad[usLmenL AcLŦ And Lhls desplLe Lhe facL LhaL Conaressţ well aware LhaL Lhe CourL would onlv leL lL
provlde for Lhe aeneral welfare ln tox sLaLuLesţ had passed Lhe AcL os o tox on farm producLsţ Lhe proceeds Lo ao as
bounLles Lo Lhose farmers who cuL down Lhe acreaae of Lhelr cropsŦ nowţ manv people LhouahL Lhe AŦAŦAŦ unwlse
and re[olced aL Lhe Supreme CourL declslonŦ 8uL even Lhev would admlL LhaL lL ls cerLalnlv noL Lhe [ob nor Lhe rlahL of
Lhe Supreme CourL Lo [udae Lhe wlsdom or Lhe foollshness of lawsŦ 1haLţ supposedlvţ ls Conaress' buslnessŦ 1he
CourLţ as lL has proclalmed counLless Llmesţ can onlv declde wheLher a law ls consLlLuLlonalŦ Pere ls whvţ accordlna
Lo Lhe Supreme CourLţ Lhe AŦAŦAŦ was unconsLlLuLlonalť
lL used federal Lax monev Lo accompllsh an unconsLlLuLlonal purposeŦ WhaL was LhaL? lederal reaulaLlon of farmersŦ
Whv ls federal reaulaLlon of farmers unconsLlLuLlonal? 8ecause reaulaLlon of farmers ls excluslvelv Lhe rlahL of Lhe
sLaLesŦ Whv? 8ecause of Lhe aeneral prlnclple LhaL Lhe federal aovernmenL ls a aovernmenL of llmlLed powers (sLrlcL
consLrucLlon)ţ because of Lhe loundlna laLhers (ves?)ţ and speclflcallv because Lhe 1enLh AmendmenL reserves Lo
Lhe sLaLes Lhose powers noL deleaaLed Lo Lhe federal aovernmenLŦ Wellţ lsn'L one of Lhe powers deleaaLed Lo Lhe
federal aovernmenL Lhe power Lo collecL Laxes (andţ obvlouslvţ spend Lhem) Lo promoLe Lhe aeneral welfare?
CranLedŦ 1hen whv lsn'L Lhe AŦAŦAŦţ wheLher vou llke lL or noLţ an exerclse of LhaL powerŤ or do vou mean LhaL alvlna
bounLles Lo cerLaln farmers does noLţ ln vour [udamenLţ promoLe Lhe aeneral welfare? ºnoţ" sald Lhe CourLţ ºwe are
noL now requlred Lo ascerLaln Lhe scope of Lhe phrase ºaeneral welfare of Lhe unlLed SLaLes' or Lo deLermlne
wheLher an approprlaLlon ln ald of aarlculLure falls wlLhln lLŦ" 1hen whvţ ln heaven's nameţ lsn'L Lhe AŦAŦAŦ perfecLlv
consLlLuLlonal as a Lax Lo promoLe Lhe aeneral welfareţ whlch vou aranL Conaress has Lhe rlahL Lo enacL? 8ecause lL
uses Lhe Lax monev Lo accompllsh an unconsLlLuLlonal purposeţ namelvţ federal reaulaLlon of farmersŦ
And Lhere saL Lhe Supreme CourL aL Lhe end of lLs oplnlonţ exacLlv where lL had sLarLedţ afLer one of Lhe mosL perfecL
examples of araulnaŴlnŴaŴclrcle LhaL anv courL has ever lndulaed lnŦ 8uL plenLv of lona words and solemnŴspoken
prlnclples of Law aave Lhls clrcular reasonlna an alr of areaL depLh and respecLablllLvŦ AfLer allţ Lhe CourL was onlv
paLlenLlv explalnlna LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon clearlv forbade Conaress Lo enacL Lhe AŦAŦAŦ Anv lawverţ aL leasLţ would
undersLandŦ
looe 22 of 65

AnoLher power alven Lo Lhe federal aovernmenL bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls Lhe power Lo reaulaLe lnLersLaLe commerceŦ
8ecause LhaL power ls aranLed verv speclflcallv and plalnlvţ manv of Lhe mosL lmporLanL federal sLaLuLes are
fashloned around lLŦ 8uL vou can'L aeL bv Lhe Supreme CourL LhaL easllvţ when Lhe CourL ls ouL Lo lav down
ConsLlLuLlonal LawŦ
When Conaress Lrled Lo dlscouraae chlld labor bv forblddlna Lhe shlpmenL of Lhlnas made bv chlld labor ln lnLersLaLe
commerceţ Lhe CourL calmlv sald tls ls no reaulaLlon of lnLersLaLe commerceŦ lL's [usL a nasLv old lnvaslon of sLaLes'
rlahLs and lL's unconsLlLuLlonalŦ 1here wereţ of courseţ aeneral prlnclples whlch ºconLrolledŦ" When Conaress Lhen
puL a hlah Lax on chlld laborţ flaurlna LhaL lL sLlll reLalned Lhe power Lo levv Laxes aL leasLţ Lhe CourL sald tls ls no LaxŤ
lL's a reaulaLlon and lL's sLlll unconsLlLuLlonalŦ ln so savlnaţ Lhe CourL convenlenLlv lanored Lhe facL LhaL lL had
prevlouslv leL Conaressţ bv exacLlv Lhe same devlce of a hlah Laxţ puL an effecLlve sLop Lo Lhe lssuance of sLaLe bank
noLes and Lo Lhe sale of vellow oleomaraarlne (whlch was passed off as buLLer) and Lo Lhe lnLersLaLe shlpmenL of
oplum and oLher narcoLlcsŦ ln Lhose casesţ presumablvţ Lhe ºconLrolllna" prlnclples were dlfferenLŦ
lL lsţ moreoverţ worLh noLlclna Ŷ as lndlcaLlna Lhe Lremendous power of Lhose nlne anolnLed lawvers Ŷ LhaLţ desplLe
efforLs Lo amend Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ chlld labor sLlll flourlshes ln Lhls counLrv more Lhan LwenLv vears laLerţ [usL
because Lhe CourL once sald LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon proLecLs Lhe sacred rlahL Lo emplov chlld labor aaalnsL anv
nefarlous aLLempLs bv Conaress Lo lnLerfere wlLh LhaL rlahLŦ And slmllarlv lL Look almosL LwenLv vears before Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon was amended Lo allow a federal lncome Laxţ afLer Lhe CourL had solemnlv flaured ouLţ Lhrouah a serles
of absLracLlons Loo lnvolved Lo be recounLed hereţ LhaL Lhe orlalnal ConsLlLuLlon forbade Conaress Lo Lax clLlzens'
lncomesŦ
lL was under Lhe CourL's ºlnLerpreLaLlon" of whaL Lhe lnLersLaLe commerce clause dld oot mean LhaL such new ueal
laws as Lhe naLlonal lndusLrlal 8ecoverv AcL and Lhe Cuffev Coal AcL meL Lhelr deaLhŦ lL seems Lhere are Lwo
prlnclplesŦ Cne ls LhaL Conaress mav reaulaLe anvLhlna LhaL affecLs lnLersLaLe commerce dlrecLlvŦ 1he oLher ls LhaL
Conaress mav noL reaulaLe anvLhlna LhaL affecLs lnLersLaLe commerce onlv lndlrecLlvŦ Cf courseţ Lhere ls noL a word
ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLself abouL dlrecL or lndlrecL effecLs on lnLersLaLe commerce buL LhaL does noL keep Lhose effecLs
from belna a verv vlLal conslderaLlon ln ConsLlLuLlonal LawŦ
Applvlna Lhese prlnclplesţ Lhe CourL sald LhaL worklna condlLlons ln companles dolna lnLersLaLe buslness affecLed
lnLersLaLe commerce onlv lndlrecLlvŦ So lL was perfecLlv apparenL LhaL Lhe nŦlŦ8ŦAŦ and Lhe Cuffev Coal AcLţ boLh of
whlch made bold Lo reaulaLe Lhose worklna condlLlonsţ were downrlahL unconsLlLuLlonalŦ 8uL bv Lhe Llme Lhe
Waaner Labor AcL came alona a couple of vears laLerţ worklna condlLlons ln companles dolna lnLersLaLe buslness had
suddenlv acqulred a dlrecL effecL on lnLersLaLe commerceţ and so a law reaulaLlna Lhose condlLlons was perfecLlv
consLlLuLlonalŦ 1he relevanL prlnclples of ConsLlLuLlonal Law remalnedţ of courseţ unchanaedŦ lL was merelv LhaLţ Lhls
Llmeţ a dlfferenL prlnclple was ºconLrolllnaŦ"
1here wasţ moreoverţ a second reason whv Lhe nŦlŦ8ŦAŦ was unconsLlLuLlonal Ŷ for Lhe CourL ls noL alwavs conLenL Lo
klll a law wlLh one shoL of ConsLlLuLlonal prlnclpleŦ 1he second reason ls especlallv lnLeresLlna because lL lnvolves one
of Lhose chunks of ConsLlLuLlonal Law LhaL ls noL even remoLelv derlved from anvLhlna wrlLLen ln Lhe documenL LhaL
mosL people Lhlnk of as Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1he CourL [usL made Lhls up all bv lLselfŦ
1he baslc prlnclple LhaL Lhe CourL made up ls LhaL Conaress mav noL deleaaLe or hand over anv of lLs lawmaklna
power Lo anvone elseŦ now lL ls clear LhaL lf Lhls prlnclple were reallv followed Lhere wouldn'L be anv unlLed SLaLes
aovernmenLŦ All Lhe Lhousands of rules and reaulaLlons and ordersţ llLLle laws everv one of Lhemţ LhaL are formulaLed
dav afLer dav bv everv branch of Lhe aovernmenL Ŷ bv Lhe commlsslonsţ llke Lhe lnLersLaLe Commerce Commlsslon
and Lhe lederal 1rade Commlsslonţ bv Lhe deparLmenLsţ all Len of Lhemţ and bv Lhe branches and bureaus of Lhe
deparLmenLsţ llke Lhe ÞaLenL Cfflce and Lhe CoasL Cuard and Lhe resL Ŷ all Lhese rules and reaulaLlons would have Lo
be passed bv Conaress lLselfŦ lL ls onlv because Conaress has alwavs deleaaLed Lhe laraesL parL of lLs lawmaklna
powerţ afLer lavlna down Lhe broadţ aeneral ouLllnes of a lawţ LhaL Lhe federal aovernmenL has been able Lo funcLlon
aL allŦ
8uL Lhe Supreme CourLţ as mlahL be expecLedţ has an answer Lo all LhlsŦ lL ls ln Lhe form of subŴprlnclple or excepLlon
Lo Lhe prlmarv prlnclpleŦ lL ls LhaL Conaress mav deleaaLe Lo oLher people Lhe power Lo flll ln Lhe deLalls of a lawţ buL
noL Lhe power reallv Lo moke a lawŦ 1haL leLs ouL all Lhe commlsslons and Lhe deparLmenLs and Lhe resLţ and
looe 2J of 65

doubLless leLs Conaress breaLhe a loL easlerŦ 8uL when Lhe nŦlŦ8ŦAŦ came up for revlewţ desplLe Lhe facL LhaL
Conaress had cerLalnlv passed Lhe lawţ andţ as usualţ fllled numerous paaes wlLh lLs wrlLLen provlslonsţ Lhe CourL
sald Conaress was handlna over lLs lawŴmaklna power Lo Lhe keepers of Lhe 8lue LaaleŦ Whv Lhe 8ecoverv
AdmlnlsLraLlon was reallv mokloo laws whereas Lhe naLlonal Labor 8oardţ for lnsLanceţ ls merelv fllllna deLallsţ onlv
Lhe Supreme CourL knows and lL won'L LellŦ lL ls much Loo busv expoundlna ConsLlLuLlonal lowŦ
Þerhaps Lhe besLŴknown of Lhose pleces of Lhe PlahesL Law of Lhe Land LhaL Lhe CourL has manufacLured ouL of
eLhereal loalc wlLh no help aL all from Lhe words of Lhe documenL ls Lhe plece LhaL deals wlLh Lhe federal
aovernmenL Laxlna Lhe sLaLe aovernmenLs and vlce versaŦ lL all sLarLed wlLh Chlef !usLlce ,arshall's famous bromlde
LhaL ºLhe power Lo Lax lnvolves Lhe power Lo desLrovŦ" 1hereforeţ araued ,arshallţ wlLh hls CourL chlmlna lnţ we
can'L have Lhe sLaLes lavlna Laxes on Lhe properLv or Lhe acLlvlLles or Lhe bounds or Lhe emplovees of Lhe federal
aovernmenL and we can'L have Lhe federal aovernmenL levvlna Laxes on Lhe sLaLes elLherŦ lor lf we allowed such
Laxesţ one of our aovernmenLs mlahL lnsldlouslv desLrov Lhe oLherŦ Lven lf Lhere lsn'L anvLhlna abouL lL ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonţ such Laxes are unconsLlLuLlonalŦ As a maLLer of prlnclpleŦ
lL developedţ as lL alwavs doesţ LhaL Lhere were subŴprlnclplesŦ 1he CourL dlscovered one Lo Lhe effecL LhaL Lhe
federal aovernmenLţ whlle lL could noL Lax Lhe ºaovernmenLal funcLlons" of Lhe sLaLe aovernmenLsţcoolJ Lax Lhe
ºnonŴaovernmenLal funcLlons" of Lhe sLaLe aovernmenLs Ŷ whlch mav sound confuslna Lo a nonŴlawver ln LhaL lL ls
hard Lo Lhlnk of someLhlna done bv a aovernmenL belna nonŴaovernmenLalţ buL whlch was perfecLlv clear Lo Lhe
Supreme CourLŦ Alsoţ whlle a ºdlrecL" Lax levled bv a sLaLe on someLhlna connecLed wlLh Lhe federal aovernmenL was
all wronaţ an ºlndlrecL" Lax was all rlahLŦ nowţ for some reason wruna from Lhe meLaphvslcal reaches of
ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ Lhe CourL conslders an lnherlLance Lax an ºlndlrecL" LaxŦ 1herefore anv sLaLe can slap on a Lax
when a man dles and leaves hls federal bonds Lo hls wlfeŦ 8uL slnce an lncome Lax ls a ºdlrecL" Laxţ no sLaLe can Lax
Lhe man Ŷ or hls wlfe elLher Ŷ on Lhe lncome he makes from Lhose federal bondsŦ Þresumablv Ŷ aolna back Lo Lhe
prlmarv prlnclple Ŷ such a Lax mlahL desLrov Lhe federal aovernmenLŦ
1he correspondlna lmmunlLv of sLaLe bonds from Lhe federal lncome Lax ralses veL anoLher quesLlonŦ Can vou
necessarllv chanae Lhe Supreme CourL's noLlons abouL ConsLlLuLlonal Law even bv amendlna Lhe ConsLlLuLlon?
ApparenLlv noLŦ lor Lhe lncome Lax amendmenL aave Conaress Lhe power Lo Lax lncomes ºfrom whaLever source
derlvedŦ" 1he words could scarcelv be plalner or sLronaerţ and parL of Lhe reason for wrlLlna Lhem ln was Lo puL an
end Lo Lhe lmmunlLv rule so far as Lhe federal lncome Lax was concernedŦ 8uL Lhe CourL sLlll savs LhaL lL ls
unconsLlLuLlonal for Lhe federal aovernmenL Lo Lax Lhe lncome from sLaLe bondsŦ 1husţ Lhe unwrlLLen plece of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon LhaL Lhe CourL dlscovered all bv lLself carrles more welahL wlLh Lhe CourL Lhan Lhe wrlLLen words of Lhe
documenLŦ
llnallvţ Lhere was Lhe Llme Lhe CourL was called upon Lo declde Lhe dellcaLe quesLlon wheLher Lhe salarles of federal
[udaes could be Laxed under Lhe federal lncome LaxŦ 1he [udaes were noL parL of anv stoteaovernmenLţ so Lhev could
noL come ln under Lhe muLual lmmunlLv ruleŦ 8uL Lhere was anoLher openlnaŦ 1he ConsLlLuLlon savs LhaL Lhe salarles
of federal [udaes mav noL be reduced whlle Lhe [udaes are ln offlceŦ Ahaţ sald Lhe CourLŤ Lo make us pav an lncome
Lax on our salarles Lhe wav evervbodv else does would clearlv be jost Lhe same Lhlna as maklna us Lake a salarv cuLŦ
And LhaLţ obvlouslvţ would be unconsLlLuLlonalŦ Cf courseţ Lhere was sLlll LhaL llLLle phrase ln Lhe amendmenL Ŷ
abouL lncomes ºfrom whaLever source derlvedŦ" 8uL bv a sLranae reversal of cusLomarv reasonlnaţ Lhe CourL seemed
Lo feel LhaL Lhe old noŴsalarvŴcuLs clause amended Lhe amendmenL lnsLead of vlce versaŦ Aaalnţ doubLlessţ a maLLer
of prlnclpleŦ
So runs ln brlef Lhe sLorv of how ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ Lhe PlahesL Law of Lhe Land ls lald down bv Lhe Supreme CourL
of Lhe LandŦ Pere ls 1he Law aL lLs besLŤ here are Lhe lawvers aL Lhelr mosL dlsLlnaulshedţ Lhelr mosL powerfulŦ SLlll
comparlna plles of absLracLţ lndeclslveţ and laraelv lrrelevanL prlnclples as Lhouah Lhev were maLchlna pennles on a
sLreeL cornerŦ SLlll draplna ln Lhe lonalloquenL lanauaae of a aenerallzed loalc Lhe answers Ŷ some aoodţ some bad Ŷ
Lo speclflc soclal problemsŦ And purposlna all Lhe whlle Lo be applvlna Lhe commands and prohlblLlons of Lhe uŦSŦ
ConsLlLuLlonŦ no wonder Charles Lvans Puahesţ lona before he became Lhe Supreme CourL's Chlef !usLlceţ once
blurLed ouL wlLh a blunLness LhaL ls rare ln lawvers" Ŷ ºWe are under a ConsLlLuLlonţ buL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls whaL Lhe
[udaes sav lL lsŦ"
looe 24 of 65

And of course Lhe [udaes Lhemselvesţ as could scarcelv fall Lo occur when Lhe rules of Lhe aame are so vaaueţ are
forever dlsaareelna abouL whaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lsŦ Lverv manŴonŴLheŴsLreeL has heard of flveŴfour declslons and
dlssenLlna oplnlonsŦ 8uL a dlssenLlna oplnlonţ Lhouah lL mav make lLs auLhor feel a loL beLLer for havlna wrlLLen lLţ ls
ln essence no more Lhan a crlLlcal and occaslonallv llLerarv essavŦ WhaL ls sald bv Lhe flve or slx or seven or elahL
[usLlces who voLed Lhe oLher wav ls 1he LawŦ lL ls [usL as much 1he Law so far as LhaL case ls concerned as lf Lhe
declslon had been unanlmousŦ
1hus lL can happen Ŷ and has ofLen happened Ŷ LhaL one maţ one [udaeţ holds Lhe ºmeanlna" of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln
hls handsŦ 1hls posslblllLv was never more sLrlklnalv lllusLraLed Lhan whenţ less Lhan a vear afLer Lhe CourL called a
new ?ork mlnlmum waae law for women unconsLlLuLlonalţ lL called a WashlnaLon sLaLe mlnlmum waae law for
women consLlLuLlonal Ŷ all because one manţ !usLlce 8oberLsţ voLed on Lhe oLher sldeŦ lL seems LhaL Lhe new ?ork
sLaLuLe deprlved emplovers of Lhelr properLv wlLhouL due process of law and Lherefore vlolaLed Lhe lourLeenLh
AmendmenLţ whereas Lhe almosL ldenLlcal WashlnaLon sLaLuLe was a proper exerclse of Lhe sLaLe pollce power and
Lherefore dldn'L vlolaLe anvLhlnaŦ Cf courseţ lL was noL Lhe prlnclplesţ Lhe baslc Lawţ LhaL chanaed wlLh !usLlce
8oberLs' mlndŦ lL was merelv LhaL ln one caseţ one prlnclple was ºconLrolllna"Ť ln Lhe oLher caseţ lL aave wav Lo a
dlfferenL prlnclpleŦ
And lL ls worLh repeaLlnaţ and rememberlnaţ LhaL Lhe alleaed loalc of ConsLlLuLlonal Law ls equallv amorphousţ
equallv unconvlnclnaţ equallv slllv wheLher Lhe declslons Lhe CourL ls handlna down are ºaood" or ºbadţ"
ºproaresslve" or ºreacLlonarvţ" ºllberal" or ºllllberalŦ" 1he prlnclples under whlch Lhe WashlnaLon mlnlmum waae
sLaLuLe was blessed had no more Lo do wlLh Lhe problemţ or wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ Lhan Lhose under whlch Lhe new
?ork mlnlmum waae sLaLuLe was damnedŦ 1he Waaner Labor AcL was called consLlLuLlonal for no more solld reasons
Lhan Lhose for whlch Lhe AarlculLural Ad[usLmenL AcL was called unconsLlLuLlonalŦ lreedom of Lhe press ln Loulslana
was defended bv loalc no less farŴfeLched Lhan LhaL whlch upheld Lhe freedom Lo emplov chlld laborŦ no maLLer ln
whlch dlrecLlon Lhe leaal wand ls wavedţ Lhe hocusŴpocus remalns Lhe sameŦ
1here ls one more prlnclple of ConsLlLuLlonal Law LhaL ls worLh menLlonlnaţ alLhouah lL has been raLher sadlv
nealecLedŦ lL ls LhaL anv lawţ sLaLe or federalţ ls enLlrelv proper and valld unless clearlv and unmlsLakablv forbldden
bv Lhe words of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 8uL Lhenţ lf Lhls prlnclple were reaularlv followedţ Lhere would noL be much use for
anv of Lhe oLher prlnclplesŦ 1here would noL be much ConsLlLuLlonal Law elLherŦ
CnAÞ1Lk V
NC 1Ak CN MAk
º'lf te low sopposes totţ´ solJ MtŦ 8ombleŧţ
´te low ls o ossţ o lJlotŦ´´ Ÿ Charles ulckens
ln case anvone should suppose LhaL Lhe exalLed acme of Lhe lawvers' arL known as ConsLlLuLlonal Law can noL
posslblv be so unconvlnclnaţ so lnepLţ so slllv as a qulck summarv of Supreme CourL loalc perhaps makes lL soundţ lL
mlahL noL be Loo bad an ldea Lo Lake one of Lhe CourL's ukases abouL LheŴConsLlLuLlonŴandŴwhaLŴlLŴreallvŴmeansţ and
alve LhaL ukaseţ or oplnlonţ a Lhorouah aolnaŴoverŦ 1he sub[ecL of Lhls llLLle experlmenL ln vlvlsecLlon wlll be a case
known Lo Lhe lawvers as Senlor vŦ 8radenŦ lL was declded bv Lhe Supreme CourL ln Lhe sprlna of 1933Ŧ
noţ Senlor vŦ 8raden was noLţ of courseţ chosen aL randomŦ lL lsţ for a Supreme CourL oplnlonţ merclfullv shorLŦ lL
lnvolves Lhe CourL's favorlLe consLlLuLlonal sprlnaboardţ Lhe aood old ºdue process" clause of Lhe lourLeenLh
AmendmenLŦ lL reveals Lhe CourL aL lLs mosL leaallsLlcţ lLs mosL vacuousţ lLs mosL unsubsLanLlal Ŷ Lhouah for LhaL
purpose anv one of a Lhousand cases mlahL have served equallv wellŦ
lurLhermoreţ Senlor vŦ 8raden was noL a unanlmous declslonŤ lL was a slxŴLhree declslonŦ 8uL Lhe exlsLence of a
dlssenL ln anv case lnvolvlna ºlnLerpreLaLlon" of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon has beenţ for some Llme nowţ Lhe rule raLher Lhan
Lhe excepLlonŦ And Lhe dlssenLţ be lL rememberedţ doesn'L counL anvwavŦ 1he ma[orlLv oplnlon ls 1he Lawţ Lhe
aospel Ŷ so much so LhaL even Lhe dlssenLlna [udaes musL accepL lLţ as wlLh Senlor vŦ 8raden Lhev have accepLed lLţ
when Lhe case ls used as Lhe basls of leaal araumenL ln Lhe fuLureŦ
looe 25 of 65

ln shorLţ Senlor vŦ 8raden ls Lodav an lnLearal and respecLable parL of 1he Law of Lhe Land as seL forLh bv Lhe Lop
crafLsmen of Lhe professlonŦ Pereţ Lhenţ lnLerspersed wlLh an almosL llLeral LranslaLlon of each paraaraph lnLo nonŴ
leaal lanauaaeţ and wlLh a few perLlnenL (or mavbe lmperLlnenL) commenLsţ ls Lhe Supreme CourL's oplnlon ln Senlor
vŦ 8radenŦ Pana on Lo vour haLsť Ÿ
º!anuarv 1ţ 1932 Ŷ Lax llsLlna dav Ŷ secLlon 3328Ŵ1ţ Lhe Chlo Ceneral Code provlded LhaL all lnvesLmenLs and oLher
lnLanalble properLv of persons resldlna wlLhln Lhe sLaLe should be sub[ecL Lo LaxaLlonŦ SecLlon 3323 so deflned
'lnvesLmenL' as Lo lnclude lncorporeal rlahLs of a pecunlarv naLure from whlch lncome ls or mav be derlvedţ lncludlna
equlLable lnLeresLs ln lands and renLs and rovalLles dlvlded lnLo shares evldenced bv Lransferable cerLlflcaLesŦ SecLlon
3638 lmposed upon producLlve lnvesLmenLs a Lax amounLlna Lo 3 per cenLum of Lhelr lncome vleldŤ and secLlon 3389
deflned 'lncome vleld' so as Lo lnclude Lhe aaareaaLe lncome pald bv Lhe LrusLee Lo Lhe holderţ eLcŧŦ"
(under Chlo lawţ anvone who llved ln Chlo and owned sLocks or bonds or such had Lo pav a Lax of 3Ʒ on Lhe lncome
from Lhemţ even lf he aoL Lhe lncome Lhrouah a LrusLee or keeperŴofŴLheŴproperLvŴforŴhlmŦ)
ºAppellanL owned Lransferable cerLlflcaLes showlna LhaL he was beneflclarv under seven separaLe declaraLlons of
LrusLţ and enLlLled Lo sLaLed porLlons of renLs derlved from speclfled parcels of land Ŷ some wlLhln Chloţ some
wlLhouLŦ Cn accounL of Lhese beneflclal lnLeresLs he recelved $2ţ231Ŧ29 durlna 1931ŧŦ"
(1he man who brouahL Lhls case up Lo Lhe Supreme CourL Ŷ and bv wav of lnLroducLlonţ Lhrouah no courLesv of Lhe
CourLţ meeL ,ax Senlor Ŷ had some pleces of paper showlna he had a sLake ln seven ploLs of landţ ln Chlo and
elsewhereŦ Pls sLake was worLh over $2ţ000 Lo hlm ln one vearŦ)
º1he Lax offlcers of PamllLon CounLvţ where appellanL resldedţ LhreaLened Lo assess Lhese beneflclal lnLeresLsţ and
Lhen Lo collecL a Lax of 3Ʒ of Lhe lncome LherefromŦ 1o prevenL Lhlsţ he lnsLlLuLed sulL ln Lhe Common Þleas CourLŦ
1he peLlLlon asked LhaL secLlon 3323ţ Ceneral Codeţ be declared unconsLlLuLlonal and LhaL appellees be resLralned
from Laklna Lhe LhreaLened acLlonŦ 1he Lrlal courL aranLed Lhe rellef as pravedŤ Lhe CourL of Appeals reversedţ and lLs
acLlon was approved bv Lhe Supreme CourLŦ"
(1he local LaxŴcollecLors Ŷ one of whomţ lncldenLallvţ was named 8raden Ŷ Lrled Lo aeL one hundredŴodd dollars ouL
of ,axŦ Pe Ŷ Lhrouah hls lawverţ naLurallv Ŷ clalmed Lhe ConsLlLuLlon proLecLed hls hundredŴodd dollarsţ Look Lhe
case Lo courLţ and aoL llcked Ŷ so farŦ)
ºWlLh commendable franknessţ counsel admlL LhaL under Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL Lhe sLaLe has 'no power Lo Lax
land or lnLeresLs ln land slLuaLe bevond lLs bordersŤ nor has lL power Lo Lax land or lnLeresLs ln land slLuaLe wlLhln Lhe
SLaLe ln anv oLher manner Lhan bv unlform rule accordlna Lo valueŦ' ConsequenLlvţ Lhev sav 'lf Lhe properLv of
appellanLţ whlch Lhe appellees seek Lo Lax ln Lhls caseţ ls land or lnLeresL ln land slLuaLe wlLhln or wlLhouL Lhe SLaLeţ
Lhelr acLlon ls unconsLlLuLlonal and should be permanenLlv en[olnedŦ'"
(1he lawvers for Lhe sLaLe of Chlo sav Ŷ wlLh a sorL of doubleŴdare ln Lhelr Lone Ŷ LhaL lf Lhe CourL should bv anv
chance call Lhls a Lax on landţ Lhen Lhev alve upŦ 1hev know LhaL Lhe CourL won'L leL Chlo Lax land lnţ savţ WesL
vlralnlaŤ LhaL anv such aLLempL would be labeled a Laklna of properLv wlLhouL due process of law ln vlolaLlon of Lhe
lourLeenLh AmendmenLŦ And Ŷ sLlll wlLh a doubleŴdare Ŷ Lhev're wllllna Lo Lhrow up Lhe whole case and admlL LhaL
Chlo can'L even Lax Chlo land ln Lhls wav Ŷ lf Lhls ls a Lax on landŦ ŶnoLlceţ lncldenLallvţ LhaL hereţ ln a raLher casuallv
phrased reference Lo some of Lhe lawvers' araumenLsţ ls Lhe onlv menLlon of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL ln Lhe
whole oplnlonŦ)
º1he valldlLv of Lhe Lax under Lhe federal ConsLlLuLlon ls challenaedŦ Accordlnalv we musL ascerLaln for ourselves
upon whaL lL was laldŦ Cur concern ls wlLh reallLlesţ noL nomenclaLureŦ ,offlLL vŦ kellvţ 218 uŦSŦ 400ţ 404ţ 403Ť
,acallen CoŦ vŦ ,assachuseLLsţ 279 uŦSŦ 6230ţ 623ţ 626Ť LducaLlonal lllms CorporaLlon vŦ Wardţ 282 uŦSŦ 379ţ 387Ť
Lawrence vŦ SLaLe 1ax Commlsslon 286 uŦSŦ 276ţ 280Ŧ lf Lhe Lhlna here souahL Lo be sub[ecLed Lo LaxaLlon ls reallv an
lnLeresL ln landţ Lhen bv concesslon Lhe proposed Lax ls noL permlsslbleŦ 1he suaaesLlon LhaL Lhe record dlscloses no
federal quesLlon ls wlLhouL merlLŦ"
looe 26 of 65

(1hls ls a serlous maLLer because somebodv brouahL up Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1herefore weţ Lhe Supreme CourLţ are
aolna Lo have Lo make up our own mlnds wheLher Lhls ls a Lax on land or noLŦ As we've sald aL leasL four Llmes before
Ŷ and lf vou don'L belleve usţ here's where Lo look lL up Ŷ vou can'L fool us wlLh wordsŤ we wanL Lo know whaL's
reallv aolna onŦ 8uL lf we declde Lhls ls a Lax on landţ Lhen we Joo´t have Lo boLher Lo make up our own mlnds
wheLher Lhe ConsLlLuLlon forblds lLŤ we're perfecLlv wllllna Lo Lake Lhe lawvers' word on LhaL llLLle maLLerŦ And
lncldenLallvţ Lhe ldea LhaL Lhls mlahL noL be anv buslness of ours aL all ls beneaLh serlous conslderaLlonŦ)
º1hree of Lhe parcels of land llL ouLslde ChloŤ four wlLhlnŤ Lhev were severallv conveved Lo LrusLeesŦ 1he declaraLlon
of LrusL relaLlve Lo Lhe ClarkŴ8andolph 8ulldlna SlLeţ Chlcaaoţ ls Lvplcal of Lhose ln respecL of land bevond ChloŤ Lhe
one coverlna LasL SlxLh sLreeL properLvţ Clevelandţ ls Lvplcal of Lhose where Lhe land lles ln Chloţ excepL Llncoln lnn
CourLţ ClnclnnaLlŦ Lach parcel has been assessed for cusLomarv Laxes ln Lhe name of leaal owner or lessee accordlna
Lo local lawţ wlLhouL deducLlon or dlmlnuLlon because of anv lnLeresL clalmed bv appellanL and oLhers slmllarlv
slLuaLlonŦ"
(1o ao back Lo ,ax Senlor and hls proflLs Ŷ each plece of land he had a sLake ln was belna kepL and manaaedţ for all
Lhe people who had sLakes ln lLţ bv anoLher fellowŦ Alsoţ each plece of land had been soaked for Lhe reaular local
properLv Laxesţ reaardless of Lhe facL LhaL a loL of people were maklna monev ouL of lLŦ)
º1he LrusL cerLlflcaLes severallv declareť Ÿ 1haL ,ax Senlor has purchased and pald for and ls Lhe owner of an
undlvlded 340/1273 lnLeresL ln Lhe Llncoln lnn CourL properLvŤ LhaL he ls realsLered on Lhe books of Lhe LrusLee as
Lhe owner of 3/3230 of Lhe equlLable ownershlp and beneflclal lnLeresL ln Lhe Clark 8andolph 8ulldlna SlLeţ ChlcaaoŤ
LhaL he ls Lhe owner of 6/1030 of Lhe equlLable ownershlp and beneflclal lnLeresL ln Lhe LasL SlxLh sLreeL properLvţ
ClevelandŦ ln each declaraLlon Lhe LrusLee underLakes Lo hold and manaae Lhe properLv for Lhe use and beneflL of all
cerLlflcaLe ownersŤ Lo collecL and dlsLrlbuLe amona Lhem Lhe renLsŤ and ln case of sale Lo make pro raLa dlsLrlbuLlon
of Lhe proceedsŦ Whlle cerLlflcaLes and declaraLlons varv ln some deLallsţ Lhev represenL beneflclal lnLeresLs whlchţ
for presenL purposesţ are noL subsLanLlallv unllkeŦ Lach LrusLee holds onlv one plece of land and ls free from conLrol
bv Lhe beneflclarlesŦ 1hev are noL [olned wlLh lL ln manaaemenLŦ See PechL vŦ ,allevţ 263 uŦSŦ 144ţ 147Ŧ"
(1he leaal lanauaae of Lhe documenLs under whlch frlend ,ax holds hls sLake ln Lhese ploLs of land all refer Lo hlm as
Lhe owner of someLhlnaŦ Pe doesn'Lţ howeverţ own a llLLle chunk of anv of Lhe ploLs ln Lhe sense LhaL he could ao
and bulld a fence around lL and slL LhereŦ Pe hasn'L even anvLhlna Lo sav abouL Lhe wav lL's runŦ All he aeLs ls hls
share of Lhe proflLs when Lhev come lnŦ Ŷ ºCur concernţ" rememberţ ºls wlLh reallLlesţ noL nomenclaLureŦ")
º1he sLaLe malnLalns LhaL appellanL's lnLeresL ls 'a specles of lnLanalble personal properLv conslsLlna of a bundle of
equlLable choses ln acLlon because Lhe provlslons of Lhe aareemenLs and declaraLlons of LrusL of record hereln have
lndellblv and unequlvocallv sLamped LhaL characLer upon lL bv alvlna lL all Lhe quallLles Lhereof for purposes of Lhe
manaaemenL and conLrol of Lhe LrusLsŦ AL Lhe Llme Lhe LrusLs were creaLedţ Lhe lnLeresLs of all Lhe beneflclarles
conslsLed merelv of a conaerles of rlahLs eLcŦţ and such was Lhe lnLeresL acqulred bv appellanL when he became a
parLv LhereLoŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ 1he rlahLs of Lhe beneflclarv conslsL merelv of clalms aaalnsL Lhe varlous LrusLees Lo Lhe pro raLa
dlsLrlbuLlon of lncomeţ durlna Lhe conLlnuance of Lhe LrusLsţ and Lo Lhe pro raLa dlsLrlbuLlon of Lhe proceeds of a sale
of Lhe LrusL esLaLes upon Lhelr LermlnaLlonŦ'"
(Chloţ ouL Lo collecL lLs Laxţ clalms LhaL slnce ,ax noL onlv can'L puL a fence around anv of Lhe land ln quesLlon buL
hasn'L even anvLhlna Lo sav abouL Lhe wav Lhe land ls runţ he doesn'L own anvLhlna buL a chance of aeLLlna proflLs lf
Lhere are anvŦ Ŷ ºOot concern ls wlLh reallLlesţ noL nomenclaLureŦ")
ºAppellanL submlLs LhaL ownershlp of Lhe LrusL cerLlflcaLe ls evldence of hls lnLeresL ln Lhe landţ leaal LlLle Lo whlch
Lhe LrusLee holdsŦ 1hls vlew was deflnlLelv accepLed bv Lhe ALLornev Ceneral of Chlo ln wrlLLen oplnlons nosŦ 3640
and 3869 (Cplnlons 1926ţ ppŦ 373ţ 328) whereln he clLes perLlnenL declaraLlons bv Lhe courLs of Chlo and of oLher
sLaLesŦ Seeţ alsoţ 2 ClnclnnaLl Law 8evŦ 233Ŧ"
(,ax clalms LhaLţ slnce he has some pleces of paper and collecLs monev on Lhemţ he musL own someLhlna ln Lhe wav
of landţ even Lhouah he admlLs LhaL leaallv Lhe fellows who run Lhe land for hlm are supposed Lo own lLŦ Some exŴ
ALLornev Ceneral of Chlo once aareed wlLh Lhls ldea ln a aeneral wav and as applled Lo someone elseŦ Ŷ ºAccordlnalv
we musLţ" rememberţ ºascerLaln fot ootselves upon whaL lL Ŷ Lhe Lax Ŷ was laldŦ")
looe 27 of 65

