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AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION

by SI SI Fedcbipz
‘Transport” Press
Moscow, 1966

i

.

‘7.

.

I

N A T I O N A L A E R O N A U T I C S A N D SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

W A S H I N G T O N , D. C.

FEBRUARY 1 9 6 9

{

I

k

TECH LIBRARY KAFB,

NM

I111 111l0068952iltl1
llIWI 111H I1 ll l

AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION
By S. S. Fedchin

Translation of: "Samoletovozhdeniye . I t "Transport" Press, Moscow, 1966

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
. -- -_ - For sale by the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information Springfield, Virginia 22151 CFSTI price $3.00

-

TABLE OF CONTENTS

..................................................... INTRODUCTION ................................................. CHAPTER O N E . C O O R D I N A T E S Y S T E M S A N D ELEMENTS OF
AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION ........................................ 1. E l e m e n t s o f A i r c r a f t M o v e m e n t i n S p a c e ............... 2 . C o n c e p t s o f S t a b l e and U n s t a b l e F l i g h t
C o n d i t i o n s ........................................... 3 . Form a n d D i m e n s i o n s o f t h e E a r t h ..................... 4 . E l e m e n t s Which C o n n e c t t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e
w i t h T h r e e - D i m e n s i o n a l S p a c e ......................... 5 . C h a r t s . Maps. a n d C a r t o g r a p h i c P r o j e c t i o n s ........... D i s t o r t i o n s o f C a r t o g r a p h i c P r o j e c t i o n s ............ E Z Z i p s e o f D i s t o r t i o n s ........................... D i s t o r t i o n o f L e n g t h s ............................ D i s t o r t i o n of D i r e c t i o n s ......................... D i s t o r t i o n of A r e a s ..............................
ABSTRACT
Classification of Cartographic Projections

xi

xiii

1
1

4
7
9
12
14
14
15

. 2. 3. 4.
1

D i v i s i o n o f P r o j e c t i o n s by t h e Nature
of the Distortions
Isogonal or

Azimuthal

........................... ................ C e n t r a l p o l a r ( g n o m o n i c p r o j e c t i o n ) ................ E q u a l l y s p a c e d a z i m u t h a l ( c e n t . r a 1 ) p r o j e c t i o n ...... S t e r e o g r a p h i c p o l a r p r o j e c t i o n ..................... N o m e n c l a t u r e o f M a p s ...............................
International projection
(Perspective) Projections

................... ............................ N o r m a l ( e q u i v a l e n t ) c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n ......... S i m p l e e q u a l l y s p a c e d c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n ....... I s o g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n .................... I s o g o n a l o b l i q u e c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s ........... I s o g o n a l t r a n s v e r s e and c y l i n d r i c a l G a u s s i a n
p r o j e c t i o n ......................................... C o n i c P r o j e c t i o n s .................................. S i m p l e n o r m a l c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n ..................... I s o g o n a l c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n .......................... C o n v e r g e n c e a n g l e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s ................. P o l y c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s ..............................
Cylindrical Projections

E q u a l l y spaced o r e q u i d i s t a n t p r o j e c t i o n s Equally large or equivalent projections Arbitrary projections D i v i s i o n o f P r o j e c t i o n s According t o t h e
Method o f C o n s t r u c t i o n ( A c c o r d i n g t o t h e
A p p e a r a n c e o f t h e Normal G r i d )

......... ............................... c o n f o r m a l p r o j e c t i o n s ..............

16
17

1.8
18 18 19 19 20 20 20 20 22 23 24









...... ........ ..........................

25
27
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38
41

iii

I

.................. .............................................. O r t h o d r o m e o n t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e .................. O r t h o d r o m e o n T o p o g r a p h i c a l Maps o f D i f f e r e n t
P r o j e c t i o n s ........................................ L o x o d r o m e o n t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e ................... General Recommendations f o r M e a s u r i n g D i r e c t i o n s
a n d D i s t a n c e s ...................................... 7 . S p e c i a l C o o r d i n a t e S y s t e m s o n t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e .... O r t h o d r o m i c C o o r d i n a t e S y s t e m ...................... A r b i t r a r y (Ob1 i q u e a n d T r a n s v e r s e ) S p h e r i c a l a n d
P o l a r C o o r d i n a t e S y s t e m s ........................... P o s i t i o n L i n e s o f an A i r c r a f t on t h e E a r t h ' s
S u r f a c e ............................................ B i p o l a r A z i m u t h a l C o o r d i n a t e S y s t e m ................ G o n i o m e t r i c Range-Finding C o o r d i n a t e System ........ B i p o l a r Range-F ind ing ( C i r c u 1 a r ) C o o r d i n a t e
S y s t e m ............................................. L i n e s o f E q u a l A z i m u t h s ............................
6

.

Maps U s e d f o r A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n

42

M e a s u r i n g D i r e c t i o n s and D i s t a n c e s on t h e E a r t h ' s
Surface

45
45

55
60
65
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.................................. ............................................. 8 . E l e m e n t s o f A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n ...................... E l e m e n t s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e F l i g h t D i r e c t i o n .......... 1 . Assymetry o f the Engine T h r u s t o r A i r c r a f t
D r a g ( F i g . 1 . 5 9 ) ...............................