º1he Lheorv enLerLalned bv Lhe Supreme CourL concernlna Lhe naLure of appellanL's lnLeresLs ls noL enLlrelv clearŦ
1he followlna excerpLs are from Lhe headnoLes of lLs oplnlon whlch ln Chlo consLlLuLe Lhe law of Lhe caseť"
(Lven weţ Lhe Supreme CourL of Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ can'L make much sense ouL of Lhe leaal lanauaae ln whlch Lhe
Supreme CourL of Chlo Lold whaL lL LhouahL ,ax Senlor ownedŦ 1rv some of lL vourselfť)
º 'Land LrusL cerLlflcaLes ln Lhe followlna LrusLs (Lhe seven descrlbed above)ţ are mere evldences of exlsLlna rlahLs Lo
parLlclpaLe ln Lhe neL renLals of Lhe real esLaLe belna admlnlsLered bv Lhe respecLlve LrusLsŦ' "
(WhaL ,ax owns ls noLhlna bv Lhe rlahL Lo collecL some of Lhe proflLsŦ Ŷ noL so hardţ was lLţ afLer some of Lhe uŦSŦ
Supreme CourL's own lanauaaeŦ)
º 'Ascrlblna Lo such cerLlflcaLes all posslble vlrLueţ Lhe holder Lhereof ls aL besL Lhe owner of equlLable lnLeresLs ln
real esLaLe dlvlded lnLo shares evldenced bv Lransferable cerLlflcaLesŦ SecLlon 3323ţ Ceneral Code (114 Chlo Lawsţ pŦ
713)ţ does noL provlde for a Lax aaalnsL Lhe equlLable lnLeresLs ln landţ buL does provlde a Lax aaalnsL Lhe lncome
derlved from such equlLable lnLeresLsŦ'"
(SLlll Lhe Chlo Supreme CourL Lalklnať Ÿ Lven lf we were Lo admlL LhaL ,ax does own someLhlna ln Lhe wav of landţ
Chlo lsn'L ouL Lo Lax whaLever lL ls LhaL ,ax ownsŤ Chlo ls Laxlna Lhe lncome ,ax made ouL of lLŦ)
ºApparenLlv no oplnlon of anv courL deflnlLelv accepLs Lhe Lheorv now advanced bv appelleesţ buL some wrlLers do
alve lL approval because of supposed consonance wlLh aeneral leaal prlnclplesŦ 1he confllcLlna vlews are elaboraLed
ln arLlcles bv Þrofessor ScoLL and uean SLone ln 17 Columbla Law 8evlew (1917) aL ppŦŦ 269 and 467Ŧ"
(8ack Lo Lhe uŦSŦ Supreme CourL nowť Ÿ 1he sLaLe's ldea LhaL all ,ax owns ls Lhe rlahL Lo aeL proflLs has neverţ so far
as we knowţ been sancLlfled as 1he Law bv anv courL anvwhere Ŷ perhaps because ºwe" couldn'L undersLand whaL
Lhe Chlo Supreme CourL sald ln Lhls verv caseŦ We admlL LhaL mere lawvers and law Leachers have plaved wlLh Lhe
ldeaţ lncludlna one of our own auausL numberţ lona before whaL he LhouahL made anv dlfference so far as 1he Law
was concernedŦ Ŷ noLeţ Looţ Lhe reference Lo ºaeneral leaal prlnclplesŦ")
º,aaulre vŦ 1refrvţ 233 uŦSŦ 12ţ much relled upon bv appelleesţ does noL supporL Lhelr poslLlonŦ 1here Lhe
,assachuseLLs sLaLuLe underLook Lo Lax lncomesŤ Lhe securlLles (personalLv) from whlch Lhe lncome arose were held
ln LrusL aL ÞhlladelphlaŤ lncome from securlLles Laxable dlrecLlv Lo Lhe LrusLee was noL wlLhln Lhe sLaLuLeŦ 1he oplnlon
accepLed and followed Lhe docLrlne of 8lacksLone vŦ ,lllerţ 188 uŦSŦ 189ţ and lldellLv Ǝ Columbla 1rusL CoŦ vŦ
Loulsvllleţ 243 uŦSŦ 34Ŧ 1hose cases were dlsapproved bv larmers' Loan Ǝ 1rusL CoŦ vŦ ,lnnesoLaţ 280 uŦSŦ 204Ŧ 1hev
are noL ln harmonv wlLh Safe ueposlL Ǝ 1rusL CoŦ vŦ vlralnlaţ 280 uŦSŦ 83ţ and vlews now accepLed here ln respecL of
double LaxaLlonŦ See 8aldwln vŦ ,lssourlţ 281 uŦSŦ 386Ť 8eldler vŦ SouLh Carollna 1ax Commlsslonţ 282 uŦSŦ 1Ť llrsL
naLlonal 8ank vŦ ,alneţ 284 uŦSŦ 312Ŧ"
(1he sLaLe of Chlo has Lrled Lo Lhrow our own words back aL us bv remlndlna us of a case ln whlch we once sald LhaL
lL was perfecLlv all rlahL for a sLaLe Lo Lax a manţ who llved ln Lhe sLaLeţ on profLs LhaL came Lo hlm Lhrouah someone
who was keeplna properLv for hlm ln anoLher sLaLeŦ 8uL LhaL case was reallv qulLe dlfferenLŦ Cne of Lhe dlfferences
was LhaL ln LhaL caseţ Lhe Lax was on lncomeŦ Ŷ And hereţ bv preLLv deflnlLe lmpllcaLlonţ Lhe CourL seems Lo be
savlnaţ for Lhe onlv Llme ln Lhe whole oplnlonţ LhaL Lhe Chlo Lax ls oot a Lax on ,ax's lncomeŦ Ŷ Anvwavţ Lhe
ºconLrolllna" prlnclples of LhaL case don'L conLrol anv lonaerţ as we've sald ln several cases slnce LhenŦ 1he prlnclple
LhaL usuallv conLrols Lhese davs ls LhaL ls we see anvLhlna aeLLlna Laxed Lwlceţ lL's probablv unconsLlLuLlonalŦ)
ºln 8rown vŦ lleLcherţ 233 uŦSŦ 389ţ 399ţ we had occaslon Lo conslder Lhe clalm LhaL a beneflclal lnLeresL ln a LrusL
esLaLe amounLs Lo a chose ln acLlon and ls noL an lnLeresL ln Lhe tesţ sub[ecL of Lhe LrusLŦ 1hrouah ,r !usLlce Lamar
we Lhere saldť"
(1o aeL back Lo Lhe real problemţ whlch ls whaL does ,ax Senlor own anvwavţ somebodv else once asked us Lo
decldeţ as a aeneral prlnclpleţ wheLher a man who makes monevţ ouL of properLv LhaL ls belna kepL and manaaed for
hlmţ owns onlv Lhe rlahL Lo aeL monevţ or wheLher he sorL of owns some of Lhe properLvŦ 1hls ls whaL we Ŷ meanlna
Lhe nlne lawvers who Lhen made up Lhe Supreme CourLţ mosL of Lhem now belna dead Ŷ had Lo savť)
looe 28 of 65

º 'lf Lhe LrusL esLaLe conslsLed of landţ lL would noL be clalmed LhaL a deed convevlna sevenŴLenLhs lnLeresL Lhereln
was a chose ln acLlon wlLhln Lhe meanlna of secLlon 24 of Lhe !udlclal CodeŦ lf Lhe funds had been lnvesLed ln
Lanalble personal properLvţ Lhere lsţ as polnLed ouL ln Lhe 8ushnell case (8ushnell vŦ kennedvţ 9 WallŦ 387ţ 393)ţ
noLhlna ln SecLlon 24 Lo prevenL Lhe holderţ bv vlrLue of a blll of saleţ from sulna for Lhe ºrecoverv of Lhe speclflc
Lhlnaţ or damaaes for lLs wronaful capLlon or deLenLlonŦ" And lf Lhe funds had been converLed lnLo cashţ lL was sLlll
so far properLv Ŷ ln facL lnsLead of ln acLlon Ŷ LhaL Lhe ownerţ so lona as Lhe monev reLalned lLs earmarksţ could
recover lL or Lhe properLv lnLo whlch lL can be Lracedţ from Lhose havlna noLlce of Lhe LrusLŦ ln elLher caseţ and
whaLever lLs formţ LrusL properLv was held bv Lhe LrusLeeţ noL ln opposlLlon Lo Lhe cestol ooe LrusLţ so as alve hlm a
chose ln acLlonţ buL ln possesslon for hls beneflLţ ln accordance wlLh Lhe Lerms of Lhe LesLaLor's wlllŦ Ÿ "
(lf a man wlLh some land LhaL was belna held for hlm bv somebodv else should Lransfer parL of hls sLake ln Lhe land
Lo a Lhlrd personţ no one would be fool enouah Lo clalm LhaL Lhe plece of paper lnvolved ln Lhe Lransfer was a ºchose
ln acLlon" Ŷ a ºchose ln acLlon" belnaţ rouahlvţ a plece of paper LhaL enLlLles lLs owners Lo cerLaln rlahLsţ lncludlna
usuallv Lhe rlahL Lo collecL monev from someone Ŷ ln Lhe sense LhaL Lhe words ºchose Lo acLlon" are used ln one
secLlon of Lhe federal sLaLuLe LhaL Lells Lhe federal courLs how varlous klnds of lawsulLs should be handledŦ lfţ lnsLead
of landţ lL had been aoods or cash LhaL was belna heldţ and someone had swlped Lhe aoods or Lhe cashţ Lhen Lhe
man wlLh a sLake ln Lhem could brlna a lawsulL Lo aeL Lhe sLuff backŦ AL anv raLeţ whoever mlahL have been holdlna
Lhe properLv for whoever had a sLak eln lL wouldţ ln LruLhţ have been holdlna Lhe properLv for whoever had a sLake
ln lLŦ Ŷ And [usL ttv Lo flaure ouL whaL anv of Lhlsţ whaLever lL meansţ has Lo do wlLh ,ax Senlor and Lhe Lax he
doesn'L wanL Lo pavŦ)
º '1he beneflclarv here had an lnLeresL ln and Lo Lhe properLv LhaL was more Lhan a bare rlahL and much more Lhan a
chose ln acLlonŦ lor he had an admlLLed and recoanlzed flxed rlahL Lo Lhe presenL en[ovmenL of Lhe esLaLeţ wlLh a
rlahL Lo Lhe corpus lLeself when he reached Lhe aae of 33Ŧ Pls esLaLe ln Lhe properLv Lhus ln Lhe possesslon of Lhe
LrusLeeţ for hls beneflLţ Lhouah defeaslbleţ was allenable Lo Lhe same exLenL as Lhouah ln hls own possesslon and
passed bv deedŦ Pam vŦ van Crdenţ 84 nŦ?Ŧ 237ţ 270Ť SLrlnaer vŦ ?ounaţ 1rusLeeţ 191 nŦ?Ŧ 137ţ 83 nŦLŦ 690Ť Lawrence
vŦ 8avardţ 7 Þalae (nŦ?Ŧ) 70Ť Woodward vŦ Woodwardţ 16 nŦ!Ŧ LqŦ 83ţ 84Ŧ 1he lnsLrumenL bv vlrLue of whlch LhaL
allenaLlon was evldenced Ŷ wheLher called a deedţ a blll of saleţ or an asslanmenL Ŷ was noL a chose ln acLlon pavable
Lo Lhe asslaneeţ buL an evldence of Lhe asslanee's rlahLţ LlLleţ and esLaLe ln and Lo properLvŦ'"
(1he man who was havlna some properLv held for hlm ln Lhls case Ŷ namelvţ Lhe case LhaL had been declded 13Ŵ20
vears before Ŷ owned someLhlna more Lhan a ºchose ln acLlonŦ" 1hls fellowţ as a maLLer of facLţ had Lhe rlahL Lo anv
proflLs from Lhe properLv LhaL was belna held for hlm and also Lhe rlahL LoL ake over Lhe properLv lnLo hls own hands
when he reached a respecLable aaeŦ Pe also had a perfecL rlahL Lo sell hls rlahLs Ŷ andţ apparenLlvţ he had done [usL
LhaLŦ 1he paper LhaL represenLed Lhe sale of Lhese rlahLs was noL a ºchose ln acLlon"Ť lL was proof LhaL Lhe man who
bouahL Lhe rlahLs now had cerLaln rlahLs ln Lhe properLv ln quesLlonŦ)
º1he docLrlne of 8rown vŦ lleLcher ls adequaLelv supporLed bv courLs and wrlLersŦ narraaanseLL ,uLual llre lnsŦ CoŦ
vŦ 8urnhamţ 31 8ŦlŦ 371ţ 134 ALlŦ 909Ť 8aLes vŦ uecree of !udae of ÞrobaLe 131 ,eŦ 176ţ 160 ALlŦ 22Ť 8oaerLţ
Pandbook of Lhe Law of 1rusLsţ 430Ť 3 Þomerov LqulLv !urlsprudence lourLh LdŦţ 1928ţ secŦ 973ţ pŦ 2117Ť 17
Columbla Law 8evlewţ 269ţ 289Ŧ We flnd no reason for deparLlna from lLŦ"
(!udaes and oLhers have from Llme Lo Llme aareed wlLh Lhe aeneral prlnclples [usL quoLedŦ So do weŦ)
º1he challenae [udamenL musL be
8eversedŦ"
(1hereforeţ ,ax Senlor Ŷ remember hlm? Ŷ doesn'L have Lo pav hls LaxŦ)
And LhaLţ ladles and aenLlemenţ ls Lhe oplnlon of Lhe Supreme CourL of Lhe unlLed SLaLes ln Lhe case of Senlor vŦ
8radenŦ
* * * * *
looe 29 of 65

ln order Lo flnd ouL whaL Lhe Supreme CourL was Lalklna abouL Ŷ and also whaL lL wasn'L boLherlna Lo Lalk abouL Ŷ ln
Lhe case of Senlor vŦ 8radenţ lL ls necessarv Lo ao back a llLLle lnLo Lhe aeneral prlnclples of ConsLlLuLlonal Law LhaL
presumablv ºconLrolled" Lhe declslonŦ 1hev sLarL ln Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL Ŷ desplLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
lourLeenLh AmendmenL plaved verv llLLle parL ln Lhe CourL's oplnlonŦ And of course Lhev sLarL ln Lhe ºdue process"
clauseŦ
1he prlmarv prlnclple lnvolved ls Lo Lhe effecL LhaL when a sLaLe Lrles Lo Lax someLhlna whlch lL has no º[urlsdlcLlon"
Lo Laxţ LhaL amounLs Lo an aLLempL Lo deprlve somebodv of properLv wlLhouL due process of lawŦ lnasmuch as
º[urlsdlcLlon" meansţ looselvţ ºpowerţ" such a rule seems noL Loo unreasonableŦ AL leasLţ lL seems noL Loo
unreasonable once vou have swallowed Lhe CourL's hablL of uslna Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL for oLher purposes
Lhan Lhe proLecLlon of nearoesţ and oLhersţ aaalnsL unfalr crlmlnal LrlalsŦ 8uL obvlouslv LhaL leaves lL enLlrelv up Lo
Lhe Supreme CourL Lo declde whaL a sLaLe has power or º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax and whaL lL hasn'L power or
º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo LaxŦ And ln Lhe course of decldlnaţ Lhe CourL has lald down a loL of subŴprlnclples whlch alve
º[urlsdlcLlon" a speclalţ lf someLlmes lndeflnlLeţ meanlnaŦ
1he flrsL subŴprlnclple ls LhaL a sLaLe has no º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax land ouLslde lLs bordersŦ And LhaL Ŷ reaardless of
whaL relaLlon lL has or hasn'L Lo Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL Ŷ seems emlnenLlv senslble and falrŦ lL also seems
emlnenLlv polnLlessŦ lor new Pampshlreţ for lnsLanceţ would no more Lrv Lo slap a properLv Lax on a farm ln lowa
Lhan Lhe unlLed SLaLes would Lrv Lo Lax a ranch ln AraenLlnaŦ 1here wouldn'L be anv wav of collecLlna Lhe Lax and no
sLaLe would be ldloLlc enouah Lo LrvŦ
8uLţ sLarLlna from LhaL falrţ lf polnLlessţ prlnclpleţ Lhe CourL has araduallv bullL up oLher prlnclples abouL whaL a sLaLe
has or hasn'L º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo LaxŦ A loL of properLv Lodavţ llke sLocks and bonds and lŦCŦu's and morLaaaes and LrusL
cerLlflcaLesţ ls noL so solld and sLaLlonarv as landţ and soţ occaslonallvţ dlfferenL sLaLes Lrv Lo Lax LhaL klnd of properLv
aL Lhe same Llme and Lhe owners of Lhe properLv don'L llke lLŦ 1he Supreme CourL has obllalnalv enshrlned ln 1he
Law varlous compllcaLed subŴprlnclples Lelllna whlch sLaLes have º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax LhaL klnd of properLv and whlch
haven'LŦ And Lhese º[urlsdlcLlon" rules have been carrled overţ wlLh reflnemenLs and excepLlonsţ Lo oLher klnds of
Laxes Lhan properLv Laxes Ŷ especlallv Lo lnherlLance LaxesŦ
Where lnherlLance Laxes are concernedţ Lhe CourL has lald down Lhe prlnclple LhaL lf Lwo sLaLes Lrv Lo Lax Lhe
Lransfer of Lhe same properLv aL Lhe deaLh of lLs ownerţ Lhen lnvarlablv one of Lhe sLaLes has no º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax
LhaL Lransfer Ŷ even Lhouah Lhe owner mav have llved ln one sLaLe and kepL Lhe properLv ln anoLherŦ 1hls ls whaL Lhe
Supreme CourL was Lalklna abouL ln Senlor vŦ 8raden when lL menLloned ºvlews now accepLed here ln respecL of
double LaxaLlon" and named several casesŦ All Lhe cases named dealL elLher wlLh lnherlLance Laxesţ or else wlLh Lhe
appllcaLlon of varlous subŴprlnclples of Lhe º[urlsdlcLlon" rule Lo properLv Laxes on oLher klnds of properLv Lhan landŦ
1he sLaLe of Chloţ noL unnaLurallvţ had assumed LhaL all Lhese cases had verv llLLle Lo do wlLh Lhe problem ln Senlor
vŦ 8radenŦ 1he sLaLe of Chlo LhouahL lL was araulna abouL an lncome Laxţ slnce Lhe Lax lL was Lrvlna Lo collecL from
,ax Senlor was compuLed bv Laklna 3Ʒ of parL of hls lncomeŦ And Lhe Supreme CourL had never before sLreLched
anv of lLs º[urlsdlcLlon" rules so far as Lo sLop a sLaLe form Laxlna Lhe lncome of someone who llved ln Lhe saLeŦ 1haL
ls whv Lhe sLaLe of Chlo LhouahL Lhe case of ,aaulre vŦ 1refrvţ whlch allowed an lncome Lax verv much llke Lhe Lax
on ,ax Senlorţ wasţ even Lhouah olderţ more Lo Lhe polnL Lhan all Lhe lnherlLance Lax and properLv Lax cases Lhe
CourL namedŦ
1he CourLţ howeverţ seemed Lo sav LhaL Lhe prlnclples of ,aaulre vŦ 1refrv were no lonaer ºconLrolllna" because Lhe
lnherlLance Lax and properLv Lax cases declded slnce Lhen had made oLher prlnclples more lmporLanL Ŷ even for
lncome LaxesŦ 8uL as a maLLer of facLţ Lhe CourL seemed Lo foraeL whaL lL had declded ln an even more recenL case
called Lawrence vŦ SLaLe 1ax Commlsslon Ŷ alLhouah Lhe Lawrence case was acLuallv menLloned ln Lhe oplnlonţ ln
anoLher connecLlonŦ lor ln Lawrence vŦ SLaLe 1ax Commlsslonţ whlch dealL wlLh an lncome Laxţ Lhe prlnclples of
,aaulre vŦ 1refrv had been followed as perfecLlv aood LawŦ ln shorLţ Lhe CourL had heldţ even afLer lavlna down Lhe
prlnclples LhaL llmlLed sLaLe º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax ln Lhe lnherlLance Lax and properLv Lax cases namedţ LhaL lL was
qulLe all rlahL Ŷ and no vlolaLlon of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL Ŷ for a sLaLe Lo Lax Lhe lncome of someone who llved
ln Lhe sLaLeŦ
looe J0 of 65

Soţ ln order Lo make anv sense aL all ouL of Senlor vŦ 8radenţ Lhe Supreme CourL musL have been savlna LhaL Lhe Lax
on ,ax Senlor woso´t an lncome Lax buL a properLv LaxŦ And lndeed Lhe CourL lmplled as much ln lLs oplnlon and has
sald soţ deflnlLelvţ slnceŦ
now as evervbodv knowsţ a properLv Lax ls unlversallv consldered Lo be a Lax measured bv Lhe value of Lhe properLv
and collecLed everv vear wheLher Lhe owner makes proflLs ouL of Lhe properLv or noLŦ 1he Lax on ,ax Senlor was
measured bv hls proflLsţ and lf Lhere hadn'L been anv proflLs Lhere wouldn'L have been anv LaxŦ 8uL LhaL llLLle
pracLlcal maLLer dldn'L sLop Lhe Supreme CourL from calllna lL a properLv Lax anvwavŦ
1he CourL's excuse presumablv was (and noLlce how ofLen vou have Lo auess whaL Lhe CourL means [usL Lo make lLs
declslon flL lLs own prlnclples of Law) LhaL Lhe Chlo lealslaLureţ ln wrlLlna Lhe Lax sLaLuLeţ had lnadverLenLlv labeled lL
a properLv Laxţ even Lhouah lL was measured bv lncomeŦ 1he facL LhaL Lhe Olo Supreme CourL had lanored Lhls sllp
and LreaLed Lhe Lax as whaLţ pracLlcallv speaklnaţ lL wasţ dldn'L phase Lhe uŦSŦ Supreme CourLŦ nor dld Lhe facL LhaL lL
ls sLrlcLlv Lhe buslness of Lhe Chlo courLs and no concern aL all of anv federal courL Lo ºlnLerpreL" Lhe sLaLuLes of
ChloŦ lor Lhe uŦSŦ Supreme CourL bllLhelv LreaLed Lhe Lax as a properLv Laxţ meanwhlle proclalmlnaţ vou mav
rememberţ ºCur concern ls wlLh reallLlesţ noL nomenclaLureŦ" ln ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ a rose bv anv oLher name does
noL alwavs smell so sweeLŦ
Lven aranLlna Lhenţ wlLh a aulpţ LhaL lL was a properLv Lax LhaL ,ax Senlor dldn'L wanL Lo pavţ whv had Chlo no
º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo collecL lL? lor one of Lhe cardlnal subŴprlnclples of Lhe º[urlsdlcLlon" rule ls LhaL a
sLaLe os º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo puL a properLv Lax on properLv owned bv someone who llves ln Lhe sLaLeţ lf LhaL properLvţ
lnsLead of belna land or aoodsţ conslsLs of pleces of paperţ such as sLocks or bondsţ whlch alve Lhe owner cerLaln
rlahLsŦ And surelv whaL ,ax Senlor owned was a few pleces of paperţ called LrusL cerLlflcaLesţ LhaL enLlLled hlm Lo
some of Lhe proflLs from seven ploLs of landţ on whlch he had no rlahL aL all Lo ao bulld a fenceţ or a houseŦ 1here ls
aL leasL no doubL LhaL lf ,ax had bouahLţ lnsLead of LrusL cerLlflcaLesţ shares of sLock ln a corporaLlon LhaL manaaed
ploLs of landţ [usL as Lhe LrusLees manaaed Lhe ploLs ,ax had a sLake lnţ Lhen Lhe sLaLe of Chlo could have Laxed
Lhose shares of sLocks wlLhouL Lhe Supreme CourL ralslna a flnaer Lo sLop lLŦ WhaL dlfference?
1he dlfferenceţ and Lhe onlv dlfferenceţ ls ln Lhe leaal wordlna of Lhe pleces of paper LhaL dld alve or mlahL have
alven ,ax a rlahL Lo Share ln Lhe proflLsŦ lf he had held shares of sLock he would have been noLhlna buL a
sLockholderŦ 8uL slnce he held LrusL cerLlflcaLesţ he wasţ ln leaal lanauaaeţ a ºcesLul que LrusLŦ" And belna a ºcesLul
que LrusL" Ŷ whlch onlv means someoneŴwhoŴLrusLsŴsomeoneŴelseŴLoŴholdŴproperLvŴforŴhlm Ŷ ,ax Senlor clalmed
he wasţ ln a senseţ Lhe owner of some of Lhe land LhaL was belna held for hlmŦ Pe clalmed he was Lhe owner of land
desplLe Lhe facL LhaL he had no rlahL whaLsoever Lo bulld a fence on Lhe land or Lo manaae lLţ buL onlv Lo collecL
some of Lhe proflLsŦ
lf lL was land LhaL ,ax owned (some of LhaL land belna ouLslde Chlo) and lf Lhe Lax Lhe sLaLe was Lrvlna Lo collecL was
a properLv Laxţ teoţ araued ,axţ Chlo has no º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo collecL Lhe LaxŦ lorţ bv Lhe verv flrsL subŴprlnclple of
Lhe º[urlsdlcLlon" ruleţ a sLaLe has no º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax land ouLslde lLs bordersŦ And soţ aL lona lasLţ appears Lhe
quesLlon Lo whlch Lhe Supreme CourL devoLed almosL lLs enLlre oplnlon ln Senlor vŦ 8radenţ Laklna Lhe problems and
prlnclples dlscussed Lhus far almosL enLlrelv for aranLedŦ 1he quesLlon was Lhlsť Ÿ uoes ,ax own landţ or does he
merelv own Lhe rlahLţ wrlLLen on some pleces of paperţ Lo aeL some of Lhe proflLs from cerLaln ploLs of land LhaL are
belna held bv somebodv else?
ln seeklna Lhe answer Lo Lhls quesLlonţ Lhe CourLţ desplLe lLs vaunLed ºconcern for reallLlesţ" pald no aLLenLlon
whaLsoever Lo Lhe pracLlcal seLŴup of Lhe buslness arranaemenL under whlch ,ax Senlor had collecLed $2ţ000 ln one
vearŦ lnsLeadţ Lhe CourL looked back Lo an old Supreme CourL case of almosL 20 vears beforeţ ln order Lo flnd a
aeneral prlnclpleŦ 1he case was 8rown vŦ lleLcherŦ ?eL lL happens LhaL Lhe problem presenLed and solved ln 8rown vŦ
lleLcher had noL Lhe remoLesL relaLlon Lo Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLţ Lo Laxes on landţ or Lo Laxes on anvLhlna elseŦ
1he problem of 8rown vŦ lleLcher was purelv a problem of Lhe proper leaal procedure ln Lhe federal courLs under Lhe
federal sLaLuLe aovernlna such procedureŦ 1he sLaLuLe denled Lhe prlvlleae of brlnalna sulL ln Lhe federal courLs Lo
cerLaln ºasslanees of chooses ln acLlon" Ŷ or people Lo whom had been Lransferred pleces of paper enLlLllna Lhelr
owners Lo cerLaln rlahLsŦ 1he cenLral characLer of 8rown vŦ lleLcher clalmed LhaL a plece of paper LhaL had been
Lransferred Lo hlm was oot a ºchose ln acLlon" and LhaL he wos prlvlleaed Lo sue ln Lhe federal courLsŦ (Pls plece of
looe J1 of 65

paperţ lncldenLallvţ Lhouah someLhlna llke ,ax Senlor's LrusL cerLlflcaLes ln lLs leaal lanauaaeţ aave hlm manv more
rlahLs Lhan ,ax Senlor ever aoL from Lhe LrusL cerLlflcaLesŦ) 1he Supreme CourL aareed LhaL Lhe paper was noL a
ºchose ln acLlon" and LhaL lLs owner was enLlLled Lo brlna sulL ln Lhe federal courLsŦ And LhaL was all 8rown vŦ
lleLcher amounLed LoŦ
ln Lhe course of decldlna Lhlsţ Lhe Supreme CourL wroLe Lhe Lwo lona and raLher lncomprehenslble paraaraphs LhaL
were quoLed verbaLlm ln Lhe Senlor vŦ 8raden oplnlonŦ And lL was on Lhe basls of Lhose Lwo paraaraphsţ as
expresslna a relevanL aeneral prlnclpleţ LhaL Lhe Supreme CourL of a aeneraLlon laLer concluded LhaL ,ax Senlor JlJţ
ln a senseţ own landţ and so could noL be Laxed bv Lhe sLaLe of ChloŦ
1husţ Lhe reasonlna of Lhe CourL ln Senlor vŦ 8raden bolls down Lo someLhlna llke Lhlsť Ÿ 1he nlne [udaes who held
our [obs almosL 20 vears aaoţ ln decldlna a problem of federal courL procedureţ expressed Lhe aeneral prlnclple LhaL
cerLaln pleces of paperţ alvlna Lhelr owner cerLaln rlahLsţ were noLţ Lechnlcallvţ ºchoses ln acLlonŦ" 1hereforeţ whaL
,ax Senlorţ whose LrusL cerLlflcaLes read someLhlna llke Lhose pleces of paperţ teollv owns ls landŦ Some of LhaL land
ls ouLslde ChloŦ Chlo ls Lrvlna Lo Lax some of Lhe proflLs ,ax Senlor made ouL of hls sLake ln LhaL landŦ 1he Laxţ even
Lhouah lL ls measured bv Lhe proflLs so LhaL lL works llke an lncome Laxţ ls called a properLv Lax ln Lhe sLaLuLeŦ
1herefore lL ls a properLv LaxŦ Slnce lL ls a properLv Lax lL ls a Lax on whaL ,ax Senlor ownsŦ 8uL whaL ,ax Senlor
reallv owns ls landţ some of lL ouLslde ChloŦ 1herefore Chlo ls Lrvlna Lo Lax land ouLslde ChloŦ 8uL we have a prlnclple
LhaL no sLaLe has º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax land ouLslde lLs own bordersŦ We also have a prlnclple LhaL a sLaLe Lax on
someLhlna whlch Lhe sLaLe has no º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax deprlves Lhe Laxpaver of hls properLv wlLhouL due process of
law and so vlolaLes Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLŦ 1hereforeţ Chlo's aLLempL Lo collecL a Lax from ,ax Senlor ls
forbldden bv Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ 1hereforeţ ,ax can keep hls hundredŴodd dollarsŦ
norţ lf vou can hold on [usL a llLLle lonaerţ ls LhaL all Lhere ls Lo Senlor vŦ 8raden Ŷ alLhouah lL ls all LhaL can be
explalned even bv Lhe clrcularţ lrrelevanL absLracLlons of leaal loalcŦ lor ,ax was allowed Lo keep everv cenL of Lhe
hundredŴodd dollars LhaL Chlo was Lrvlna Lo Lake from hlm ln LaxesŦ ?eL parL of Lhe land LhaL ,ax had a sLake ln was
noL ouLslde Chlo aL allŤ lL was lnslde ChloŦ So even lf lL was a properLv Laxţ and even lf whaL ,ax owned was reallv
landţ whv couldn'L Chlo Lax Lhe land lnslde lLs own borders? WhaL was unconsLlLuLlonal abouL LhaL?
1here lsn'L even a leaal answerŦ 1he Supreme CourL's º[urlsdlcLlon" prlnclples under Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL
allow Ŷ as Lhev would obvlouslv have Lo allow Ŷ a sLaLe Lo Lax lLs own landŦ 1rueţ Lhe Chlo land LhaL ,ax had a sLake
ln had alreadv been Laxed once LhaL vear under a reaular properLv LaxŦ Soţ conslderlna Lhe Lax ln Lhe case as a
properLv Laxţ LhaL made Lwo properLv Laxes on Lhe same landŦ 8uL Lhere ls noLhlna ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon LhaL forblds a
sLaLe Lo do LhaL lf lL wanLs LoŦ 1here ls noL even a Supreme CourL prlnclple LhaL forblds lLţ Lhe CourL's rule aaalnsL
double LaxaLlon applvlna onlv Lo LaxaLlon of Lhe same Lhlna bv Lwo sLaLesŦ 1he Olo consLlLuLlon mlahL well have
forbldden lLŦ 8uL Lhe [ob of savlna whaL Lhe Chlo consLlLuLlon forblds or doesn'L forbld lsţ ln leaal LradlLlonţ
excluslvelv Lhe [ob of Lhe Chlo courLsŦ And Lhe Supreme CourL of Chlo had sald LhaLţ so far as lL was concernedţ Lhe
Lax on ,ax Senlor was enLlrelv consLlLuLlonalŦ
Cf courseţ Lhere was LhaL doubleŴdare of Lhe sLaLe's lawvers ln Lhe caseţ Lo Lhe effecL LhaL lf Lhe Supreme CourL was
crazv enouah Lo call Lhe Lax a Lax on landţ Lhen Lhe CourL mlahL [usL as reasonablv Lhrow ouL Lhe whole LaxŦ
ApparenLlv whaL Lhe CourL dld was slmplv Lo Lake Lhe dare Ŷ desplLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhere was noL so much as a
shadow of even a leaal excuse for Lhrowlna ouL LhaL parL of Lhe Lax LhaL applled Lo Chlo landŦ 1hus noL onlv Lhe
lnaccuraLe lnLerpreLaLlon of a phrase of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ or Lhe lnvoklna of vaaue aeneral prlnclples abouL
º[urlsdlcLlon" or Lhe dependence on Lax nomenclaLure ln Lhe face of a conLradlcLorv reallLvţ or Lhe muddled lanauaae
of a case abouL someLhlna enLlrelv aparL from Lhe lssue LhaL was declded manv vears aao Ŷ noL onlv anv of Lhese buL
even Lhe foollsh bravado of a lawver Ŷ can serve as a foundaLlon on whlch Lhe Supreme CourL mav bulld a chunk of
ConsLlLuLlonal LawŦ
Pereţ ln mlnlaLureţ ls Lhe whole vasL sLrucLure of sacred abracadabra LhaL makes up Lhe PlahesL Law of Lhe LandŦ And
anv nonŴlawver wlLh half a braln ln hls headţ lf onlv he could peneLraLe Lhe smokeŴscreen of leaal lanauaaeţ would
recoanlze Lhe alleaed loalcţ noL onlv of Senlor vŦ 8raden buL of almosL anv Supreme CourL case vour could nameţ as
noLhlna more nor less Lhan an lnLellecLual fraudŦ 1he fraud mav have been more obvlous ln Senlor vŦ 8raden Lhan ln
mosLţ slmplv because Lhe manlpulaLlon of leaal llnao and loalc was more lnepL and clumsv Lhan usualŦ 8uL even
when Lhe nlne masLer [uaalers are worklna aL Lhelr smooLhesLţ lL requlres onlv a Lralned eve Lo see LhaL Lhose
looe J2 of 65

welahLv LhouahLs Lhev seem Lo be Losslna around are ln reallLv no more Lhan balloonsţ full of hoL alr and easllv
puncLuredŦ
And Lhe worsL of lL ls LhaL Lhe Supreme CourL Ŷ llke all courLs and all lawvers Ŷ ls all Lhe Llme deallna wlLh and seLLllna
pracLlcal problemsŦ 1here was a verv real problem ln sLaLe flnance lnvolved ln Senlor vŦ 8radenŦ 8v vlrLue of Lhe
CourL's declslonţ Chlo losL ln revenue noL onlv ,ax Senlor's hundredŴodd dollars buL Lhe Lhousands upon Lhousands
of dollars lL would oLherwlse have collecLed as Laxes from oLher Chloans who had been maklna monev Lhe same wav
,ax had been maklna monevŦ Should Chlo Lhen look Lo anoLher klnd of Lax Lo make up Lhe losL revenue? Cr should
lL amend Lhe old sLaLuLeţ call Lhe Lax an lncome Lax Lhls Llmeţ and hope LhaL Lhe Supreme CourLţ Lhree or four vears
laLer when a case aeLs LhaL farţ wlll be lmpressed bv Lhe label and hold Lhe sLaLuLe now consLlLuLlonal?
8eaardless of Lhe rlahL answerţ Lhe CourL's solemn conslderaLlon of Lhe Lvpe of properLv ,ax Senlor owned or dldn'L
own seems scarcelv perLlnenL Lo a soluLlon of Chlo's Ŷ or ,ax Senlor's Ŷ flscal dlfflculLlesŦ Lven lf Lhe CourL had
snapped LhaL Chlo was Laxlna lealLlmaLe lnvesLmenL Loo heavllv and ouahL Lo cuL down on lLs spendlna anvwav and
LhaLţ Lhereforeţ Lhe Lax under dlspuLe mlahL noL be collecLedţ such a declslonţ Lhouah hardlv [udlclal ln mannerţ
would aL leasL have made a areaL deal more common sense Lhan anv dlscusslon of ºchoses ln acLlon" and lnLeresLs ln
land and slmllar lrrelevanL amblauous absLracLlonsŦ
lurLhermoreţ Lhe laraer quesLlon whlch Lhe CourL has been aallv dlsposlna ofţ ln Lhe name of Lhe lourLeenLh
AmendmenLţ under lLs aeneral prlnclples abouL sLaLe º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax lnvolves an exLremelv pracLlcal problem
LooŦ lrom Lhe anale of Lhe sLaLe aovernmenLsţ Lhe problem ls slmplvť Ÿ now LhaL Lhe prople and companles and
properLv we have Lo collecL Laxes from ln order Lo keep runnlna are spreadlna Lhemselves over a dozen or 48 sLaLesţ
as mosL of Lhem are Lodavţ how are we suppposed Lo keep up wlLh Lhem and whaL klnd of Laxes can we lmpose on
Lhem wlLhouL elLher chaslna Lhem ouL of our reach enLlrelv or else aolna so easv on Lhem LhaL we don'L collecL
enouah monev Lo keep aolna? lrom Lhe anale of Lhe Laxpaversţ wheLher people or companlesţ Lhe problem ls
slmplvť Ÿ !usL because our buslness or our properLv spreads over a loL of sLaLesţ ls lL falr or rlahL LhaL everv one of
Lhose sLaLesţ or mosL of Lhemţ should soak us wlLh Lhe same klnd of Laxes so LhaL we have Lo pav LrlbuLe a dozen
Llmes for dolnaţ or ownlnaţ one Lhlna? WheLher lL ls lncome Laxesţ properLv Laxesţ or lnherlLance Laxes LhaL are
lnvolvedţ Lhe baslc pracLlcal problem ls Lhe sameŦ
1oward Lhe efflclenL soluLlon of LhaL problemţ Lhe Supreme CourL's º[urlsdlcLlon" prlnclples conLrlbuLeţ llLerallvţ
noLhlnaŦ A caLeaorlcal sLaLemenL LhaL Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL denles Lo anv sLaLe buL Lhe sLaLe of domlclle
(whaL ls domlclleţ who ls she Ŷ Lhese davs?) Lhe º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo lmpose an lnherlLance Lax on Lhe Lransfer of
lnLanalble properLv (when ls lnLanalble properLv noL lnLanalbleţ as wlLh ,ax Senlor's LrusL cerLlflcaLes?) mav sound
verv learnedŦ As mav Lhe rule LhaL acqulslLlon of a buslness slLe wlLhln a sLaLe bv lnLanalbles alves even a nonŴ
domlclllarv sLaLe º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo LaxŦ 8uL nelLher Lhe formulaLlon nor Lhe appllcaLlon of such prlnclples and Lhelr
subŴprlnclples and Lhe excepLlons sheds even Lhe dlmmesL llahL on Lhe baslc dlfflculLles of Lhe sLaLe aovernmenLs
and Lhe LaxpaversŦ
1he facL ls LhaL Lhe Supreme CourL has nelLher Lhe power nor Lhe ablllLv Lo flndţ for Lhe problem ln aovernmenL here
lnvolvedţ a Lhorouah or lnLelllaenL or workable soluLlonŦ Whlch facL does noL boLher Lhe CourL ln Lhe sllahLesL
deareeŦ lL [usL aoes merrllv on lavlna down and applvlna lLs slllv llLLle absLracL rules abouL º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo LaxŦ And
alvlna each of Lhose slllv llLLle rules as much poLencv and presLlae as lf lL had been adopLed bv Lhe people as an
amendmenL Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlonŦ
As ln Senlor vŦ 8radenţ so ln all Lhe º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax casesŦ 1he meaL of Lhe real problem ls passed bvŤ 1he Law
slnks lLs LeeLh lnLo Lhe fluff of absLracL loalcŦ As ln Lhe º[urlsdlcLlon" Lo Lax casesţ so ln all Lhe cases under Lhe ºdue
process" clause of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLŦ As ln Lhe cases under Lhe ºdue process" clause of Lhe lourLeenLh
AmendmenLţ so ln all ConsLlLuLlonal LawŦ As ln ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ so ln all Lhe lesser branches of leaal learnlnaŦ So ln
Lhe whole of 1he LawŦ And onlv Lhe solemn and mvsLlfvlna mumboŴ[umbo of leaal lanauaae keeps Lhe nonŴlawvers
form caLchlna onŦ
lor lnsLanceţ Lhe clLlzens who dlrecLlv and lndlrecLlv voLed Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenL lnLo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lo
proLecL Lhe rlahLs of Lhe nearoes [usL afLer Lhe Clvll War mlahL be a llLLle surprlsed Lo learn LhaL under 1he Law Lhev
had forbldden Lhe sLaLe of Chlo Lo collecL a Lax of one hundredŴodd dollars from ,ax SenlorŦ
looe JJ of 65

CnAÞ1Lk VI
1nL LAW AND 1nL LAD¥
ºwomeo oveţ commoolvţ o vetv posltlve motol
seoseŤ tot wlc tev wlllţ ls tlotŤ tot wlc
tev tejectţ ls wtoooŦ´ Ÿ Penrv Adams
1he lawvers have made such a compllcaLed mess ouL of Lhe wordŴaame Lhev call leaal reasonlna LhaL anv efforL Lo
dlssecL even a Llnv parL of LhaL reasonlna and show lL up for Lhe fake LhaL lL lsţ lnevlLablv makes Louah aolnaŦ ln a
senseţ LhaL facL has been Lhe lnLellecLual ,aalnoL Llne of 1he LawŦ ÞlenLv of people have lona suspecLed LhaL Lhe
lawvers wlLh Lhelr lona words were lndulalna ln noLhlna more nor less Lhan wholesale fllmflamţ buL when lL comes
down Lo Lrvlna Lo Lake Lhe fllmflamţ wlLh all lLs mvrlad Lrapplnasţ aparLţ people [usL can'L be boLheredŦ And even a
personallv conducLed Lour Lhrouah Lhe mlrror mazes of leaal loalc becomes Llrlna and confuslnaŦ
lL mavţ howeverţ be posslble Lo lndlcaLe someLhlna of Lhe fuLlllLv and lrrelevance of leaal processes merelv bv an
lmaalnarv appllcaLlon of Lhe leaal wav of seLLllna problems Lo a fleld ln whlch declslons are cusLomarllv made ln a
more dlrecL and efflclenL mannerŦ Supposeţ [usL for lnsLanceţ a housewlfe Ŷ bv repuLe one of Lhe more pracLlcal
specles of human belna Ŷ were Lo run her affalrs for a dav accordlna Lo Lhe leaal paLLern of prlnclplesţ counLerŴ
prlnclplesţ and concepLsŦ Suppose Ÿ
ln Lhe flrsL placeţ she would of course be auldedţ from afarţ bv a dlm and convenlenLlv amblauous ldeal of personal
[usLlceŦ She would be boLhered abouL dolna Lhe rlahL Lhlnaţ maklna Lhe rlahL declslonţ buL slnce she would be her
own Supreme CourLţ anvLhlna she dld would be rlahL Ŷ afLer she dld lLŦ 1he dlfflculLv would lle ln decldlna
beforehand whaL Lo do and whaL noL Lo doţ ln accordance wlLh Lhe lnexorable rules of her personal LawŦ
1haL Law would have Lwo prlmarv prlnclplesŦ 1he flrsL would be LhaL anvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls
rlahLŦ 1he second would be LhaL anvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls llkelvţ ln Lhe lona runţ Lo be wronaŦ Cf
courseţ Lhe Lwo prlnclples mlahL occaslonallv seem Lo confllcL ln Lhelr appllcaLlon Lo a speclflc facL slLuaLlonţ buL LhaL
would be of mlnor lmporLance slnce boLhţ ln Lhe absLracLţ would be enLlrelv valld leraal prlnclplesŦ Lachţ moreoverţ
would be buLLressed wlLh subŴprlnclples and subŴsubŴprlnclples whlch mlahL come ln handv ln maklna cerLaln sorLs
of declslonsŦ
1he ladv's dav bealnsŦ Per flrsL declslonţ obvlouslvţ ls wheLher Lo aeL up or lle ln bed a llLLle lonaerŦ She remembers
LhaL 1he Law ls LhaL anvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls rlahL and cerLalnlv lvlna ln bed seems presenLlv verv
deslrableŦ ?eL before rushlna Lo a snap [udamenLţ she musL dlspose of Lhe prlnclple whlch holds LhaL anvLhlna whlch
seems presenLlv deslrable ls llkelvţ ln Lhe lona runţ Lo be wronaŦ 1haL prlnclpleţ of courseţ has cerLaln excepLlons and
quallflcaLlonsŦ Cne ls Lo Lhe effecL LhaL anv acLlonţ or lnacLlonţ whlch seems presenLlv so deslrable LhaL a fallure Lo
lndulae Lhe deslre mav affecL Lhe dlsposlLlon over a perlod of hours wlllţ ln such clrcumsLancesţ be Lhe rlahL acLlonţ
or lnacLlonţ aL leasL lf LhaL perlod of hours ls Laken as conLrolllna for Lhe fuLureŦ Clearlvţ LhaL excepLlon now appllesŦ
?eLţ ln all falrnessţ Lhe ladv musL admlL LhaL Lhere ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe deslrableŴequalsŴrlahL ruleţ Lo Lhe effecL LhaL
Lhe denlal of whaLever seems deslrable mavţ bv lmparLlna a sense of noblllLvţ become deslrable ln lLs own rlahL and
Lherefore properŦ 1here seems Lo be a deadlockŦ lL wlll be a close declslonŦ
Þerhaps precedenL wlll helpŦ ?esLerdav Lhe ladv arose lmmedlaLelvŦ 8uL vesLerdav's declslon ls noL necessarllv
conLrolllna because vesLerdav Lhe sun was shlnlnaŤ Lodav ls an ualv davŦ Such a dlsparlLv ln Lhe relevanL facLs cannoL
falrlv be lanoredŦ 1he problem remalns unseLLledŦ
1hen Lhe ladv remembers LhaL she has an appolnLmenL wlLh her halrdresser LhaL mornlnaŦ ,anlfesLlvţ Lhls brlnas
lnLo plav Lhe wellŴrecoanlzed leaal ruleţ a subŴprlnclple of Lhe deslrableŴequalsŴrlahL prlnclpleţ LhaL appolnLmenLsţ
volunLarllv made and ln whlch Llme ls of lmporLanceţ musL be kepL on LlmeŦ 1he subŴsubŴprlnclple LhaL appolnLmenLs
volunLarllv made ln hasLe and laLer reareLLed need noL be kepL on Llme and Lhe subŴsubŴsubŴprlnclple LhaL
appolnLmenLs lnvolunLarllv made need noL be kepL aL all are boLh obvlouslv beslde Lhe polnL hereŦ 1he Lawţ flnallv
Lracked Lo earLhţ seems Lo decree LhaL Lhe ladv musL rlseŦ
looe J4 of 65

And so she aeLs upŦ noLţ of courseţ because she wanLs Lo keep an appolnLmenL wlLh her halrdresserŦ 8aLherţ because
all Lhe relevanL leaal prlnclples polnL Lo such a declslonŦ AnvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls rlahL Ŷ and she
wanLs Lo aeL her halr doneŦ AnvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls llkelv ln Lhe lona run Lo be wrona Ŷ and she
would sLlll llke Lo lle ln bed a llLLle lonaerŦ AnvLhlna so deslrable LhaL a fallure Lo lndulae Lhe deslre wlll affecL Lhe
dlsposlLlonţ ls rlahLţ ln aL leasL a llmlLed sense Ŷ and lf she doesn'L aeL her halr done Lodav she'll ao madŦ 1he denlal
of whaL seems deslrable can lmparL a sense of noblllLv whlch makes Lhe denlal proper Ŷ and she wlll lndeed feel
noble lf she aeLs rlahL upŦ AppolnLmenLs musL be kepL on Llme lf vou wanL Lo keep Lhem on Llme Ŷ and Lhe ladv ls
afrald her halrdresser would be unable Lo flL her ln laLerŦ ,oreoverţ vesLerdav's precedenLţ alLhouah noL here
conLrolllnaţ polnLs suaaesLlvelv Lo Lhe same declslonŦ 1here ls Lhus no doubL aL all abouL 1he Law of Lhe caseŦ And Lhe
declslon auLomaLlcallv follows 1he LawŦ
1he ladv's nexL Lwo problems are comparaLlvelv easvţ Lhelr answers dlcLaLed bv lona llnes of solld precedenLŦ Should
she boLher Lo brush her LeeLh? ?esţ because she has alwavs lnLerpreLed her Law LhaL wavţ under Lhe aeneral
prlnclple LhaL whaLever ls sald Lo be aood for Lhe healLh ls rlahLŦ Should she Lurn her hoL shower cold before she aeLs
ouL? noţ because she has alwavs lnLerpreLed her Law LhaL wavţ under Lhe aeneral prlnclple LhaL whaLever ls sald Lo
be aood for Lhe healLh ls llkelv Lo be undeslrable and Lhereforeţ bv slmple leaal loalcţ wronaŦ
1he cholce of a dress Lo wear downLownţ a cholce whlch narrows down Lo a pracLlcal black numberţ Lwo monLhs oldţ
and a brandŴnew blue and whlLe prlnLţ brlnas oLher leaal concepLs lnLo Lhe plcLureŦ 1here ls Lhe concepL of economv
Ŷ embodled ln Lhe prlnclple LhaL whaL ls economlcal ls rlahL and also ln Lhe subŴprlnclple LhaL whaL ls economlcal ln
Lhe shorL run ls probablv exLravaaanL ln Lhe lona run Ŷ and Lhls concepL seems Lo favor Lhe black dress whlch wlll noL
aeL dlrLv so easllvŦ 8uL Lhe concepL of smarLnessţ a Lvplcal leaal concepL ln LhaL lLs conLenLs and meanlna are
consLanLlv chanalna from Llme Lo Llme and from place Lo placeţ seems Lo favor Lhe blue and whlLe dressŦ
1he ladv's declslon ln Lhls maLLer ls [udlclal ln Lhe exLremeŦ She bows Lo Lhe paramounL prlnclple LhaL ln quesLlon of
dressţ whaLever ls smarL ls rlahLţ recoanlzlna as she does so LhaL Lhls ls one of her few rules of Law Lo whlch Lhere ls
almosL no excepLlonţ Lhe onlv leaal quesLlon whlch ever arlses concernlna lL belna whaL ls smarLŦ 8uL ln deference Lo
Lhe prlnclple of economvţ she deLermlnes Lo keep her dress clean bv rldlna downLown ln a Laxl lnsLead of on a sLreeL
carŦ ln Lhus reconclllna a confllcL beLween Lwo apparenLlv lrreconcllable prlnclplesţ Lhe ladv has dlsplaved her
masLerv of Lhe leaal processŦ
Cnce downLownţ Lhe ladv ls aware LhaL she has enLered a dlfferenL leaal [urlsdlcLlonŦ 1he same aeneral prlnclples
areţ ln Lhe malnţ sLlll aood Lawţ buL Lhelr lnLerpreLaLlon Lends Lo varvŦ lor lnsLanceţ whaL seems presenLlv deslrable ls
sLlll rlahL and whaL seems presenLlv deslrable ls sLlll llkelvţ ln Lhe lona runţ Lo be wronaţ veL Lhe quesLlon as Lo
whaL lspresenLlv deslrable lnvolves a areaLer emphasls on Lhe rule LhaL whaL oLher people belleve Lo be proper ls
deslrableţ and a correspondlnalv lesser lnslsLence on Lhe home rule LhaL whaL oLher people belleve Lo be proper ls
usuallv undeslrableŦ
1hus Lhe ladvţ afLer careful conslderaLlon of Lhe quesLlon wheLher Lo alve her halrdresser a aenerous Llp or merelv an
adequaLe Llpţ flnds Lhe soluLlon ln Lhe prlnclple LhaL whaL oLher people belleve Lo be proper ls deslrableţ especlallv
when ouLslde Lhe home [urlsdlcLlonŦ narrowlna down Lhls prlnclple so LhaL ºpeople" means ºperson" and ºperson"
refers Lo Lhe halrdresser Ŷ a slmple leaal deducLlon Ŷ she leaves a aenerous LlpŦ 1hls rullna ls also ln sLrlcL conformlLv
wlLh Lhe absLracL leaal ldeal of economvţ when consldered ln Lhe llahL of Lhe wellŴrecoanlzed leaal LeneL LhaL whaL ls
economlcal ln Lhe shorL run ls probablv exLravaaanL ln Lhe lona runŤ clearlv Lhe halrdresser mlahL do a careless [ob on
her nexL Llme lf she lefL a sLlnav LlpŦ
AL lunchţ Lhe ladv ls confronLed wlLh Lhe problem wheLher Lo order or refraln from orderlna a rlch pasLrv desserLŦ
Pereţ Lhe prlmarv prlnclple concernlna deslrablllLv and Lhe secondarv prlnclples concernlna whaL ls sald Lo be
healLhv appear Lo be boLh coaenL and confllcLlnaŦ 8uL onlv on Lhe surfaceţ of courseŦ 8eachlna lnLo Lhe recesses of
her leaal svsLemţ Lhe ladv recalls LhaL Lhere ls a perLlnenL and useful corollarv Lo Lhe subŴprlnclple LhaL Lhe denlal of
whaLever seems deslrable mavţ bv lmparLlna a sense of noblllLvţ become deslrable and Lherefore rlahLŦ 1he corollarv
ls Lo Lhe effecL LhaL whaLever seems deslrable buL noL Loo deslrable mav be denled wlLh areaLer lmpunlLv Lhan
whaLever seems exLremelv deslrableţ slnce Lhe sense of noblllLv lmparLed bv Lhe denlal depends on Lhe denlal lLself
and noL on Lhe dearee of deslrablllLv of LhaL whlch ls deslredŦ Accordlnalvţ Lhe ladv passes up Lhe creamŴpuffŦ
looe J5 of 65

1he ladv's luncheon companlon ls aolna shopplnaŦ Wlll Lhe ladv come alona? ueclslonţ of courseţ musL be dlcLaLed
noL bv whlm buL bv LawŦ lL ls 1he Law LhaL Lo wasLe Llme ls wronaŦ lL lsţ furLherţ 1he Law LhaL Lo devoLe oneself Lo
Lrlvlal maLLers when lmporLanL maLLers demand aLLenLlon ls Lo wasLe Llme Ŷ and varlous household chores awalL Lhe
ladv aL homeŦ ?eL lL ls an accepLed rule LhaLţ ouLslde Lhe home [urlsdlcLlonţ household chores Lake on Lhe color of
LrlvlallLvŦ 1he excepLlon Lo Lhls ruleţ LhaL household chores assume exLreme lmporLanceţ especlallv ouLslde Lhe home
[urlsdlcLlonţ ln Lhe face of an unwanLed lnvlLaLlonţ ls clearlv lnappllcable hereŦ lurLhermoreţ Lhere exlsLs an equlLable
prlnclpleţ frequenLlv supersedlna Lhe more rlald rules of Lawţ LhaL accommodaLlon Lo Lhe requesLs of oLhers mav be
properţ pet seŦ 1he ºpet se" seLLles lLŦ
ln Lhe course of Lhe shopplnaţ Lhe ladv sees a haLŦ She does noL need Lhe haL buL she llkes lL and wanLs Lo own lLŦ
ueclslon here ls exLraordlnarllv slmple Ŷ ln llne wlLh baslc leaal prlnclplesŦ 1he obvlouslv relevanL prlnclple has Lhe
sancLlLv of consLlLuLlonal docLrlne and lnvolves one of Lhe mosL sacred of clvll llberLlesŦ lor freedom of conLracL mav
noL under anv clrcumsLances nor under anv aulse of pseudoŴleaallLv be denledŦ All Lhe precedenLs and Lhe enLlre
hlsLorv of her personal Law polnL unswervlnalv Lo Lhe concluslon LhaL fallure Lo purchase a becomlna haL amounLs Lo
no less Lhan an lnfrlnaemenL of conLracLŦ 1he decree ln Lhe case ls Lherefore auLomaLlcŦ
And so lL aoesŦ 1hrouahouL Lhe davţ Lhe ladv's problemsţ ma[or and mlnorţ are sub[ecLed Lo a svsLem of absLracL and
solemnŴsoundlna prlnclples whlch for her make up 1he LawŦ ueclslon ln each case ls made ln sLrlcL accordance wlLh
Lhose prlnclplesŦ ln facLţ Lhe prlnclples dlcLaLe Lhe proper answersŦ
llnallvţ afLer dlnnerţ Lhe quesLlon arlses wheLher Lhe ladv and her husband should ao Lo Lhe movles or should
lnsLead sLav home and llsLen Lo Lhe radlo and ao Lo bed earlvŦ She wanLs Lo ao Lo Lhe movlesŦ Per husband wanLs Lo
sLav homeŦ 8uL clearlv her husband's declslon ls noL and should noL be conLrolllnaŦ Llke Lhe decree of a lower courLţ
lL musL be alven due welahL and veL Lhe whole problem musL be carefullv examlned ob loltlo ln order Lo lnsure LhaL
flnal declslon be rendered ln accordance wlLh 1he LawŦ
She remembers LhaL 1he Law ls LhaL anvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls rlahLţ and cerLalnlv aolna Lo Lhe
movles seems presenLlv verv deslrableŦ ?eL before rushlna Lo a snap [udamenLţ she musL dlspose of Lhe prlnclple
whlch holds LhaL anvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls llkelvţ ln Lhe lona runţ Lo be wronaŦ 1haL prlnclpleţ of
courseţ has cerLaln excepLlons and quallflcaLlonsŦ Cne ls Lo Lhe effecL LhaL anv acLlonţ or lnacLlonţ whlch seems
presenLlv so deslrable LhaL a fallure Lo lndulae Lhe deslre mav affecL Lhe dlsposlLlon over a perlod of hours wlllţ ln
such clrcumsLancesţ be Lhe rlahL acLlonţ or lnacLlonţ aL leasL lf LhaL perlod of hours ls Laken as conLrolllna for Lhe
fuLureŦ Clearlv LhaL excepLlon now appllesŦ
?eLţ ln all falrnessţ Lhe ladv musL admlL LhaL Lhere ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe deslrableŴequalsŴrlahL ruleţ Lo Lhe effecL LhaL
Lhe denlal of whaLever seems deslrable mavţ bv lmparLlna a sense of noblllLvţ become deslrable ln lLs own rlahLţ and
Lherefore properŦ 1here seems Lo be a deadlockŦ lL wlll be a close declslonŦ
Þerhaps precedenL wlll helpŦ LasL nlahL Lhe ladv and her husband wenL Lo Lhe movlesŦ 8uL lasL nlahL's declslon ls noL
necessarllv conLrolllna because lasL nlahL lL was Carv CooperŤ LonlahL lL ls some forelan fllmŦ Such a dlsparlLv ln Lhe
relevanL facLs cannoL falrlv be lanoredŦ 1he problem remalns unseLLledŦ
1hen Lhe ladv reallzes LhaL she ls qulLe Llred and has a busv dav ahead of her LomorrowŦ ,anlfesLlvţ Lhls brlnas lnLo
plav Lhe wellŴrecoanlzed leaal ruleţ a subŴprlnclple of Lhe deslrableŴprobablvŴwronaŴlnŴLheŴlonaŴrun prlnclpleţ LhaL lL
ls saferţ even aL some lnconvenlenceţ Lo look one's besL aL a Lea parLvŦ varlous subŴprlnclples and excepLlons and
quallflcaLlonsţ concernlna Lhe amounL of lnconvenlence whlch Lhe rule wlll LoleraLeţ are obvlouslv beslde Lhe polnL
hereŦ 1he Lawţ flnallv Lracked Lo earLhţ seems Lo decree LhaL Lhe ladv and her husband musL sLav homeŦ
And so Lhev sLav homeŦ noLţ of courseţ because Lhe ladv wanLs Lo look well aL her Lea parLv LomorrowŦ 8aLherţ
because all Lhe relevanL leaal prlnclples polnL Lo such a declslonŦ AnvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls rlahL Ŷ
and she wanLs Lo aeL enouah sleepŦ AnvLhlna whlch seems presenLlv deslrable ls llkelv ln Lhe lona run Lo be wrona Ŷ
and she would sLlll raLher llke Lo ao Lo a movleŦ AnvLhlna so deslrable LhaL a fallure Lo lndulae Lhe deslre wlll affecL
Lhe dlsposlLlon ls rlahLţ ln aL leasL a llmlLed sense Ŷ and lf she doesn'L look well Lomorrowţ she'll never foralve
herselfŦ 1he denlal of whaL seems deslrable can lmparL a sense of noblllLv whlch makes Lhe denlal proper Ŷ and she
wlll lndeed feel noble lf she accedes Lo her husband's wlsh Lo sLav homeŦ lL ls safer Lo look one's besL aL Lea parLles Ŷ
looe J6 of 65

and Lhe ladv ls afrald lL mlahL be unpleasanL Lo flouL Lhls prlnclpleŦ ,oreoverţ lasL nlahL's precedenLţ alLhouah
apparenLlv polnLlna Lo Lhe opposlLe declslonţ ls clearlv dlsLlnaulshableŦ 1here ls Lhus no doubL aL all abouL 1he Law of
Lhe caseŦ And Lhe declslon auLomaLlcallv follows 1he LawŦ
* * * * *
nowţ Lhls resume of a ladv's dav ln whlch all declslons are dlrecLed bv absLracL prlnclplesţ or rules of Lawţ mav sound
absurd ln Lhe exLremeŦ lL ls plaln LhaL mosL of Lhe prlnclples are couched ln such vaaueţ aeneral lanauaae LhaL Lhev
cannoL posslblv be auldes Lo a speclflc declslon on a speclflc maLLerŦ lL ls plaln LhaL pracLlcallv everv prlnclple can be
counLered wlLh anoLher prlnclple or excepLlon whlch conLradlcLs ln whole or ln parL Lhe flrsL prlnclpleŦ lL ls plaln LhaL
noL one of Lhe ladv's declslons necessarllv follows from Lhe prlnclple or concepL whlch ls sald Lo dlcLaLe lLŦ lL ls plaln
LhaL ln everv lnsLanceţ Lhe ºconLrolllna" prlnclpleţ or prlnclplesţ resembles noLhlna so much as a loose raLlonallzaLlon
of whaL she ls aolna Lo doţ applled afLer Lhe acLual declslon ls madeŦ
lurLhermoreţ lL ls plaln LhaL lf someone elseţ sav Lhe ladv's husbandţ had been acLlna as Supreme CourL for herţ
manv of Lhe rullnas would have aone Lhe oLher wavţ even Lhouah Lhe same seL of auldlna prlnclples had been rlaldlv
adhered LoŦ ln anv confllcL beLween Lhe concepLs of smarLness and economvţ for lnsLanceţ Lhe declslon mlahL have
favored economv and veL done Lhe proper obelsance Lo smarLness under Lhe rule LhaL lL ls smarL Lo be economlcalŦ
lreedom of conLracL mlahL well have been lnLerpreLed as freedom Lo refuse Lo buv a haLţ no maLLer how becomlnaŦ
uesplLe lLs llmlLed scopeţ Lhe ladv's leaal svsLem would hardlv have needed sLreLchlna Lo do double duLv all Lhe wav
down Lhe llneŦ
Absurd lndeedŦ 8uL noL one loLa more absurd Lhan Lhe svsLem of Law under whlch we acLuallv llveŦ lor mosL leaal
prlnclplesţ Looţ are couched ln such vaaueţ aeneral lanauaae LhaL Lhev cannoL posslblv be auldes Lo a speclflc
declslon on a speclflc maLLerŤ pracLlcallv everv leaal prlnclpleţ Looţ can be counLered wlLh anoLher prlnclple or
excepLlon whlch conLradlcLs ln whole or ln parL Lhe flrsL prlnclpleŤ scarcelv ever does a courL declslon necessarllv
follow from Lhe prlnclple or concepL whlch ls sald Lo dlcLaLe lLŤ and ln [usL abouL everv lnsLanceţ Lhe ºconLrolllna"
prlnclpleţ or prlnclplesţ resembles noLhlna so much as a loose raLlonallzaLlon of whaL a courL orders doneţ applled
afLer Lhe acLual declslon ls madeŦ
lf Lhe ladv's leaal svsLem and Lhe wav LhaL svsLem worked for her seems more paLenLlv rldlculous Lhan Lhe worklnas
of 1he Lawţ lL ls onlv because mosL of Lhe prlnclples of 1he Law are phrased ln unfamlllar and Lherefore lmpresslve
lanauaaeţ so LhaL Lhelr vaauenessţ Lhelr conLradlcLlonsţ Lhelr frequenL and obvlous use merelv Lo [usLlfv deslred
resulLsţ all Lhese are concealed from Lhe nonŴlawver's unLralned eveŦ SubsLlLuLe ºwlLhln Lhe lealslaLlve lnLenL" for
ºdeslrableţ" subsLlLuLe ºexecuLorv conLracL conLemplaLlna adequaLe conslderaLlon" for ºappolnLmenL wlLh Lhe
halrdresserţ" and Lhe ladv's leaal prlnclples bealn Lo Lake on a fake dlanlLvţ an alr of solemnlLv and lmporLanceŦ 1hls
dlanlLvţ moreoverţ has no relaLlon aL all Lo Lhe meanlnaţ or lack of meanlnaţ of Lhe words usedŦ
Crţ aolna aL lL from Lhe opposlLe analeţ Lake Lhe wellŴbolsLered leaal prlnclple LhaL sLaLe reaulaLlon of prlvaLe
enLerprlse amounLs Lo deprlvaLlon of properLv wlLhouL due process of law unless sancLloned as a proper exerclse of
Lhe sLaLe pollce powerŦ SubsLlLuLe for lL Lhe slmple and equallv enllahLenlna sLaLemenL LhaL cerLaln sLaLe laws are
bad unless Lhev are aood Ŷ and 1he Law bealns Lo sound as slllv as Lhe ladvŦ
As a maLLer of facLţ 1he Law and Lhose who lav lL down are ofLen conslderablv sllller Lhan Lhe ladvŦ lor Lhe ladvţ as
was perfecLlv apparenLţ knew whaL she wanLed and declded accordlnalvţ unboLhered bv Lhe requlremenL LhaL she
[usLlfv each of her declslons wlLh a broad aenerallzaLlon of prlnclpleŦ 1haL requlremenL was easllv saLlsfled because
all Lhe declslons she was called on Lo make affecLed herţ Lhe [udaeţ dlrecLlv and lmmedlaLelvţ and because Lhe
buslness of flLLlna a prlnclple Lo a readvŴmade declslon wasţ as lL alwavs ls ln law and elsewhereţ a slmple maLLerŦ
8uL Lhe [udaes who make leaal declslons frequenLlv have noL Lhe sllahLesL lnLeresL ln Lhe ouLcome of Lhe cases Lhev
are decldlnaŦ Cf course lf Lhev have such an lnLeresL Ŷ and even [udaes are noL lmmune from pollLlcal and soclal
emoLlonsŤ Lhev llke or haLe Lhe new uealţ Lhev approve or dlsapprove of labor unlonsţ Lhev LrusL or mlsLrusL bla
buslness Ŷ Lhen Lhev can and ofLen doţ consclouslv or unconsclouslvţ reverL Lo Lhe leaal procedure of Lhe ladvŦ 1hev
[udae flrsL and [usLlfv afLerwardŦ And ln so dolna Lhev are acLlnaţ lf noL ln a [udlclalţ aL leasL ln a pracLlcal mannerŦ
(8elna pracLlcal and belna [udlclal ln Lhe cold leaal sense are [usL abouL muLuallv excluslve anvwavŦ)
looe J7 of 65

ln runŴofŴLheŴmlne casesţ howeverţ Lhe sorL LhaL make up much of Lhe buslness of 1he lawţ Lhe [udaes don'L care
who wlns nor whaL Lhe evenLual declslon wlll beŦ 1he lawvers ln Lhe case alwavs careŤ Lhev know beforehand whaL
declslon Lhev wanL and so Lhevţ ln Lhe pracLlcal manner of Lhe ladvţ can flL Lhelr aenerallzaLlonsţ Lhelr leaal pleadlnaţ
Lo Lhe deslred resulLŦ noL so Lhe [udaesŦ Pow Lhen do Lhe [udaes ever achleve an answer?
WhaL Lhe [udaes doţ acLuallvţ ls whaL Lhe ladv preLended Lo do Ŷ andţ for LhaL maLLerţ whaL Lhe [udaes Lhemselves
preLend Lo do when Lhe answer ls of anv concern Lo LhemŦ 1hev balance Ŷ don'L lauah Ŷ one seL of absLracL prlnclples
aaalnsL anoLher andţ Lhrouah some sorL of LranceŴllke Lransferenceţ come ouL wlLh a speclflc declslonŦ 1hev Lake Lhe
lona words and sonorous phrases of 1he Lawţ no maLLer how amblauous or empLv of meanlnaţ no maLLer how
conLradlcLorv of each oLherŤ Lhev welah Lhese words and phrases ln a vacuum Ŷ whlch ls Lhe onlv wav Lhev could be
welahedŤ and Lhen Lhev ºapplv" Lhe welahLler Lo Lhe dlspuLe ln quesLlon wlLh all Lhe flnallLv LhaL mlahL be accorded a
sLralahL wlre from CodŦ
lL ls as Lhouah a courL were Lo have conslderedţ wlLh compleLe dlslnLeresLţ Lhe case of our frlendţ Lhe ladvŤ were Lo
have balanced aaalnsL each oLher Lhe prlnclples puL forLh bv opposlna counsel Lo Lhe effecL LhaL whaL ls deslrable ls
rlahL and LhaL whaL ls deslrable ls wronaŤ were Lo have decldedţ ln Lhe absLracLţ of courseţ LhaL whaLŴlsŴdeslrableŴlsŴ
wrona was Lhe more compelllna of Lhe LwoŤ and were Lhen Lo have lnformed Lhe ladv LhaL sloce lL ls 1he Law LhaL
whaL ls deslrable ls wronaţ tetefote Lhe ladv musL aeL ouL of bedŦ CerLalnlvţ Llme and Llme aaalnţ ln acLual law casesţ
opposlna counsel wlll puL forLh as Lhe bases of Lhelr araumenLs leaal prlnclples whlch are respecLable and veL are
dlrecLlv conLradlcLorvŦ LqulLvŴwlllŴacLŴwhenŴLhereŴlsŴnoŴadequaLeŴremedvŴaLŴlaw and equlLvŴneedŴnoLŴacLŴevenŴ
LhouahŴLhereŴlsŴnoŴadequaLeŴremedvŴaLŴlawŦ ÞeacefulŴplckeLlnaŴlsŴleaal and allŴplckeLlnaŴlsŴllleaalŦ ConLrlbuLorvŴ
neallaenceŴonŴLheŴparLŴofŴLheŴplalnLlffŴabsolvesŴLheŴdefendanLŴofŴresponslblllLv and conLrlbuLorvŴneallaenceŴonŴ
LheŴparLŴofŴLheŴplalnLlffŴdoesŴnoLŴabsolveŴLheŴdefendanLŴofŴallŴresponslblllLvŦ And Llme and Llme aaaln a courL wlll
arab one of Lhe Lwo conLradlcLorv prlnclples andţ wlLh some sllahL elaboraLlonţ use lL as Lhe basls of declslonŦ
lor lL ls Lhe leaend of 1he Law LhaL everv leaal dlspuLe canţ and musLţ be seLLled bv haullna an absLracL prlnclple
down Lo earLh and plnnlna lL Lo Lhe dlspuLe ln quesLlonŦ 1he lasL Lhlna anv courL wlll ever admlLţ even when lL ls
belna qulLe pracLlcal abouL whaL lL decldesţ ls LhaL pracLlcal conslderaLlons have anvLhlna Lo do wlLh Lhe declslonŦ 1o
admlL Lhls would be Lo admlL LhaL lL was noL 1he Law Ŷ LhaL plle of polvsvllablc absLracLlons Ŷ LhaL dlcLaLed Lhe
answerŦ
1hen Looţ as [udaes are doubLless smarL enouah Lo reallzeţ a man Ŷ or a ladv Ŷ would scarcelv need Lo be learned ln
1he Law ln order Lo slL and hand down pracLlcal answers Lo whaL areţ ln Lhe lasL analvslsţ no more Lhan pracLlcal
problemsŦ
CnAÞ1Lk VII
IAIk¥ 1ALL5 AND IAC15
º'wot Jo voo koow oboot tls bosloess?´ te kloo solJ to AllceŦ
´Notlooţ´ solJ AllceŦ
´Notloo wotevet?´ petslsteJ te klooŦ
´Notloo wotevetţ´ solJ AllceŦ
´@ot´s vetv lmpottootţ´ te kloo solJţ totoloo to te jotvŦ" Ÿ Lewls Carroll
no slnale facL ls so essenLlal Lo Lhe llfe and lusLlness of Lhe leaal rackeL as Lhe sober preLense on Lhe parL of
pracLlcallv all lLs pracLlLloners Ŷ from Supreme CourL [udaes down Lo pollce courL lawvers Ŷ LhaL 1he Law lsţ ln Lhe
malnţ an exacL sclenceŦ no preLense was ever more absurdŦ 1he baslc assumpLlon behlnd Lhe seLLlemenL of everv
leaal dlspuLeţ wheLher lL be seLLled bv a [udae's sacred words or ouL of courLţ ls LhaLţ accordlna Lo 1he Lawţ Lhere ls
onlv one rlahL answerţ one preordalned answerţ Lo Lhe problemŦ Lawvers and [udaesţ so Lhe falrv Lale aoesţ are
merelv Lralned mechanlcs ln Lhe manlpulaLlon of LhaL Lremendous and compllcaLed addlnaŴsubLracLlnaŴmulLlplvlnaŴ
dlvldlnaŴandŴsquareŴrooLŴcompuLlna machlne known as 1he LawŦ 1hev Lake a problemţ anv problemţ LranslaLe lL lnLo
Lhe approprlaLe leaal svmbolsţ push Lhe buLLons on Lhe bla machlne LhaL correspond Lo Lhose svmbolsţ and Lhe rlahL
answer auLomaLlcallv pops ouL aL Lhe boLLomŦ
looe J8 of 65

CerLalnlv lL ls onlv because of Lhelr passlonaLe bellef ln Lhe machlneŴllke and lnexorable quallLv of 1he Law LhaL nonŴ
lawvers conLlnue Lo submlL Lhelr clvlllzaLlon Lo leaal decreeŦ CerLalnlv Looţ Lhe law bovs Lhemselves are anxlouslv
aware LhaL Lhev musL keep up Lhe preLense lf Lhev would keep Lhelr presLlae and Lhelr powerŦ Lven Lhe Supreme
CourLţ from Llme Lo Llme ln lLs oplnlonsţ feels lL lmperaLlve Lo sLaLe LhaL lL ls 1he Lawţ LhaL lnfalllble auLomaLlc
machlneţ and noL Lhe CourLţ Lhose nlne falllble menţ LhaL reallv dlcLaLes declslonsŦ lor Lhe lawvers know lL would be
woe unLo Lhe lawvers lf Lhe nonŴlawvers ever aoL wlse Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhelr llves were runţ noL bv 1he Lawţ noL bv
anv rlald and lmpersonal and auLomaLlcallvŴapplled code of rulesţ buL lnsLead bv a comparaLlvelv small aroup of
menţ smarLţ smooLhţ and smua Ŷ Lhe lawversŦ
?eL lL should noLţ aL Lhls polnLţ be necessarv Lo plle up anv more examples of how 1he Law worksţ nor Lo examlne ln
deLall anv more of 1he Law's mealvŴmouLhed concepLs and prlnclples and elaboraLe loalcţ ln order Lo show LhaL Law
ls a verv lnexacL and LeeLerŴLoLLer ºsclence"Ť LhaL none of 1he Law's answers Lo problems ls preordalnedţ preclseţ or
lnevlLableŤ and LhaL lL ls lndeed Lhe lawversţ wlLh Lhelr drearv doubleŴLalkţ and noL 1he Lawţ LhaL mass of amblauous
absLracLlonsţ LhaL run Lhe showŦ Lven lf 1he Law sLlll be consldered a bla machlne LhaL alves auLomaLlc answers Lo
leaallvŴworded quesLlonsţ lL ls Lhe lawvers and Lhe lawverŴ[udaes who phrase Lhe quesLlons and declde whlch
buLLons Lo pushŦ And anvone who has ever worked a claareLLe sloLŴmachlne knows LhaL lf vou wanL ChesLerfleldsţ
vou push Lhe ChesLerfleld buLLonŦ 1he machlne does Lhe resLŦ
1hus Lhe Supreme CourL knows LhaL lf lL pushes Lhe ºdeprlvaLlon of properLv wlLhouL due process of law" buLLonţ Lhe
answer wlll come ouL Ŷ unconsLlLuLlonalŦ lf lL pushes Lhe ºsLaLe pollce power" buLLonţ Lhe answer wlll come ouL Ŷ
consLlLuLlonalŦ 8uL Lhe machlne of 1he Law does noL Lell Lhe CourL whlch buLLon Lo pushŦ
Aaalnţ anv [udaeţ enaaaed ln decldlna a dlspuLe over an alleaed buslness aareemenLţ knows LhaL lf he pushes Lhe
buLLons marked ºofferţ" ºaccepLanceţ" ºconslderaLlonţ" and a couple of oLhersţ Lhe answer wlll come ouL Ŷ valld
conLracLŦ 8uL lf he pushes Lhe ºno offer" buLLonţ Lhe answer wlll be Ŷ no conLracLŦ lL ls [usL as slmple as LhaLŦ
1he polnL lsţ of courseţ LhaL ln everv case Lhe real declslon ls madeţ 1he Law of Lhe case ls lald downţ noL afLer Lhe
machlne aeLs Lo work buL beforeŦ 1he crux of Lhe whole maLLer lles ln Lhe cholce of whlch buLLon or buLLons Lo pushţ
whlch prlnclple or prlnclples or concepLs Lo followŦ ln Senlor vŦ 8radenţ Lhe Supreme CourL declded Lo push Lhe
buLLons marked ºproperLv Lax" and ºlnLeresL ln landŦ" Whereupon Lhe machlne whlrred smooLhlv Lhrouah ºno
[urlsdlcLlon Lo Lax" and ºdeprlvaLlon of properLv wlLhouL due process of lawţ" rlahL up Lo Lhe answer Ŷ
unconsLlLuLlonalŦ 8uL lf Lhe CourL had lnsLead lald lLs venerable flnaer on Lhe ºlncome Lax" buLLonţ or had sklpped
Lhe ºlnLeresL ln land" buLLonţ Lhe machlne of 1he Law would have whlrred [usL as smooLhlv Lo Lhe exacLlv opposlLe
concluslonŦ
And Lhere are alwavs aL leasL Lwo buLLonsţ Lwo prlnclplesţ beLween whlch a cholce musL be madeŦ CfLen Lhere are
several such cholcesŦ ln no law caseţ ln no leaal dlspuLeţ ls such a cholce noL presenLedŦ
1ake one of Lhe coldesLţ cuLŴandŴdrled cases lmaalnableŦ A sane man dellberaLelv kllls anoLher man ln Lhe slahL of
several rellable wlLnessesŦ All Lhe relevanL wrlLLen sLaLuLes and all Lhe prlnclples of Law whlch encrusL Lhose sLaLuLes
seem Lo polnL Loward one answer Ŷ flrsL dearee murderŦ ?eLţ as evervone knowsţ some lawver wlll Lake Lhe klller's
caseţ wlll dla up accepLed and respecLable prlnclples of Law whlchţ lf followedţ would declare Lhe klller lnnocenL of
crlmeţ and mav Ŷ for lL has ofLen happened Ŷ convlnce Lhe courL LhaL Lhe rlahL leaal answer ls Ŷ noL aullLvŦ no
wonderţ Lhenţ LhaL ln less specLacular and less apparenLlv openŴandŴshuL leaal conLroverslesţ a prlnclple or serles of
prlnclples can alwavs be found Lo lend Lhe benedlcLlon of 1he Law Lo elLher slde of anv caseŦ no wonder Lhere ls no
such Lhlna as a leaal problem whlch does noL haveţ ln Lhe eves of 1he Lawţ Lwo sldes Lo lL Ŷ up Lo Lhe polnL when
some [udae applled [usL ooe seL of prlnclples Lo Lhe problemţ and Lherebv seLLles lL ºaccordlna Lo 1he LawŦ"
WhaL areţ Lhenţ all Lhese absLracL prlnclples of whlch 1he Law ls bullLţ Lhese rules so dlverse and compllcaLed and
conLradlcLorv LhaL some comblnaLlon of Lhem can be used as push buLLons Lo obLaln anv resulL under Lhe sun? WhaL
are Lhese areaL and auldlna LruLhs LhaL can overrlde wrlLLen sLaLuLes and even consLlLuLlons? WhaL are Lhese
lndlspensable counLers of all leaal Lhlnklna and leaal acLlon? Where do Lhev come from Ŷ once Lhe sLorkŴbrouahLŴ
Lhem Lheorv LhaL Lhev slL ln some [urlsprudenLlal skvţ walLlna Lo be brouahL Lo earLhţ has been dlspensed wlLh?
looe J9 of 65