Difference-Range-Finding (Hyperbolic)
C o o r d i n a t e System Overall-Range-Finding ( E l l i p t i c a l ) Coordinate
System

.............................. ................................. . ......................................... . ............. ........................................ ......................... ........... Calculating F l i g h t A l t i t u d e i n Determining
D i s t a n c e s o n t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e ................... E l e m e n t s o f A i r c r a f t R o l l .......................... 1 . C o m b i n a t i o n o f R o l l w i t h ' a S t r a i g h t L i n e ....... 2 . C o m b i n a t i o n o f t w o r o l l s ....................... 3 . L i n e a r p r e d i c t i o n o f r o l l ( L P R ) ................ C H A P T E R TWO . A I R C R A F T N A V I G A T I O N U S I N G MISCELLANEOUS
D E V I C E S .................................................... 1. G e o t e c h n i c a 7 Means o f A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n ............ 2 . C o u r s e I n s t r u m e n t s a n d S y s t e m s .......................
iv

A l l o w a b l e L a t e r a l B a n k i n g o f an A i r c r a f t i n
Horizontal Flight C o r i o l i s Force 4 Two-dimensional F l u c t u a t i o n s i n the A i r c r a f t
Course 5 G l i d i n g D u r i n g Changes i n t h e L a t e r a l Wind Speed Component a t F l i g h t A l t i t u d e E l e m e n t s Which C h a r a c t e r i z e t h e F l i g h t Speed o f
an A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n a l Speed T r i a n g l e Elements Which D e t e r m i n e F l i g h t A l t i t u d e

. 3.
2

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Methods o f U s i n g t h e M a g n e t i c F i e l d o f t h e
Earth t o Determine D i r e c t i o n V a r i a t i o n s and O s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e E a r t h ' s
Magnetic F i e l d M a g n e t i c Compasses D e v i a t i o n o f M a g n e t i c Compasses a n d i t s
Compensation

.................................. ........................................ G y r o s c o p i c C o u r s e D e v i c e s .......................... P r 5 n c i p Ze of O p e r a t i o n of G y r o s c o p i c
I n s t r u m e n t s ...................................... Degree of Freedom of t h e G y r o s c o p e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D i r e c t i o n of P r e c e s s i o n of t h e G y r o s c o p e A x i s . . . .
............................. ...................... G y r o i n d u c t i o n Compass .............................. D e t a i l s o f D e v i a t i o n O p e r a t i o n s on D i s t a n c e
G y r o m a g n e t i c a n d G y r o i n d u c t i o n Compasses . . . . . . . . . . . Methods o f U s i n g Course Devices f o r Purposes
o f A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n ............................. Methods of U s i n g C o u r s e D e v i c e s Under C o n d i t i o n s
I n c l u d e d i n t h e F i r s t Group ...................... Methods of U s i n g C o u r s e D e v i c e s Under C o n d i t i o n s
of t h e S e c o n d Group .............................. Methods of U s i n g C o u r s e D e v i c e s Under t h e
C o n d i t i o n s of t h e T h i r d Group .................... 3 . B a r o m e t r i c A l t i m e t e r s ................................ Description o f a Barometric A l t i m e t e r .............. Errors i n Measuring A l t i t u d e w i t h a Barometric
A l t i m e t e r .......................................... 4 . A i r s p e e d I n d i c a t o r s .................................. E r r o r s i n M e a s u r i n g A i r s p e e d ....................... R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n E r r o r s i n Speed I n d i c a t o r s
a n d F l i g h t A l t i t u d e ................................
G y r o s c o p i c Semicompass D i s t a n c e G y r o m a g n e t i c Compass

Change i n D e v i a t i o n of M a g n e t i c Compasses a s a
F u n c t i o n o f t h e M a g n e t i c L a t i t u d e of t h e L o c u s
of t h e A i r c r a f t E Z i m i n a t i o n of D e v i a t i o n i n t h e M a g n e t i c
Compasses

....................... ..................................... ................................. ....................................... E q u a l i z i n g t h e M a g n e t i c F i e l d of t h e A i r c r a f t .... D e v i a t i o n FormuZas ............................... C a Z c u Z a t i o n of A p p r o x i m a t e D e v i a t i o n
C o e f f i c i e n t s .....................................

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A p p a r e n t R o t a t i o n of G y r o s c o p e A x i s on t h e
E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e ..................................

146 149 152 158

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. . 7. 8. 9.
5 6

Measurement o f t h e T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e O u t s i d e Air Aviation Clocks

A u t o m a t i c N a v i g a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t s ..................... P r a c t i c a l Methods o f A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n U s i n g
Geotechnical Devices

.... ...................................... S p e c i a l R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r A v i a t i o n C l o c k s ........... N a v i g a t i o n a l S i g h t s ..................................
.................................
V

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B

I

T a k e o f f of the A i r c r a f t at the S t a r t i n g Point
of the Route....................................... S e l e c t i n g t h e C o u r s e ' t o be F o l l o w e d for the
F l i g h t Route............ .Change i n Navigational Elements D u r i n g F l i g h t M e a s u r i n g the W i n d a t F l i g h t A l t i t u d e a n d
C a l c u l a t i n g Navigational Elements a t S u c c e s s i v e
Stages C a l c u l a t i o n o f the P a t h of the A i r c r a f t and
Monitoring Aircraft Navigation i n Terms of
D i s t a n c e s and Direction.. Use of A u t o m a t i c Navigational Devices for
C a l c u l a t i n g the A i r c r a f t P a t h a n d M e a s u r i n g
the W i n d P a r a m e t e r s Details of A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n U s i n g Geotechnical
M e t h o d s i n Various F l i g h t Conditions.....