1he slmple LruLh ls LhaL each of Lhem orlalnaLed as Lhe ouLŴloud coalLaLlon of some [udaeţ sllahLlv worrled as Lo
whlch olJ seL of prlnclples ŶŴ or coalLaLlon's of oLher [udaes Ŷ Lo applv Lo Lhe case before hlmţ and sLlll wanLlna Lo
make hls declslon sound as lnevlLableţ as auLomaLlcţ as sclenLlflc and loalcal as posslbleŦ Lverv leaal prlnclple bealns
lLs exlsLence as a raLlonallzaLlonţ a [usLlflcaLlonţ an honesLvŴLhlsŴlsŴwhv of some leaal declslonŦ And Lhe more lL ls
subsequenLlv used Lo [usLlfv oLher declslonsţ Lhe more respecLable lL arowsŦ Leaal prlnclplesţ llke meerŴschaum plpesţ
lmprove wlLh use and aaeŦ
1here ls a prlnclple LhaL equlLable rellef Ŷ a speclal klnd of leaal remedv Ŷ wlll noL be aranLed Lo anvone who comes
lnLo courL wlLh ºunclean handsŦ" lL orlalnaLedţ cenLurles backţ ln Lhe deslre of some [udae Lo bolsLer wlLh a hlahŴ
soundlna excuse hls declslon for Lhe defendanL ln a case ln whlch Lhe plalnLlff seemedţ aL flrsLţ Lo have Lhe besL of
1he Law on hls sldeŦ 1he excuse came ln handv ln oLher casesŦ 1odav lL ls a prlmarv prlnclple of ºequlLv lawŦ"
So wlLh Lhe prlnclple LhaL Lhe sLaLes mav reaulaLe buslnesses ºaffecLed wlLh a publlc lnLeresLŦ" A Supreme CourL
[udaeţ ln upholdlna such a reaulaLlonţ once helped alve hls oplnlon an auLhorlLaLlve sound bv sLaLlna LhaL Lhe
buslness ln quesLlon was affecLed wlLh a publlc lnLeresL and consequenLlv was properlv sub[ecL Lo reaulaLlonŦ 1he
words sLuckŦ 1he raLlonallzaLlon became an accepLed prlnclpleŦ ,oreoverţ bv reverslna Lhe raLlonallzaLlonţ oLher
[udaes made an even more useful and more used leaal rule ouL of Lhe ldea LhaL buslnesses oot affecLed wlLh a publlc
lnLeresL are aenerallv oot sub[ecL Lo sLaLe reaulaLlonŦ
Soţ Looţ wlLh Lhe prlnclple LhaL conslderaLlon ls essenLlal Lo a valld conLracLŦ So wlLh Lhe prlnclple LhaL Conaress mav
noL reaulaLe lndusLrlal acLlvlLles whlch affecL lnLersLaLe commerce onlv lndlrecLlvŦ So wlLh all Lhe Lhousands upon
hundreds of Lhousand of prlnclples of 1he lawŦ Lach aoL lLs leaal bapLlsm as parL of Lhe random raLlonallzlnas of
some [udaeţ Lrvlna Lo make a speclflc declslon sound more learned and loalcal Lo hls fellow lawvers and Lo hlmselfŦ
And of courseţ once a prlnclple has been accepLed Ŷ orţ as Lhe lawvers would have lLţ ºdlscovered" Ŷ as parL of 1he
Lawţ lLs use ls no lonaer resLrlcLed Lo Lhe klnd of problem lL was orlalnallv dressed up Lo deal wlLhŦ lL mlahL be
supposed LhaLţ even lf Lhe messlanlc muLLerlnas of a [udae ln a speclflc case can become proud prlnclples of 1he Lawţ
quoLed and followed ln oLher casesţ aL leasL Lhe lealLlmaLe use of Lhose prlnclples would ln Lhe fuLure be llmlLed Lo
Lhe klnd of case Lhe [udae was muLLerlna abouLŦ noL al allŦ A leaal prlnclpleţ once leL looseţ ls never resLrlcLed Lo lLs
own backŴvardţ buL ls allowed and ofLen encouraaed Lo roam over Lhe whole fleld of LawŦ
1husţ a prlnclple born of a [udae's paLLer ln seLLllna a flnanclal dlspuLe beLween Lwo buslness men canţ llke as noLţ
become a bulwark of consLlLuLlonal lnLerpreLaLlonŦ A prlnclple flrsL mouLhed Lo bolsLer up a declslon ln a sulL for
slander mav laLer Lurn up as Lhe kev Lo 1he Law ln a murder caseŦ ln Senlor vŦ 8radenţ for lnsLanceţ a case cenLerlna
around sLaLe Laxes and Lhe uŦSŦ ConsLlLuLlonţ Lhe ºconLrolllna" prlnclple was borrowed from a case whlch had
noLhlna Lo do wlLh sLaLe Laxes nor wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ ConsLlLuLlon buL lnvolved lnsLead a llLLle problem of properLv law
and of proper leaal procedure under a federal sLaLuLeŦ
noL onlv are leaal prlnclples Ŷ and concepLs Ŷ so vaaue and so absLracL LhaL Lhev make as much senseţ or nonsenseţ
when applled Lo anv of a dozen vlLallv dlfferenL klnds of leaal dlspuLeŤ Lhev are also so Lreacherous of meanlna LhaL
Lhe same prlnclple can ofLen be used on boLh sldes of Lhe same dlspuLeŦ 1here ls a famous leaal prlnclple whlch
dlsparaaes ºlnLerference" wlLh a famous leaal concepL called ºfreedom of conLracLŦ" 8oLh Lhe prlnclple and Lhe
concepL are aenulne and Lvplcal examples of 1he Lawţ ln LhaL nelLher comes ouL of anv consLlLuLlon or sLaLuLeŦ 1hev
come sLralahL ouL of Lhe [udaes' headsţ and mouLhsŦ ?eL ln a labor dlspuLe arlslna ouL of a sLrlkeţ Lhe workmen's
lawver mav well plead ln a courL LhaL anv lnLerference wlLh Lhe sLrlke wlllţ bv weakenlna Lhe workmen's baraalnlna
powerţ amounL Lo an lnLerference wlLh Lhelr ºfreedom of conLracLţ" whlle Lhe boss's lawver ls araulna LhaL Lhe sLrlke
should be sLopped or crlppled bv leaal decree because lt lnLerferes wlLh Lhe boss's ºfreedom of conLracLŦ" Llke mosL
leaal concepLsţ ºfreedom of conLracL" can mean verv dlfferenL Lhlnas Lo dlfferenL peopleţ or even Lo dlfferenL [udaesŦ
Llke mosL leaal prlnclplesţ Lhe prlnclple bullL on LhaL concepL means exacLlv noLhlna Ŷ as a aulde Lo Lhe seLLlemenL of
a speclflc conLroversvŦ
1he sober LruLh ls LhaL Lhe mvrlad prlnclples of whlch 1he Law ls fashloned resemble noLhlna so much as old sawsţ
dressed up ln leaal lanauaae and paraded as aospelŦ When !usLlce ,arshall lnLoned º1he power Lo Lax lnvolves Lhe
power Lo desLrovţ" and on Lhe basls of LhaL prlnclple declared LhaL a cerLaln sLaLe Lax was llleaalţ he mlahL [usL as
well have sald ºCreaL oaks from llLLle acorns arow" and founded hls declslon on LhaL Ŷ excepL LhaL he would noL have
looe 40 of 65

sounded qulLe so lmpresslveŦ º1he burnL chlld dreads Lhe flre" could subsLlLuLe for manv a prlnclple of crlmlnal lawŦ
And ºWasLe noLţ wanL noLţ" or perhaps ºA pennv saved ls a pennv earnedţ" would be as useful and as perLlnenL Lo
Lhe soluLlon of a buslness squabble as Lhe prlnclple LhaL conslderaLlon ls necessarv Lo valldaLe a conLracLŦ
All LhaL 1he Law lsţ all LhaL lL amounLs Loţ all LhaL lL ls made ofţ all LhaL lawvers know and nonŴlawvers don'L knowţ ls
a loL Ŷ a mlscellaneous and Lremendous loL Ŷ of absLracL prlnclplesŦ And everv one of Lhose prlnclples lsţ ln essenceţ
no more Lhan a aenerallzed aem of alleaed wlsdom LhaL some [udae has spoken ln order Lo raLlonallze a declslon of
hls and LhaL oLher [udaes have laLer plcked up and repeaLedŦ
,oreoverţ even lf Lhose aems of alleaed wlsdom were Ŷ as usuallv Lhev are noL Ŷ relevanL and reasonable
[usLlflcaLlon for decldlna a leaal problem one wav or Lhe oLherţ Lhere would sLlll be Lhe same old caLch ln Lhe whole
procedureŦ lor Lhe aemsţ as well as belna so aenerallzedţ are so manvţ so moLlevţ and so confuslnaŦ And Lhe caLch
comes ln maLchlna Lhe rlahL aem or aemsţ Lhe rlahL prlnclple or prlnclplesţ Lo anv alven seL of speclflc facLsŦ
1haL ls Lhe cruclal sLepţ Lhe kev moveţ ln Lhe seLLlemenL of anv leaal dlspuLeŦ 1haL ls Lhe move LhaL Lhe
presLldlalLaLors of 1he law alwavs make behlnd Lhelr backs Ŷ no maLLer how vlaorouslv and LrlumphanLlv Lhev mav
laLer flaunL Lhe prlnclples Lhev have plckedŦ 1haL ls whv 1he law noL onlv ls noL an exacL sclenceţ buL coooot be an
exacL sclence Ŷ so lona as lL ls based on absLracL prlnclples and deals wlLh speclflc problemsŦ !usL as Lhe devll can
alwavs clLe ScrlpLure Lo hls purposeţ so can anv lawver on elLher slde of anv case alwavs clLe 1he law Lo hlsŦ
As would of course be expecLedţ anv lawver wlll arlse Lo Lhe defense of hls Lrade and hoLlv dlspuLe all Lhls
dlsparaaemenL of 1he Law's vaunLed dlanlLvţ ma[esLvţ and preclsenessŦ Pe wlll Lell vou LhaL mosL leaal prlnclplesţ
Lhouah absLracLlv phrasedţ have acqulredţ Lhrouah lona usaaeţ a speclflc conLenL of meanlna and appllcaLlon Ŷ ln
lawvers' and [udaes' mlnds aL leasLŦ Pe wlll Lell vou LhaL 1he Law musL have Lwo quallLlesţ conLlnulLv and cerLalnLvŤ
(he wlll noL puL lL LhaL 1he Law musL seem Lo have conLlnulLv and cerLalnLv Ŷ ln order Lo survlveŦ) Pe wlll Lell vou
LhaLţ ln order Lo achleve conLlnulLv and cerLalnLvţ 1he Law musL be based on aeneral or absLracL prlnclples whlch can
be carrled over from one vear Lo Lhe nexL and from one declslon Lo Lhe nexLŦ And he wlll Lell vouţ lf vou press hlm
abouL Lhe wav ln whlch absLracL prlnclples can be carrled over conLlnuouslv and cerLalnlvţ LhaL problems and facL
slLuaLlonsţ bv reason of Lhelr slmllarlLv or dlsslmllarlLvţ fall naLurallv lnLo aroupsŤ one aroup wlll be aoverned bv one
leaal prlnclpleţ anoLher aroup bv anoLher or posslblv a conLradlcLorv prlnclpleŦ ln shorLţ each new case or problem
LhaL comes up ls enouah llke some baLch of cases and problems LhaL have come up before Lo be conLrolled bv Lhe
same prlnclple LhaL was used Lo conLrol LhemŦ 1here ls vour cerLalnLvŦ 1here ls vour dlanlLvţ ma[esLvţ and
preclsenessŦ
ln Lhe absLracL Ŷ and comlna from a lawver lL ls of course absLracL Ŷ lL makes a preLLv LheorvŦ 1here are a few llLLle
pracLlcal maLLersţ Lhouahţ LhaL lL does noL explalnŦ lL does noL explaln whv Ŷ lf Lhere ls a quallLv of cerLalnLv abouL
1he Law dependenL ln parL on Lhe facL LhaL leaal prlnclples acqulre a speclflc conLenLţ ln lawvers' and [udaes' mlnds Ŷ
so manv hundreds of Lhousands of law cases seem Lo keep comlna Lo courLţ wlLh fullŴfledaed lawvers araulna on
opposlLe sldesŦ nor Ŷ lf lL be sald LhaL some lawvers [usL don'L know 1he Law as well as Lhev should Ŷ does Lhe Lheorv
explaln whv lower courLs are consLanLlv belna reversed bv appellaLe courLsŦ nor whv Lhere are so manv dlssenLlna
oplnlonsŦ nor how lL happened LhaL flfLvŴseven of Lhe naLlon's LopŴranklna lawvers were unanlmouslv wrona ln
advlslna Lhelr cllenLs abouL Lhe Waaner Labor AcLŦ
1he Lheorv does noL explalnţ elLherţ whv a promlse bv a sLranaer Lo alve monev Lo Lhe same church ls more llke a
claareLLe Lhan lL ls llke a promlse bv a sLranaer Lo alve a presenL Lo Lhe same alrlŤ for Lhe flrsL Lwoţ rememberţ are
valld conslderaLlons for a conLracLţ whlle Lhe Lhlrd lsn'LŦ nor does Lhe Lheorv explaln whv Lhe Lax problem of Senlor vŦ
8raden fell naLurallv lnLo Lhe same baLch of cases LhaL lncluded Lhe 8rown vŦ lleLcher problem ln leaal procedureţ
and so was conLrolled bv Lhe same aeneral prlnclpleŦ SLlllţ lL makes a preLLv Lheorv Ŷ ln Lhe absLracLŦ
1he [oker ln Lhe Lheorv ls Lhe assumpLlon LhaL anv Lwoţ much less LwenLvţ facL slLuaLlons or leaal problems can ever
be sufflclenLlv allke Lo fall naLurallv Ŷ LhaL lsţ wlLhouL belna pushed Ŷ lnLo Lhe same caLeaorvŦ 1he verv exlsLence of
Lwo slLuaLlons or problems means LhaL Lhere are dlfferences beLween LhemŦ And hereţ perhapsţ Lhe lawver
defendlna hls crafL mav pop up aaaln Lo sav LhaL Lhe dlfferences can be ma[or or mlnorţ lmporLanL or unlmporLanLŦ lL
ls when Lhe ºessenLlal" facLs are Lhe sameţ he wlll Lell vouţ LhaL Lhe same aeneral prlnclples applvŦ
looe 41 of 65

8uL whlch facLs ln anv slLuaLlon or problem are ºessenLlal" and whaL makes Lhem ºessenLlal"? lf Lhe ºessenLlal" facLs
are sald Lo depend on Lhe prlnclples lnvolvedţ Lhen Lhe whole buslnessţ all Loo obvlouslvţ aoes rlahL around ln a
clrcleŦ ln Lhe llahL of one prlnclple or seL of prlnclplesţ one bunch of facLs wlll be Lhe ºessenLlal" onesŤ ln Lhe llahL of
anoLher prlnclple or seL of prlnclplesţ a dlfferenL bunch of facLs wlll be ºessenLlalŦ" ln order Lo seLLle on Lhe rlahL facLs
vou flrsL have Lo plck vour prlnclplesţ alLhouah Lhe whole polnL of flndlna Lhe facLs was Lo lndlcaLe whlch prlnclples
applvŦ
?eL lf Lhe ºessenLlal" facLs do oot hlnae on Lhe prlnclples lnvolvedţ Lhen somebodv musL plck Lhe ºessenLlal" facLs of
anv slLuaLlon from Lhe unessenLlal onesŦ Who? Wellţ who buL Lhe lawvers and Lhe [udaes? And Lhe plcklna of Lhe
ºessenLlal" facLsţ whlch are aolna Lo deLermlne Lhe ºslmllar" aroup of old casesţ whlch aroup ln Lurn ls aolna Lo
deLermlne Lhe approprlaLe leaal prlnclplesţ Lhen becomes as arblLrarv and wldeŴopen a cholce as lf Lhe lawvers or
[udaes had [usL plcked Lhe approprlaLe prlnclples Lo bealn wlLhŦ
Supposeţ Lo Lake a slmple exampleţ a man drlvlna a 1939 Cadlllac alona Lhe Llncoln Plahwav Loward Chlcaao runs
lnLo a ,odel 1 lordţ drlven bv a farmer who has [usL Lurned onLo Lhe Plahwav from a dlrL roadţ and demollshes Lhe
lord buL does noL hurL Lhe farmerŦ 1he farmer suesţ and a local [udaeţ on Lhe basls of varlous prlnclples of Law whlch
are sald Lo ºconLrol" Lhe caseţ awards hlm $100Ŧ A week laLerţ anoLher man drlvlna a 1939 Cadlllac alona Lhe Llncoln
Plahwav Loward Chlcaao runs lnLo a ,odel 1 lord drlven bv anoLher farmer who has [usL Lurned onLo Lhe Plahwav
from Lhe same dlrL roadţ and demollshes Lhe lord buL does noL hurL Lhe farmerŦ 1hls farmer also suesŦ 1he facLsţ as
sLaLedţ seem Lo make Lhls case qulLe slmllar Lo Lhe prevlous caseŦ Wlll lL Lhen fall lnLo Lhe same aroup of facL
slLuaLlons? Wlll lL be ºconLrolled" bv Lhe same prlnclples of Law? Wlll Lhe second farmer aeL $100?
1haL all dependsŦ lor of course Lhere wlll be oLher facLs ln boLh casesŦ Some mav sLlll be slmllarŦ CLhersţ lnevlLablvţ
wlll be dlfferenLŦ And Lhe posslblllLles of varlaLlon are llLerallv endlessŦ
,avbe Lhe flrsL Cadlllac was dolna slxLv mlles an hour and Lhe second one LhlrLvŦ Cr mavbe one was dolna forLvŴflve
and Lhe oLher one forLvŦ Cr mavbe boLh were dolna forLvŴflve buL lL was ralnlna one week and clear Lhe nexLŦ ,avbe
one farmer blew hls horn and Lhe oLher dldn'LŦ ,avbe one farmer sLopped aL Lhe crosslna and Lhe oLher dldn'LŦ
,avbe one farmer had a drlver's llcense and Lhe oLher dldn'LŦ ,avbe one farmer was vouna and Lhe oLher was old
and wore alassesŦ ,avbe Lhev boLh wore alasses buL one was nearslahLed and Lhe oLher farslahLedŦ
,avbe one Cadlllac carrled an ouLŴofŴsLaLe llcense plaLe and Lhe oLher a local llcense plaLeŦ ,avbe one of Lhe
Cadlllac drlvers was a bond salesman and Lhe oLher a docLorŦ ,avbe one was lnsured and Lhe oLher wasn'LŦ ,avbe
one had a alrl ln Lhe seaL beslde hlm and oLher dldn'LŦ ,avbe Lhev boLh had alrls beslde Lhem buL one was Lalklna Lo
hls alrl and Lhe oLher wasn'LŦ
,avbe one Cadlllac hlL lLs lord ln Lhe rear lefL wheel and Lhe oLher ln Lhe fronL lefL wheelŦ ,avbe a bov on a blcvcle
was rldlna alona Lhe Plahwav aL one Llme buL noL Lhe oLherŦ ,avbe a Lree aL Lhe lnLersecLlon had come lnLo leaf
slnce Lhe flrsL accldenLŦ ,avbe a aoŴslow slan had blown overŦ
1he polnL lsţ flrsLţ LhaL no Lwo facL slLuaLlons anvwhere anv Llme are enLlrelv slmllarŦ ?eL a courL can alwavs call anv
one of Lhe lnevlLable dlfferences beLween Lwo facL slLuaLlonsţ no maLLer how smallţ a dlfference ln Lhe ºessenLlal"
facLsŦ 1husţ ln Lhe second auLomoblle accldenLţ anv one of Lhe suaaesLed varlaLlons from Lhe facLs of Lhe prevlous
accldenL mlahL Ŷ or mlahL noL Ŷ be labelled ºessenLlalŦ" And a varlaLlon ln Lhe ºessenLlal" facLs means LhaL Lhe case
wlll be dumped lnLo a dlfferenL aroup of cases and declded accordlna Lo a dlfferenL leaal prlnclpleţ or prlnclplesŦ
When Lhe second accldenL case came Lo courLţ Lhe [udae mlahL call enLlrelv lrrelevanL Lhe facL LhaL a cauLlon slan
alona Lhe hlahwav had blown down slnce Lhe week beforeŦ Cr he mlahL pounce on LhaL facL Lo help hlm lav Lhe leaal
blame for Lhe smashupţ noL on Lhe Cadlllac drlver Lhls Llmeţ buL lnsLead on Lhe farmerţ or on boLh of Lhem equallvţ or
on Lhe sLaLe hlahwav deparLmenLţ Ŷ accordlnaţ of courseţ Lo accepL prlnclples of LawŦ ,oreoverţ Lhe mere facL LhaL
one drlver was dolna forLvŴflve mlles and Lhe oLher forLv mlahL easllv be enouah Lo lnduce Lhe [udae Lo dlsLlnaulsh
Lhe second accldenL from Lhe flrsL accldenL and aroup lL lnsLead wlLh a bunch of cases lnvolvlna rallroad Lralns LhaL
had run over sLrav horses and cowsŦ 1he ºessenLlal" facLs belna slmllarţ Lhe [udae would puL lLţ Lhe same prlnclples of
Law are ºconLrolllnaŦ"
looe 42 of 65

As wlLh Lhe Lwo auLomoblle accldenLţ so wlLh anv Lwo leaal dlspuLes LhaL ever have come up or could come up Ŷ
excepL LhaL mosL leaal dlspuLes are far more compllcaLedţ lnvolve manv more facLs and Lvpes of facLsţ consequenLlv
presenL Lhe [udaes wlLh a far wlder selecLlon from whlch Lo choose Lhe ƍessenLlal" facLsţ and so open up a much
areaLer ranae of leaal prlnclples whlch mav be applled or noL applledŦ And slnce no two cases ever fall ºnaLurallv"
lnLo Lhe same caLeaorv so LhaL Lhev can be auLomaLlcallv sub[ecLed Lo Lhe same rules of Lawţ Lhe noLlon LhaL LwenLv
or LhlrLv or a hundred cases can aaLher Lhemselvesţ unshovedţ under Lhe wlna of one ºconLrolllna" prlnclple ls
noLhlna shorL of absurdŦ
?eL Lhe embaLLled lawver mav have one flnal blow Lo sLrlke ln defense of 1he Law and lLs prlnclples and lLs supposed
cerLalnLvŦ 1he Lawţ he wlll Lell vouţ ls concerned wlLh a areaL deal more Lhan Lhe problems LhaL acLuallv aeL lnLo
courL and are seLLled bv [udaesŦ 1he Law ls chleflv concerned wlLh malnLalnlna a consLanL code of rules and behavlor
under whlch men can llve and handle Lhelr affalrs and do buslness LoaeLher ln a clvlllzed mannerŦ Cnlv Lhe freak
slLuaLlonsţ Lhe rare slLuaLlonsţ ever develop lnLo law casesţ he wlll Lell vouŦ lor Lhe mosL parLţ men's affalrs run
smooLhlv and cerLalnlv alonaţ wlLhouL llLlaaLlon or leaal squabblesţ under Lhe Lralned and waLchful (and pald)
auldance of Lhe lawvers and Lhelr LawŦ
lor lnsLanceţ he wlll ao onţ of all Lhe manv buslness conLracLs and leaal aareemenLs of everv sorL LhaL are drawn up
and slaned everv davţ onlv a verv small fracLlon are evenLuallv carrled lnLo courLŦ 8ond lssuesţ sales conLracLsţ
lnsurance pollclesţ leasesţ wlllsţ papers of everv klndţ all Lhese are ln consLanL use veL comparaLlvelv rarelv do Lhev
become Lhe cenLer of a leaal dlspuLeŦ (And noLlceţ lncldenLallvţ how clalms concernlna Lhe cerLalnLv of unllLlaaLed
Law alwavs seem Lo sLress lLs use ln buslness deallnas and commerclal affalrsŦ) Whv do so few leaal documenLs end
up ln courL cases? Slmplvţ Lhe lawver wlll Lell vouţ because Lhev are drawn up and phrased bv lawvers ln accordance
wlLh 1he Law and ln Lhe llahL of recoanlzed leaal prlnclplesŦ 1haL ls whaL makes Lhem safe and sure and workable and
whaL keeps Lhe people wlLh whose affalrs Lhev deal from consLanLlv aolna Lo courL abouL LhemŦ And tot ls where
Lhe cerLalnLv of 1he Law reallv comes ln and reallv counLsŦ
Wellţ don'L vou belleve a word of lLŦ ln Lhe flrsL placeţ Lhose leaal papers of all klnds and descrlpLlons are phrased Lhe
wav Lhev areţ noL ln order Lo keep Lhe people whose affalrs Lhev deal wlLh oot of courLţ buL ln order Lo alve
somebodv a beLLer chance of wlnnlna lf Lhe affalr aeLs loto courLŦ lf Lhe documenL ls an lnsLallmenLŴplan conLracL or a
lease or an lnsurance pollcv or a morLaaaeţ vou can auess who LhaL ºsomebodv" lsŦ lf lL ls Lhe resulL of a reallv LwoŴ
slded buslness dlckerţ wlLh lawvers worklna for boLh sldesţ Lhen some of Lhe clauses of Lhe conLracL wlll be for Lhe
beneflL of one slde and some for Lhe oLher Ŷ ln case Lhev ao Lo courL over lLŦ AL anv raLeţ everv leaal aareemenL ls
drawn up lo cootemplotloo of a courL flahLŦ lL ls Lherefore phrased wlLh an eve Lo Lhe same old amblauousţ absLracL
prlnclples LhaL Lhe [udaes use for LawŦ And no maLLer how hard Lhe lawvers mav Lrv Lo make Lhelr leaal lanauaae
favor one slde or Lhe oLherţ Lhev can no more wrlna cerLalnLv ouL of absLracLlons Lhan Lhev could wrlna blood ouL of
a caullflowerŦ
8uL Lhere ls a far more lmporLanL reason whv Lhe lawver ls dead wrona when he clalms LhaL leaal advlce and
auldance keep mosL buslness arranaemenLs and affalrs ouL of courLŦ Þeople do noL ao Lo courL over Lhelr muLual
deallnas slmplv because Lhelr conLracLs are unŴleaallv or uncerLalnlv wordedţ and Lhev do noL keep ouL of courL
slmplv because Lhe relevanL documenLs are drawn up ln Lhe approved sLvleŦ A man who ls convlnced LhaL he ls
aeLLlna Lhe raw dealţ or LhaL Lhe oLher slde ls noL llvlna up Lo lLs baraalnţ or who ls [usL dlssaLlsfled wlLh Lhe wav Lhe
whole arranaemenL ls worklna ouLţ wlll [usL as llkelv Lake hls Lroubles Lo courL Lhouah Lhe papers lnvolved had been
prepared bv a speclal commlLLee of Lhe Amerlcan 8ar AssoclaLlonŦ And he wlll flnd a lawver Lo Lake hls caseţ Loo Ŷ
and supporL lL wlLh accepLed prlnclples of LawŦ
,osL buslness LransacLlonsţ howeverţ run off smooLhlv of Lhelr own accordŦ 8oLh sldes more or less llve up Lo Lhelr
promlses and nelLher slde feels aaarleved or cheaLedŦ 1hls ls [usL as Lrueţ moreoverţ even Lhouah Lhe relevanL
documenLs be wrlLLen ln execrable leaal LasLeŦ Andţ verv brleflvţ lL ls Lhls facLţ noL Lhe facL LhaL lawvers are alwavs
hoverlna around advlslna and charalna feesţ LhaL ls responslble for Lhe small percenLaae of buslness affalrs LhaL flnd
Lhelr wav lnLo a courLroomŦ
As a maLLer of facLţ Lhe lawversţ wlLh Lhelr advlce and Lhelr prlnclples and Lhelr sLranae lanauaaeţ no doubL lncreaseţ
lnsLead of decreaslnaţ Lhe number of LransacLlons LhaL end up ln dlspuLe and llLlaaLlonŦ lf Lhev would leL men carrv
on Lhelr affalrs and make Lhelr aareemenLs ln slmpleţ speclflc Lerms and ln words lnLelllalble Lo Lhose lnvolvedţ Lhere
looe 4J of 65

would be fewer mlsundersLandlnas and fewer real or lmaalned causes for arlevanceŦ ,oreoverţ Lo [ump Lo anoLher
leaal fleldţ lf wrlLLen lawsţ sLaLuLesţ were worded ln plaln Lnallsh lnsLead of belna phrased bv lawvers for lawversţ
Lhere would unquesLlonablv be fewer cases lnvolvlna Lhe ºlnLerpreLaLlon" of Lhose sLaLuLes and Lhe quesLlon
wheLher Lhev do or do noL applv Lo varlous speclflc facL slLuaLlonsŦ
noţ Lhe asserLed cerLalnLv of 1he Law ls [usL as much of a hoax ouL of courL as ln courLŦ And how could lL noL be Ŷ
lnasmuch as Lhe whole of 1he Lawţ wheLher lL be alorlfled ln Lhe oplnlon of a Supreme CourL [usLlce or darklv
reflecLed ln Lhe conversaLlon of Lwo aLLornevs abouL Lo draw up a deed of saleţ ls bullL of absLracL prlnclplesţ absLracL
prlnclples and noLhlna more?
1here ls an old Lale LhaL ls Lold of Lhree men who were walklna Lhrouah a wood when Lhev came upon a Lremendous
dlamond lvlna on Lhe aroundŦ All of Lhem had seen lL aL he same lnsLanL and veLţ clearlvţ lL could noL be dlvlded
beLween LhemŦ 1hev were peaceful men and soţ raLher Lhan flahL over lLs possesslonţ Lhev deLermlned Lo presenL
Lhelr clalms ln a loalcal fashlonŦ
º?ou wlll recallţ" sald Lhe flrsL manţ ºLhaL as we approached Lhe spoL where Lhe dlamond lav we were walklnaţ noL ln
slnaleŴflleţ buL abreasLŦ 1he Lwo of vou were on mv lefL and LhaL facL ls of Lhe uLmosL lmporLanceŦ lor as nelLher of
vouţ l am sureţ would care Lo denvţ Lhe rlahL musL alwavs prevallŦ 1hereforeţ Lhe dlamond ls clearlv mlneŦ"
ºlndeedţ" sald Lhe second manţ ºl should noL care Lo denv LhaL Lhe rlahL musL alwavs prevallŦ 8uL vou have omlLLedţ
ln vour brlef summarv of Lhe slLuaLlonţ one hlahlv slanlflcanL polnLŦ lL ls Lhe dlamondţ afLer allţ whlch ls Lhe cruxţ Lhe
cenLerţ Lhe whole sum and subsLance of our problemŦ And from Lhe sLandpolnL of Lhe dlamond lL was l who was on
Lhe rlahLţ and who musLţ Lhereforeţ prevallŦ"
º?ou are boLh verv cleverţ" sald Lhe Lhlrd manţ ºbuL vour clevernessţ l fearţ has undone vouŦ Cbserve LhaL Lhe flrsL
one of vouţ who walked on one slde of meţ and Lhen Lhe oLherţ who walked on Lhe oLher sldeţ has clalmed he was on
Lhe rlahLŦ l Loo wlll aranL LhaL Lhe rlahL musL alwavs prevallŦ ?eL lL lsţ l belleveţ an accepLed LruLh LhaL ln anv conLesL
beLween Lwo exLremesţ Lhe mlddle around ls llkelv Lo beţ ln facLţ Lhe rlahL oneŦ"
lL ls noL Lold whlch one of Lhe men aoL Lhe dlamond and lL does noL much maLLerŦ
1hev musL have been lawversŦ
CnAÞ1Lk VIII
MCkL A8CU1 LLGAL LANGUAGL
º@ev ove oo lowvets omooo temţ fot tev
cooslJet tem os o sott of people wose
ptofessloo lt ls to Jlsoolse mottetsŦ" Ÿ Slr 1homas ,ore
1he Chlef !usLlce of Lhe Supreme CourL of Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ several vears aaoţ was elucldaLlna ln Lhe course of Lhe
CourL's oplnlon a llLLle polnL of LawŦ ºComlna Lo conslder Lhe valldlLv of Lhe Lax from Lhls polnL of vlewţ" he wroLeţ
ºwhlle noL quesLlonlna aL all LhaL ln common undersLandlna lL was dlrecL merelv on lncome and onlv lndlrecL on
properLvţ lL was held LhaLţ conslderlna Lhe subsLance of Lhlnas lL was dlrecL on properLv ln a consLlLuLlonal sense
slnce Lo burden an lncome bv a Lax wasţ from Lhe polnL of subsLanceţ Lo burden Lhe properLv from whlch Lhe lncome
was derlved and Lhus accompllsh Lhe verv Lhlna whlch Lhe provlslon as Lo apporLlonmenL of dlrecL Laxes was adopLed
Lo prevenLŦ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ
,oreover ln addlLlon Lhe concluslon reached ln Lhe Þollock case dld noL ln anv dearee lnvolve holdlna LhaL lncome
Laxes aenerlcallv and necessarllv came wlLhln Lhe class of dlrecL Laxes on properLvţ buL on Lhe conLrarvţ recoanlzed
Lhe facL LhaL LaxaLlon on lncome was ln lLs naLure an exclse enLlLled Lo be enforced as such unless and unLll lL was
concluded LhaL Lo enforce lL would amounL Lo accompllshlna Lhe resulL whlch Lhe requlremenL as Lo apporLlonmenL
of dlrecL LaxaLlon was adopLed Lo prevenLţ ln whlch case Lhe duLv would arlse Lo dlsreaard form and conslder
subsLance alone and hence sub[ecL Lhe Lax Lo Lhe reaulaLlon as Lo apporLlonmenL whlch oLherwlse as an exclse
looe 44 of 65

would noL applv Lo lL Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ lrom Lhls ln subsLance lL lndlspuLablv arlsesţ Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ LhaL Lhe conLenLlon LhaL Lhe AmendmenL
LreaLs Lhe Lax on lncome as a dlrecL Lax alLhouah lL ls relleved from apporLlonmenL and ls necessarllv Lherefore noL
sub[ecL Lo Lhe rule of unlformlLv as such rule onlv applles Lo Laxes whlch are noL dlrecLţ Lhus desLrovlna Lhe Lwo areaL
classlflcaLlons whlch have been recoanlzed and enforced from Lhe bealnnlnaţ ls whollv wlLhouL foundaLlon slnce Lhe
command of Lhe AmendmenL LhaL all lncome Laxes shall noL be sub[ecL Lo apporLlonmenL bv a conslderaLlon of Lhe
sources from whlch Lhe Laxed lncome mav be derlvedţ forblds Lhe appllcaLlon Lo such Laxes of Lhe rule applled ln Lhe
Þollock case bv whlch alone such Laxes were removed from Lhe areaL class of exclsesţ duLlesţ and lmposLs sub[ecL Lo
Lhe rule of unlformlLvţ and were placed under Lhe oLher or dlrecL classŦ"
1hls could ao on for hoursŦ As a maLLer of facL ls dldŦ And lncldenLallvţ Lhe leaal polnL whlch Lhe learned [usLlce was
maklna so crvsLal clear had noL Lhe sllahLesL bearlna on Lhe declslon ln Lhe caseŦ
8uL lL would be far Loo easv Lo plle up example afLer example of Lhe nonsense LhaL ls leaal lanauaaeŦ 1he quoLed
LldblL lsţ of courseţ an exaaaeraLed lnsLanceŦ 8uL lL ls exaaaeraLed onlv ln dearee and noL ln klndŦ AlmosL all leaal
senLencesţ wheLher Lhev appear ln [udaes' oplnlonsţ wrlLLen sLaLuLesţ or ordlnarv bllls of saleţ have a wav of readlna
as Lhouah Lhev had been LranslaLed from Lhe Cerman bv someone wlLh a raLher meaaer knowledae of LnallshŦ
lnvarlablv Lhev are lonaŦ lnvarlablv Lhev are awkwardŦ lnvarlablv and lnevlLablv Lhev make plenLlful use of Lhe
absLracLţ fuzzvţ clumsv words whlch are so essenLlal Lo Lhe solemn hocusŴpocus of 1he LawŦ
now lL ls aenerallv conceded LhaL Lhe purpose of lanauaaeţ wheLher wrlLLenţ spokenţ or aesLuredţ ls Lo convev ldeas
from one person Lo anoLherŦ 1he besL klnd of lanauaaeţ Lhe besL use of lanauaaeţ ls LhaL whlch convevs ldeas mosL
clearlv and mosL compleLelvţ CerLrude SLeln and !ames !ovce noLwlLhsLandlnaŦ 8uL Lhe lanauaae of 1he Law seems
almosL dellberaLelv deslaned Lo confuse and muddle Lhe ldeas lL purporLs Lo convevŦ 1haL quallLv of leaal lanauaae
can lLself be useful on onlv one supposlLlonŦ lL can be useful onlv lf Lhe ldeas Lhemselves are so confused and
muddled and empLv LhaL an aLLempL Lo express Lhose ldeas ln clearţ preclse lanauaae would beLrav Lhelr Lrue naLureŦ
ln LhaL case muddlness of expresslon can serve verv nlcelv Lo conceal muddlness of LhouahLŦ And no seamenL of Lhe
Lnallsh lanauaae ln use Lodav ls so muddvţ so confuslnaţ so hard Lo pln down Lo lLs supposed meanlnaţ as Lhe
lanauaae of 1he LawŦ lL ranaes onlv from Lhe amblauous Lo Lhe compleLelv lncomprehenslbleŦ
1o Lhe nonŴlawverţ leaal lanauaae lsţ as menLloned beforeţ Lo all lnLenLs and purposes a forelan LonaueŦ lL uses
words and phrases whlch are LoLallv unfamlllar Lo hlmŦ Cr lL uses words and phrases whlch he can flnd ln hls
vocabularv buL uses Lhem ln such a wav LhaL he ls lmmedlaLelv aware LhaL Lhev musL meanţ ln 1he Lawţ someLhlna
qulLe dlfferenL from whaL Lhev mean Lo hlmŦ Crţ on Lhe rare occaslons when a whole leaal senLence seems Lo be
made up of famlllar words Laken ln Lhelr accusLomed meanlnaţ Lhe senLence lLself ls llkelv Lo be so consLrucLed LhaL
lL doesn'L make common senseŦ Ch wellţ Lhe nonŴlawver wlll sav wlLh a shruaţ l suppose lL means someLhlna Lo a
lawverŦ
1haL ls whv people rarelv boLher Lo read lnsurance pollcles or morLaaaes or acLs of ConaressŦ 1hev know perfecLlv
well LhaL Lhev wlll never be able Lo arasp mosL of Lhe ldeas LhaL are alleaedlv belna convevedŦ Lven lf a leaallvŴ
phrased documenL of one klnd or anoLher ls of Lhe upmosL personal lmporLance Lo Lhe man who slans lL or hears of
lLţ he wlll seldom make Lhe palnful efforL of Lrvlna Lo aeL clear ln hls head whaL Lhe funnv lanauaae ln whlch lL ls
wrlLLen ls supposed Lo meanŦ Pe wlll [usL LrusL hls lawver Ŷ or somebodv else's lawver Ŷ LhaL lL does mean
someLhlnaţ LhaL lL means someLhlna deflnlLeţ and LhaL Lhere ls a aood reason for savlna lL ln a wav LhaL prevenLs hlm
from undersLandlna lLŦ SomeLlmesţ moreoverţ he wlll laLer have cause Lo reareL LhaL bllnd LrusLŦ
?eL whv Ŷ lf vou Lhlnk lL over for a mlnuLe Ŷ should people noL be prlvlleaed Lo undersLand compleLelv and preclselv
anv wrlLLen laws LhaL dlrecLlv concern Lhemţ anv buslness documenLs Lhev have Lo slanţ anv code of rules and
resLrlcLlons whlch applles Lo Lhem and under whlch Lhev perpeLuallv llve? Whv should noL Lhe ldeasţ vlLallv
lmporLanL Lo someone as Lhev alwavs areţ whlch are sald Lo lle behlnd anv alob of leaal lanauaaeţ be common
properLvţ freelv avallable Lo anvone lnLeresLedţ lnsLead of belna Lhe prlvaLe and secreL possesslon of Lhe leaal
fraLernlLv?
As polnLed ouL prevlouslvţ 1he Lawţ reaardless of anv lnLellecLual preLenslons abouL lLţ does noL aL boLLom deal wlLh
some esoLerlc or hlahlv speclallzed fleld of acLlvlLv llke Lhe arLlsLlc valuaLlon of svmphonlc muslc or hlaher calculus or
blochemlcal experlmenLaLlonŦ lf lL dldţ Lhere would be reason and excuse for Lhe use of lanauaae unfamlllar and
looe 45 of 65

unlnLelllalble Lo nlneLvŴnlne people ouL of a hundredŦ nor would Lhe nlneLvŴnlne have anv cause Lo careŦ 8uL Lhe facL
ls LhaL Law deals wlLh Lhe ordlnarv affalrs of ordlnarv human belnas carrvlna on Lhelr ordlnarv dallv llvesŦ Whv Lhen
should 1he Law use a lanauaae Ŷ lanauaae belnaţ rememberţ no more Lhan a means of communlcaLlna ldeas Ŷ whlch
Lhose ordlnarv human belnas cannoL hope Lo undersLand?
CerLalnlv a man who enLers a buslness deal of anv klndţ wheLher he ls buvlna a radlo on Lhe lnsLallmenL plan or
seLLlna up a LrusL fund Lo Lake care of hls famllvţ would seem enLlLled Lo knowţ Lo hls own compleLe lnLellecLual
saLlsfacLlonţ [usL whaL he ls aeLLlna ouL of lL and [usL whaL he mav be aeLLlna ln forŦ 1he leaal documenL he slans
won'L Lell hlmŦ CerLalnlv a man whose democraLlcallv elecLed aovernmenL enacLs a law whlch wlll reaulaLe hlm or Lax
hlm or do hlm a favor would seem enLlLled Lo knowţ lf he wanLs Lo knowţ exacLlv how Lhe new sLaLuLe ls aolna Lo
affecL hlmŦ Pls lawver mav ºadvlse" hlm Ŷ and mav be rlahL or wrona Ŷ buL readlna Lhe sLaLuLe won'L Lell hlmŦ
CerLalnlv a man who loses a law sulL would seem enLlLled Lo know whv he losL lLŦ 1he courL's oplnlon won'L Lell hlmŦ
Whv? Whv doesn'L and whv shouldn'L leaal lanauaae carrv lLs messaae of meanlna as clearlv and fullv as does a cook
book or an almanac or a column of classlfled adverLlsemenLs Lo anvone who wanLs Lo know whaL ldeas Lhe words
are lnLended Lo convev?
1he answer lsţ of courseţ LhaL Lhe chlef funcLlon whlch leaal lanauaae performs ls noL Lo convev ldeas clearlv buL
raLher Lo so conceal Lhe confuslon and vaaueness and empLlness of leaal Lhlnklna LhaL Lhe dlfflculLles whlch beseL
anv nonŴlawver who Lrles Lo make sense ouL of 1he Law seem Lo sLem from Lhe lanauaae lLself lnsLead of from Lhe
ldeas Ŷ or lack of ldeas Ŷ behlnd lLŦ lL ls Lhe bla unfamlllar words and Lhe lona looplna senLences LhaL Lurn Lhe LrlckŦ
Spoken or wrlLLen wlLh a sLralahL faceţ as Lhev alwavs areţ Lhev alve an appearance of deep and serlous LhouahL
reaardless of Lhe facL LhaL Lhev mav beţ ln essenceţ uLLerlv meanlnalessŦ
,oreoverţ as has been menLloned prevlouslvţ Lhe lawvers Lhemselvesţ almosL wlLhouL excepLlonţ are [usL as
Lhorouahlv Laken ln bv Lhe ponderous pomposlLv of leaal lanauaae as are Lhe lavmenŦ 1hev acLuallv belleve and wlll
sLouLlv malnLaln LhaL Lhose areaL bla wonderful ldeas Ŷ Lo Lhe lnlLlaLedŦ lf vou can'L Lalk Creekţ Lhev savţ ln effecLţ Lo
Lhe nonŴlawversţ Lhen vou reallv can'L expecL Lo undersLand us when we Lalk CreekŦ 8uL don'L for a second suppose
LhaL we don'L undersLand each oLherţ perfecLlv and preclselvŦ
1he caLch lsţ of courseţ LhaL Lhe lawvers are noL Lalklna Creek Ŷ or 8usslan or SanskrlL elLherŦ 1hev are Lalklnaţ ln a
fashlonţ LnallshŦ ,oreover Lhev are Lalklna abouL maLLers Ŷ buslness maLLersţ aovernmenL maLLersţ personal maLLers
Ŷ whlch anv nonŴlawver ls qulLe capable of comprehendlnaŦ lurLhermoreţ lf Lhev wete Lalklna Creekţ Lhev could
presumablv LranslaLe lL accuraLelv and lnLelllalblv lnLo a famlllar Lonaue wlLhouL spolllna or loslna anv of Lhe senseŦ
8uL Lhev can'L Ŷ or won'L Ŷ LranslaLe Lhe [araon of 1he Law lnLo plaln workadav LnallshŦ 1he communlcaLlon of leaal
ldeasţ lL appearsţ cannoL be LrusLed Lo anv convevance buL Lhe lawvers' prlvaLe paLolsŦ Whlch lsţ unforLunaLelvţ all
Loo LrueŦ
lor 1he Lawţ as vou mav have heard beforeţ ls enLlrelv made up of absLracL aeneral prlnclplesŦ none of Lhose
prlnclples has anv real or necessarv relaLlon Lo Lhe solld subsLance of human affalrsŦ All of Lhem are so amblauous
and manv of Lhem are so conLradlcLorv LhaL lL ls llLerallv lmposslble Lo flnd a deflnlLe and sure soluLlon (reaardless of
wheLher lL mlahL be a aood soluLlon or a bad soluLlon) Lo Lhe slmplesLţ smallesL pracLlcal problem anvwhere ln Lhe
mass of prlnclples LhaL compose 1he LawŦ And Lhe sole reason whv LhaL facL ls noL aenerallv appreclaLed bv elLher
lawvers or nonŴlawvers ls LhaL Lhe prlnclples are phrased ln a lanauaae whlch ls noL onlv baffllnalv lncomprehenslble
ln lLs own rlahL buL whlch ls composed of words LhaL have no real or necessarv relaLlon Lo Lhe solld subsLance of
human affalrs elLherŦ
1hus Lhe whole abracadabra of 1he Law swlnas around a sorL of clrcular paradoxŦ Leaal lanauaae Ŷ ln sLaLuLesţ
documenLsţ courL oplnlons Ŷ makes use of sLranae unfamlllar words because Lhose words Lle up Lo Lhe absLracL
prlnclples of whlch 1he Law ls composedŦ LxcepL ln reference Lo Lhose prlnclples Lhe wordsţ as usedţ mean even less
Lhan noLhlnaŦ 8uL Lhe prlnclples Lhemselves are uLLerlv unlnLelllalble excepL ln Lerms of Lhe leaal words ln
whlch tev are phrasedŦ nelLher words nor prlnclples have anv dlrecL relaLlon Lo Lanalbleţ earLhlv LhlnasŦ Llke
Alphonse and CasLonţ Lhev can do no more Lhan keep bowlna back and forLh Lo each oLherŦ
no wonderţ Lhenţ LhaL Lhe lawvers can never LranslaLe Lhelr llnao lnLo plaln Lnallsh so LhaL lL makes anv sense aL allŦ
Asked whaL anv leaal word meansţ Lhev would have Lo deflne lL ln Lhe llahL of Lhe prlnclpleţ or prlnclplesţ of Law Lo
looe 46 of 65