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........................... ......

.............................................

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..........................

10. Calculating and Measuring Pilotage Instruments..

.... Purpose of Calculating a n d Measuring Pilotage
......................... Instruments............... Navigational S l i d e Rule N L - l O M . . . . .................

................................ ..........

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250

250
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CHAPTER THREE. AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION USING RADIO-ENGINEERING
DEVICES ....................................................

1.

2.

............................. ................................. ................................... ..................................... ..................................... Goniometric and G o n i o m e t r i c - R a n g e f i n d i n g Systems .... A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n U s i n g G r o u n - B a s e d Radio
Direction-Finders.................... ............. S e Z e c t i o n of t h e C o u r s e t o b e FoZZowed and
C o n t r o Z of F Z i g h t D i r e c t i o n ..................... P a t h C o n t r o l . i n Terms of D i s t a n c e and D e t e r ­
m i n a t i o n of t h e A i r c r a f t ' s L o c a t i o n ............. D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e Ground S p e e d , D r i f t AngZe,
and Wind ........................................ A u t o m a t i c A i r c r a f t Radio D i s t a n c e - F i n d e r s
( R a d i o c o m p a s s e s ) .................................. R a d i o c o m p a s s D e v i a t i o n . ......................... A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n U s i n g R a d i o c o m p a s s e s on
Board t h e A i r c r a f t ..............................
W a v e Polarization.... P r o p a g a t i o n of E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c O s c i l l a t i o n s i n
H o m o g e n e o u s Medi'a P r i n c i p l e s of S u p e r p o s i t i o n a n d I n t e r f e r e n c e
of Radio W a v e s . P r i n c i p l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of R a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l
Instruments.. O p e r a t i n g P r i n c i p l e s of R a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l
Instruments..

Principles o f the Theory o f Radionavigational Instruments .........................................

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S p e c i a l F e a t u r e s o f U s i n g Radiocompasses on
Board A i r c r a f t a t High A Z t i t u d e s and F Z i g h t
Speeds
vi

..........................................

292

........

.

U l t r a - S h o r t w a v e G o n i o m e t r i c and G o n i o m e t r i c Range F i n d i n g S y s t e m s

3.

................ ............................. D e t a i 2s of U s i n g G o n i o m e t r i c - R a n g e F i n d i n g
S y s t e m s a t D i f f e r e n t F Z i g h t A Z t i t u d e d ........... F a n - S h a p e d G o n i o m e t r i c R a d i o B e a c o n s ..............

D e t a i Z s of U s i n g R a d i o c o m p a s s e s i n Mak<ng
Maneuvers i n t h e V i c i n i t y of t h e A i r p o r t
a t W h i c h a L a n d i n g is t o b e Made

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'304
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318 320 320 325


Difference-Rangefinding (Hyperbolic) Navigational S y s t e m s ..............................................
O p e r a t i n g P r i n c i p l e s o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Range-
f i n d i n g Systems Navigational Applications of Differential-
R a n g e f i n d i n g Systems Methods o f Improving D i f f e r e n t i a l RAngefinding
N a v i g a t i o n a l Systems

................................... .............................. .............................. 4. Autonomous Radio-Navigational Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n a l R a d a r ....................... I n d i c a t o r s of A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n a l R a d a r s . . . . . . N a t u r e of t h e V i s i b i Z i t y of Landmarks o n t h e
S c r e e n of an A i r c r a f t Radar .....................
Use of A i r c r a f t Radar f o r P u r p o s e s of A i r ­
c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n and A v o i d a n c e of Dangerous
M e t e o r o Z o g i c a Z Phenomena ........................
Autonomous D o p p l e r M e t e r s f o r Ground Speed

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374 375 376 378 380 380 381





5.

Principles o f Combining Navigational Instruments . . . . .

S c h e m a t i c Diagram of t h e O p e r a t i o n of a
M e t e r w i t h C o n t i n u o u s R a d i a t i o n Regime . . . . . . . . . . Use of D o p p l e r M e t e r s f o r P u r p o s e s of
A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n ............................. P r e p a r a t i o n f o r F l i g h t and C o r r e c t i o n of E r r o r s i n A i r c r a f t Alavigation by Using D o p p l e r M e t e r s ..................................

.......................................

D r i f t Angle and

CHAPTER FOUR . DEVICES AND METHODS FOR MAKING AN
INSTRUMENT LANDING ......................................... S Y S T E M S F O R M A K I N G AN I N S T R U M E N T L A N D I N G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S i m p l i f i e d System f o r Making an Landing

Angle o f Slope f o r A i r c r a f t G l i d e T y p i c a l Maneuvers i n L a n d i n g an A i r c r a f t C a l c u l a t i o n o f Landing Approach Parameters
f o r a S i m p l i f i e d System

Marker D e v i c e s .................................. Low-AZtitude Radio A Z t i m e t e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G y r o h o r i z o n ..................................... V a r i o m e t e r ......................................