whlch lL refersŦ Asked whaL Lhe prlnclple meansţ Lhev could scarcelv explaln lL excepL ln Lerms of Lhe leaal words ln
whlch lL ls expressedŦ lor lnsLanceţ Lhe leaal word ºLlLle" doesn'L slanlfv anvLhlna excepL lnsofar as lL refersţ amona
oLhersţ Lo Lhe absLracL prlnclples LhaL are sald Lo deLermlne Lo whom ºLlLle" belonasŦ Whereas Lhe leaal prlnclple LhaL
ºLlLle belonas Lo Lhe morLaaaorţ" or Lhe leaal prlnclple LhaL ºLlLle belonas Lo Lhe morLaaaee" Ŷ for elLher mav be
ºLrue" Ŷ doesn'L slanlfv anvLhlna elLher unless vou know whaL ºLlLle" meansŦ
Cf course Lhere ls one wavţ and onlv one wavţ Lo explaln someLhlna of whaL a leaal prlnclple ls supposed Lo mean ln
plaln LnallshŦ 1haL ls Lo descrlbe Lhe speclflc lawsulLs ln whlch courLs have made speclflc declslons and have sald Lhev
were maklna Lhem on Lhe basls of LhaL prlnclpleŦ 8uL Lhe necesslLv of such a procedure lmmedlaLelv alves awav Lhe
facL LhaL Lhe prlnclples are lnLrlnslcallv meanlnalessŦ lor how on earLh can a prlnclple be Lhe teosoo for a declslon lf lL
can onlv be deflned bv llsLlna Lhe declslons lL was Lhe reason for?
no maLLer whlch wav vou sllce lLţ Lhe resulL remalns Lhe sameŦ Leaal lanauaaeţ wherever lL happens Lo be usedţ ls a
hodaepodae of ouLlandlsh words and phrases because Lhose words and phrases are whaL Lhe prlnclples of 1he Law
are made ofŦ 1he prlnclples of 1he Law are made of Lhose ouLlandlsh words and phrases because Lhev are noL reallv
reasons for declslons buL obscure and Lhorouahlv unconvlnclna raLlonallzaLlons of declslons Ŷ and lf Lhev were
wrlLLen ln ordlnarv Lnallshţ evervbodv could see how slllvţ how lrrelevanL and lnconcluslveţ Lhev areŦ lf evervbodv
could see how slllv leaal prlnclples areţ 1he Law would lose lLs dlanlLv and Lhen lLs power Ŷ and so would Lhe lawversŦ
So leaal lanauaaeţ bv obsLrucLlna lnsLead of asslsLlna Lhe communlcaLlon of ldeasţ ls verv useful Ŷ Lo Lhe lawversŦ lL
enables Lhem Lo keep on savlna noLhlna wlLh an alr of areaL lmporLance Ŷ and aeLLlna awav wlLh lLŦ
?eL Lhe lawversţ Laken as a wholeţ cannoL bv anv means be accused of Jellbetotelv hoodwlnklna Lhe publlc wlLh Lhelr
devlous dlalecLlc and Lhelr preclous prlnclples and Lhelr lonalloquenL lanauaaeŦ 1hevţ Looţ are bllssfullv unaware LhaL
Lhe sounds Lhev make are essenLlallv empLv of meanlnaŦ And Lhls ls noL so sLranaeŦ lor selfŴdecepLlonţ especlallv lf lL
ls selfŴservlnaţ ls one of Lhe easlesL of arLsŦ
Conslder Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lawvers Ŷ and LhaL lncludes Lhe [udaes Ŷ have been rlaorouslv Lralned for vears ln Lhe
hocusŴpocus of leaal lanauaae and leaal prlnclplesŦ 1hev have been LauahL Lhe dlfflculL Lechnlque of Losslna Lhose
absLracL words aroundŦ 1hev have had drllled lnLo Lhelr headsţ bv consLanL caLechlsmţ Lhe omnlsclence and
omnlpoLence of 1he LawŦ 1hev have seen and read LhaL lmporLanL people llke Supreme CourL [usLlces and Wall
SLreeL law parLners LreaL 1he Law as serlouslv and deferenLlallv as Lhev LreaL Lhe ScrlpLuresŦ 1hev dlscoverţ Looţ LhaL
all nonŴlawvers seem Lerrlblv lmpressed bv Lhls lanauaae whlch sounds so unfamlllar and so lmporLanLŦ So whv ask
quesLlons? Whv doubL LhaL Lhe world ls flaL when evervone else Lakes lL as a maLLer of course? And especlallvţ whv
doubL lL lf lL ls Lo vour own personal advanLaae Lo accepL and belleve lL? Whv noLţ lnsLeadţ Lrv Lo become a Supreme
CourL [usLlce or a Wall SLreeL law parLner vourself?
Lverv once ln a whlleţ howeverţ a lawver comes alona who has Lhe sLubborn skepLlclsm necessarv Lo see Lhrouah Lhe
whole solemn slelahLŴofŴmlnd LhaL ls 1he Law and who has Lhe LemerlLv Lo sav soŦ 1he areaLesL of Lhese was Lhe laLe
!usLlce Polmesţ especlallv where ConsLlLuLlonal Law was concernedŦ 1lme and Llme aaaln he would demollsh a flfLvŴ
paae CourL oplnlon Ŷ wrlLLen ln sonorous leaal senLences LhaL plled absLracL prlnclple upon absLracL prlnclple Ŷ wlLh
a few words of dlssenLţ spoken ln plaln LnallshŦ º1he Law as vou lav lL downţ" he would sav ln effecLţ ºsounds
lmpresslve and lmpeccableŦ 8uL of course lL reallv has noLhlna Lo do wlLh Lhe facLs of Lhe caseŦ" And Lhe lawversţ
Lhouah Lhev had come Lo reaard Polmes as Lhe arand old man of Lhelr professlon and Lhouah Lhev respecLed Lhe
Leaal wrlLlna he had done ln hls vouLhţ were alwavs boLhered and bewlldered when he dlsmlssed a flnespun skeln of
leaal loalc wlLh a snap of hls flnaersŦ
SLranae as lL mav seemţ lL ls hls slmllar unwllllnaness Lo swallow Lhe sacredness of 1he Law LhaL has Lurned Lhe
lawversţ ln a bodvţ vlclouslv aaalnsL !usLlce 8lack LodavŦ 1hev do noL haLe hlm because he ls a new uealerŤ so ls
!usLlce 8eed whom Lhev respecLŦ 1hev do noL haLe hlm because he was a ku kluxerŤ !usLlce ,c8evnolds' noLorlous
and conLlnulna raclal lnLolerance has brouahL no squawks from Lhe leaal clanŦ 1he lawvers haLe 8lack because heţ
Looţ wlLhouL Lhe aae or Lhe leaal repuLaLlon of a Polmes Lo serve hlm as armorţ has dared Lo doubL ln prlnL LhaL
Lhere ls unlversal LruLh behlnd accepLed leaal prlnclples or solld subsLance behlnd leaal lanauaaeŦ ºWhvţ" Lhev sav of
hlmţ ºLhaL 8lack doesn'L even know 1he LawŦ" Whlch onlv means LhaL he knows 1he Law Loo well Ŷ for whaL lL reallv
lsŦ
looe 47 of 65

WhaL Lhe lawvers care abouL ln a [udae or a fellow lawver ls LhaL he plav Lhe leaal aame wlLh Lhe resL of Lhem Ŷ LhaL
he Lalk Lhelr Lalk and respecL Lhelr rules and noL ao around sLlcklna plns ln Lhelr preLLv prlnclplesŦ Pe can be a new
uealer or a ku kluxer or a Slnale 1axer or an advocaLe of free loveţ [usL so lona as he sLavs wlLhln Lhe famlllar
framework of leaal phraseoloav ln expresslna hls ldeas and pre[udlces wherever Lhev happen Lo lmplnae on 1he LawŦ
A lawver who araues LhaL slLŴdown sLrlkes are perfecLlv leaalţ baslna hls araumenL enLlrelv on leaal prlnclples and
phraslna lL ln leaal lanauaae (and lL canţ of courseţ be done) wlll be accorded far more respecL bv hls breLhren Lhan a
lawver who araues LhaL men ouahL Lo be made Lo keep Lhelr buslness promlses buL nealecLs Lo draa ln Lhe Law of
ConLracLs Lo prove lLŦ
1he klnd of lawver who ls never losL for leaal lanauaaeţ who would never Lhlnk of counLerlna a leaal prlnclple wlLh a
pracLlcal araumenL buL onlv wlLh anoLher leaal prlnclpleţ who would never dream of quesLlonlna anv of Lhe process
of 1he Law Ŷ LhaL klnd of lawver ls Lhe prlde and [ov of Lhe professlonŦ Pe ls whaL almosL everv lawver Lrles hardesL
Lo beŦ Pe ls known as Lhe ºlawvers' lawverŦ"
LxcepL ln a purelv professlonal capaclLvţ ln whlch capaclLv Lhev can be boLh useful and expenslveţ vou wlll do well Lo
keep awav from lawvers' lawversŦ 1hev are walklnaţ Lalklna exhlblLs of Lhe lawvers' bellef ln Lhelr own nonsenseŦ
1hev are Lhe eplLome of Lhe lnLellecLual lnbreedlna LhaL lnfesLs Lhe whole leaal fraLernlLvŦ
And slnce lawvers' lawvers are Lhe ldols of Lhelr fellowsţ lL ls small wonder LhaL lawvers Lake Lhelr Law and Lhelr leaal
Lalk ln dead earnesLŦ lL ls small wonder LhaL Lhev Lhlnk a ºvesLed lnLeresL sub[ecL Lo be dlvesLed" or a franklv
ºlncorporeal heredlLamenL" ls as real and deflnlLe and subsLanLlal as a brlck ouLhouseŦ lor Lhe sad facL ls LhaL almosL
everv lawverţ ln hls hearL and ln hls own small wavţ ls a lawvers' lawverŦ
1hus leaal lanauaae works as a double proLecLlon of Lhe mlahL fraud of 1he LawŦ Cn Lhe one slde lL keeps Lhe nonŴ
lawvers from flndlna ouL LhaL leaal loalc ls so full of holes LhaL lL ls pracLlcallv one vasL voldŦ Cn Lhe oLher sldeţ Lhe
allb use of leaal lanauaae ls so unlversallv accepLed bv Lhe lawvers as Lhe merlL badae of Lhelr professlon Ŷ Lhe
hallmark of Lhe lawvers' lawver Ŷ LhaL Lhev never sLop Lo quesLlon Lhe ldeas LhaL are sald Lo lle behlnd Lhe wordsţ
belna kepL busv enouah and conLenLed enouah Lrvlna Lo manlpulaLe Lhe words ln lmlLaLlon of Lhelr heroesŦ 1he LruLh
ls LhaL leaal lanauaae makes almosL as llLLle common sense Lo Lhe lawvers as lL does Lo Lhe lavmenŦ 8uL how can anv
lawver afford Lo admlL LhaL facLţ eveo to lmselfţ when hls poslLlon ln Lhe communlLvţ hls presLlae amona hls fellow
crafLsmenţ and hls own sense of selfŴrespecL all hana on Lhe assumpLlon LhaL he does know whaL he ls Lalklna abouL?
1here ls one more araumenL LhaL lawver ls llkelv Lo make ln defense of Lhe confuslna and arLlflclal words LhaL make
up leaal lanauaae andţ Lhrouah leaal lanauaaeţ leaal prlnclplesţ andţ Lhrouah leaal prlnclplesţ 1he LawŦ WaLch ouL for
lLŦ Cf courseţ he wlll aranLţ 1he Law ls bullL of absLracL ldeas and concepLs and prlnclplesŦ And absLracL ldeas have Lo
be expressed ln speclal wordsŦ And Lhe speclal wordsţ because Lhev deal wlLh absLracL ldeasţ cannoL be as preclse of
meanlna as words LhaL deal wlLh solld Lhlnas llke rocks or resLauranLs or klddvŴcarsŦ
8uL whaLţ he wlll askţ ls wrona wlLh LhaL? ,en are alwavs Lhlnklna and Lalklna ln absLracLlons and uslna words llke
ºlove" or ºdemocracv" or ºconfuslon" or ºabsLracLlon" Lo convev Lhelr ldeasŦ A ºconLlnaenL lnLeresL" means as much
Lo us lawvers as a ºfrlendlv lnLeresL" means Lo vouŦ ?ou can'L deflne ºfrlendlv lnLeresL" verv clearlv or preclselv
elLherŦ ºuue process of law" ls [usL as deflnlLe as ºdlcLaLorshlpŦ" ºConsLlLuLlonal" or ºunconsLlLuLlonal" lsn'L anv more
amblauous LhaL ºaood" or ºbadŦ"
,oreoverţ he wlll ao onţ Lhe whole ldeal and purpose of 1he Law ls Lo malnLalnţ ln human relaLlons and affalrsţ a
wellŴknown popular absLracLlon called º[usLlceŦ" 1rv Lo deflne º[usLlce" anv more accuraLelv Lhan vou can deflne anv
leaal concepL vou can Lhlnk of! As a maLLer of facLţ Lhe chlef lnLenL of 1he Lawţ as a compllcaLed sclenceţ ls Lo make
Lhe ldea of º[usLlce" mote preclseţ Lo make lL more readllv and more cerLalnlv appllcable Lo anv facL slLuaLlonţ anv
problemţ anv dlspuLe LhaL mav ever arlseŦ And vou can'L spllL an absLracL ldeal lnLo separaLe parLs Ŷ vou can'L reduce
lL Lo prlnclples and subŴprlnclples Ŷ wlLhouL phraslna Lhem ln absLracL and Lherefore somewhaL lmpreclse LermsŦ
Penceţ leaal lanauaaeŦ
1he answer Lo Lhls defense of 1he Law and lLs lanauaae ls conLalned rlahL ln Lhe defendanL's own pleaŦ Lven leavlna
aslde Lhe obvlous facL LhaL 1he Law Llme afLer Llme produces resulLs LhaL sLrlke mosL people as wlckedlv unfalr or
ºun[usL" Ŷ ln whlch case Lhe lawvers lnvarlablv savť º1hţ LhŤ Loo badŤ buL LhaL's 1he Law all rlahL" Ŷ Lhe answer ls sLlll
looe 48 of 65

LhereŦ 1he answer ls LhaL vou can'L spllL an absLracL ldeal lnLo separaLe parLs Ŷ vou can'L reduce lL Lo prlnclples and
subŴprlnclplesŦ ÞerlodŦ
1he whole buslness of Lrvlna Lo spllL up º[usLlce" lnLo parLsţ or prlnclplesţ ln order Lo aeL a beLLerţ surer arasp of lL ls
absurd as cuLLlna up a worm ln order Lo aeL a beLLer hold of lLŦ ln Lhe flrsL placeţ Lhe orlalnal anlmal ls qulcklv
dlslnLearaLed ln Lhe processŦ ln Lhe second placeţ each new llLLle pleceţ each subŴprlnclpleţ becomes a squlrmlna
absLracLlon ln lLs own rlahLŦ Lach ls now as hard Lo arab hold ofţ as hard Lo pln down Lo preclsenessţ as was Lhe
moLher absLracLlonŦ
1hus vou wlll rarelv flnd Lhe lawversţ or Lhe [udaes elLherţ Lrvlna Lo applv Lhe concepL of º[usLlce" Lo Lhe seLLlemenL
of a leaal problemŦ lnsLeadţ vou wlll flnd Lhem flahLlna over a dozen equallv absLracL concepLsţ all phrased ln leaal
lanauaae of courseţ and Lrvlna Lo declde whlch of Lhose should be applledŦ Andţ as noLed beforeţ Lhe cholce of Lhe
ºrlahL" concepLs or of Lhe ºconLrolllna" prlnclples ls a hlahlv haphazard and arblLrarv buslnessţ no maLLer how slmple
Lhe facLs of Lhe problemŦ lor facLs don'L flL lnLo ºconslderaLlon" or ºaffecLlon wlLh a publlc lnLeresL" anv more
auLomaLlcallv or cerLalnlv Lhan Lhev flL lnLo º[usLlceŦ"
,oreoverţ and Lhls ls even more lmporLanLţ Lhe concenLraLlon of 1he Law on lLs own peL brood of concepLs and
prlnclples has meanL Lhe sad dlslnLearaLlon of Lhe oldŴfashloned nonŴleaal ldea of º[usLlceŦ" Lawvers are alwavs so
absorbed ln Lhelr llLLle aame of maLchlna leaal absLracLlons LhaL Lhev have all buL foraoLLen Lhe one absLracLlon
whlch ls Lhe excuse for Lhere belna anv Law aL allŦ 1hev Lake º[usLlce" for aranLed and sLlck Lo Lhelr ºconLracLs" and
Lhelr ºLorLsŦ" 8uL vou can no more Lake º[usLlce" for aranLed Lhan vou can cuL lL up and sLuff lL lnLo cubbvholes of
leaal lanauaaeŦ
1he lawver who would defend Lhe absLracL lanauaae of 1he Law ls rlahL as raln when he savs LhaL people Lhlnk and
Lalk of human conducL ln absLracL wavsţ ln Lerms of ºrlahL" and ºwronaţ" ºfalr" and ºunfalrŦ" 8uL he ls dead wrona as
soon as he asserLs LhaL Lhe sLranaeŴsoundlna absLracLlons of 1he Law have anv more real or necessarv relaLlon Lo
ldeals abouL human conducL Lhan Lhev have Lo Lhe facLs of human conducLŦ Leaal words and concepLs and prlnclples
floaL ln a puraaLorv of Lhelr ownţ halfwav beLween Lhe heaven of absLracL ldeals and Lhe hell of plaln facLs and
compleLelv ouL of Louch wlLh boLh of LhemŦ
Anv LhaL ls whvţ ln Lhe lasL analvslsţ Lhe lanauaae of 1he Law ls lnherenLlv meanlnalessŦ lL purporLs on Lhe one hand
Lo Lle up ln a aeneral wav wlLh speclflc facL slLuaLlonsŦ lL purporLs on Lhe oLher hand Lo Lle up ln a aeneral wav Lo Lhe
areaL absLracLlonsţ º[usLlceŦ" ?eLţ ln Lrvlna Lo brldae Lhe aap beLween Lhe facLs and Lhe absLracLlonţ so LhaL º[usLlce"
mav be ºsclenLlflcallv" and almosL auLomaLlcallv applled Lo pracLlcal problemsţ 1he Law has onlv succeeded ln
developlna a llLurav of prlnclples Loo far removed from Lhe facLs Lo have anv meanlna ln relaLlon Lo Lhe facLs and Loo
far removed from Lhe absLracLlon Lo make anv sense ln Lerms of º[usLlceŦ"
SLlllţ leaal lanauaae ls a areaL llLLle lanauaae Lo Lhose who llve bv lL Ŷ and on lLŦ And vou don'L even have Lo use words
llke Lrover or assumpslL Lo have a loL of fun ouL of lLŦ lor lnsLanceţ a blll recenLlv before Conaress conLalned Lhls
charmlna provlslonť Ÿ º1hrouahouL Lhe acL Lhe presenL Lense lncludes Lhe pasL and fuLure LensesŤ and Lhe fuLureţ
Lhe presenLŦ 1he mascullne aender lncludes Lhe femlnlne and neuLerŦ 1he slnaular number lncludes Lhe plural and
Lhe plural Lhe slnaularŦ"
Cnlv Lo a lawver mlahLţ º1he men are beaLlna hlm" meanţ amona oLher Lhlnasţ ºShe ls aolna Lo beaL lLŦ"
CnAÞ1Lk Ik
INCU8A1Ck5 CI 1nL LAW
º@e leool oppteotlce e sweots ooJ e sttolos
@o memotlze evetv ptloclpleŤ
ne´J leoto o lot mote lo te eoJ fot ls polos
8v stoJvloo sometloo sloclpleŦ" Ÿ AnonŦ
looe 49 of 65

As everv aood fasclsL knowsţ Lhe perpeLuaLlon of Lhe fasclsL fraud dependsţ ln Lhe lona runţ on Lhe Lralnlna of
fledallnas ln Lhe falLhŦ 1he dlcLaLors caLch Lhelr conscrlpLs vouna and dlsclpllne Lhem Lo Lhlnk ln aooseŴsLepŦ Þromlses
of reward for Lhe falLhful and omlnous warnlnas abouL Lhe danaers of nonconformlLv plav Lhelr parL ln maklna
apprenLlces flrmlv belleve a mass of llesţ halfŴllesţ and nonsenseŦ uoubLţ even Lhe LlnlesL wonderlna doubLţ ls Lhe
cardlnal slnŦ 1here are few hereLlcsŦ
1he Law cannoL caLch lLs communlcanLs so vounaŦ 8uL Lhe same menLal aoose sLep and Lhe same klnd of hopes and
fears are usedţ perhaps noL so purposefullv buL [usL as efflcaclouslvţ Lo lnsLlll a flahLlna bellef ln Lhe nonsense of 1he
LawŦ And of course lL ls on Lhe rlald Lralnlna of apprenLlces ln Lhe arL LhaL Lhe perpeLuaLlon of Lhe leaal leaend
dependsŦ
1here was a Llme when 1he Lawţ llke oLher more subsLanLlal and more useful Lradesţ was learned ln Lhe shop of a
fullŴblown pracLlLlonerŦ An asplrlna lawver sLudled hls precepLs and hls prlnclples whlle servlna a Lerm as offlce
asslsLanL Lo some member of Lhe barŦ 1odav Lhe members of Lhe bar musL usuallv pav for Lhelr asslsLance wlLh
someLhlna more Lhan a loL of leaal lanauaae dressed up as words of wlsdomŦ 1he Lrade has acqulred academlc
preLenslonsţ and Lhose clLadels of loalcal leaerdemaln known as law schools are noL Lhe lncubaLors of 1he LawŦ
ConsequenLlvţ Lhe hope of 1he Law Ŷ LhaL lsţ Lhe hope of Lhe lawvers LhaL Lhelr aame wlll ao on lndeflnlLelvţ
undlmlnlshed and undlspuLed Ŷ lles wlLh Lhe law schoolsŦ And converselvţ Lhe one sllm hope LhaL Lhe bla balloon of
lnflaLed nonsense mav ever be exploded bv lnLernal combusLlon lles wlLh Lhe law schools LooŦ Cnce Lhe professlonal
albberlshŴ[uaalers have proceeded bevond Lhe Lralnlna sLaaeţ lL ls almosL alwavs Loo laLeŦ 1hev have Lo be cauahL
vounaŴlnŴ1heŴLaw Lo be Lurned lnLo dlsclples Ŷ or hereLlcsŦ
ln order Lo Leach apprenLlces how Lo Lalk Lhe lanauaae and how Lo reason ln Lhe proper absLracL clrclesţ Lhe law
schools have dlvlded 1he Law's mass of prlnclples lnLo bla chunksŦ Lach chunk represenLs a ºfleld" of Law and ls
LauahL ln a separaLe courseţ or coursesŦ 1here are ConLracLs and 1orLs and 1rusLsŦ 1here are ConsLlLuLlonal Law and
Crlmlnal Law and Labor LawŦ 1here are ºflelds" and courses bv Lhe scoreŦ Cf courseţ an acLual case mav fall lnLo
several ºflelds" aL Lhe same LlmeŦ lL mav lnvolveţ for lnsLanceţ Lhe ConsLlLuLlonţ and a crlme and a labor dlspuLeŦ 8uL
LhaL wlll noL faze Lhe law schoolsŦ So far as Lhev are concernedţ lL ls Lhe prlnclplesţ noL Lhe casesţ LhaL reallv maLLerŦ
And so Lhe same case wlll show up ln ConsLlLuLlonal Law and ln Crlmlnal Law and ln Labor LawŦ lL wlll noLţ howeverţ
show up ln Lhe same wavŦ ln ConsLlLuLlonal Lawţ Lhe relevanL prlnclples of ConsLlLuLlonal Law wlll be examlnedŦ ln
Crlmlnal Lawţ Lhe relevanL prlnclples of Crlmlnal Law wlll be examlnedŦ ln Labor Lawţ Lhe relevanL prlnclples of Labor
Law wlll be examlnedŦ ln each one of Lhe coursesţ Lhe aspecLs of Lhe case LhaL fall lnLo Lhe oLher Lwo courseŴ
caLeaorles wlll be elLher alossed over or omlLLed enLlrelvŦ A sLudenL mav Lhus have Lo Lake Lhree courses ln order Lo
undersLand Lhorouahlvţ even from Lhe leaal sLandpolnLţ whaL one declslon ls all abouLŦ 8uL noL ln order Lo learn anv
one ƍfleld" of LawŦ 1husţ law school coursesţ slnce Lhev are cuL ouL of Lhe pseudoŴsclence of Lawţ lnevlLablv focus on
aenerallLles and absLracLlons raLher Lhan on Lhe soluLlon of speclflc problemsŦ A sLudenL mlahL even sLudv a case ln a
dozen dlfferenL courses Ŷ and Lhus learn all abouL 1he Law of Lhe case Ŷ and sLlll noL have Lhe sllahLesL
comprehenslon ofţ or lnslahL lnLoţ Lhe real downŴLoŴearLh facLual dlfflculLv or conLroversv LhaL brouahL Lhe case lnLo
courLŦ
SomeLlmes a ºfleld" of Law ls Loo bla Lo be sLuffed lnLo one courseŦ lor exampleţ ÞroperLv Law ls commonlv dlvlded
lnLo 8eal ÞroperLv and Þersonal ÞroperLv (nelLher ºreal" nor ºpersonalţ" of courseţ means whaL lL means ln evervdav
conversaLlon) and Wllls and ,orLaaaes and neaoLlable lnsLrumenLs and several moreŦ 8uL Lhenţ ÞroperLv Law ls for
Lhe mosL parL onlv a bla branch of ConLracL LawŦ ,oreoverţ CorporaLlon Lawţ a ºfleld" exLenslve enouah Lo have
varlous subdlvlslons of lLs ownţ ls ln essence noLhlna buL a branch of ÞroperLv LawŦ lL ls almosL as hard Lo keep
sLralahL Lhe hlerarchv of leaal ºflelds" and courses as lL ls Lo sorL ouL Lhe absLracL prlnclples of whlch Lhe dlfferenL
courses are consLrucLedŦ And elLher process ls llke Lrvlna Lo cuL waLer wlLh a knlfeŦ
Cne of Lhe blaaesL and sLranaesL ºflelds" of leaal learnlna ls someLhlna known as Þleadlna and ÞrocedureŦ 1he law
schools dlvlde Þleadlna and Þrocedure lnLo manv coursesţ and some of Lhese coursesţ llke Lvldenceţ are raLed as
ºflelds" unLo LhemselvesŦ 8uL Lhe sLranae Lhlna abouL Þleadlna and Þrocedure ls noL lLs slzeŤ ÞroperLv Law ls aL leasL
as bla as full of prlnclplesŦ 1he sLranae Lhlna ls LhaL Lhe lawvers and Lhe law schools do noL even preLend Lo
Lhemselves LhaL Lhe prlnclples and rules of Þleadlna and Þrocedure have anvLhlna Lo do wlLh Lhe soluLlon of pracLlcal
problemsŦ Þleadlna and Þrocedure lsţ oJmltteJlvţ [usL a loL of verbal compllcaLlons and LechnlcallLles LhaL lawvers
looe 50 of 65

have Lo memorlze Ŷ or know where Lo look up Ŷ before Lhev can pracLlce Lhelr LradeŦ And LhaL admlsslon lsţ of
courseţ unlque ln 1he LawŦ As a maLLer of facLţ Lhe lawvers and Lhe law schools lump Lhe whole remalnder of 1he
Law LoaeLher Ŷ ConLracLs and Crlmlnal Law and 1rusLs and 1orLs and Lhe resL of Lhe card caLaloaue of absLracL
prlnclples Ŷ and call lL all ºsubsLanLlve lawţ" as opposed Lo Lhe ºad[ecLlve" or ºprocedural law" of Lhe Þleadlna and
Þrocedure coursesŦ 1he Lerm ºsubsLanLlve law" ls supposed Lo lmplv LhaL Lhe prlnclples of ConLracLs and 1orLs and
Lhe resL reallv cope wlLh Lhe subsLance of human or soclal problemsŦ 8uL even Lhe lawvers can'L make such a clalm
for Þleadlna and ÞrocedureŦ
Þleadlna and Þrocedure covers all Lhe prlnclples and rules of Law whlch aovern Lhe wav lawvers mav make use of
oLher prlnclples and rules of LawŦ lf LhaL sounds compllcaLedţ so ls Þleadlna and ÞrocedureŦ lor ÞŦ and ÞŦ
encompasses Lhe code of precepLs accordlna Lo whlch Lhe leaal aame ls plavedţ once a dlspuLe acLuallv sLarLs on lLs
wav lnLo courLŦ And when vou bealn deallna wlLh a loL of absLracL prlnclples abouL Lhe proper manlpulaLlon of oLher
absLracL prlnclplesţ vou can'L help aeLLlna somewhaL confusedŦ
uon'L supposeţ elLherţ LhaL Lhe prlnclples and rules of ÞŦ and ÞŦ areţ for Lhe mosL parLţ anv more preclse or anv less
amblauous Lhan oLher prlnclples of LawŦ A blL of evldence aL a Lrlal does noL fall lnLo Lhe famous ºlrrelevanLţ
lncompeLenLţ and lmmaLerlal" classlflcaLlon anv more auLomaLlcallv Lhan a kllllna falls lnLo ºsecond dearee murderŦ"
A leaal dlspuLe does noL lnvolve ºLwo separaLe causes of acLlon" Ŷ whlch onlv means LhaL lL wlll probablv have Lo be
Lrled ln Lwo separaLe lawsulLs Ŷ anv more readllv or sclenLlflcallv Lhan a plece of paper wlLh wrlLlna on lL lnvolves an
ºexecuLorv conLracLŦ" 1he prlnclples of ÞŦ and ÞŦ are [usL as sllpperv when vou Lrv Lo applv Lhem Lo Lhe facLs of Lrvlna
a lawsulL as are oLher leaal prlnclples when vou Lrv Lo applv Lhem Lo Lhe facLs LhaL lle behlnd a lawsulLŦ
,oreoverţ even Lhouah Lhe ÞŦ and ÞŦ prlnclples admlLLedlv conLrlbuLe noLhlna aL all Lo Lhe acLual soluLlon of Lhe
problems LhaL 1he Law ls called on Lo solveţ Lhe declslon ln anv law case ls as llkelv Lo be huna on a ºprocedural" rule
as on a ºsubsLanLlve" prlnclpleŦ All Loo ofLenţ noL onlv º[usLlce" buL also Lhe reaular prlnclples of ºsubsLanLlve" Law
are Lhrown ouL Lhe wlndow slmplv because some lawverţ ln handllna hls cllenL's caseţ has foraoLLen or vlolaLed a
ºprocedural" ruleŦ 1hus a kllllna mav beţ wlLhouL so much as a leaal doubLţ a punlshable murderţ and sLlll Lhe
murderer mav ao freeţ for a Llme or even for aoodţ [usL because a blL of evldence used ln Lhe Lrlal ls labeled
ºlrrelevanLţ lncompeLenLţ and lmmaLerlalŦ" A man wlLh a leaal clalm so clear and valld LhaL nelLher a lawver nor a
nonŴlawver would quesLlon hls rlahL Lo have LhaL clalm saLlsfled mav aeL noLhlna ouL of lL excepL a blll for counsel
feeţ slmplv because hls lawverţ aL some sLaae of Lhe caseţ has been cauahL uslna Lhe wrona wordsţ accordlna Lo Lhe
prlnclples of Þleadlna and ÞrocedureŦ
Þerhaps all Lhls dlscusslon of Lhe ÞŦ and ÞŦ ºfleld" mav seem lrrelevanLţ lncompeLenLţ and lmmaLerlal Lo Lhe quesLlon
of how Lhe law schools ao abouL produclna consecraLed devoLees of 1he LawŦ ?eLţ Lhere ls Lhls Lo rememberť Ÿ 1he
Lawversţ and Lhe law schoolsţ admlL LhaL ÞŦ and ÞŦ Ŷ or ÞracLlceţ as Lhls alllLeraLlve ºfleld" ls someLlmes called Ŷ deals
excluslvelv wlLh Lhe Lrlcks of Lhe LradeŦ 1he leaal neophvLes are Lold LhaL whaL Lhev learn under Lhe headlna of ÞŦ and
ÞŦ consLlLuLes Lhe Lechnlque of Lhe lawver's arLŦ As a denLlsL learns how Lo handle hls drlll so a lawver learns hls ÞŦ
and ÞŦ
8v conLrasLţ Lhe resL of 1he Lawţ Lhe ºsubsLanLlve" prlnclples of ÞroperLv and CuaslŴConLracLs (oh vesţ Lhere ls LhaLţ
Loo) and CorporaLlons and allţ are pounded lnLo Lhe vouna leaal braln as ulLlmaLe 1ruLhs abouL LlfeŦ Lven afLer Lhe
apprenLlce araduaLes from law schoolţ when he comes Lo Lake hls bar examlnaLlonţ he wlll flnd Lhe dlsLlncLlon
carefullv preservedŦ Cne parL of hls ordeal wlll LesL hls knowledae of ºsubsLanLlve" LawŤ Lhe oLher parL wlll LesL hls
knowledae of Þleadlna and ÞrocedureŦ Cne represenLs wlsdomŤ Lhe oLher represenLs sklllŦ
WhaL 1he Law's apprenLlces rarelv learn and are rarelv alven half a chance Lo flnd ouL ls LhaL Lhe wole of 1he Law ls
noLhlna buL a Lechnlque Lo be masLeredţ an adrolLness Lo be achlevedŦ 1haL Lechnlqueţ reduced Lo lLs slmplesL Lermsţ
ls Lhe Lechnlque of uslna a new lanauaaeŦ 1haL ls all Lhe law sLudenL learns ln hls courses on ÞŦ and ÞŦ 1haL ls also Lhe
law sLudenL learns ln hls courses ln ºsubsLanLlve" LawŦ 8uL because Lhe former are franklv labeled 1echnlque and Lhe
laLLer are labeled 1ruLhţ Lhe sLudenL comes Lo belleve lmpllclLlv LhaL Lhere ls a aaplna dlfference ln klnd where
acLuallv Lhere ls scarcelv so much as a dlfference ln deareeŦ º1he orlalnal burden of proof ls on Lhe plalnLlff" ls a
prlnclple of ÞŦ and ÞŦ and mav help a lawver wln a lawsulLŦ ºlf Lhe defendanL's acLlon was noL Lhe proxlmaLe cause of
Lhe ln[urv Lhen Lhe defendanL ls noL leaallv responslble" ls a prlnclple of 1orLs and mav help a lawver wln a lawsulLŦ
looe 51 of 65