...........................................

Instrument

................. .......... ........................... C a Z c u Z a t i o n of C o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h e T i m e f o r
B e g i n n i n g t h e T h i r d T u r n ........................
vii

386
387

C a Z c u Z a t i o n of t h e C o r r e c t i o n for t h e Time
of S t a r t i n g t h e F o u r t h T u r n C a Z c u Z a t i o n of t h e Moment f o r B e g i n n i n g
Descent Along t h e Landing Course C a Z c u Z a t i o n o f t h e V e r t i c a l R a t e of D e s c e n t A l o n g t h e GZide P a t h D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e Lead AngZe for t h e
Landing Path
L a n d i n g t h e A i r c r a f t o n t h e Runway a n d F l i g h t along a Given T r a j e c t o r y w i t h a S i m p l i f i e d
L a n d i n g System C o u r s e - G l i d e L a n d i n g Systems

..................... ................ ............................ ....................................

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.................................... ...................... Ground ControZ of Course-GZide S y s t e m s . . . . . . . . . . A i r c r a f t - M o u n t e d Equipment f o r t h e Course-
GZide L a n d i n g S y s t e m ............................ ..........................................

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............................. .............................. CHAPTER F I V E . AVIATION ASTRONOMY ............................ 1. T h e C e l e s t i a l S p h e r e ................................. S p e c i a l P o i n t s . P l a n e s . and C i r c l e s i n t h e
C e l e s t i a l S p h e r e .................................. S y s t e m s o f C o o r d i n a t e s ............................ Apparent System o f Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E q u a t o r i a Z S y s t e m of C o o r d i n a t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G r a p h i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e C e l e s t i a l Sphere . . . . 2 . Diurnal Motion of the Stars ........................... Motion o f the Stars a t D i f f e r e n t Latitudes ........ R i s i n g and S e t t i n g . N e v e r - R i s i n g and
N e v e r - S e t t i n g S t a r s ............................... Motion o f Stars a t the Ter-restrial Poles .......... Motion o f Stars a t Middle Latitudes ............... M o t i o n o f S t a r s a t t h e E q u a t o r .................... C u l m i n a t i o n o f S t a r s .............................. ProbZems and E x e r c i s e s .......................... 3 . T h e M o t i o n o f t h e Sun ................................ T h e A n n u a l M o t i o n o f t h e Sun ...................... M o t i o n of t h e Sun AZong t h e E c Z i p t i c . . . . . . . . . . . . D i u r n a l M o t i o n o f t h e Sun ......................... The M o t i o n of t h e Sun a t t h e N o r t h PoZe . . . . . . . . . M o t i o n of t h e Sun b e t w e e n t h e N o r t h PoZe and
t h e A r c t i c C i r c Z e ...............................
Radar L a n d i n g Systems

L o c a t i o n and P a r a m e t e r s f o r R e g u Z a t i n g t h e
Equipment for t h e Course-GZide Landing
System L a n d i n g a n A i r c r a f t w i t h t h e Course-GZide
S y s t e m .......................................... D i r e c t i o n a Z P r o p e r t i e s of t h e L a n d i n g
S y s t e m A p p a r a t u s ................................ DirectionaZ Devices f o r Landing A i r c r a f t . . . . . . . .

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B r i n g i n g an A i r c r a f t In for a L a n d i n g
w i t h L a n d i n g Radar

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418 421 421 422 424 426 427

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M o t i o n of t h e Sun a b o v e t h e A r c t i c C i r c l e . . . . . . . M o t i o n of t h e S u n a t M i d d l e L a t i t u d e s . . . . . . . . . . . M o t i o n of t h e S u n a t t h e T e r r e s t r i a l
E q u a t o r ......................................... Motion of t h e Moon ...................................
I n t r i n s i c Motion of

441
441

442 442 442 443 443 445 445 446 446 446 44'7 448 449 449 451 453
454 455 457 458 459 461 467 469

D i r e c t i o n and R a t e of t h e Moon's M o t i o n . . . . . . . . . P h a s e s of t h e Moon ..............................

t h e Moon

......................

......................................... ............ 5 . Measurement o f Time .................................. E s s e n c e o f C a l c u l a t i n g T i m e ....................... S i d e r e a l T i m e ..................................... T r u e S o l a r T i m e ................................... Mean S o l a r T i m e ................................... L o c a l C i v i l T i m e .................................. G r e e n w i c h T i m e .................................... Z o n e T i m e . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . S t a n d a r d T i m e ..................................... R e l a t i o n B e t w e e n G r e e n w i c h , L o c a l and Zone
( S t a n d a r d ) Time ................................... M e a s u r i n g A n g l e s i n T i m e U n i t s .................... T i m e S i g n a l s ...................................... O r g a n i z a t i o n of T i m e S i g n a l s i n A v i a t i o n . . . . . . . . A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f Time Reckoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . Use o f A s t r o n o m i c a l Devices .......................... A s t r o n o m i c a l C o m p a s s e s ............................ A s t r o n o m i c a l S e x t a n t s .............................
C H A P T E R SIX

N a t u r e o f t h e M o t i o n o f t h e Moon a r o u n d
the Earth L o c a t i o n o f t h e Moon A b o v e t h e H o r i z o n

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A C C U R A C Y IN AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. 2. 3. 4.
1 5

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6

7.