All LhaL a sLudenL ever learns abouL elLher of Lhese prlnclples Ŷ or abouL anv oLher prlnclple of elLher dlvlslon of Law
Ŷ ls how Lo sav Lhem and when and where lL mav be useful Lo sav LhemŦ
1he polnL ls LhaL Lhe law schoolsţ bv admlLLlna LhaL one seamenL of leaal educaLlon deals wlLh Lhe devlces of Lhe
Lradeţ make qulLe plauslble Lhe fable LhaL Lhe resL of 1he Law represenLs someLhlna much more solldŦ WlLh Lhe
procedural courses franklv seL Lo one slde as Lechnlqueţ Lhe bla empLv words and Lhe vaaue absLracL prlnclples of Lhe
oLher courses assume a more credlble aura of depLh and reallLv Lo Lhe newcomerŦ Pe can Ŷ and does Ŷ Lhen belleve
LhaL Lhe words have meanlna and LhaL Lhe prlnclples are nuaaeLs of wlsdom Ŷ and lL ls essenLlal Lo Lhe perpeLuaLlon
of Lhe leaal leaend LhaL he should belleve LhlsŦ lor lL would be faLal Lo Lhe professlon Ŷ Lo lLs selfŴrespecL and lLs
solemnlLv and lLs power Ŷ lf anv aeneraLlon of rlslna lawvers were allowed or encouraaed Lo dlscover Lhe real LruLh
abouL Lhe sLuff Lhev sLudvŦ Whlch ls LhaL oll Lhe leaal prlnclples Lhev ever learn amounL Lo no more Lhan Lrlcks of Lhe
Lrade and LhaL oll Lhe courses Lhev ever Lake are courses ln ÞŦ and ÞŦ
And so Lhe law schools sLlck Lo Lhelr prlnclplesţ and Lo Lhe preLense LhaL Lhe prlnclples sLand for eLernal verlLles
whlch lawvers Ŷ afLer learnlna how Lo do lL Ŷ araclouslv applv Lo Lhe hurlvŴburlv of man's earLhlv affalrsŦ 1he
prlnclplesţ as a maLLer of facLţ used Lo be dlshed aL Lhe sLudenLs wlLhouL so much as anv Lrlmmlnas around LhemŦ
1haL was when law schools were an lnnovaLlonţ scorned bv mosL lawvers as an effeLe and none Loo efflclenL
preparaLlon for Lhe pracLlce of lawţ [usL as schools of [ournallsm are scorned bv mosL newspapermen LodavŦ
ln Lhose davsţ and for some Llme afLerţ law sLudenLs learned pracLlcallv noLhlna buL naked prlnclplesŦ 1he prlnclples
of each ºfleld" of Law were sorLed ouL and arranaed bv subŴprlnclples and counLerŴprlnclples ln a ºhornbook" of
1orLs or 1rusLs or whaLeverŦ 1he sLudenLs sLudled Lhelr hornbooksţ llsLened Lo lecLures devoLed malnlv Lo explalnlna
and ºreconclllna" Lhe prlnclples so LhaL Lhev appeared Lo flL lnLo one neaL llLLle ball of absLracL knowledaeţ and
rellalouslv memorlzed Lhe prlnclplesŦ 1hev mlahL never so much as read Lhe record of a slnale lawsulLŦ Whv should
Lhev cluLLer Lhelr mlnds wlLh dlsconcerLlna and Lrlvlal facLs when Lhev were enaaaed ln learnlna areaL and aeneral
LruLhs?
8uL laLe ln Lhe lasL cenLurvţ a repuLed revoluLlon ln Lhe manner of Leachlna Law beaan Lo Lake Lhe law schools bv
sLormŦ 1he new ldea was Lo feed Lhe sLudenLs Lhe oplnlons wrlLLen bv [udaes ln acLual cases and leL Lhem flsh for
prlnclples amona Lhe [udaes' wordsŦ Cbvlouslvţ lL was noL Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhls new approach Lo leaal educaLlon Lo
mlnlmlze Lhe lmporLance of prlnclples as suchŦ 1he purpose was Lo leL Lhe sLudenLs ponder how 1he Law ln acLlon
made use of lLs prlnclplesţ for [udlclal oplnlons amounLed Lo no more Lhan explanaLlons of acLual leaal declslons ln
Lerms of Lhe prlnclples LhaL ºconLrolledŦ" 1he sLudenLs sLlll had Lo learn Lhelr prlnclples buL Lhev had Lo flnd Lhem
flrsLŦ
Cf courseţ Lhe sLudenLs dld noL have Lo flsh ln Lhe darkŦ ln each ºfleld" of Lawţ a bla bunch of oplnlons was aaLhered
LoaeLher bv some recoanlzed auLhorlLv ln LhaL branch of leaal learnlna and was Lhen arranaedţ accordlna Lo Lhe
prlnclples lllusLraLed bv Lhe oplnlonsţ ln a ºcasebookŦ" 1he sLudenLs Lhen read Lhe rlahL cases ln Lhe rlahL order and
Lhe prlnclples pracLlcallv popped ouL aL Lhem from Lhe paaesŦ 1he facLs behlnd anv case dld noL reallv maLLer and
were ofLen omlLLed enLlrelv from Lhe reprlnL of Lhe [udae's oplnlonţ as were Lhe parLs of Lhe oplnlon LhaL dealL wlLh
oLher ºflelds" of LawŦ WhaL was lmporLanLţ sLlllţ was Lo learn Lhe deaLhless prlnclplesţ enhanced a blL ln
lmpresslveness bv Lhe facL LhaL Lhev were now Laken rlahL ouL of Lhe [udaes' mouLhsŦ
1he ºcasebook meLhod" of Leachlna Law ls sLlll Lhe voaue ln Lhe law schoolsŦ lledallna lawvers are no lonaer
encouraaed Lo Lake Lhelr prlnclples sLralahLŦ ln order Lo learn LhaL AccepLance of an Cffer ls essenLlal Lo Lhe valldlLv
of a ConLracLţ Lhev musL plouah Lhrouah half a dozen verbose [udlclal ouLpourlnas whlch sav [usL LhaL ln one
Lhousand Llmes Lhe spaceŦ ln order Lo learn LhaL lL ls unconsLlLuLlonal for a sLaLe Lo aLLempL Lo Lax properLv ouLslde
lLs º[urlsdlcLlonţ" Lhev musL worrv Lhrouah flve or Len [udlclal aems llke Senlor vŦ 8radenŦ 8uL when Lhev have
flnlshedţ Lhev wlll usuallv have learned no more Lhan LhaL AccepLance of an Cffer ls essenLlal Lo Lhe valldlLv of a
ConLracLţ or LhaL lL ls unconsLlLuLlonal for a sLaLe Lo aLLempL Lo Lax properLv ouLslde lLs º[urlsdlcLlonŦ"
ln manv wavsţ Lhe oldŴfashloned hornbook meLhod of leaal educaLlon made more senseŦ lL was more dlrecL and
more sLralahLforward and vou could learn more prlnclples fasLerŦ Law sLudenLs Lodav pav LrlbuLe Lo lL whenţ afLer
Laklna a course from a casebookţ Lhev sLudv for Lhelr examlnaLlon ln Lhe course from a hornbookŦ ,oreoverţ lL ls an
lnLeresLlna commenLarv on Lhe mosL ºadvanced" law schoolsţ whlch have carrled Lhe casebook meLhod Lo such
looe 52 of 65

exLremes LhaL Lhe prlnclples do noL alwavs come qulLe clear Lo Lhe sLudenLsţ LhaL Lhelr araduaLes lnvarlablv have Lo
Lake speclal ºcram courses" ln Lhe bare prlnclples of Law ln order Lo pass Lhelr bar examlnaLlons and be admlLLed Lo
membershlp ln Lhe leaal fraLernlLvŦ
As a maLLer of facLţ Lhese ºadvanced" law schools Ŷ and Lhere are onlv a handful of Lhem Ŷ wlLh Lhelr exLreme use of
Lhe case meLhod of Leachlnaţ deserve a speclal wordŦ uesplLe Lhe facL LhaL Lhev do noL Leach Lhelr sLudenLs 1he Law
anv Loo wellţ Lhev do Leach someLhlna elseŦ ln so dolnaţ Lhev are LralLors Lo Lhe leaal leaend and a poLenLlal LhreaL Lo
Lhe perpeLuaLlon of Lhe rackeL of 1he LawŦ lor Lhev acLuallv encouraae Lhelr sLudenLs Lo dla ouL of Lhe cases a llLLle
more Lhan absLracL leaal prlnclplesŦ 1he bald human facLs LhaL brlna anv dlspuLe lnLo courL are raLed as worLh
conslderaLlonţ noL merelv as an excuse for Lhe appllcaLlon of 1he Lawţ buL Lhelr own rlahLŦ
1hese few law schools sLlll dlvlde leaal educaLlon lnLo courses based on dlfferenL ºflelds" of LawŦ 8uL Lhe courses and
Lhe ºflelds" are more llkelv Lo be cuL ouL accordlna Lo Lvpes of pracLlcal problems Ŷ CovernmenL ConLrol of 8uslnessţ
or CorporaLlon ,anaaemenL Ŷ lnsLead of accordlna Lo Lables of absLracL prlnclplesŦ ,ore slanlflcanLlv Lhouahţ
reaardless of course namesţ Lhe courses Lhemselves (or mosL of Lhemţ for even Lhe mosL ºadvanced" law schools
cannoL enLlrelv avold LawŴconsecraLed Leachers) are LauahL wlLh a dlfferenL emphaslsŦ 1haL emphasls ls on Lhe nonŴ
Leaal aspecLs of earLhlv affalrs and problems whlch Lhe facLs of anv lawsulL brlna Lo llahLŦ SLudenLs are Lralned noL Lo
dlscard Lhese maLLers as lrrelevanL buL raLher Lo concenLraLe on Lhemţ Lo Lhlnk abouL falr and reasonable soluLlons
LhaL mlahL be applled Lo varlous klnds of problemsţ sLlll from Lhe pracLlcal sLandpolnLŦ
lfţ for lnsLanceţ a mllk companv aoes Lo law Lo proLesL aaalnsL a sLaLe sLaLuLe seLLlna Lhe prlce of mllkţ Lhe pasL proflLs
Ŷ or lack of proflLs Ŷ of Lhe mllk dlsLrlbuLorsţ Lhe medlcal need of mllk for slum chlldrenţ Lhe presenL flnanclal shape
of dalrv farmersţ Lhe personnel and llablllLv of Lhe aovernmenL aaencv dolna Lhe prlceŴseLLlnaţ all mav be LreaLed as
[usL as lmporLanL as Lhe ºdue process clause" of Lhe lourLeenLh AmendmenLţ Lhe ºpollce power" of Lhe sLaLe ln
quesLlonţ or Lhe ºaffecLaLlon" or nonŴaffecLaLlon of Lhe mllk lndusLrv wlLh a ºpubllc lnLeresLŦ" lf a wldow sues a
rallroad companv because her husband was kllled aL a arade crosslnaţ Lhe annual Loll of arade crosslna faLallLles and
Lhe cosL of ellmlnaLlna such crosslnas alLoaeLher and Lhe wellŴknown weakness of boLh [udaes and [urles when
confronLed wlLh weeplna wldows mav all come lnLo Lhe dlscusslon alona wlLh Lhe docLrlnes of ºconLrlbuLorv
neallaenceţ" ºproxlmaLe causeţ" and ºLhe lasL clear chanceŦ"
noL LhaL Lhe prlnclples of Law are alLoaeLher nealecLed ln Lhese ºadvanced" law school coursesŦ 1he sLudenLsţ
lnevlLablvţ sLlll read and memorlze and Lrv Lo ºreconclle" Lhe same old concepLs and absLracLlonsŦ 8uL Lhe Louah
meaL of facLual problems ls mlxed lnLo Lhelr educaLlonal dleLŦ 1he cases become more Lhan seLLlnas for Lhe
sancLlflcaLlon of leaal prlnclplesŦ
now Lhe resulLs of Lhls klnd of Leachlna are sLranae and varledŦ ln Lhe flrsL placeţ Lhe fledallna lawvers do noL learn
Lhelr prlnclples nearlv so well as Lhelr predecessors used Lo learn Lhem bv Lhe hornbook meLhod nor as Lhelr
conLemporarles learn Lhem bv Lhe reaular casebook meLhodŦ 1he lnLruslon of facLual lssues and of oLher
conslderaLlons whlch Louch 1he Law onlv remoLelv make Lhe prlnclples harder Lo concenLraLe on and harder Lo
rememberŦ 1haL ls whv Lhev have Lo Lake cram courses afLer Lhev araduaLe from law school ln order Lo pass Lhelr bar
examlnaLlonsŦ 1he bar examlnaLlon Ŷ and Lhe cram courses Ŷ deal almosL excluslvelv wlLh 1he LawŦ
,oreoverţ Lhe aLLempL Lo Lle LoaeLher Lhe real problems LhaL lle behlnd all law cases and Lhe absLracL prlnclples on
whlch declslons ln law cases are sald Lo be based usuallv resulLs ln one of Lwo LhlnasŦ lor Lhe less lnLellecLuallv sLurdv
sLudenLsţ Lhe resulL wlll be uLLer confuslonŦ 1hev wlll nelLher undersLand Lhe problems nor learn Lhe prlnclplesŦ 8uL
for Lhe brlahLer bovsţ Lhe resulL wlll llkelv be a reallzaLlon LhaL Lhe problems and Lhe prlnclples have verv llLLle ln
commonŦ lrom LhaL reallzaLlonţ lL ls buL a shorL sLep Lo a sorL of unformulaLed conLempL for 1he Law and lLs
prlnclplesŦ And lf leaal neophvLes should ever bealn Lo reallzeţ eo mosseţ LhaL leaal prlnclples are laraelv consLrucLed
of lona words and lrrelevanL absLracLlonsţ lL would be Lhe bealnnlna of Lhe end of Lhe leaal leaendŦ
1haL ls Lhe wav and Lhe onlv wav LhaL Lhe lnflaLed mass of hokum known as 1he Law mlahL ever be exploded from
Lhe lnsldeŦ 8uL lL ls a posslblllLv so remoLe LhaL lL ls rldlculous Lo conLemplaLeŦ lor Lhe vasL ma[orlLv of leaal
apprenLlces ln Lhe vasL ma[orlLv of law schools sLlll ao bllssfullv on pulllna prlnclples ouL of [udaes' oplnlonsţ belna
LauahL ln menLal aooseŴsLep Lhe sacred lanauaae of concepLs and precepLsţ Lo emerae as douahLv and undoubLlna
looe 5J of 65

defenders of Lhe leaal LradlLlon and perhaps Lo become evenLuallv Wall SLreeL law parLners or Supreme CourL
[usLlcesŦ
1hose comparaLlvelv few sLudenLs of Lhose comparaLlvelv few law schools who do learn Lo recoanlze Lhe areaL aap
beLween worldlv problems and leaal prlnclples Ŷ and who do noL laLer fall prev Lo Lhe propaaanda of Lhe Lrade Lhev
are pracLlclna and foraeL all Lhev once knew Ŷ can become exLremelv useful clLlzensŦ 1hev have been Lralned Lo look
aL everv leaal problem as whaL lL reallv ls Ŷ a pracLlcal problem ln Lhe ad[usLmenL of men's affalrsŦ 1hev have been
LauahL how Lo Lhrow aslde Lhe enLanallna Lrapplnas of leaal lanauaae ln seeklna a falr and reasonable and workable
soluLlonŤ and Lhenţ havlna found such a soluLlonţ how Lo wrap lL up aaaln ln respecLable leaal cloLhes and work for lL
ln Lerms of prlnclples of LawŦ ln shorLţ Lhev have learned how Lo LreaL Lhe whole of 1he Law as a Lechnlqueţ as a
means Lo an endţ as Þleadlna and ÞrocedureŦ Andţ more Lhan LhaLţ Lhev have learned someLhlna woefullv rare
amona Lhe modern medlclne menŦ 1hev have learned Lo concenLraLe on Lhe endţ whlch ls Lhe pracLlcal soluLlon of a
human problemţ lnsLead of on Lhe meansţ whlch ls 1he LawŦ
nor ls lL merelv a quesLlon of belna able Lo phrase a deslred resulL ln leaal lanauaae and Lo supporL lL wlLh accepLed
leaal prlnclplesŦ 1haLţ because of Lhe naLure of leaal prlnclplesţ ls a pushŴoverŦ Lverv lawver can do LhaLŦ Lverv lawver
does LhaL everv Llme he handles a caseţ alLhouah he mav noL alwavs be aware LhaL he ls uslna a Lool raLher Lhan
llahLlna for Lhe 8lahL ln Lhe 8ealm of ulLlmaLe 1ruLhŦ lL ls lnsLead a quesLlon of aolna aL Lhe soluLlon of human
problems ln an lnLelllaenL and pracLlcal and soclallv useful wavţ and teo Ŷ and onlv Lhen Ŷ reverLlna Lo Lhe medlum
of 1he LawŦ lL ls a quesLlon of applvlna Lo anv seL of facLs a comblnaLlon of common sense and Lechnlcal lnformaLlon
and º[usLlceţ" undlluLed bv amblauous prlnclples Ŷ and leLLlna 1he Law fall where lL mavŦ
?eLţ one boLhersome querv remalns abouL Lhe rare law school producLs who have learned how Lo do LhlsŦ Whv
should Lhelr mlnds and Lhelr courses and Lhelr subsequenL work be consLanLlv encumbered wlLh a loL of fool
prlnclples? Whvţ afLer allţ should Lhev have had Lo learn 1he Lawţ Loo?
CnAÞ1Lk k
A 1CUCn CI 5CCIAL 5IGNIIICANCL
ºlows otloJ te pootţ ooJ tlc meo tole te lowŦ" Ÿ Cllver ColdsmlLhŦ
ln case lL should noL veL be perfecLlv apparenLţ lL mav be worLh sLaLlna here and now LhaL Lhe purpose of Lhls lnqulrv
lnLo 1he Law and lLs mvsLerlous wavs has noL been Ŷ and ls noL Ŷ whaL Lodav would be called a ºsoclallv slanlflcanL"
purposeŦ 1haL lsţ lL has noL been Lo prove LhaL 1he Lawţ ln Lerms of lLs resulLsţ oppresses Lhe poor and favors Lhe rlch
and ls a Lool of Lhe bla corporaLlons and ls almosL alwavs found on Lhe slde of wealLhţ Wall SLreeLţ and Lhe
8epubllcan ÞarLvŦ ÞracLlcallv everv crlLlcal book on 1he Law ever wrlLLen aLLempLs Lo prove [usL LhaL ŴŶand Lhere are
hundreds of LhemŦ 1he Lrouble wlLh Lhem all ls noL bv anv means LhaL Lhev are noLţ for Lhe mosL parLţ qulLe rlahLŦ
1he Lrouble ls LhaL Lhev aeL [usL LhaL far and no farLherŦ 1helr auLhorsţ who are usuallv lawversţ have no baslc quarrel
wlLh 1he Law as a meLhodţ a sclenceţ a Lechnlque of runnlna Lhe worldŦ 1hev merelv wanL Lo see lL work for Lhelr
sldeŦ 1hev are noL ouL Lo Lear down 1he LawŦ 1hev are ouL Lo remodel lL sllahLlv so LhaL lLs resulLs sulL Lhem beLLerŦ
1he purpose of Lhls llLLle lnqulrv has raLher been Lo show LhaL Lhe whole pseudoŴsclence of 1he Lawţ reaardless of lLs
resulLsţ ls a fraudŦ lL ls [usL as much of a fraud when lL sends ulck WhlLnev Lo [all as lL ls when lL sends Lo [all a sLarvlna
man who sLeals a loaf of breadŦ lL ls [usL as much of a fraud when lL favors shareŴcroppers as when lL favors couponŴ
cllppersŦ lL ls [usL as much of a fraud when lL proLecLs clvll llberLles as when lL proLecLs Lhe proflLs of holdlna
companlesŦ lL ls [usL as much of a fraud when handed down bv a ºllberal" courL as when handed down bv a
ºconservaLlve" courLŦ lL ls a fraudţ noL because of lLs resulLs buL because of Lhe manner ln whlch lL purporLs Lo arrlve
aL LhemŦ
?eL no lnqulrv lnLo 1he Law could preLend Lo be compleLe wlLhouL aL leasL some sllahL conslderaLlon of 1he Law's
famous LauLoloalcal boasL abouL ºequal [usLlce for allŦ" lor Lhe boasL ls a lleŦ 1he Law noL onlv can be bouahL Ŷ
alLhouah usuallv noL ln so dlrecL a fashlon as lL was bouahL from exŴ!udae ,anLon Ŷ buL mosL of Lhe Llme lL os Lo be
bouahLŦ And slnce lL has Lo be bouahLţ lLs resulLs Lend Lo favor Lhose who can afford Lo buv lLŦ
looe 54 of 65

,oreoverţ Lhe facL LhaL 1he Law ls consLanLlv for saleţ and aenerallv Lo Lhe hlahesL bldderţ Lles rlahL lnLo Lhe facL LhaL
1he Law as a whole ls a fraudŦ lor 1he Law could noL be bouahL and lL would noL favor Lhose who can afford Lo buv lL
lf Lhe vaunLed prlnclples of whlch lL ls fashloned reallv were Lhe readv kevs Lo cerLalnLv and [usLlce whlch Lhe lawvers
clalm Lhem Lo beŦ lL ls because Lhose prlnclples are so manv and so meanlnaless Ŷ because Lhev can be chosen and
LwlsLed and sorLed ouL Lo supporL anv resulL under Lhe sun Ŷ LhaL 1he Law does oot produce [usLlce (whlchţ ln lLselfţ
lmplles equallLv of LreaLmenL for all)Ŧ
ln conslderlna how and whv 1he Law has Lo be bouahLţ lL mlahL be well Lo remember once more LhaL 1he Law ls noL
Lhe lawsţ as mosL people Lhlnk of Lhe lawsŦ lL ls Lrue LhaL lealslaLures and members of LealslaLures and members of
Conaress have been bouahLţ or aL leasL pald forţ so LhaL Lhev would voLe for or aaalnsL proposed sLaLuLes whlch
would affecL Lhe lnLeresL of Lhose who dld Lhe pavlnaŦ 8uL Lhls pracLlceţ Lhouah deplorableţ ls a mlnor phenomenon
compared Lo Lhe davŴlnŴandŴdavŴouL purchase of 1he LawŦ lor 1he Law ls LhaL bodv of absLracLţ amorphous rules
whlch supersede wrlLLen sLaLuLes and even consLlLuLlons and under whlch Lhe lawvers and Lhe lawverŴ[udaes resolve
all our problemsţ seLLle all our dlspuLesţ and run all our llvesŦ lL ls well worLh buvlnaŦ
Powţ Lhenţ ls 1he Law bouahL? Pow ls lL reaularlv Lurned Lo Lhe accounL of Lhose men and Lhose companles who
have monev enouah Lo pav whaL ls cosLs? 1he Law ls bouahLţ Lo puL Lhe answer blunLlv and brleflv rlahL aL Lhe sLarLţ
bv hlrlna Lhe servlces and Lhe advlce of Lhe smarLesL lawversţ of Lhe professlonal sooLhsavers who are mosL adepL aL
manlpulaLlna Lhe prlnclples of whlch 1he Law ls madeŦ lL ls bouahL bv pavlna a premlumţ ln courL and ouL of courLţ Lo
Lhe LwenLleLh cenLurv medlclne men who can besL casL spells of leaal lanauaae Lo proLecL and defend Lhe personal
and flnanclal lnLeresLs of Lhose who would be hard puL Lo proLecL and defend such lnLeresLs ln Lerms of [usLlceţ
undlluLed bv LawŦ
now mosL peopleţ lf Lhev Lhlnk aL all abouL whaL monev can do ln Lhe wav of leaal proLecLlonţ Lhlnk excluslvelv abouL
crlmlnal lawŦ 1hev Lhlnk abouL Leopold and Loeb belna able Lo hlre Clarence uarrow Lo keep Lhem from Lhe elecLrlc
chalrŦ 1hev Lhlnk abouL Lhe ,lLchells and Lhe lnsullsţ Lhe capLalns of lndusLrv who aeL cauahL dolna sLranae Lhlnas
wlLh oLher peopleƌ' monevţ and who can Lhen buv Lhe servlces of Lhe cleveresL and veL mosL respecLable members of
Lhe bar Lo save Lhem from leaal punlshmenLŦ Þeople conLrasL such aolnasŴon wlLh whaL happens dallv Lo Lhe ordlnarv
murderers and ordlnarv Lhleves who can onlv afford Lhe cuLŴraLe prlces charaed bv poorer lawversţ or who have Lo
have Lhelr lawvers supplled Lhem freeţ and LhlrdŴraLe Ŷ [usL so LhaL Lhe ouLward appearance of Lhe [usLlceŴforŴall
ceremonv mav be malnLalnedŦ And mosL people reallze LhaL Lhere ls someLhlna dlsLlncLlv unfalr abouL all LhlsŦ 1here
ls Ŷ buL lL ls onlv a verv small parL of Lhe sLorvŦ
ln Lhe flrsL placeţ crlmlnal casesţ alLhouah Lhev Lake up mosL of Lhe newspaper space devoLed Lo 1he Lawţ Lake up
onlv a fracLlon of Lhe Llme of Lhe courLsŦ 1he bulk of Lhe buslness of Lhe courLs ls alven over Lo whaL Lhe lawvers call
ºclvll" sulLsţ ln whlch one person sues anoLher person or one companv sues anoLher companvţ usuallv over some
flnanclal or buslness squabbleŦ ln Lhese casesţ [usL as ln crlmlnal cases Ŷ and lL ls parLlcularlv noLlceable when a
corporaLlon ls on one slde of Lhe dlspuLe and a lone lndlvldual on Lhe oLher Ŷ Lhe mosL monev buvs Lhe besL leaal
asslsLanceŦ And Lhe beLLer vour leaal asslsLanceţ Lhe beLLer vour chance of endlna up wlLh 1he Law ln vour favorŦ
lorţ as cannoL be repeaLed Loo ofLenţ 1he Law ls noL bv several lona shoLs Lhe cerLaln and exacL sclence as whlch lL
masqueradesŦ lf lL wereţ even Lhe rlchesL corporaLlon ln exlsLence would noL Lhrow lLs monev awav on Lhe
Lremendous fees LhaL Lhe leadlna lawvers charae Lhelr cllenLsŦ Anv lawverţ or perhaps no lawver aL allţ would do [usL
abouL as wellŦ 8uL Lhe corporaLlons know and Lhe lawvers know LhaL a masLer manlpulaLor of leaal mumboŴ[umbo ls
a far more useful Lhlna Lo have on vour slde ln a lawsulL Lhan all Lhe cerLaln and lmparLlal [usLlce ln Lhe worldŦ
1rueţ ln a areaL manv leaal dlspuLesţ Lhere wlll seem Lo be more prlnclples of Law or more compelllna Ŷ ln Lhe
absLracL Ŷ prlnclples of Law avallable Lo one slde Lhan Lo Lhe oLherŦ 8uL Lhe oLher slde wlll alwavs have some
prlnclples lefL Lo plav wlLhŦ And [usL as ln Lhe aame of brldaeţ so ln Lhe aame of Lawţ an experL plaver wlll beaL a runŴ
ofŴLheŴmlll plaver nlne Llmes ouL of Len desplLe Lhe facL LhaL he mav hold worse cardsŦ
?eL lL ls noL onlv and noL chleflv ln Lhe purchase of smarL counsel Lo represenL vou ln acLual courL cases LhaL 1he Law
has Lo be bouahLŦ 1he Lawţ alLhouah lL oversees all human affalrsţ does noL applv lLself auLomaLlcallv Lo Lhe
seLLlemenL of human arlevancesŦ 1he man who Lhlnks he ls belna cheaLed ln a personal or buslness wavţ who Lhlnks
he ls belna deprlved of hls [usL rlahLs so clearlv LhaL lL ls even a vlolaLlon of Lhe leaal svsLem of farŴfeLched prlnclplesţ
looe 55 of 65

musL ao Lo courL Lo Lrv Lo aeL anv saLlsfacLlon aL all from 1he LawŦ And lL cosLs monev Lo ao Lo courLŦ lL cosLs monev
even before Lhe bllls for lawvers' fees bealn Lo come lnŦ 1haL ls whv mosL people never ln all Lhelr llves become
plalnLlffs ln a lawsulLŦ larmers and facLorvŴworkers and housewlves and unemploved people have Lhelr leaal
arlevances [usL as rlch men and bla corporaLlons have Lhelr arlevancesŦ 8uL Lhev cannoL afford Lo buv so much as a
shoL aL 1he LawŦ
A man who ls preLLv sure Lhe aareemenL he made ls belna brokenţ when Lhe flnance companv Lakes awav hls car or
hls radlo because a couple of pavmenLs have been delavedţ would noL Lhlnk of hlrlna a lawver and aolna Lo courL
abouL lLŦ lL cosLs Loo muchŦ A clerk ln a bla deparLmenL sLore who Lhlnks LhaL some new aovernmenL sLaLuLes hlLs
hlm ln an unfalr and perhaps llleaal wav would noL dream of aolna Lo courL abouL lLŦ 8uL Lhe sLore would ao ln a
mlnuLe lf lt felL cheaLed bv some wrlLLen lawŦ A workman's wlfe who ls desperaLelv unhappv wlLh her husband and
has perfecLlv adequaLe arounds for dlvorce wlll noL sue for oneŦ ulvorcesţ llke sulLs aaalnsL Lhe aovernmenL and leaal
efforLs Lo aeL a falr deal ln ordlnarv buslness arranaemenLs and llke almosL everv klnd of law case ln Lhe bookţ are
Lhe excluslve luxurles of Lhose Ŷ and Lhere are verv few of Lhem Ŷ who have monev enouah Lo pav for 1he LawŦ
A severalŴmllllonŴdollar corporaLlon recenLlv complalned ln prlnL abouL Lhe Lerrlflc cosL of carrvlna Lo and Lhrouah
Lhe courLs a proLesL aaalnsL a rullna of Lhe naLlonal Labor 8elaLlons 8oardŦ 1he polnL was well LakenŦ ?eL lL serves
qulLe nlcelv Lo emphaslze Lhe uLLer helplessness of Lhe ordlnarv man wlLh a arlevance LhaL he would llke Lo expose Lo
1he LawŦ 1he corporaLlon aL leasL could and dld afford Lo pav Lhe Lhousands of dollars necessarv Lo aeL a leaal
hearlna on Lhe wrona LhaL lL LhouahL had been done lLŦ 8uL whaL chanceţ for lnsLanceţ would an emploveeţ or a
cusLomerţ of Lhe corporaLlon have Lo alr hls complalnL ln courL ls he LhouahL he had been unfalrlv and llleaallv
LreaLed bv Lhe uŦSŦ CovernmenL Ŷ orţ for LhaL maLLerţ bv Lhe corporaLlon lLself? 1he dlsadvanLaaes of Lhe
corporaLlonţ up aaalnsL Lhe uŦSŦ CovernmenL ln a maLLer lnvolvlna 1he Lawţ are as noLhlna compared Lo Lhe
advanLaaes Lhe corporaLlon holds over everv lndlvldual who works for lLţ buvs from lLţ or lnvesLs ln lL wherever 1he
Law ls or mlahL be concernedŦ
SLlllţ lL ls noL ln buvlna smarL sooLhsavers Lo Lalk for vou ln courLţ nor even ln buvlna vour wav lnLo courL ln Lhe flrsL
placeţ LhaL 1he Law ls mosL commonlv and mosL effecLlvelv sold and purchasedŦ ,osL of Lhe buslness LhaL lawvers
handle and llve on ls made up of maLLers LhaL never aeL near a courLroomŦ ,osL of Lhe buslness LhaL lawvers handle
and llve on ls made up of whaL ls called leaal advlceţ usuallv abouL flnanclal maLLersţ LhaL ls Lenderedţ aL a prlceţ Lo
Lhose men and Lhose companles LhaL feel lL wlll be well worLhŴwhlle Lo aeL 1he Law safelv on Lhelr slde before Lhev
embark on anv monevŴmaklna or monevŴsavlna deals of anv klndŦ Anv leaal advlce amounLsţ for Lhe mosL parLţ Lo
casLlna spells of leaal lanauaae over Lhe wordlna of buslness documenLs so LhaL Lhe documenLsţ lf Lhev
ever soolJ be draaaed lnLo courLţ wlll show LhaLţ reaardless of where nonŴleaal [usLlce mav seem Lo lleţ 1he Law ls
preLLv clearlv on Lhe slde LhaL bouahL Lhe leaal advlceŦ
1o Lake a verv slmple exampleţ suppose a man should seL up a parklna loL and hand ouL plaln numbered LlckeLsţ llke
Lhe checks vou aeL when vou check vour haL ln a resLauranLţ Lo evervone who parks hls car ln Lhe loLŦ Suppose a
woman should park her care and leave her fur coaL ln Lhe back seaL and should come back Lo flnd Lhe fur coaL aoneŦ
Supposeţ moreoverţ LhaL she should be mad enouah and wealLhv enouah Lo sue Lhe parklna loL owner for Lhe loss of
her coaLŦ 1he chances are sLrona LhaL 1he Lawţ afLer Losslna absLracL prlnclples around ln profuslonţ mlahL hold hlm
responslble for Lhe loss and make hlm pav her Lhe value of Lhe coaLŦ
?eL mosL people who lose arLlcles ouL of cars lefL ln parklna loLs have scarcelv a Chlnaman's chance of aeLLlna a cenL
ouL of Lhe loL ownersŦ ,osL parklna loLs are owned bv people or companles wlLh monev enouah Lo buv leaal advlce
beforehandŦ And so mosL parklna checks are noL plaln pleces of cardboard wlLh numbers on LhemŦ 1hev have
numbers on Lhem all rlahLţ buL on Lhe back of Lhe check or aL Lhe boLLom ls prlnLed ln small Lvpe º1he owner of Lhe
car covenanLs LhaL Lhe ballee wlll noL be held llable or responslble for Lhe lossţ LhefLţ and/or damaaes of arLlclesţ
eLcŦ" Ŷ or words Lo LhaL effecLŦ CourLesv of Lhe leaal advlceţ 1he Law has been carefullv placed on one slde of Lhe
poLenLlal lawsulL Ŷ wlLhouL so much as Lhe knowledae of one of Lhe ºparLles Lo Lhe conLracL" LhaL lL has been placed
Lhere Ŷ [usL ln caseŦ
lL ls Lhe same Ŷ on a much laraer and more compllcaLed scale Ŷ wlLh leasesŦ lL ls Lhe same wlLh morLaaaesŦ lL ls Lhe
same wlLh lnsurance pollclesŦ lL ls Lhe same wlLh sLock lssues and bond lssues and all Lhe oLher leaal devlces bv whlch
buslness concerns of all klnds and shapes earnţ beaţ borrowţ or sLeal oLher people's monev Lo use for LhemselvesŦ
looe 56 of 65

1here ls alwavs LhaL bla block of small Lvpeţ someLlmes runnlna Lo several paaesţ whlch Lhe ordlnarv purchaser or
LenanL or borrower or lender or lnvesLor does noL boLher Lo read and probablv could noL undersLand lf he dld read
lLŦ 1haL block of small Lvpe ls puL Lhere aL Lhe advlce of lawversţ and whaL lL means ls LhaL ls anv Lrouble should arlse
over Lhe llLLle buslness arranaemenLţ Lhe ordlnarv purchaser or LenanL or borrower or lender or lnvesLor ls almosL
surelv aolna Lo lose lf he should be fool enouah Lo carrv hls complalnL Lo 1he LawŦ lor Lhe oLher fellow Ŷ Lhe
companv or Lhe lndlvldual wlLh monev enouah Lo afford lL Ŷ has been cannv enouah Lo buv 1he Law ln advanceŦ
Cf course lL ofLen happens ln Lhe world of flnance and lndusLrv LhaL boLh sldes of a buslness deal are able Lo hlre
leaal advlce rlahL from Lhe sLarLŦ 1haL ls Lhe lawvers' hevdavŦ Counsel for each sldeţ wlLhouL so much as a mlnor
lawsulL anvwhere ln prospecL aL Lhe Llmeţ wlll flahL Lo ouLdo each oLher ln Lhe clever manlpulaLlon of leaal lanauaae
and Lhe careful bulldlna of leaal fencesţ so LhaL Lhelr cllenLs' lnLeresLs mav laLer be defendedţ lf necessarvţ ln sLrlcL
accordance wlLh prlnclples of LawŦ ?eL unless one seL of lawvers ls much smarLer Lhan Lhe oLher seL of lawversţ boLh
sldes mlahL [usL as well dlspense wlLh Lhelr lawvers alLoaeLherţ so far as drlvlna a reasonable and proflLable and falr
buslness baraaln ls concernedŦ 1he hlLch ls LhaL as soon as one slde resorLs Lo leaal advlceţ Lhe oLher slde has Lo use
lL Loo ln selfŴdefenseŦ 1hus evervbodv loses excepL Lhe lawversţ who ao merrllv on selllna 1he LawŦ
8uL slnce mosL buslness LransacLlons lnvolve a bla fellow and a llLLle fellow Ŷ a companvţ for lnsLanceţ LhaL can afford
leaal advlce and a cusLomer who can'L Ŷ 1he Law ls usuallv welahLed Lo one slde from Lhe verv bealnnlnaŦ lL ls
welahLed bv llnlna up beforehandţ ln Lhe wrlLLen Lerms of Lhe LransacLlonţ Lhe leaal lanauaae LhaL wlll flL rlahL lnLo
leaal prlnclples ln anv lawsulL LhaL mlahL laLer arlse ouL of Lhe LransacLlonŦ And lL ls ln Lhls fashlonţ even more Lhan bv
Lhe hlrlna of smarL wordŴ[uaalers Lo represenL vou ln courL or bv Lhe purchase of a courL hearlna Lo bealn wlLhţ LhaL
1he Law ls reaularlv bouahL andţ Lhereforeţ reaularlv Lends Lo favor Lhose wlLh monev enouah Lo buv lLŦ
1haL ls whv Lhe cenLer of Lhe naLlon's law buslness ls ln new ?ork ClLv and whv Lhe bulk of Lhe naLlon's lnfluenLlal
and proflLable law pracLlce ls carrled on ln Lhe Wall SLreeL law facLorlesŦ Þeople and companles ln oLher parLs of Lhe
counLrv have Lhelr leaal arlevances and dlspuLes and Lhelr courL squabblesţ and Lhev have Lhem ln much areaLer
proporLlon Lhan Lhe proporLlon of Lhe naLlon's law buslness LhaL ls carrled on ouLslde new ?orkŦ 8uL Lhe rlchesL
people and Lhe blaaesL companles make almosL all Lhelr flnanclal arranaemenL and Lhelr lmporLanL buslness deals ln
new ?orkŦ And flnanclal arranaemenLs and lmporLanL buslness dealsţ even more Lhan acLual leaal dlspuLesţ are whaL
Lhe lawvers Lhrlve onŦ
,osL new ?ork lawvers spend mosL of Lhelr Llme worklna ouL leaal advlce for Lhe buslness LlLans LhaL make Lhelr
flnanclal headquarLers ln Lhe clLvŦ lL mav be advlce abouL how Lo word a serles of morLaaaes or condlLlonalŴsale
conLracLs or leases or sLock cerLlflcaLesţ so LhaL Lhe llLLle fellows on Lhe oLher slde of Lhe deals wlll have llLLle or no
chance for leaal redress lf Lhev should laLer feel Lhemselves cheaLedŦ lL mav be advlce abouL an lnLercorporaLe
LransacLlonţ where Lhe sole real usefulness of Lhe advlce wlll be Lo counLer anv Lrlcks of leaal lanauaae LhaL Lhe oLher
sldeţ also advlsed bv hlahŴpald lawversţ mlahL Lrv Lo pullŦ lL mav be advlce abouL how Lo aeL around a boLhersome
aovernmenL reaulaLlon and sLlll keep on aood Lerms wlLh 1he Lawţ whlch of course ls more almlahLv Lhan anv
aovernmenL reaulaLlon Ŷ advlce LhaL Lhousands of smaller companles or less wealLhv people would love Lo have Looţ
lf onlv Lhev could afford lLŦ lL mav be advlce abouL how Lo make use of leaal lanauaae so as Lo aeL ouL of pavlna Laxes
Ŷ as when !ŦÞŦ ,oraanţ for all hls vachL and hls arouseŴshooLlnaţ perfecLlv Leaallv avolded Lhe federal lncome Lax for
a couple of vears whlle hundreds of Lhousands of $1300ŴaŴvear men had Lo chlp ln Lo Lhe uŦSŦ 1reasurvŦ
ln anv caseţ lL wlll be advlce whlch has a dollarsŴandŴcenLs valueţ Lo Lhe person or Lhe companv LhaL buvs lLţ
somewhaL areaLer Lhan Lhe sLlff prlce Lhe lawvers charae for lLŦ And Lhe dlrecL or lndlrecL losers ln Lhe whole affalr
wlll be Lhe companles and people bv Lhe mllllons who cannoL afford Lhus Lo buv 1he LawŦ 1here ls no more sLrlklna
parodv of 1he Law's boasL LhaL lL represenLs ºequal [usLlce for all" Lhan ln Lhe work of Lhose Lop men of Lhe leaal
Lrade who clusLer and prosper ln new ?ork ClLvŦ
,oreoverţ mosL aood lawvers ao Lo new ?ork before Lhev dleŦ 1hev ao Lo new ?ork because LhaL ls where Lhev can
make Lhe mosL monev ouL of Lhelr knack of Losslna around leaal prlnclples and leaal lanauaaeŦ As a maLLer of facLţ
herds of Lhem are coaxed sLralahL Lo new ?ork from Lhe law schools everv vearŦ And Lhusţ lncldenLallvţ Lhe
professlon aeLs ln anoLher Lelllna blow for Lhe perpeLuaLlon of Lhe leaal leaendŦ lor whaLever sllahL doubLs abouL Lhe
reasonablenessţ pracLlcablllLvţ and ma[esLv of Lhe leaal process mav have been lefL ln Lhe smarL vounasLer's headsţ
looe 57 of 65

afLer Lhree vears of rlald drllllna ln Lhe sacredness of absLracL concepLsţ qulcklv evaporaLe ln an aLmosphere where
1he Law ls acknowledaed klna Ŷ and Lhe klna and hls peL courLlers are so handsomelv rewardedŦ
Pere Loo ls Lhe kernel of anoLher reason whv 1he Law ls klnder Lo Lhe rlch Lhan Lo Lhe poorŦ noL onlv are Lhe mosL
promlslna vouna hocusŴpocus arLlsLs lmmedlaLelv lured Lo Lhe servlce of Lhose who pav Lhem Lhe hlahesL waaes for
Lhe maalcţ buL ouL of Lhls aroup sprlnaţ evenLuallv and almosL auLomaLlcallvţ mosL of Lhe acknowledaed leaders of
Lhe professlonŦ lorţ as ln oLher Lrades and professlonsţ earnlna capaclLv ls unlversallv and bllndlv accepLed as Lhe
hallmark of real ablllLvŦ (8en[amln lranklln once pald LrlbuLe Lo Lhls facL when he suaaesLed LhaL Lhe lawvers appolnL
Lhe [udaesţ on Lhe around LhaL Lhev would alwavs plck Lhe oblest of Lhelr clan so LhaL Lhev mlahL
mosL ptofltoblv dlvlde each new [udae's pracLlce amona LhemselvesŦ) And Ŷ desplLe Lhe facL LhaL lranklln's scheme
has never been puL Lo Lhe dlrecL LesL Ŷ lL ls ouL of Lhe acknowledaed leaders of Lhe professlonţ who are
acknowledaed Lo be leaders because Lhev make so much monevţ LhaL mosL [udaes are chosenŦ
now when a lawver becomes a [udaeţ he no lonaer has a dlrecL flnanclal lncenLlve Lo manlpulaLe 1he Law ln favor of
Lhe rlch people and Lhe bla corporaLlonsŦ 8uL he wlll usuallv have spenL mosL of hls professlonal llfeţ before he
became a [udaeţ dolna [usL LhaLŦ WhaL ls moreţ he wlll noL have admlLLedţ even Lo hlmselfţ LhaL he was dolna
anvLhlna oLher Lhan applv an exacL and lmparLlal sclence Lo Lhe orderlv manaaemenL of men's affalrsŦ ln lnevlLable
proLecLlon of hls own selfŴesLeem he wlll perforce have swallowed mosL of Lhe leaal leaend wholeŦ And consequenLlv
he wlll have hardened lnLo a hablL of mlnd wherebv [usLlce and Lhe leaal prlnclples he ls used Lo uslna are [usL abouL
svnonvmousŦ
When he becomes a [udaeţ he cannoL easllv shake off Lhls seL slanL Loward 1he LawŦ 1he prlnclples and concepLs he
once fluna abouL and fouahL forţ mouLhed now bv oLher lawvers Lrvlna cases before hlmţ wlll sLlll have a famlllar and
auLhorlLaLlve rlnaŦ Such phrases as ºfreedom of conLracL" and ºcoveot emptot" and ºLhe sancLlLv of wrlLLen (bv
lawvers) aareemenLs" and ºdeprlvaLlon of properLv wlLhouL due processţ" alona wlLh all Lhe mlnor and equallv vaaue
absLracLlons wlLh whlch lawvers cusLomarllv defendţ ln and ouL of courLţ Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhelr wealLhv cllenLsţ wlll
sLrlke Lhe eves and ears of Lhe [udae as aood sound leaal docLrlneŦ 8v conLrasLţ Lhe phrases and prlnclples of Law
cusLomarllv used Lo araue aaalnsL such lnLeresLs wlll seem less famlllarţ less orLhodoxţ less compelllnaŦ CondlLloned
bv hls own pasL hablLs of leaal speech and LhouahLţ Lhe [udae wlll unconsclouslv leanţ ln lavlna down 1he Lawţ
Loward Lhe slde LhaL Lalks hls old brand of leaal dlalecLŦ Whlch means LhaL he wlll lean Loward Lhe slde where Lhe
monev lles Ŷ and 1he Law wlll lean wlLh hlmŦ
1here ls one more lmporLanL reason whv 1he Law reaularlv Lends Lo favor Lhe rlchţ Lhe conservaLlvesţ Lhe people and
companles wlLh plenLv of monev and properLv whoţ noL unnaLurallvţ wanL Lo keep all Lhelr monev and properLv and
keep on aeLLlna more of lL ln Lhe same old wavsŦ 1hls reason ls lnherenL ln Lhe verv naLure of 1he Law lLselfŦ lor 1he
Lawţ vou mav rememberţ purporLs Lo be a areaL bodv of chanaeless absLracL LruLhsŦ 1lmes chanaeţ and wavs of llvlna
chanaeţ and Lhe facLs of human affalrs chanaeţ buL Lhe prlnclples of 1he Law remaln unmoved and sLeadfasLŦ ln
shorLţ 1he Lawţ bv lLs own deflnlLlonţ ls a sLandŴpaL sclenceŦ
And of course lL ls Lhe wealLhv and wellŴLoŴdo who are alwavs sLandŴpaLLersŤ Lhe poor and Lhe noLŴsoŴwellŴLoŴdo are
Lhe proaresslves and Lhe radlcalsŦ 1he moneved aroups are for Lhe mosL parL verv nlcelv saLlsfled wlLh Lhe old
arranaemenLs of LhlnasŦ !usLlce or no [usLlce Ŷ ln Lhe orlalnal ChrlsLlan sense of Lhe word Ŷ Lhev don'L wanL Lo see Lhe
rules shlfLed ln Lhe aame of aeLLlna ahead ln Lhe worldŦ And Lhev flnd ln 1he Law a phllosophlcal and less obvlouslv
selflsh defense of Lhelr reslsLance Lo chanaeŦ
1hev also flnd ln 1he Law someLhlna more solld and more useful Lhan a phllosophlcal defense of conservaLlsmŦ lor
1he Lawţ mvsLerlouslv brouahL Lo earLh bv lawvers and [udaesţ does conLrol all earLhlv affalrsŦ And ln belna
LransmuLed from absLracL prlnclples lnLo speclflc declslons abouL human dlspuLes and problemsţ lL reLalns lLs
reacLlonarv flavorŦ new rules of Lhe aameţ new arranaemenLs ln men's acLlvlLlesţ new conslderaLlons of whaL ls
pracLlcal and whaL ls falrţ flL less smooLhlv and less snualv lnLo 1he Law's scheme of prlnclples Lhan do Lhe old
conslderaLlonsţ Lhe old arranaemenLsţ Lhe old rulesŦ
1haL ls one reason whv so much ºproaresslve lealslaLlon" Ŷ meanlna laws LhaL Lrv Lo chanae Lhe rules Lo favor Lhe
poor aL Lhe expense of Lhe rlch Ŷ ls elLher damned enLlrelv or ºlnLerpreLed" lnLo lneffecLlveness bv Lhe courLsŦ 1he
novel arranaemenLs [usL don'L sllde easllv lnLo Lhe old unchanalna prlnclples of LawŦ lor lnsLanceţ Lhe newfanaled
looe 58 of 65