8.

A c c u r a c y i n M e a s u r i n g N a v i g a t i o n a l E l e m e n t s and
i n A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n a s a Whole .................... Methods o f E v a l u a t i n g t h e A c c u r a c y o f A i r c r a f t
N a v i g a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . L i n e a r and Two-Dimensional P r o b l e m s o f
P r o b a b i l i t y T h e o r y ................................... C o m b i n a t i o n o f Methods o f M a t h e m a t i c a l A n a l y s i s
and M a t h e m a t i c a l S t a t i s t i c s i n E v a 7 u a t i n g t h e
Accuracy o f N a v i g a t i o n a l Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I n f l u e n c e o f t h e Geometry o f a N a v i g a t i o n a l
S y s t e m on t h e A c c u r a c y o f D e t e r m i n i n g A i r c r a f t
C o o r d i n a t e s .......................................... E v a l u a t i o n of t h e Accuracy of Measuring a
N a v i g a t i o n a l P a r a m e t e r ............................... C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e Wind w i t h an E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e
A c c u r a c y o f A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n ...................... Consideration o f the Polar F l a t t e n i n g of the Earth
i n t h e D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f D i r e c t i o n s and D i s t a n c e s
on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ...............................

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CHAPTER SEVEN
1 2. 3.

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4

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........................... G o a l s and P r o b l e m s o f F l i g h t P r e p a r a t i o n ............. P r e p a r i n g F l i g h t C h a r t s a n d Marking t h e Route . . . . . . . . S t u d y i n g t h e Route and C a l c u l a t i n g a S a f e
F l i g h t A l t i t u d e ...................................... S p e c i a l P r e p a r a t i o n of C h a r t s and A i d s f o r
Using V a r i o u s N a v i g a t i o n a l D e v i c e s i n F l i g h t ......... Calculating t h e Distance and Duration o f F l i g h t ......
FLIGHT PREPARATION
C a l c u l a t i n g t h e F u e l Scrpply f o r F l i g h t o n
A i r c r a f t w i t h L o w - A l t i t u d e P i s t o n Engines C a l c u l a t i n g t h e Fuel Supply f o r F l i g h t i n A i r ­
c r a f t w i t h H i g h - A l t i t u d e P i s t o n Engines C a l c u l a t i n g t h e F u e l Supply f o r F l i g h t on
A i r c r a f t w i t h Gas T u r b i n e E n g i n e s C a l c u l a t i n g t h e Greatest Distance of t h e A i r c r a f t ' s P o i n t o f Closest Approach t o a
Reserve A i r p o r t

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Pre-flight Preparation and Flight Calculation

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C H A P T E R EIGHT
1. 2

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G E N E R A L P R O C E D U R E F O R AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION

................................ .................. Descent and E n t r a n c e t o t h e Region o f t h e
L a n d i n g A i r p o r t b y a n A i r c r a f t .................... Maneuvering i n t h e V i c i n i t y o f t h e A i r p o r t a n d t h e L a n d i n g A p p r o a c h .......................... S u p p l e m e n t 1 .
C o m p o s i t e C h a r t o f T o p o g r a p h i c a l Maps . . . . . Supplement 2 .
S p h e r i c a l Trigonometry Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . S u p p l e m e n t 3 .
Map of t h e Heavens ........................ S u p p l e m e n t 4 .
Map o f Time Zones ......................... S u p p l e m e n t 5 .
T a b l e o f Greenwich Hour A n g l e s o f t h e
S u n and C h a r t o f T h e i r C o r r e c t i o n s f o r
t h e F l i g h t Date ........................... S u p p l e m e n t 6 .
T a b l e o f V a l u e s o f t h e F u n c t i o n @ (Z - a) . Supplement 7 .
Units o f t e n Encountered i n A i r c r a f t
N a v i g a t i o n and T h e i r V a l u e s ...............
Take-Off

.

G e n e r a l Methods of A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n a l o n g
A i r R o u t e s ........................................... S t a g e s i n E x e c u t i n g t h e F l i g h t ....................... E x e c u t i n g a F l i g h t Along a R o u t e
and Climb

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X

l a n d i n g m a n e u v e r i n g and l a n d i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t u n d e r compZex m e t e o r o Z o g i c a Z c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e day o r a t night are elucidated.e n g i n e e r i n g . r a d i o . The basic m a t e r i a l o f t h e b o o k . and a s t r o n o m i c a Z means of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a r e s e t f o r t h . I t can be used as a t e x t b o o k f o r s t u d e n t s of c i v i Z a v i a t i o n e d u c a t i o n a Z i n s t i t u t i o n s .T h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a t t h e modern ZeveZ o f a v i a t i o n t e c h ­ noZogy a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n t h i s b o o k . and t h e c a r r y i n g o u t of p r e . t h e m o s t i m ­ p o r t a n t p r a c t i c a Z probZems of t h e u t i Z i z a t i o n of g e n e r a Z . s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e p r a c t i c a Z m a s t e r y of t h e means and m e t h o d s of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . is p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e ap­ p Z i c a t i o n of m a t h e m a t i c s w i t h i n t h e Z i m i t s of a s e c o n d a r y schooZ c o u r s e . The p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a d e e p e r s t u d y of t h e m a t e r i a 2 a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s of p r i n c i p l e s of h i g h e r m a t h ­ ematics. t h e means of c a Z c u Z a t i n g t h e d i s t a n c e and d u r a t i o n of a f l i g h t . The book is i n t e n d e d f o r p i Z o t s and n a v i g a ­ t o r s . t h e p r o c e ­ d u r e of t h e p i Z o t ' s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f Z i g h t . ABSTRACT: xi .

.

The most s i m p l e d e v i c e s f o r measuring a i r s p e e d . and This s e v e r a l o t h e r f l i g h t p a r a m e t e r s w e r e i n s t a l l e d on a i r c r a f t . f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . A t t h e end o f t h e 2 0 ' s and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e ~ O ' S . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t w a s d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p a r i n g v i s ­ i b l e landmarks i n t h e area o v e r which t h e a i r c r a f t w a s f l y i n g . w e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t crew a n d t h e g r o u n d which are d i r e c t e d t o w a r d a c o n s t a n t knowledge l o c a t i o n and which e n s u r e s a f e and a c c u r a t e f l i as w e l l as a r r i v a l a t t h e p o i n t o f d e s t i n a t i o n a t an e s t a b l i s h e d t i m e . However. ) i n t h e a i r s p a c e above t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . a t t h i s t i m e t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l methods of aircraft navigation w a s already f e l t . d i r i g i b l e s . a i r ­ c r a f t d i d n o t h a v e e q u i p m e n t f o r p i l o t i n g when t h e n a t u r a l h o r i z o n w a s n o t v i s i b l e a n d f o r o r i e n t a t i o n when t h e g r o u n d w a s n o t v i s i b l e . By t h e p r o c e s s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . t h e y were t u r n and g l i d e i n d i c a t o r s which ( i n combination w i t h i n d i c a t o r s o f a i r s p e e d and v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y ) i n ­ d i c a t o r s ( v a r i o m e t e r s ) made i t p o s s i b l e t o j u d g e i n a r a t h e r p r i m i ­ t i v e way t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n s p a c e w h e n t h e n a t u r a l By m e a n s o f t h e s e d e v i c e s .I NT RO DU CT I ON A i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n or a e r i a l n a v i g a t i o n i s a s c i e n c e w h i c h s t u d i e s t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c a l methods of t h e safe n a v i g a t i o n o f a i r p l a n e s as w e l l as o t h e r a i r c r a f t ( h e l i c o p t e r s . t h e a i r c r a f t ' s c o u r s e . which a t t h i s t i m e r e l i a b l y ensured p i l o t a g e of a i r c r a f t w i t h a d e q u a t e s a f e t y when t h e g r o u n d w a s n o t v i s i b l e . of t h e aircraft's g h t along a set course a t a s e t a l t i t u d e and During t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d of t h e development of a v i a t i o n . mean t h e c o m p l e x o f traffic control. t h e a i r c r a f t horizon w a s not v i si b l e . e t c . more r e ­ f i n e d p i l o t a g e d e v i c e s were d e v e l o p e d : gyrohorizons and gyrosemi­ compasses. xiii J I . devices f o r automatic aircraft pilotage (automatic p i l o t s ) w e r e created. period s a w t h e appearance of t h e first navigator's c a l c u l a t i n g in­ s t r u m e n t s (wind-speed i n d i c a t o r s and n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e s ) . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1 9 2 0 ' ~t h e f i r s t h y d r o s c o p i c d e v i c e s ~ a p p e a r e d on a i r c r a f t . crews ( a f t e r s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g ) were a l r e a d y a b l e t o c a r r y o u t f l i g h t s i n t h e clouds and above t h e clouds. L a t e r . on t h e basis of these devices. w i t h t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o n a map. s o t h a t v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n w a s t h e b a s i c method o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a ­ tion.