noLlon LhaL a worker ouahL Lo be pald a llvlna waae dldn'L sLand a chance when lL flrsL came up aaalnsL Lhe aaeŴold
LawŴencrusLed rlahL of a corporaLlon Lo pav lLs workers as llLLle as lL pleasedŦ 1here mlahL have been a law abouL lLţ
buL 1he Law had never heard of such a LhlnaŦ Slmllarlvţ Lhe ldea LhaL a homeless man mlahL be leaallv [usLlfled ln
breaklna lnLo an empLv house Lo sleep Ŷ an ldea LhaL could cerLalnlv be araued from Lhe sLandpolnL of pureţ
unadulLeraLed [usLlce Ŷ would be lauahed ouL of courL LodavŦ As would Lhe ldea LhaL a bond salesmanţ whose allb
assurances had led an old ladv Lo lnvesL her savlnasţ could be sued bv Lhe old ladv for whaL she losL when Lhe bonds
laLer became worLhlessŦ
lor Lhe [udaes wlll noLţ lf Lhev can help lLţ ao Lo Lhe Lrouble of reshuffllna 1he Law's huae deck of absLracL prlnclples
ln order Lo reachţ and raLlonallzeţ a radlcallv dlfferenL seL of pracLlcal resulLsŦ Cnlv rarelv and relucLanLlv wlll Lhev
Lurn Lhe sLream of leaal loalc ln a reallv new dlrecLlonŦ Cnlv rarelv and relucLanLlv wlll Lhev LoleraLeţ ln 1he Law's
nameţ farŴreachlna or baslc chanaes ln Lhe manner of ad[usLmenL of human problemsŦ 1hus noL onlv 1he Law buL Lhe
aeneral Lrend of leaal declslons remalns Lhe sameŦ And bv remalnlna Lhe same lL favors Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhose who
sLand Lo beneflL bv a reLenLlon of Lhe old rulesŦ lL favors Lhe conservaLlvesŦ lL favors Lhe rlchŦ
?esţ Lhe ºsoclallv slanlflcanL" books abouL Lhe lnequallLles and ln[usLlces of 1he Law ln acLlon are rlahL Ŷ as far as Lhev
aoŦ And lncldenLallvţ a promlnenL member of Lhe bar recenLlv summed up a larae parL of Lhelr Lheme ln a phrase
when he descrlbed Lhe ldeal cllenLţ Lhe lawver's dreamţ as ºa rlch man who ls scared Lo deaLhŦ"
8uL sLlll lL ls Lhe facL LhaL 1he Law as a whole ls a fraud LhaL lles behlnd all Lhe lnequallLles and all Lhe ln[usLlcesŦ lL
makes lL worLhŴwhlle for Lhose wlLh monev enouah Lo afford lL Lo buv Lhe courL servlces and Lhe preŴcourL advlce of
Lhose mumboŴ[umbo chanLers and scrlbblers who can besL wrlna deslred resulLs ouL of leaal lanauaae and leaal
prlnclplesŦ lL makes lL worLhŴwhlle for Lhose wlLh monev enouah Lo afford lL Lo buv Lhelr wav lnLo courLţ lf Lhe resulLs
Lhev wanL wruna ouL of 1he Law cannoL be oLherwlse aLLalnedŦ lL ls responslble for Lhe mvoplc lnablllLv of mosL
[udaes Lo see bevond Lhe oneŴslded prlnclples Lhev used Lo use when Lhelr own servlces were for sale Lo Lhe hlahesL
blddersŦ lL ls responslble for Lhe lnherenL lnerLlaţ Lhe conaenlLal conservaLlsmţ of 1he Law ln acLlonŦ lor lf 1he Law
were reallv Lhe exacL and lmparLlal sclence lL purporLs Lo beţ lnsLead of belna an uncerLaln and lmpreclse
abracadabra devoLed Lo Lhe solemn manlpulaLlon of a loL of slllv absLracLlonsţ none of Lhese bases of lnequallLv and
ln[usLlce wouldţ or couldţ exlsLŦ
1he Law ls lndeed a menace when lL works so as Lo perverL lLs own boasL of ºequal [usLlce for allţ" when lL favors Lhe
rlch and oppresses Lhe poorţ when lLs resulLsţ ln Lhe mass or ln Lhe parLlcularţ seem Lo be plaln denlals of ordlnarv
nonŴleaal lmparLlallLv and falrnessŦ 1he polnL ls LhaL even when 1he Law worksţ as lL someLlmes doesţ so as Lo
produce falr and lmparLlal and pracLlcal resulLsţ lL ls noLhlna buL an unnecessarv and expenslve nulsanceŦ 1hose
resulLs mlahL have been achleved much more slmplv and easllv and palnlesslv wlLhouL recourse Lo Lhe meLaphvslcal
nonsense of 1he LawŦ And lL ls Lhe polnL whlch Lhe ºsoclallv slanlflcanL" bovs lnvarlablv mlssŦ
1he ºsoclallv slanlflcanL" ploL has arown sLale ln Lhe LelllnaŦ lL alwavs revolves around Lhe convenLlonal Lrlanale of Lhe
rlchţ Lhe poorţ and 1he LawŦ And Lhe vlllaln alwavs walks off wlLh Ladv Law ln Lhe endŦ Whlch ls supposed Lo show
LhaL she ls a vlllaln Looţ whereas acLuallv she ls onlv an empLvŴheaded fool who nelLher knows nor could be LauahL
anv beLLerŦ
CnAÞ1Lk kI
LL1'5 LA¥ DCWN 1nL LAW
º@e fltst tloo we Joţ let´s klll oll te lowvetsŦ" Ÿ Wllllam Shakespeare
WhaL ls ever Lo be done abouL lL? WhaL ls ever Lo be done abouL Lhe facL LhaL our buslnessţ our aovernmenLţ even
our prlvaLe llvesţ are supervlsed and run accordlna Lo a scheme of conLradlcLorv and nonsenslcal prlnclples bullL of
lnherenLlv meanlnaless absLracLlons? WhaL ls Lo be done abouL Lhe facL LhaL we are all slaves Lo Lhe hocusŴpocus of
1he Law Ŷ and Lo Lhose who pracLlce Lhe hocusŴpocusţ Lhe lawvers?
1here ls onlv one answerŦ 1he answer ls Lo aeL rld of Lhe lawvers and Lhrow 1he Law wlLh a caplLal L ouL of our
svsLem of lawsŦ lL ls Lo do awav enLlrelv wlLh boLh Lhe maalclans and Lhelr maalc and run our clvlllzaLlon accordlna Lo
looe 59 of 65

pracLlcal and comprehenslble rulesţ dedlcaLed Lo nonŴleaal [usLlceţ Lo commonŴorŴaarden falrness LhaL Lhe ordlnarv
man can undersLandţ ln Lhe reaulaLlon of human affalrsŦ
lL ls noL an easv nor a qulck soluLlonŦ lL would Lake Llme and foreslahL and plannlnaŦ 8uL nelLher can lL have been easv
Lo aeL rld of Lhe medlclne men ln Lrlbal davsŦ nor Lo break Lhe sLranaleŴhold of Lhe prlesLs ln Lhe ,lddle AaesŦ nor Lo
overLhrow feudallsm when feudallsm was Lhe unlversal form of aovernmenLŦ lL ls never easv Lo Lear down a wldelv
and deeplv accepLed seL of supersLlLlons abouL Lhe manaaemenL of men's affalrsŦ 8uL lL ls alwavs worLh LrvlnaŦ Andţ
alven enouah supporLţ Lhe efforL wlll alwavs succeedŦ ?ou can fool some of Lhe people all Lhe Llmeţ eLcŦ 1he dlfflculLv
lles onlv ln convlnclna enouah people LhaL Lhev are belna fooledŦ
nor ls Lhlsţ ln anv senseţ a plea for anarchvŦ lL would noL be necessarv Lo do awav wlLh consLlLuLlons or sLaLuLes or
wlLh Lhe orderlv seLLlemenL of dlspuLes and problems ln order Lo do awav wlLh Lhe lawvers and Lhelr LawŦ lL would
onlv be necessarv Lo do awav wlLh Lhe presenL manner of phraslna and laLer ºlnLerpreLlna" wrlLLen lawsţ and wlLh
Lhe presenL manner of seLLllna dlspuLes and solvlna problemsŦ lL would onlv be necessarv Lo do awav wlLh all Lhe
leaal lanauaae and all Lhe leaal prlnclples whlch confuse lnsLead of clarlfvlna Lhe real lssues LhaL arlse beLween menŦ
1hls ls noL a plea for anarchvŦ lL ls raLher a plea for common senseŦ
And Lhe flrsL sLep Loward common sense ls a reallzaLlon LhaL cerLalnLv and conslsLencvţ or anv close approxlmaLlon
Lo Lhemţ ls uLLerlv lmposslble ln Lhe supervlslon of men's affalrsŦ lL ls ln lLs refusal Lo recoanlze or accepL Lhls facL LhaL
1he Law makes lLs aravesL and mosL baslc errorŦ lL preens lLself as belna boLh cerLaln and conslsLenLŦ lL purporLs Lo
have a sure answer readvŴforŴappllcaLlon Lo anv facLual problem or squabble LhaL mav arlseŦ ?eL even a cursorv
examlnaLlon ls enouah Lo show LhaL 1he Law's alleaed cerLalnLv and conslsLencv lle enLlrelv ln Lhe neverŴnever land
of absLracL prlnclples and precepLsŦ 1he Law has been forced Lo reLreaL from Lhe world of facLs lnLo lLs own world of
fancv ln order Lo malnLaln Lhe pose LhaL lL ls a preclse and solld sclenceŦ
,oreoverţ lL ls ln felanlna cerLalnLv and conslsLencv ln lLs seLLlemenL of fleshŴandŴblood problems whlle sLrlvlna
desperaLelv Lo keep up Lhe llluslon ln Lhe lrrelevanL realm of leaal absLracLlonsţ LhaL 1he Law has losL Louch wlLh
[usLlce unadornedŦ As menLloned beforeţ [usLlce can'L be cuL up lnLo convenlenL caLeaorlesŦ And 1he Lawţ ln reachlna
for cerLalnLv wlLh one hand and [usLlce wlLh Lhe oLherţ has fallen beLween Lhe Lwo lnLo a morass of meanlnaless and
useless lanauaaeŦ As Lhouah anv acLual dlspuLe could be seLLled elLher cerLalnlv or [usLlv bv reference Lo Lhe words
ºconslderaLlon ls essenLlal Lo a valld conLracL" or Lo Lhe words ºno sLaLe mav consLlLuLlonallv Lax properLv ouLslde lLs
[urlsdlcLlon!"
Slnce cerLalnLv and conslsLencv are lmposslble of aLLalnmenL ln Lhe orderlv conLrol of men's affalrsţ Lhe senslble
Lhlna Lo do would seem Lo be Lo ao sLralahL afLer [usLlce ln Lhe seLLlemenL of anv speclflc quesLlon LhaL comes up for
soluLlonŦ now [usLlce lLself ls concededlv an amorphous and uncerLaln ldealŦ Cne man's [usLlce ls anoLher man's
polsonŦ 8uL LhaL ls where wrlLLen laws come lnŦ Wherever dlfferenL people's dlfferenL ldeas abouL whaL ls falr and
whaL ls rlahL clash headŴonţ wrlLLen lawsţ enacLed bv democraLlc processesţ should conLalnţ ln so far as posslbleţ Lhe
answerŦ Wherever wrlLLen laws cannoL or do noL conLaln Lhe answerţ someboJv has Lo make a declslonŦ And LhaL
declslon mlahL beLLer be made on arounds of plalnţ unvarnlshed [usLlceţ falrnessţ humanlLarlanlsm Ŷ amorphous
Lhouah lL be Ŷ Lhan on anv oLherŦ
1odav lL ls Lhe lawverŴ[udaes who make such declslonsŦ Lven when some parL ls Laken bv a [urv Ŷ LhaL lasL and
wanlna vesLlae of recoanlLlon LhaL Lhe ordlnarv man's ldeas abouL [usLlce are worLh someLhlna Ŷ Lhe [urv has Lo acL
wlLhln Lhe rlald framework of 1he Law and Lhe [udaes' ordersŦ 8uL Lhe ordlnarv man knows as much abouL [usLlce as
does Lhe ordlnarv [udaeŦ As a maLLer of facLţ he usuallv knows moreŦ lor hls ldeas and ldeals abouL human conducL
are more slmple and dlrecLŦ 1hev are noL all cluLLered up wlLh a loL of amblauous and unearLhlv prlnclples nor
lmpeded bv Lhe hablL of expresslna Lhem ln a forelan lanauaaeŦ
A Lralnlna ln 1he Law cannoL make anv man a beLLer [udae of [usLlceţ and lL ls all Loo llkelv Lo make hlm a worse oneŦ
8uL Lhere ls one klnd of Lralnlnaţ one klnd of knowledaeţ LhaL can flL a man Lo handle more ablv and more falrlv Lhe
soluLlon of speclflc human problemsŦ ln anv commonŴsense svsLemţ LhaL klnd of Lralnlna and LhaL klnd of knowledaeţ
lnsLead of adepLness ln Lhe absLracL abracadabra of 1he Lawţ would be a prerequlslLe Lo Lhe rlahL Lo slL ln [udamenL
on oLher men's affalrsŦ
looe 60 of 65

1he klnd of knowledae LhaL could be reallv usefulţ LhaL would reallv equlp a man for Lhe [ob of solvlna speclflc
problems falrlvţ ls Lechnlcal facLual knowledae abouL Lhe acLlvlLles ouL of whlch Lhe problems arlseŦ noL LhaL such
knowledae would lmparL a keener sense of [usLlceŦ 8aLher LhaL such knowledae would enable hlm Lo undersLand Lhe
problems Lhemselves more clearlvţ more lnLlmaLelvţ and more Lhorouahlvţ and Lherefore Lo applv hls sense of [usLlce
Lo Lhelr soluLlon ln a more lnLelllaenL and more pracLlcal wavŦ
A mlnlna enalneer could handle a dlspuLe cenLerlna around Lhe value of a coalŴmlne much more lnLelllaenLlv and
Lherefore more falrlv Lhan anv [udaeţ unLralned ln enalneerlnaţ can handle lLŦ A docLor could handle a dlspuLe
lnvolvlna a phvslcal ln[urv much more lnLelllaenLlv and Lherefore more falrlv Lhan anv [udaeţ unLralned ln medlclneţ
can handle lLŦ A reLaln merchanL could handle a buslness dlspuLe beLween Lwo oLher reLall merchanLs much more
lnLelllaenLlv and Lherefore more falrlv Lhan anv [udae can handle lLŦ A man Lralned ln Lax admlnlsLraLlon could have
handled Senlor vŦ 8raden much more lnLelllaenLlv and Lherefore more falrlv Lhan Lhe Supreme CourL handled lLŦ ln
shorLţ even dlscounLlna for Lhe momenL Lhe encumbrances of leaal docLrlne LhaL obsLrucL Lhe sLralahLŴLhlnklna
processes of everv [udaeţ Lhe averaae [udae ls sadlv unequlpped Lo deal lnLelllaenLlv wlLh mosL of Lhe problems LhaL
come before hlmŦ
And whvţ afLer allţ should noL Lhe orderlv soluLlon of our buslness and aovernmenL and prlvaLe dlfflculLles Ŷ pracLlcal
problems all Ŷ be enLrusLed Lo men who have been Lralned Lo undersLand Lhe pracLlcal problems and Lo appreclaLe
Lhe dlfflculLles? Whv should we conLlnue Lo submlL our dlspuLes and our affalrs Lo men who have been Lralned onlv
ln eLhereal concepLs and absLracL loalcţ and who perslsL ln pursulna LhaL wlllŴo'ŴLheŴwlspţ cerLalnLv? Whv should we
keep on sacrlflclna boLh [usLlce and common sense on Lhe alLar of leaal prlnclples? Whv oot aeL rld of Lhe lawvers
and Lhelr Law?
lL would Lakeţ of courseţ a peaceful revoluLlon ln Lhe svsLem of rules under whlch we llveŦ ConsLlLuLlonsţ ln parL aL
leasLţ would have Lo be rewrlLLenţ wlLhouL beneflL of lawversŦ Whv noL? 1he machlnerv exlsLs for dlna lL ln an orderlv
and peaceful wavŦ Where consLlLuLlonal commands and prohlblLlons make sense Lo Lhe averaae manţ Lhev could be
kepL unchanaedŦ Anvone undersLandsţ for lnsLanceţ whaL Lhe federal consLlLuLlon's requlremenL of a census everv
Len vears meansŦ Where consLlLuLlonal commands and prohlblLlons are compleLelv lncomprehenslble excepL ln Lhe
llahL of leaal ºlnLerpreLaLlonţţ" Lhev should be clarlfled so LhaL Lhev do make sense or else omlLLed enLlrelvŦ Whv
should Lhe lawvers have a monopolv on Lhe undersLandlna of anv parL of anv consLlLuLlon?
SLaLuLes would all have Lo be redrafLed Looţ aaaln wlLhouL beneflL of lawversŦ And LhaL would be a Louaher [obţ buL
bv no means an lnsuperable oneŦ 1he lawvers Lhemselves have ofLen done lL wlLh a whole bodv of wrlLLen lawsŤ Lhev
call lL ºcodlfvlna" Lhe lawsŦ 1here ls no reason whv a chosen aroup of nonŴlawvers should noL codlfv Lhe presenL laws
of everv sLaLeţ and of Lhe federal aovernmenL as wellţ and codlfv Lhem so LhaL lL no lonaer Lakes a lawver Lo LranslaLe
Lhem lnLo slanlflcanceŦ Anv law LhaL means someLhlna deflnlLe and Lanalble ln relaLlon Lo human affalrs can be
wrlLLen so LhaL lLs meanlna ls plaln for all Lo readŦ Anv law LhaL means noLhlna excepL as lawver and lawverŴ[udaes
puL conLenL lnLo lLs lnherenLlv conLenLŴless lanauaae has no buslness sLavlna on Lhe booksŦ
lurLhermoreţ anv law whlchţ lnsLead of lavlna down rules lLselfţ Lurns over Lhe soluLlon of cerLaln facLual Lvpes of
problems Lo a aroup of experLs or admlnlsLraLors should sav perfecLlv franklv whaL lL ls dolna and should deflne ln
facLual lnsLead of leaal lanauaae Lhe fleld wlLhln whlch Lhe experLs are Lo make rules and declslonsŦ Whv conceal
behlnd vaaue aenerallLles Lhe facL LhaL Lhe SecurlLles and Lxchanae Commlsslon has been alvenţ wlLhln vaaue llmlLsţ
Lhe power Lo make rules for Lhe runnlna of Lhe new ?ork SLock Lxchanae? Whv noL make Lhe aranLlna of power
slmple and dlrecLŤ and whv noL make Lhe llmlLs of Lhe power speclflc lnsLead of leavlna Lhelr deLermlnaLlon Lo Lhe
lawverŴ[udaes' subsequenL and haphazard ºlnLerpreLaLlon" of Lhe sLaLuLe's leaal lanauaae?
Slmllarlvţ anv wrlLLen law whlchţ Lhouah lavlna down a broad ruleţ leaves Lo a courL or some such decldlna bodv Lhe
preclse appllcaLlon of lLs rule Lo Lhe facL of anv parLlcular problem should sav LhaL lL ls dolna [usL LhaLŦ ºllrsL dearee
murder ls punlshable bv deaLh" makes no real sense as a sLaLuLe because ºflrsL dearee murder" makes no sense
excepL ln relaLlon Lo Lhe absLracL leaal prlnclples whlch are sald Lo deflne lLŦ ºWhen a courL (wheLher [udae or [urv or
boLh or some oLher klnd of decldlna bodv) flnds LhaL one person has kllled anoLher person and belleves LhaL Lhe
klller deserves Lo be elecLrocuLedţ Lhe courL mav order LhaL he be elecLrocuLed" ls equallv descrlpLlve of Lhe rule and
much more accuraLeŦ Whv noL phrase Lhe sLaLuLe LhaL wavţ so evervone would know [usL whaL lL dld mean? 1henţ lf
we should wanL Lhe rule Lo be more preclseţ Lhe wrlLLen law could be made more preclse Ŷ lnsLead of preLendlna
looe 61 of 65

LhaL Lhe words ºflrsL dearee murder" conLrlbuLe Loward preclseness or Loward anvLhlna buL obscureness and
unlnLelllalblllLvŦ
lorţ of courseţ Lhere would sLlll have Lo be courLsţ or [udaesţ or declslonŴmakersţ under anv orderlv svsLem of soclal
conLrolţ even Lhouah wrlLLen laws were made lnLelllalble Lo allŦ 1here would have Lo be declslonŴmakers Lo
deLermlne Lhe Lrue facLs behlnd anv dlspuLeţ and Lhen Lo applv Lo Lhe dlspuLe Lhe Lerms of anv wrlLLen lawsţ
wheLher Lhose laws were so preclse LhaL Lhelr appllcaLlon was almosL auLomaLlcţ or wheLher Lhev lefL room for Lhe
declslonŴmakers Lo exerclse Lhelr own dlscreLlon and Lhelr own sense of [usLlceŦ 1here would have Lo be declslonŴ
makersţ Looţ Lo seLLle anv dlspuLes whlch were noL covered bv wrlLLen lawsŦ And lL ls as declslonŴmakers LhaL men
Lralned ln Lhe LechnlcallLles of facLual problemsţ raLher Lhan ln Lhe LechnlcallLles of leaal lanauaaeţ would come lnŦ
Suppose Lodav a problem ln Lhe reaulaLlon of uLlllLv raLes comes before a courL of LawŦ 1he companv wlll araue LhaL
lLs properLv ls worLh a areaL deal of monev because Lhe more monev lL ls worLh Lhe hlaher raLes lL can charaeţ slnce
lL ls allowed Lo make ºa falr reLurn on Lhe reasonable value of lLs lnvesLmenLŦ" 1he uLlllLv commlsslonţ ouL Lo defend
Lhe raLes lL ordered Lhe companv Lo charaeţ wlll araue LhaL Lhe companv's properLv ls worLh conslderablv less Lhan
Lhe companv's flaureŦ 8oLh Lhe companv and Lhe commlsslon wlll brlna ln enalneers and accounLanLs Lo LesLlfv abouL
Lhe value of Lhe companv's properLvŦ 1he companv's experLs wlll seL a hlah flaure and Lhe commlsslon's experLs wlll
seL a low flaureŦ And Lhe courLţ unable Lo undersLand or aauae lnLelllaenLlv Lhe basls of elLher seL of flaures wlllţ
more Lhan llkelvţ spllL Lhe dlfference and leL lL ao aL LhaLŦ 8uL whv Ŷ lf Lhe commlsslonţ whlch ls a aovernmenL bodv
[usL llke anv courLţ ls noL Lo have Lhe lasL word ln applvlna a wrlLLen law enLrusLed Lo lL for enforcemenL Ŷ should noL
Lhe dlspuLe aL leasL be brouahL before a courL of enalneers or accounLanLs or boLh whoţ unpald bv elLher sldeţ could
applv Lhelr Lechnlcal knowledae Lo an examlnaLlon of boLh seLs of clalms and an lnLelllaenL cholce beLween Lhem?
Suppose Lodav a man accused of a crlme pleads before a courL of Law LhaL he ls lnsane andţ Lhereforeţ cannoL be
held responslbleŦ 1he prosecuLlna aLLornev wlll produce psvchlaLrlsLs who lnslsLţ and explaln ln medlcal Lerms whv
Lhev lnslsLţ LhaL Lhe defendanL ls saneŦ 1he defendanL's aLLornev wlll produce psvchlaLrlsLs who lnslsLţ and explaln ln
medlcal Lerms whv Lhev lnslsLţ LhaL Lhe defendanL ls crazvŦ 1he courL wlll llsLen uncomprehendlnalv Lo boLh seLs of
psvchlaLrlsLs and wlll Lhen ao lnLo a huddle wlLh lLself over Lhe quesLlon wheLher Lhe accused man can ºundersLand
Lhe dlfference beLween rlahL and wronaŦ" lf he canţ he ls sane accordlna Lo 1he Lawţ and lf he can'Lţ he ls sane
accordlna Lo 1he Lawţ no maLLer how rldlculous Lhe basls of dlsLlncLlon mav seem Ŷ and does seem Ŷ Lo anv
psvchlaLrlsLŦ 8uL whv should noL Lhe dlspuLe be brouahL lmmedlaLelv before a courL of psvchlaLrlsLsţ or before a
slnale psvchlaLrlsLŴ[udaeţ whoţ unpald bv elLher sldeţ could applv Lechnlcal knowledae Lo an examlnaLlon of Lhe
defendanL's clalm and make an lnLelllaenL declslon as Lo lLs valldlLvŦ
Suppose Lodav a compllcaLed dlspuLe over Lhe lnLernal manaaemenL of a corporaLlon comes before a courL of Law
for soluLlonŦ Lawvers for boLh sldes wlll defend Lhelr cllenL's acLlons and lnLeresLs ln eleaanL leaal lanauaaeŦ 1he
courLţ ln maklna lLs declslonţ wlll choose beLween Lwo proffered seLs of leaal prlnclplesŦ Whv leaal lanauaae and leaal
prlnclples? Whv noL conslderaLlons of buslness efflclencv and buslness eLhlcs? And whv should noL Lhe dlspuLe be
brouahL before a courL of men experlenced ln corporaLe manaaemenLţ who could applv Lhelr Lechnlcal knowledae Lo
an examlnaLlon of Lhe clalms of boLh sldes and Lo an lnLelllaenL and pracLlcal as well as falr soluLlon of Lhe dlfflculLv?
lL ls no answer Lo sav LhaL a lawverŴ[udae undersLands beLLer Lhan does an enalneer or an accounLanL or a
psvchlaLrlsL or a buslness execuLlve Lhe ºoLher lssues" lnvolved ln Lhese casesţ or ln anv oLher of a Lhousand Lvpes of
cases LhaL mlahL be namedŦ 1he onlv real lssue ever lnvolved ln anv case ls Lhe lnLelllaenL formulaLlon of a falr
declslon Lo a facLual problemţ elLher wlLhln Lhe framework of some relevanL wrlLLen law orţ lf necessarvţ wlLhouL
reference Lo anv wrlLLen lawŦ 1he onlv undersLandlna helpful ln formulaLlna such a declslonţ aranLed LhaL Lhe words
of anv relevanL sLaLuLe makes sense Ŷ and lf Lhev don'L Lhev should be lanored Ŷ ls a pracLlcal undersLandlna of Lhe
problem lnvolvedŦ An enalneer or an accounLanL or a psvchlaLrlsL or a buslness execuLlveţ rememberţ has [usL as
keen and lmparLlal a sense of [usLlce where hls own lnLeresLs are noL concerned as has anv [udae where ls lnLeresLs
are noL concernedŦ ,oreoverţ lf Lwo or more klnds of speclallzed knowledae are perLlnenL Lo Lhe seLLlemenL of anv
problemţ whv should noL Lwo or more klnds of Lechnlcal experLs compose Lhe courL whlch seLLles Lhe problem? Whvţ
ln anv caseţ should Lhe real lssues ever be obscured bv Lhe fake lssues of 1he Law?
ln anv commonŴsense svsLem of soclal conLrolţ or aovernmenLţ Lhe courLs Ŷ Lhe lawŴapplvlna and declslonŴmaklna
bodles Ŷ would be bullL of men Lralned Lo an undersLandlna of Lhe dlfferenL flelds of human acLlvlLv wlLh whlch Lhev
looe 62 of 65

were Lo dealŦ 1he exacL mechanlcs of such a scheme could be worked ouL ln anv one of several wavsŦ Þerhaps
permanenL courLs of experLs ln dlfferenL flelds of pracLlcal knowledae mlahL be seL upţ each Lo handle all dlspuLes
and problems LhaL cenLered around Lhelr own fleldsŦ Þerhapsţ lnsLead of Laklna men permanenLlv awav from Lhe
work Lo whlch Lhev had been Lralned and maklna speclallzed [udaes ouL of Lhemţ Lhere mlahL be panels of experLs on
call for parLŴLlme courL servlce ln Lhe seLLlemenL of dlspuLes lnvolvlna Lhelr separaLe flelds of knowledaeŦ
Þerhaps Ŷ for anv such scheme would have Lo lnclude a cenLral dlrecLlna bureau Lo arranae for Lhe hearlna of each
case before Lhe rlahL courL Ŷ Lhere mlahL be cenLral courLs composed of a dozen dlfferenL klnds of speclallsLsť Ÿ an
exŴbuslness execuLlve and an exŴdocLor and an exŴlabor leader and an exŴenalneer and an exŴbanker and an exŴ
farmer and an exŴpubllc admlnlsLraLor and so forLhŦ And each cenLral courL mlahL asslan Lhe handllna of everv case
LhaL came alona amona lLs own members or amona oLher speclallsLs lL had avallable for servlceţ or amona a relevanL
comblnaLlon of Lhe LwoŦ Þerhaps each fleld of dlspuLe mlahL have lLs own cenLral courL and lLs own ouLslde parLŴLlme
[udaesŦ 1hus a cenLral crlmlnal courL mlahL lnclude an exŴpenoloalsL and an exŴflnanclal experL and an exŴdocLor and
an exŴpollce offlclal and a couple moreţ wlLh a chemlsL and a psvchlaLrlsL and a balllsLlcs experLţ amona oLhersţ on
call Lo slL ln cerLaln cases where Lhelr speclal knowledae would be of helpŦ
Lven Lhe Supreme CourLţ composed of course of nonŴlawvers (and Lhlsţ lncldenLallvţ would noL even requlre an
amendmenL Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon whlch savs noL a word abouL Lhe [udaes havlna Lo be lawvers) mlahL well make use
of ouLslde speclallsLs as parLŴLlme [udaesŦ And slnce mosL of Lhe problems LhaL come before Lhe Supreme CourL
lnvolveţ and would probablv conLlnue Lo lnvolveţ pracLlcal problems ln aovernmenLţ mosL of lLs members Ŷ as well as
Lhe members of anv oLher courLs devoLed Lo handllna such problems Ŷ would be men Lralned and quallfled ln Lhe
efflclenL and wlse admlnlsLraLlon of aovernmenL affalrsŦ
As a maLLer of facLţ abollLlon of Lhe lawvers and Lhelr Law mlahL evenLuallv lead Lo Lhe vlrLual dlsappearance of
courLs as we know Lhem LodavŦ Lverv wrlLLen law Ŷ wrlLLenţ vou rememberţ ln comprehenslble lanauaae Ŷ mlahL be
enLrusLed Lo a bodv of Lechnlcal experLsţ Lo admlnlsLer and applv lL and make speclflc declslons under lLŦ As Lhe
lnLersLaLe Commerce Commlsslon applles Lhe lnLersLaLe Commerce AcLţ as Lhe lederal 1rade Commlsslon applles Lhe
ClavLon AcLţ so each sLaLe would haveţ savţ a kllllna Commlsslon Lo applv lLs laws abouL whaL are now called murder
and manslauahLerŦ ,oreoverţ Lhe declslon of Lhe Lechnlcal experLs who made up each commlsslon would be flnalŦ
1here would be no appeals and superŴappeals Lo oLher bodles of men who knew and undersLood less abouL Lhe real
maLLer ln dlspuLe Lhan Lhe orlalnal decldersŦ
1here would be a Supreme CourL Ŷ or a Supreme Commlsslon or such Ŷ Lo seLLle lmporLanL lnLerŴaovernmenLal or
lnLraŴaovernmenLal squabbles Lo whlch Lhe wrlLLen laws dld noL conLaln Lhe readv answerŦ 8uL [usL abouL all LhaL
would be lefL for courLsţ or someLhlna llke our presenL courLsţ Lo handle would be dlspuLes Lo whlch no wrlLLen laws
dlrecLlv applledŦ And where no wrlLLen laws dlrecLlv applledţ arblLraLlon of Lhe dlspuLe bv plcked speclallsLs ln LhaL
fleldţ or LhaL buslnessţ would serve Lhe ends of efflclencvţ [usLlceţ and also economv far beLLer Lhan a formal Lrlal
before anv klnd of courLŦ
lf even Lhe remoLe ldea of Lhe evenLual dlsappearance of our courLs has a shocklna soundţ lL ls onlv because of our
bllnd falLh LhaL Lhe mvsLerlous processes of 1he Law do somehow work lnexorablv Loward cerLaln [usLlceŦ Wellţ for
Lhe LenLh Llmeţ Lhev don'LŦ When Lhe courLs happen Lo produce [usLlce lL ls as llkelv Lo be desplLe Lhe lrrelevanL
processes of 1he law as because of LhemŦ norţ for all Lhe leaal leaendţ are [udaes lnfalllble arblLers of rlahL and
wronaţ falr and unfalrŦ !udaes are menţ noL aodsŦ ,oreover Lhev are aovernmenL servanLsţ aovernmenL emploveesŦ
Whv should noL anoLher aroup of menţ anoLher aroup of aovernmenL emploveesţ be equallv able Lo declde whaL ls
falr and whaL ls unfalr? Whv should noL anoLher aroup of menţ alven equal responslblllLv and Lralned Lo an
undersLandlna of compllcaLed pracLlcal problemsţ be bettet able Lo declde whaL ls falr and whaL ls unfalrţ wlLhln Lhe
llmlLs of an lnLelllalble sLaLuLeţ Lhan Lhose who have been Lralned malnlv ln Lhe manlpulaLlon of absLracL prlnclples?
Whv should noL a commlssloner's word be as aood as a [udae's word?
1rueţ Lhe mechanlcs of anv such svsLem as has been suaaesLed Lo replace Lhe lawverŴ[udaes would be compllcaLed ln
Lhe exLremeŦ 8uL no more compllcaLed Lhan Lhe presenL confuslnaţ overlapplnaţ and wasLeful hlerarchv of Lrlal
courLs and appellaLe courLsţ sLaLe courLs and federal courLsţ courLs of law and courLs of equlLvţ pollce courLs and
maalsLraLe's courLsţ common pleas courLs and speclal clalms courLsţ and all Lhe resLţ all of Lhem manned bv exalLed
lawversŦ
looe 6J of 65

And lf Lhe whole ldea of Laklna Lhe seLLlemenL of our dlspuLes and problemsţ ln one fashlon or anoLherţ ouL of Lhe
hands of Lhe lawverŴ[udaes sounds Loo fanLasLlcţ Loo farŴfeLched and unfeaslbleţ a couple of llLLle polnLs are worLh
conslderlnaŦ lor small sLeps ln LhaL dlrecLlon have alreadv been made ln Lhe fleld of aovernmenL and also ln Lhe fleld
of buslnessŦ
ln Lhe fleld of aovernmenLţ Lhe arowLh of commlsslons and boards and all sorLs of admlnlsLraLlve bodles has served
Lo deprlve Lhe courLs of Law of some of Lhe declslonŴmaklna buslness LhaL used Lo be LhelrsŦ 1odavţ mosL new
sLaLuLes are puL ln Lhe charae of speclal declslonŴmaklna aaencles lnsLead of belna enLrusLed dlrecLlv LoL he courLs
for lnLerpreLaLlon and appllcaLlonŦ lL ls Lrue LhaL Lodav an appeal Lo a courL can alwavs be Laken from anv
commlsslon's declslonŦ 8uL Lhe commlsslon reallv sLands ln Lhe place of a Lrlal courL Ŷ and appeals are comparaLlvelv
fewŦ lL ls Lrueţ Looţ LhaL Lhese commlsslons are now usuallv manned ln larae parL bv lawversŦ 8uL even Lhe lawverŴ
commlssloners are comlnaţ more and moreţ Lo be chosen for Lhelr famlllarlLv wlLh Lhe pracLlcal problems wlLh whlch
Lhe commlsslon has Lo dealţ raLher Lhan for Lhelr adepLness aL 1he LawŦ AL Lhe leasLţ lL ls a LrendŦ
ln Lhe fleld of buslnessţ Lhe flrsL halLlna sLep awav from Lhe lawverŴ[udaes has been Lhe arowLh of arblLraLlon as a
means of seLLllna dlspuLesŦ ArblLraLlon means noLhlna more Lhan Lhe volunLarv Lurnlna over of a dlspuLe for falr
seLLlemenL Lo a man or aroup of menţ LrusLed bv boLh sldes and equlpped bv speclallzed knowledae Lo undersLand
Lhe quesLlon aL lssueŦ Lawvers are noL necessarvţ elLher as arblLraLors or as advlsersţ and experlence has proved LhaL
Lhelr presence ls all Loo llkelv Lo hold up and confuse Lhe whole proceedlnasŦ 1hev [usL can'L foraeL Lhelr absLracL
prlnclples Ŷ nor Lhelr Þleadlna and Þrocedure Ŷ and aeL down Lo buslnessŦ ,osL [udaesţ lncldenLallvţ dlsapprove
hearLllv of arblLraLlonţ and sav so whenever Lhev aeL a chance ln a lawsulLţ as when a conLracL provldes for lLŦ 1hev
well know ln whaL dlrecLlon arblLraLlonţ as a svsLemţ ls headlnaŦ
As a maLLer of facL Ŷ Lo ao back for a mlnuLe Lo Lhe posslble mechanlcs of seLLlna up subsLlLuLes for Lhe presenL
courLs of Law Ŷ one scheme mlahL be Lhe Lremendous exLenslon of Lhe arblLraLlon devlceŦ 1hus Lhe Lwo sldes ln whaL
1he Law would call a ºclvll sulL" Ŷ an ordlnarv case noL lnvolvlna Lhe aovernmenL Ŷ mlahL be requlred Lo plck Lhelr
own experL or experLs Lo seLLle Lhelr dlspuLe for Lhemţ perhaps from amona a quallfled llsL of arblLraLors ln LhaL fleldţ
or perhaps noLŦ CerLalnlv such a requlremenL would flL ln perfecLlv wlLh Lhe compleLe abollLlon of courLs as we know
Lhemţ wlLh Lhe use of commlsslons or such Lo declde maLLers arlslna under wrlLLen lawsŦ lor all dlspuLes oot covered
bv wrlLLen laws could Lhen be Lurned over Lo arblLraLlonŦ
AL anv raLeţ reaardless of Lhe exacL deLalls or mechanlcsţ Lhe lmporLanL Lhlna ln anv common sense svsLem would be
Lo aeL rld of Lhe abracadabra of 1he Law as an alleaed basls for Lhe seLLlemenL of human and soclal problemsŦ 1haL
would mean cleanlna all Lhe vaaue and essenLlallv meanlnaless leaal lanauaae ouL of consLlLuLlons and sLaLuLesŦ lL
would mean Laklna Lhe seLLlemenL of speclflc dlspuLes ouL of Lhe hands of Lhe lawverŴ[udaesŦ And flnallv Ŷ or
perhaps flrsL of all Ŷ lL would mean aeLLlna rld of Lhe lawversţ as lawversŦ
CeLLlna rld of Lhe lawvers would mean no more leaal counsel Lo Lalk for vou before Lhe courLs or commlsslons or
arblLraLors or whaLever bodles were alven Lhe [ob of handllna speclflc problems ln Lhe orderlv manaaemenL of
human affalrsŦ Þeople who aoL lnvolved ln dlspuLes or aoL hauled up for alleaed vlolaLlon of some wrlLLen law would
have Lo Lell Lhelr own sLorles and produce Lhelr own proof Ŷ ln Lhe form of wrlLLen evldence or wlLnesses or
whaLever klnd of proof was necessarv and avallableŦ Companles would have Lo send Lo courL a responslble companv
offlclalţ Lo Lalk facLs and noL LawŦ Whv noL Ŷ slnce Lhe declslonŴmakers would no lonaer be concerned wlLh balanclna
absLracL prlnclples buL onlv wlLh applvlna [usLlceţ sLralahLţ Lo Lhe problems before Lhem?
noL Ŷ desplLe whaL Lhe lawvers wlll lmmedlaLelv howl ŶŴ would lL be one whlL harder Lo deLermlne Lhe Lrue facLs
behlnd anv dlspuLe wlLhouL Lhe ºhelp" of Lhe lawvers and Lhelr prlnclples of ÞŦ and ÞŦ As evervbodv knowsţ aL leasL
one of Lhe lawvers ln everv case ln whlch Lhe facLs are ln dlspuLe ls ouL Lo hlde or dlsLorL Lhe LruLh or parL of Lhe
LruLhţ noL Lo help Lhe courL dlscover lLŤ and hls ls alwavs able Lo use Lhe accepLed prlnclples Lo help hlm do lLŦ 1he
noLlon LhaL ln a clash beLween Lwo Lralned prlnclpleŴwleldersţ one of whom ls wearlna Lhe colors of lnaccuracv and
falsehoodţ Lhe LruLh wlll alwavs or usuallv prevall ls ln essence noLhlna buL a hanaŴover from Lhe medleval cusLom of
Lrlal bv baLLle and ls ln essence equallv absurdŦ Whv noL leL Lhe people reallv lnvolved ln anv squabble Lellţ and Lrv Lo
prove Lo Lhe saLlsfacLlon of Lhe declslonŴmakersţ Lhelr own lles? Commlsslons have ofLen found lL far easler Lo
dlscover Lhe Lrue facLs behlnd anv dlspuLe bv dlspenslna wlLh Lhe lawvers' ruleŤ arblLraLors have found lL easler sLlll
bv dlspenslna wlLh Lhe lawversŦ
looe 64 of 65