A c h i e v e m e n t s i n t h e a r e a o f p i l o t i n g a i r c r a f t when t h e E a r t h w a s n o t v i s i b l e . by means o f w h i c h d i r e c t i o n w a s d e t e r m i n e d i n a n a i r c r a f t .n a v i g a t i o n l a n d i n g s y s t e m s became w i d e ­ spread. a l l o f w h i c h w e r e l a t e r u s e d f o r some t i m e a s c o n s t a n t s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p'ath o f an a i r c r a f t accordring t o f l i g h t t i m e and direction. E s s e n t i a l l y . t h e b a s i c means o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n a i r c r a f t w i t h p i s t o n e n g i n e s . Another a s p e c t o f t h e development of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a t t h i s time w a s astronomical o r i e n t a t i o n . A v e r y i m p o r t a n t s t a g e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f means o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n o f t h e m i d .d i s t a n c e n a v i g a t i o n of a d i f ­ f e r e n t k i n d a s w e l l a s r a d i o . There xiv ­ /5 . A t t h e same t i m e . a s w e l l as t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t a l o n g two i n t e r s e c t i n g d i ­ rections.3 0 ' s was t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a i r c r a f t r a d i o ­ goniometers ( r a d i o s e m i c o m p a s s e s ) . a l t i t u d e . a f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n of which were t h e a u t o m a t i c a i r c r a f t radiocompasses. a l t i t u d e . and d i s t a n c e o f a i r c r a f t f l i g h t s . t h e s e were n o t autonomous means o f a e r i a l n a v i g a t i o n b u t systems which i n c l u d e d b o t h ground-based f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e . R a d i c a l c h a n g e s i n t h e a r e a o f means a n d m e t h o d s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n o c c u r r e d (and a r e o c c u r r i n g a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e ) i n con­ n e c t i o n with t h e development of j e t a v i a t i o n technology. r a d i o e n g i n e e r i n g s y s t e m s o f l o n g a n d s h o r t . D u r i n g W o r l d War I1 a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p o s t w a r y e a r s . f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n and d r i f t a n g l e o f t h e a i r c r a f t were meas­ u r e d . by means of w h i c h ( d u r i n g v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e r r e s t r i a l l a n d m a r k s ) t h e g r o u n d ­ s p e e d .s e c u r i t y of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n and a i r c r a f t equipment. r e q u i r e d t h e c r e a t i o n of means t o e n s u r e a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e v i s i b i l i t y of t e r r e s t r i a l landmarks. Ground r a d i o g o n i o m e t e r s a l s o a p p e a r e d . o p t i c a l s i g h t i n g d e v i c e s w e r e u s e d . I n t h e m i d . Radiosemicompasses and r a d i o c o m p a s s e s w e r e . zone r a d i o beacons which allowed t h e a i r ­ c r a f t ' s f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n t o be maintained along a narrowly d i r e c t e d r a d i a l l i n e which c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e s t r a i g h t p a r t o f an a e r i a l r o u t e began t o appear.3 0 ' ~ d e v i c e s ap­ ~ p e a r e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o u r s e o f an a i r c r a f t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e heavenly bodies. During t h e s e y e a r s . The s h a r p l y g r o w i n g s p e e d . To determine the location o f a n a i r c r a f t . Magnetic course d e v i c e s and non-automatic r a d i o navig a t i o n a l systems were of l i t t l e use f o r e n s u r i n g t h e automation of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n and t h e p i l o t i n g of high-speed aircraft. v a r i o u s s e x t a n t s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d a n d s p e c i a l com­ p u t a t i o n t a b l e s a n d g r a p h s o f t h e movement o f h e a v e n l y b o d i e s w e r e compiled f o r use w i t h t h e s e x t a n t s . f o r a p e r i o d o f more t h a n 2 0 y e a r s . a s w e l l as t h e g r o w t h by t h a t t i m e o f t h e s p e e d . a n d d i s t a n c e o f f l i g h t s h a v e r e q u i r e d a u t o m a t i o n o f t h e most l a b o r i o u s p r o c e s s e s o f a i r c r a f t navigation.

G r o m o v . K . M . A . aerodynamics. F u r t h e r n o n s t o p f l i g h t s by S o v i e t a v i a t o r s . o r g a n i z e d from 1 9 3 6 . 0 . a 2 5 aircraft navigation. M . K u n i t s k i y . The s c i e n c e o f " a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n " grew and d e v e l o p e d a l o n g w i t h t h e development o f a v i a t i o n and n a v i g a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . Bely­ a k o v . S. A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . r a d i o engineering. A . T . V. S . as 1 as f l i g h t s t o t h e A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c . A l a r g e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s c i e n c e o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n was made b y t h e f o l l o w i n g S o v i e t n a v i g a t o r s a n d s c i e n t i s t s : B. P o p o v were t h e b a s i s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n t h e o r y . F. B . L o m o n o s o v . G . a n d V . S t e r l i g o v . mathematics.1 9 3 9 (V. w e r e l i k e a g r e a t s c h o o l . G r o m o v ) . a i r c r a f t navigation s c i e n c e has been d i s ­ g u i s h e d as an i n d e p e n d e n t and o r d e r l y s c i e n c e i n which t h e i e v e m e n t s o f a number o f t h e g e n e r a l and s p e c i a l b r a n c h e s o f wledge a r e employed: p h y s i c s . Z h u k o v s k i y . t h e s c i e n c e of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n under­ . The s u c c e s s e s a c h i e v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a ­ t i o n a s a s c i e n c e made i t p o s s i b l e . i n w h i c h t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s were t h e s u c c e s s e s a c h i e v e d b y S o v i e t s c i e n t i s t s i n t h e m c . P . P o l y a k . autonomous s p e e d and f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n meters. F r i d l e n d e r . S e r g e y e v . S h e s t a k o v ) . C h k a l o v . etc. V . R a t s . r a d i o e l e c t r o n i c s . >hysics. V. e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e f i e l d of long-distance aviation. M o l o k a n o v . t o a c c o m p l i s h l o n g f l i g h t s by S o v i e t a i r c r a f t a l o n g t h e r o u t e s : Moscow-Peking ( M . with t h e carrying out of long-distance night flights. a r i c h s t o r e o f experience w a s a c c u m u l a t e d and f u r t h e r improvements i n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n methods were c a r r i e d o u t . A . V . L o n g . G . During t h i s period. e t a l . K .ent an e s p e c i a l l y v i g o r o u s development i n c o n n e c t i o n with t h e ap­ e a r a n c e o f h i g h . a r e becoming r o u t i n e 1 r c i v i l a v i a t i o n crews.d i s t a n c e f l i g h t s of h i g h . I . e v e n i n 1 9 2 5 .s p e e d a i r c r a f t a l o n g a e r i a l l u t e s which i n c l u d e i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r c o n t i n e n t a l f l i g h t s . I n t h e postwar p e r i o d . astronomy. Yu. V . E . and a l s o i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h he g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e r a d i o and e l e c t r o n i c s i n d u s t r y . K o k k i n a k i ) b o t h o v e r t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e S o v i e t Union and e s p e c i a l l y o v e r t h e N o r t h P o l e t o t h e USA. The works o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g R u s s i a n s c i e n t i s t s and i n v e n t o r s . Ye. W o r l d War I1 w a s a v e r i f i c a t i o n o f a l l t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s i n t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . G . S p i r i n . F r e n k e l ' . Moscow-Tokyo a n d Moscow-New Y o r k ( S . T s i o l k o v s k i y . M .1 9 2 9 . R . G. M . D a n i l i n .s p e e d j e t a i r c r a f t . S . . and s t r i c t e r c o n s i d e r ­ a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t ' s f l i g h t ' d y n a m i c s t o e n s u r e t h e r a p i d a n d ac­ c u r a t e s o l u t i o n o f n a v i g a t i o n a l problems by c o m p u t e r s . N . P . geodesy.arose a n e c e s s i t y f o r developing highly s t a b l e gyroscopic compasses. L . a n d A .