CeLLlna rld of Lhe lawvers alLoaeLher would also mean no more leaal advlceţ for Lhose who can now afford lLţ ln Lhe
maklna of flnanclal arranaemenLs and Lhe drafLlna of buslness documenLsŦ Þeople and companles who made
flnanclal plans and buslness aareemenLs would have Lo word Lhem Ŷ or have Lhem worded bv nonŴLeaal drafLsmen Ŷ
ln lnLelllalble lanauaaeŦ Whv noL? Whv should noL a man who wanLs Lo leave hls properLv Lo hls wlfe aL hls deaLh sav
ln hls wlllţ ºl wanL evervLhlna l own Lo ao Lo mv wlfe when l dleţ" lnsLead of havlna Lo hlre a lawver and ao Lhrouah a
lona rlamarole of leaal lanauaae? lf Lhe wrlLLen law abouL wllls savsţ for lnsLanceţ LhaL Lhree oLher people have Lo
slan a person's wlllţ Lo help prove laLer LhaL he slaned lLţ Lhen leL Lhe wrlLLen law be noL onlv lnLelllalble buL as readllv
avallable as a auldebook or an arLlcle ln an encvclopedlaŦ And whv should noL Lwo people or Lwo companles or a
companv and a personţ who wanL Lo enLer lnLo a buslness aareemenLţ be boLh enLlLled and requlred Lo sLaLe ln plaln
words [usL whaL each of Lhem ls promlslna Lo do or noL Lo do?
lf consLlLuLlons and sLaLuLes were all wrlLLen ln ordlnarv Lnallsh and lf Lhe lawverŴ[udaes were ousLed from Lhelr
declslonŴmaklna seaLsţ Lhe pracLlclna lawvers would soon auLomaLlcallv dlsappearŦ 1here would be no more use and
no more place for Lhelr maalcŦ 1he pracLlcal men ln charae of dlspenslna [usLlce would nelLher undersLand nor be
lnLeresLed ln Lhe absLracL prlnclples of 1he LawŦ Leaal lanauaaeţ Lhrown ouL of Lhe new courLrooms or commlsslon
chambersţ would serve no posslble funcLlon ln Lhe wordlna of buslness documenLsŦ nelLher as advlsers ouL of courL
nor as represenLaLlve ln courL would Lhe lawvers be able Lo sell Lhelr speclal brand of verbal sklllŦ 1hen Looţ Lhe law
schools would be forced Lo close Lhelr doors Ŷ or else Lo Lurn Lhemselves lnLo schools of pracLlcal aovernmenL or
buslness admlnlsLraLlonŦ 1he breedlna of wordŴ[uaalers would come Lo an endŦ
?eL lL mlahL be [usL as well Lo aeL rld of Lhe lawvers dlrecLlvţ alona wlLh Lhe lawverŴ[udaes and Lhe leaal wordlna of
wrlLLen lawsŦ AL Lhe leasLţ Lhev would have Lo be voLed ouL of Conaress and Lhe sLaLe lealslaLures before lL would be
posslble Lo redrafL consLlLuLlons and sLaLuLes and seL up a new declslon maklna svsLemŦ And lf Lhe lawversţ as
lawversţ were abollshed dlrecLlv and lmmedlaLelvţ Lhen Lhe oLher chanaes would ao lnLo effecL more smooLhlvŦ
Pow abollsh Lhe lawvers dlrecLlv? Wellţ whv noL make Lhe pracLlce of law for monev (or for anvLhlna else) a crlme?
1he lawvers would of course lnslsL LhaL anvLhlna so unheardŴof could onlv be done bv amendlna Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Ŷ
buL whv noL amend lL? And lncldenLallvţ onlv a lawver would qulbble abouL whaL ºLhe pracLlce of law" meanLŦ
Absurd? ÞreposLerous? 1hlnk lL over for a mlnuLeŦ Suppose Lhe naLlon were suddenlv Lo wake up Lo Lhe facL LhaL all
lLs affalrs were belna supervlsed and conLrolled accordlna Lo Lhe lanauaae and prlnclples of asLroloavţ bv a smarL
bunch of asLroloaersŦ Would maklna Lhe pracLlce of asLroloav a crlme seem absurd? Co back and read over aaaln Lhe
solemn [udamenL of Lhe Supreme CourL of lawvers ln Lhe case of Senlor vŦ 8raden Ŷ or plck some oLher courL oplnlon
aL random Ŷ and see where Lhe absurdlLv llesŦ Cr are we [usL Lo ao quleLlv and unquesLlonlnalv and sLupldlv onţ
submlLLlna Lhe manaaemenL of our enLlre clvlllzaLlon Lo Lhe modern medlclne men?
1he lmmedlaLe answer ls undoubLedlv vesţ buL lL need noL be a permanenL answerŦ And lf anv popular movemenL Lo
aeL rld of Lhe lawvers and Lhelr Lawţ and Lo puL our svsLem of soclal conLrol on a commonŴsense baslsţ should ever
make enouah headwav for Lhe lawvers Lo have Lo face lL lnsLead of scofflna aL lLţ Lhelr chlef araumenLs aaalnsL lL Ŷ
oLher Lhan Lhose alreadv consldered Ŷ would probablv boll down Lo LwoŦ
1hev would araueţ ln Lhe flrsL placeţ LhaL even lf Lhe LlmeŴLesLed leaal svsLemţ wlLh all lLs prlnclples and lLs
precedenLsţ were scrapped and anoLher sorL of svsLem seL up ln lLs placeţ Lhe new svsLem would soon develop lLs
prlnclples and lLs precedenLs Looţ and even lLs speclal lanauaaeŦ now lf Lhe new svsLem were puL ln Lhe hands of
lawversţ or of men Lralned and skllled prlnclpallv ln absLracL loalcţ LhaL would unquesLlonablv be soŦ 8uL lL would noL
be so lf Lhe new svsLem were enLrusLed Ŷ as lL would be enLrusLed Ŷ Lo men Lralned and skllled ln coplna wlLh
pracLlcal human problemsŦ And lL would parLlcularlv noL be so lf Lhose ln charae of Lhe new svsLem were aware Ŷ as
Lhev would be aware Ŷ LhaL Lhere need be no preLense of preordalned cerLalnLv and conslsLencv abouL Lhelr
declslonsţ Laken ln Lhe massţ buL raLher a dlrecL efforL Lo deal lnLelllaenLlv and [usLlv wlLh each problem or dlspuLe as
lL came alonaŦ
llnallvţ Lhe lawvers would araue LhaL lf 1he Law were scrapped and lL became aenerallv known LhaL falllble men
raLher Lhan lnfalllble and lmpersonal absLracL prlnclples were dlcLaLlna declslons whlch oLher men had Lo obevţ Lhen
all respecL for lawŴandŴorder would vanlshţ and revoluLlon or anarchv or boLh would ensueŦ 8uL ln Lhls araumenL Ŷ a
Lvplcal maalclan's araumenL ln lLs con[urlna up of frlahLful lmaalnarv hobaobllns Ŷ ls dlsplaved a sLranae and
looe 65 of 65

conLempLuous mlsLrusL of Lhe clvlllzed Lendencles of Lhe naLlonŦ lL lmplles LhaL Lhe whole sLrucLure of our socleLv
would auLomaLlcallv ao Lo pleces lf lL were puL on a pracLlcal raLher Lhan a mvsLlcal basls Ŷ an unwarranLed
assumpLlon aL besLŦ ,oreoverţ ln Lhls araumenL lles Lhe crux of Lhe whole fraud of 1he LawŦ
lor Lhe averaae man's respecLţ such as lL lsţ for our pteseot svsLem of Lawţ and hls consequenL wllllnaness Lo leL hls
llfe be run ln mvsLerlous fashlon bv Lhe lawversţ are lndeed founded on Lhe carefullv nurLured leaend LhaL leaal
prlnclples ote [usL abouL lnfalllble and LhaL Lhev produceţ ln Lhe [udaes' handsţ someLhlna verv close Lo cerLaln
[usLlceŦ Whlch Ŷ Lo sum lL all up ln four words Ŷ Lhev aren'L and don'LŦ lL ls a bllnd respecLţ born noL of undersLandlna
buL of fearŦ And Lhe fear ls bullL on lanoranceŦ
lf onlv Lhe averaae man could be led Lo see and know Lhe cold LruLh abouL Lhe lawvers and Lhelr LawŦ WlLh Lhe
lanorance would ao Lhe fearŦ WlLh Lhe fear would ao Lhe respecLŦ 1hen lndeed Ŷ and doubLless ln orderlv fashlon Loo
Ŷ lL would beť Ÿ
woe ooto vooţ lowvets!

hLLpť//wwwŦconsLlLuLlonŦora/lrev/rodell/woe_unLo_vou_lawversŦhLm

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°fnf° @°¯–°  – ¾€€ f¾ Jn   ¾ ¾ ¾f f¾¾f¾°–ff° €f°fnn ½f  nn ½f°n  € ¾ f   ¾– ½f  ½½¾ – f °  ¾¾– ¾¯ @°f¾ –°   n f€€ °   ¾¾ ° ¾f¾ # °#f°  nf° °#½f€¾ °#€°¾ #f° @°¾f¾ #  ¾¾ ½¯¾ #f°  ½n ¾€°¾  nf° ¾ €¾€€ f¾ @ n °¾   ° n °– ° @ f  °  f¾€f€  ¾¾f  fn¾½¯¾ f€   nf¾f€ –     ––°–f€  n    °f¯°f°nn ½f°n € €€   € @°– ¾½f  n¯¾ €° ff .

°fnf°  € €° ¾ff .

°fn¯¾€° f°nn ½f°n  9 f @° – ¾€€ f¾€ f  –f€  n  ¯ ¾ ¾¾ fn  °  €@° f °¾  f€ ¾½f €¾€ f  ¯ ¾ ¾¾–¯ f° ¾f   nf¾°#f° ¾  9f– €   .

€ ¾½f €¾ °  f¯° °–nn ½f°n ¾f¾€fn @¾ n¯ ¾f½½f °f ¾¯   f°–  n#¾½© n n¾ ¾¯     ° ¾ff°  €°¾€ © @ f  ¾½°– f €¾€° ¾f¯f–n° @ ° €  ¾¾nfn ¾@°° °n°° ¾ € ° @ f °°  °nn ½f°n °.

°fn °€€ f¾   f¾€@°¾° °n°  ¾ € ° @  f°°  nn ½f°n .

°fn ½f½  °  @ f°f°f nf°   °f f°n    f¯f–n° ¾ f nf°° f@ f¾ @ f ¯f ¯ ¯  ¾ff  f f°nn ½f°n €f°€€  € f f.

°fn  ° – ff ¾fnn°n ½° f€.

°fn¾¾¾¯ °–nf .

°¾ f° @  f¾  .

°¾ f° f¾ f¾€€ f° nn ½f°n f° f°¯ € ¾ ¯° ¾½ ° –f¾¯¾  € f.

°fn¾ – °   ¾€@ f 9°– – .

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°¾ f°€@°#¾½¯¾  –f nf¾¾ ¾¾#¾½¯¾ ½f@°€€ f¾ f°  .

°¾ f°€  ¾¾#¾½¯¾ f¾ °° @°#¾½¯¾    €@°  °#½¯¾  fnf ––°–€  n nf¯  .

°¾ f° %@¾ fn¯¯°  –f ° ––°–€f nnf°  –°€  @ f°f°nn ½f°n f.

°¾ f° f° f9 €¯f°n ff  ¾f¯ ¯ % @  nf  ½½¾ €°¾¾°–°.

°¾ f°¾¾ ff.

°fn¾f€f f–f° nf    @ f¯ f€ ¯ €° ¾.

°¾ f°°f°  ¯ °€f f–f° f° €f¾€° .

°¾ f°    ½½¾°¾ f €f €f¯f°¾f¾f½f°f°   # €fn ¾¯#¯–°– – f f #  ¾°.

°¾ f°€ ½¯¾ f° ¾  ¾°.

°fn ¾°n @ f  ¾° f ¾n ¾ nf ¾°fnn°  €f¯f°¾f¾f½f°f°   #€#– ¯ fn–f  ° f° #– f°   f¾¯ #f°   ¯f° ¾  n–f   °  ¾.

°¾ f° € ½¯¾ f°   ¯f  ff .

°fn f° €     °–° ¾¾ ¾ f°¾fn° ¾ f°n  ½f°f°  ¯f  °– ¾°   f¾   f€.

°fn¾f ½f¾f °°¾° °–nn¯¾f°n ¾ €ff¾@ f¾n°n ° f¯f° €€  ½ff°   f¾€fn–f  f° – n–f  f@ f°¾  ¯ °¯ff  °¾° ¯  €f ¾ f°  n–f   f¾¾¯  n–f  ¯ff  °– f°° ¾  ¯ff  °f–f½   f  f°f ¾¯ ° €€  f°   f¾€f°  – ° fn–f   f¯fn €f¯f  nf° ½ – .

°¾ f°   °€f½¯¾ ½ff °   f¾  - f– f€€ ¯°¾f€.

°fn¾¾n°n ° f¾– .

°¾ f°f° f¾° – .

°¾ f° ¾f¯f €€fn °n €€ ¾f° nn ½f°n ¾f° f€   °–¾f €  f    ¾°€  fn°½ f½¯¾ n¯ ¾ °f ¾°€     f¾f¾°#– .

°¾ f°€  f¾ f¾  –ff€½°–  f°° f  °f°  ° –f–nf° °–€° f €°°€.

°¾ f°f¯f ¾ °¾ ¯ ¯– ½   ¾° ¾¾n¯½  °  ¾  ¯–¾ff ¾€ff¾ nf°¾ .

°¾ f°¾f  ¾ °fn ½ ¾f½¯¾ f° f  ¾°# °fn €¾ ¾½ f½¯¾ °  ¾     ¾°€  fn¾–°–¾f  ¾.

°¾ f°°n¯ ¾ °f ¾°€    n¾–°–½  ½¯¾ ° ° –ff  ¾nf°° f¯° f¾½ ¯    ¾°  fff€¯f½fnnf¾f° ½°  f½½f °°f¢ °° f ¾ fn–  f¯½   ½½¾ fn¾–f¾ ff ¯ ¾ ° € ¯½¯¾ ¾ f€nf€.

¾¯f¾ @   ½¯¾ ¾f f¯°  fn   °.

¾¯f¾ f  €nff ¾   fn    ¾°# .

f° n¾–   ¾½½¾ –°nf° ¾ €  fn  f° –  °  f €¾f ¯ #¾½¯¾ €f€ nff¾– .

°¾ f°€ ¾ n° f ¯ #¾½¯¾ €f fn  "  € ¾ nf°° °    f €f°–½¯¾ ¾ ¯f  ¾ ½ff ½ ½ f ½ ¾° f° nf°–° € ¯.

°¾ f°€   ¾° ¾ €n¾  €f°f¾n   ¾½½¾  f ¯ ¾€  ° °° ¾f¯ –  ¾f¯ nn ° ¾½½¾  nnf¾ ½°–°f¾ ¾n½°  €€° ¾ °  fn¯f°f– n°  f¾f°  f¾ °  ¯f° 9f– €   .

½¯¾   fn  ½f ½  ¯f°–f  €nf  ° ½ ¾¯f  nf¾  n °°–  f€€  .

  nn–°nf° ¾ € ¾f°  f¾f° n n"  € n n  ¯   °  f fn€ ½¯¾ ¾½ff¾f°  f¾f¾– .

°¾ f°€   °  n°n¯– ½f°f¾° –° f@ ff½½ ¾€–€¾nn ¾f°   ¾°f½½ €–€¾ n¾–¾ @ n°n ° €f°– .

f° ¾f°–  n°   ¯f½¯¾ ¾–  ¯° nf¾ ¾f n°¾  –  –f.

°¾ f°€ fn   ½ €°°–¯  n¯½nf f°f ¾ ° ½f€ n¾ ½½ ½ €¯ n°–°¾n½¯¾ ¾ @ f °  ½ ¾n½¯¾ ¾ f €° .

°¾ f°¾¯   f° €°  f¾ °f¢ f¯f°  ½ .

°¾ f°f¾f  f¾ ° n¾f° ½ f½¯¾ f° f  f¾°# f°  ¾°#  ° n¾©¾½f° °#nf  9 f½¾ ¾f°– ¾€ ¯f°°–¾f@ f¯½¾–  f¾f¯°°–.

°¾ f°€f.

°fn ¾f¾ f°f½ n €½f½  ¯f°nf°  ° # °– ½¯¾ ½fnf – € °   f¾° €¾€f°f #f° ¾–°f° –  ½f½ – f° ¾°  ½ffn ° ½ –  nf°°½ f––¾¯ °– ¾¯ .

°¾ f° ° °€ ½¯¾  €– ½¾f   €¾ f°–f° ¾¾–°f f° ¯f ¾f¯f° € ©¾ f¾fnnf¾––  ¾°f¯ f°  ½¾° °f¾  %nf  f  f°€ f° f°   €  –f  ¾€#¾ f#% °– f ½f  f ½f  °– –f ¾ °°–° °€¾½¯¾  f  ½f nf¾ @ f°–f– n ff¾ f  f¯f° ffn f½¯¾ f¯° –  .

°¾ f°€f½¯¾  ¾½  €fnf ¯f°¯f ¾ ½¯¾ ½¾ ¾ f   @¾ €n¾ ¾f°–fff€¯ –°f f€.

°¾ f°f¾¾¯ °–– °½¯¾  ° € ¯f°¯f ¾ ½¯¾ @ f#¾ n¾ ¯f   €€ nf°¯f°  € °– ¾ ff½¯¾ ° ¾¾   –°–– ¾¯ °–€€¯¾ €  f½½ °¾f¾ f¾  €¾¾  °n°fn¾f¾O¾¯– ¾  f f¾¾ ¾ ¾€ ¾–°f ¾€¾ n °¾–° °f¯ ¾  ° ¾@ f °°°– ¾ ¯°–¾ ¯°€f¾ f ¾° €€ n¯f°–f¾½ ¾ ¾ €f¾–°f  ¯ f° ¾–°f ¾ € ¾f¾¾f°– f¾°f¢ f¯f° ½  @ ff°¾½  ½¯¾ ¾¾ f¾ffn ¾°n @ fnf°°€° f° .

°¾ f°€¾n½¯¾ ¾©¾ f  ¾ f¾ ¯¾  ¾f¾.

°¾ f°f°  °–¾–ff  J½°–½ f¯½ ¾f°€  ¾  ° f½½f °f.

°¾ f°nf°¯ f°  ––°–€f€f n  nf°¯ f°fn–f  nf°¯ f°f½¯¾  ff¾f°– – ¯° fnn nf°¯ f°f½ n  €¾ f°–f°f¾ €½f½   ¾f¾f½½f °f°° € ¾ °–¾f¾ ¾– ¾n°n f    f°f°€  ¾ °  ¾€° f °–¾ff ¾¯ff .

°¾ f°f © – ¾f f  .

°¾ f°°¾ f° ¯°¾  @ ½°¾f ¾ nf n°n ½€.

°¾ f°¾ ¯ f°°– ¾¾f° ¾  ¾¾°°  ° €  n° ¾¾€fn¾f°¾f nn¾f ¾f     ¾.

°¾ f°     ¾° .

°¾ f°  °n °f¾ €fn¾f°¾ ff¾.

°¾ f° n¯ "f¾ n¯ f° °¯¾f° ¾f½  ¾¾–f f– ¾€€° f ½fnf¾f¾©¾f¾¯ f°°– ¾¾f° ©¾f¾¾  ¾¾f¾ f¾ €  @f¾f¯ ¯f¾¾€½fnf¾¯–©¾f¾  ¯½ –  f° nf °€ff° ¯¾–  °–  °€ ¾  ¾  ©¾f¾ ½€f¾  .

°¾ f°°°–¾ – ¾¾°– n¾ ¾ f°° ½  ¯fn¯ ¾½ n¾f€ f ¾  –¯f €°n°€@ f @ °  ½  ¯¾ €° f¾ €€fn¾ @f¾ €€fn¾¾¯ °–  ¾ ¾€€fn¾f n  n¾f °° .

°¾ f° f¾ ° f  ¾¯ °–  ¾ ¾€€fn¾f n  n¾f °° -.

°¾ f° D°fn°° ¾.

°¾ f°-.

°¾ f°f  °  ½  ¯ °f °  nf°°  ¾° ¾ €€fn¾ °–¾°¾ ¾  .

°¾ f° –f f–  Jf¾ €  .

°¾ f°¾ ¯    f €  ¾€€ f° nn ½f°n f° €   ¾ nf n°n ½° f€.

°fn¾ ¾ f €  ¾ nf n°n ½° f 9  ° –f 9f– €   .

n°n ½¯ f°¾f°°–nf°¯ f°f°°–   °ff  °¾¾½½¾ n° °€¯ f°°–f¾ ° f ° ¯¾€¾½ n¾ ½fnnff½½nf° – ° nf¾ ff¾ n  ¾  f° °n   n°n ½f¾ °¾ f ¾  f¾ ° n°n ½ f¯f  @ n°n ½ °¯ f°f  ¾ € ¾° ¾f°– nf f€@ f ¯–©¾f¾  ¾¾  °   @¾  f¯f° f  €° .

°¾ f°f¾f  ¾ °fn½ ¾f½¯¾ f° f   ¾°# ° €¾ ¾½ f½¯¾ ¾f ¾ – .

°¾ f° f°    ¾ nf n°n ½ ½°n½ €@ f f¯°¾ff–  –ff€¾f°–f ¾ f½½   ¾f€   ¾¾  fn °¾ f € °– f¾ f ¾f° © – ¾¾½  ° f f¾°€ fn°–  ¾° €¾ ½fn   ¾ € ¾ n°n ½¾  f ¾   °°  –f f° € °  ¯¾  ¾ °¾½½¾°– @ ff° ¾°–¾f ¾n °€n –nf €  f°  °n°n ½ n¯ °f°€n°n ½¾    €n°n ½¾ f¾f –f ¾f   nf°€¾ €½ f°f¯fn¾° ¾¯½ ¾n°n f   ¯f°½  ¯   ¾¯ ¾°f n#¾½ ¾n½° nf°½ °¯ f°f°¯½ ¾¾ f€   n¾° ¾n½°€f © – ¾  ° f © – ¾ ¾@ f  -f¾½  ° – °f° ¾½  ¾½ °f © – ¯fnnf¾°ff ¯f¾ –f   °f   €¾f¾ ° nf¯f  ¾f° n°n ½¾f° ½°n½ ¾€@ ff f°¯ f° ¾f ¯ °¾€ ¾¾° –ff°–f–  ¾¾f¯ f ¯ ¯ € ½€ ¾¾°½ f –° € °   f¾nf f€@ f  .

fn ¾f° ¯n ¾f° f  ¾ °  f ½ ¾f f¾f¾€ –f¾f° fn° ° °¯ ¯°nf ¾nf°f fn f   f  J °° f   ¾n¾¾°–fnf¾ ffnnf½ff¾f ¾ff¾  ¾¾° ¾f .°¾ f°¾f° .

¯¯ n  9 – .

¯¯°nf°ff€ ¯ ¯ €  f f  °°f€¾  °°nff°n n n  °f€€ n °f°–½–f° €    ¾  ¾ n° f f¾f– ° f ff €¾¾ f°–f     ¾f© – – f– ° f f€nf f–¯ °¾ €°– °ff ¾¾ ¾€€ f –f½f¾ °n °  ° © – °°½fn¾¾½°°¾¾n½f¾ ¾  f ¾ f ¾  ½°°¾–  €°°–¯ ff– ¾ °¾ €f °– €f¯f –° f° € –¾f ¾f° nf f¾ n¯ ¾° ff °– ° f¾f°° f¾    f f f¾ f ¾f f© nf½°° °¾    ¾½ n¾ € n°¾f°f° nf  ¾¾¾ €f¾ nf€°–f f ¾# ° €f°  ¾fn ° ¾¾€ ¾f¾–° . n¾f° ° ¯¯  ©¯ € –fn°n ½¾ ¾ © n    ¯° € °– ¾  f ¾½f¾¾°f    °  ¾ f  f° ¾ @ ¯   9n ¾¾€f¾°©¾ff° f€ € °–f °n€  n¾°¾ ¾f€–°–½°n½ °   °¾n  –f  ¾f¾f.

 °f°°°°–J f° f°¾f ° @f f °¾ ¾f°n f°  –°  -¾° ½f°  °ff ¾f  €°° ¾f°   ¯f f ¾fn°¾¾ ¾    f ¾f  °nf°° f¾© – ¾ .¾© – ¾f ¯  f°°¾½½¾  °   f½f¯ °¯f # nf¾ #  f¾.

°¾ f°€f.

°fn f f fnf f¾° €¯  f ¾fn n°n  f ° fn°n ½nf .

°¾ f°f¾fnf nf  © –¯ ° ¾ – f ¾fn° .

°¾ f° f ¾ ¾f°n ¯ f    ¾–  ½¾¾  € ¯f°¯°  ½f¾½ n€n ¾€f°f ¾fnn°n ½  ff €ff €¾ °°–°°°–  ½°–  ¾° n°n ½ ¾nf°f  €°    n¾ ¯°½½ n   @°¾–°– ½f € ––°–f n °  f¾¾€     f¾.

°¾ f°¾½½f.

°fn ©¾f¾–  f€.

°¾ f°n°f° °¾ €  f n¯¯f° €¯  –f°¾ %f°f°¾ % n¾ ¯°½½ n f f €-   ¾ ¯f° –f n ¾nf½ ¾ €  f¾°f ¾f € f n ¾¾f ¾° ¾¾-€€ n  Jf9 n°  ¾ n¾ ¯°½½ n f € f– °¯ °¯f°¾½ ¾ f– ¾ ° nf° ¾ ° –° f¾ f– ¾f °f°°  n€€ n°° ¾f .

¯¯ n %f°   ° ¾f¯ n¾ ¯°½½ n f € f– °¯ °¯f€n f¾ n¯½f° f f°° ° –° f¾ f– ¾f f n€€ n°° ¾f .

¯¯ n % ¾– ° fnnf¾  9f– €   .

  –f½f¾ ¾   f°°–¯ f°fnn¯fn¾¾f ¯ °€  ¾ f f°f f¾°€ f°–f ¾– °f°nf¾ f°f ¾fn –f½f¾ n n°n f n°f° –  f°    ¾°€fn°n  ¾nf½nf¯f°½  ¯   f°–° ¾¾f f°– ¾ ¾° ¾¾ f° nf°° € °¾ ¾¾ ff@ f f¾°¾ ¾   f°–°°– f– € ¯ f°°– ¾¾  °¯  f°– ¾ ¾° ¾¾ f° ¯¾€  ¾@ f f¾ °f °–f° f– f° € .f°–ff €f½½°–°– f– € – ° f ¾¾½ n€n°–¾f°  €fn¾¾½ f½¾ ¯¾ f°– ¾€f f° @ f  ¾f  nf°nffnff ½ ¯f¯¯f€ f° nf°f¾nffnfff ½ ¯f¯¯f  €– ° f €nf°– n¾f° nf¾ f ½ ¯f¯¯f¾  n¯ ¾f f¾¾½°f° € f¾°°–   ¾°n nf¾f f ½  ¯f¯¯f¾f° nf¾f  °¾f° n¾f f¾f ½ ¯f¯¯f¾   € n¾f  °¾ @ f  ¯f ¯ ¯  nf¾ n–f  ¾f° ¾ f°–f.

°¾ f°  .

9@I @J@@D9.@ #J f ° f.

°¾°   .

°¾° ¾f © – ¾¾f¾ # .

f ¾f°¾– ¾ @ ½ ¯ .

€ D° f ¾¾– ° ff   ¾n° n°€°°  ¾ n¾°¾f ¾½½¾   ¾ ¾  ¯¾ °– ° ¾¯ ¯ ¾f  f¾ n f¯€   –f½€ ¾¾° ¾ ½ °°°  n°nf ¾€ –f–n ° ° ¾f¾€f ¾fn©¾n f¾   ¾½ ¾f  °¯¾   ¯f–°€f¾°–  ¾°° ¯ ¯ ¾nf° °  n¾°¾€ ¯f¾ – °¾ ¾f  –¾f ¾ ½ ¾ °¾ n°– ¾¾ ¾ f° €f° © – –½€© – ¾° D°  f ¾  °   n€ ½ ½ f¾ ½ ¾¾ ° .

°¾°f° ¾f¯ ° ¯ °¾nf°  – °f– ½ ¯ .

#° ½ f°#€n°¾°ff°–f– @ °° ¯ °° fn ¾   °  ¾n € °f°° f ¾€ f° ¾   °  ° ¾ ¯° f¾°f  €f°n °¾½½¾ f  n ¾€ ¾ ¾°¾¯¾€n¾  f¾¯½ –°f  nn¾¯ n f¾¯f° ¯f  n ¾nf°    °€  f@ f°  ¯f°f¯°¾ ¯f°½f°€¯½ ¾¾   f° ¾ fn¾ n½f°€  f°  ©–– ¾ @ ff¾f°  °€¯½ ¯ .

 –¾¾ ¾ f ¯ ¾ °¾ f° ¾ ¾f°n    °€  f ¯f¾¾€½fnn°–f° ¾f°  © – ¾f €°– ¯¾  ¾f°  ½ n °  nf¯f@ ff¾ °f° ¾ ¾f–nf¾n °n °¾ f €f½¾   ¾n °€n€f ¾   °° ½¯ °€ nf€¯¾ f €  €f° ½ ¾° –nf° €  €f° nfn¾° °  nf f¯€  n¾°¾  €  f°nf°–  ¾ ¯° –f°nf°f°¾€ ½ ¯ .

¾ €nf° ¾°½f¾ ¯½ ° ½  –nff°ff°¾ f¾ °°°–¯ ¾ ¾f°ff° – ¾  ¯ f°°–¾  ° ° ¾ ¯° f¾°f  €f°n °¾½½¾ f@ ff¾f ¾f€°¾°°¾ °¾  9fnnff nf¾ ¾f fn ½ ¯ .

 f°  fn°– ½ ¯ .

€ °¯ f°¾–°––  € n¾°°  f½  € f¾ f €° € ° ¾ @  f €¾   ¾   °ffnf¾ ¾nf½½ °° ½ ½ n¯½f° ¾€¯ €€  °¾f ¾ °f€f¯ ¯f ¾f n°fn¾ ¾–¾f.

nf–½fn°– ¾ f°  – °f€–   ¯¾ f.

f€°f¾ °¾ °f½ ¾f°°.¾¾¾¾½½ f- ° ¾½f½ ½ ¾ ¾f ¾¾f fI–°f – ° ¯f°%f°  – ° ¯f°½ € ¾f ¾½¾¾%   °f   ¾½ ¾€¾°f f f°  ° ¾f n¾ € €f¯ f ¾ ¾–¾° ¾.° ¾  nf  ¾¾  f ° °f€  9f¾f °f° ° ¾½f½ f  °f f9f °  f° °  ° ¯ nf° f¾¾nf°¾ €n f nf  nf¾  ½ ¯ .

  °  f f¾€ °f° f¾¾½½¾  f° ¾¯  f¾° ff°¾f n  ¾½¾°–€f ¾½   °fnf–f°f° f ¾ °€f° ¾f ¯– ° €f ¯  f° –  ¾f°– f f f f¾ °° .

°¾°fnf¾ ¾°°––f°¾€¯¯ ¾f ¾¯–   9f– €   .

 € fn¾ f° f°nf¾  ° € fn¾¯f  °f– ½ ½ ¯ .

  °n °f ¾½ – €f°–n f° –f¾f  ¾€ f° ¾€ ¾f n¾¾fff ¾ ¯ f° ° f–f €#°°–  ¾€n °¾½ # J ° ½ ¯ .

 f¾fnf¾ €¾° ¾¾ ¾f° ¾nf ¾fnn°n ½¾f¾#n°¾ f°# f° #n° ° –– °n #f°   ¾ ¾f¯ f f° °f¾  ¾f° n f°  –f½½¾ €°  ¾½ n€nf°¾  ½  ¯°¾¯ f–  #n°°–#– ° f½°n½  ¾½ f½¾°€f  f¯° © –  .

° ¾n € ¾ nf¾ ¾ ° €¾½fn  f   f¾¯½f°fn¯  €  .

  ¯ °¯¾€ ¾ nf¾ ¾  .

¾f° nf½½  f– f €¾° ¯f°– ° °– ° €@ ff¾f  °  ¾f n¾°½ ¾¾¯fnf¾ ¾ °  ¾   .

¾¯  ¾ °–f¾f f¾€ff½½ ¾°  ° ¾€nf¾ ¾fn¯  €  f°  ¾ °n ½fnnff ¾–°€nf°f° ½ n  n¾°¾ f ½ ¯ .

¾ f°¾ °  @ ¾ n° ° €nf¾ f –f fn ¾ .

¾ ° f° ¾¾¯  ¾½ f  ¯ f°°–€   °f¾€ D° f ¾ -¯–¾ ¯f.

°– ¾¾ nf¾°°– ¾    f¾  ¾  f  ¾  °n f° fnf°  f¾ °– ° ° ° ¾f ¾ n ¾€f n ° °  ½ ½ f f¾¯ f°   €¾nfn¾f ¾ ¾f ¾f ff¾ ½f¾  f ¾ °.

°– ¾¾ ¾f€  °  ¾   ¾  ¾€ f ¾ ¾ °f°–   ¯ f°°–€¯   f– °  °  f ¾ ¾f– f¾ f ¾  €  f € ¾° ¾ ¾€  ¾½  °f ¾fn f° ¯ff  ½ ¯ .

   ¾ n° –½€ f ¾f €¾–½€f ¾¯ f° °   ¾f  @  ¾ ¯   f° nfn f° f¾ €  fn½ €nf½ ¾ fn  ° °  ¾€f ¾f f½½ f f f¾f° f  f f½ € n½f°f°  €° ¯ f°°– nf°°   ¾ ff n°½f° ¾ff¾  ¾¯ f°¾¯ °– °  €€  ° @ ½ ¯ .

¾° n ½°  @  f¾ ¯ ¾f f n°€ .

f°n¯ f°  f °°–ff @  f¾ ¯   .

 f nf¾ € €€ .

fn   n°–f€½f€ n  nf °n°¾°f   ¾€ n¾ –° €€ nf°f ¯ f°  fn½½¾ €ffnf¾ ¾f °   f  ° n° ¾¾  f¯½ ¾€¯ f°°– ¯f°–°– ° .

f¾° f °#° ½ # ¾f ¾€  D° f ¾  °¾f°n  °.

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f°¾ ¾ ¯ ° €  fn¾f°¾f.

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-ff ¾f  ½ ¯ .

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#° ½ f°#€ °f¾ f   .

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¾ ¾ .

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f¾¾f .

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€ °–°n°¾°f @ .

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   ¾°  ¯f°¾  f°   f¾ .

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°– ¾¾f  ¯f .

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f° f¾¾ .

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°¾°fff¾f½½ ¾f ¾f ¾ f° f¾f  °  ½ ¯ .

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  €€ nf ¾f #f ¾   ½n ¾¾nf¾ €  °¯ ° ¯ ° # Jf fnn °–¾€€nf° ½     ¾  nf¾ ¯ f°"J °¾f ½f°€½½ °f ½f°€½½ "   f¾ °f¾ °¾ f ½f°€½½ f° ¾¯ ¾f f ¾f ½ € n  –f ° f¾¯½  f ¯½  –f¾¯ #  ½n ¾¾€f#" 9f– €   .

@ ½f°¾  ¾  ¾°¾ ½ ¯ .

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 €¯¾°–¾nn°n ½¾f¾  f¾¾€.

°¾°ff  ° – ¾.

€ f° f°– °  ½ ¯ f€ f°   ¾ ¾f¯  n¾ ½n¾€¾ ¯° ¾¾½ °f¾f–€fn f°  ¯ f°°– °°¾nf °°–  €¾° n¯ °¾° ¾¾°– n°¾ ff¯ ¯ € .

°n f ¾ff  ¾ ¾n ¾   °½f nf¾ €  °¯ ° ¯ ° @ ¾ f   ¾€ f ¾n ¯ ¾   #f ° f f  ½ ¾¾  ¯ f°f° f€ f    °n f¾°–¾n½ – °   °¯ ° ¯ °°n°– °f     n°¾°f–¾€ ¾f ¾ ¾  n¾°¾ °¾f° ¾ f f°¯  ¾ °f f°–€¾ –¾€ f½½ °¾ f¯f©€ ¾.

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 ¯ ° ¾¾–°€nf°n –°f¯ f°"¯f ¾f°°  ¾°–¾  @  °¯ ° ¯ °f¾° € f¯ ° ¯ °¾f  .

°¾°¾f€  .

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f¾    €¾.

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 n–°° °– f° f– – ° f½°n½ ¾€° °  ° .

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°¾°ffnf° ©¾f¾–nff°    f°°  f¾  @  f €°¾f°n f¾€ ½ ½ f ff ° ¾f°  ° .

°¾°½ n°–€ ¯€ ¾½ n € ¯€ ½ ¾¾ € ¯€ –° € ¯€f¾¾ ¯ f–f°¾°€°– ¯ °  ¾f ¾ @  ¾  €  °n  ¾ n  ¾°  .

°¾°¾° ¾¯ ° ¯ ° f ¾ ¯ ° ¯ °¾f¾€f#.

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 °¾ f €°–° .

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nf° ° °n ¾¾ €½fnnff.

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ff° °° ¾n¯°f°f° ¾ f¾½f– ¾  ½ n f–f°¾ .

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#¾½  f¾°€nf°–€ ff¾°n°¾°f¾  °¯ n¯½nf f° #   ½n ¾¾#–f– f°   °f fn  fn .

°¾°¾ € @ – ° f f¾f € f – °¯ °¯f° f°°–f .

°¾°  ¾°¾½ n€nf¾f¯f  @¾°°¾f¾ °°f¾#¾nn°¾n°#€ .

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@ n € f¾°¾¾f– °  ½ ¯ .

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– ¾€¾ f¾½ n°€#¾f ¾#–¾#¾ .

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°¾° f .

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°¾°% –°f.

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¯ f@¾.

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° €° f ½ ¯ .

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f¾ nf °–nf fff°f°  ° .

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¯f  fn°€ .

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 ––¾ ¾ ¯ ¾¾°–f° f ° f°¯ f° f°¾ €€ff°  f¾ ½°n  °  ¾€¾f ½ ¯ .

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f °#¾ €¾nf €€n ¾  °€ .f °°   °# °¾ ¯¾¾nfn ½ ° °f¾°€#¾ .#¾¾ ¯°n°¾ f°€ ½ €½½ .

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°¾°ff ¾°.

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°¾° ½ n –¾€ ° – ¾©¾f€  .

f °  9f– €   .Jf¯– f ¾½¾  f°f° @ f  f €  ° ¾f €n nff€° °    f¾€¯.

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