l a n d i n g beam s y s t e m s w i t h t h e i r ground and a i r c r a f t e q u i p m e n t . i n e r t i a l i n d i c a t o r s . etc. G e o t e c h n i c a Z means of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . or d u r i n g t a k e . course systems. A t t h e h e a r t o f a s a f e and a c c u r a t e f l i g h t a c c o r d i n g t o a s e t r o u t e . R a d i o . barometric altimeters. a i r c r a f t a n d g r o u n d f a c i l i t i e s for a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a r e ' c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g p e r f e c t e d and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and n a v i g a t i o n a l p r e p a r a ­ t i o n o f f l i g h t and ground p e r s o n n e l h a s improved. mechanical clocks. exter­ n a l a i r thermometers. ground and a i r c r a f t r a d a r . b o t h g r o u n d f a c i l i t i e s and those aboard t h e a i r c r a f t . i t s accu­ r a c y . Doppler m e t e r s a n d s y s t e m s . r a n g e f i n d i n g systems. and i t s c h i e f c r i t e r i o n . 4. A s t r o n o m i c a l ( r a d i o a s t r o n o m i c a l ) means of a i r c r a f t n a v i ­ g a t i o n .e l e c t r o n i c t e c h n o l o g y . gyromagnetic and g y r o i n d u c t i o n t e l e c o m p a s s e s .o f f a n d l a n d ­ ing. and r a d i o bea­ cons w i t h a i r c r a f t r e c e i v i n g r a d i o equipment). 3. g o n i o m e t e r .r a n g e f i n d i n g s y s t e m s . various pyrotechnic devices.l i g h t equipment f o r t a k e ­ o f f and l a n d i n g s t r i p s as w e l l as a i r c r a f t . c o u r s e . gyroscopic n a v i g a t i o n and p i l o t i n g d e v i c e s . airspeed indicators. e t c . A l l t h i s has r a d i c a l l y r a i s e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f aircraft n a v i g a t i o n . i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e a i r p o r t . e t c . 1. navigation i n d i c a t o r s . w h i c h a r e b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f u s i n g l i g h t e n e r g y r a d i a t i o n . . r a d i o a l t i m e t e r s . s a f e t y . w h i c h a r e b a s e d on t h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e o f r a d i o . astronomical o r i e n t a t o r s .t r a n s m i t t i n g r a d i o s t a t i o n s .e n g i n e e r i n g systems ( r a d i o compasses w i t h ground t r a n s m i t t i n g r a d i o s t a t i o n s .Navigation technology is developing at a rapid pace. They i n c l u d e : magnetic compasses. astrocompasses. These i n c l u d e goniometer r a d i o . w h i c h a r e b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f m e a s u r i n g d i f f e r e n t p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e E a r t h ' s fields. e t c . 2. lies t h e p r i n c i p l e of t h e o v e r a l l usage of a l l t h e available t e c h n i c a l means o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . Modern t e c h n i c a l means o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a r e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r b a s i c groups according t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f o p e r a t i o n . ground radiogoniometers w i t h a i r c r a f t r e c e i v i n g . These i n c l u d e a v i a t i o n s e x t a n t s . These i n ­ c l u d e ground l i g h t beams. L i g h t e n g i n e e r i n g means of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . l i g h t and p u l s e .e n g i n e e r i n g means of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . e n c l o s u r e s f o r t h e l i g h t ­ i n g equipment of t h e r o u t e s and a i r p o r t s (housings f o r ground i n ­ s t a l l a t i o n s ) . w h i c h a r e b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f m e a s u r i n g t h e m o t i o n ' /6 parameters of heavenly bodies.

A successful solution t o these p r o b l e m s d e p e n d s on c o n s t a n t a n d a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e position of t h e craft r e l a t i v e t o a given f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y . F i g . R e c t a n g u l a r Coordinate System on t h e Earth's Surface. any given by t a k i n g surface. and c a l l it t h e Z a x i s . f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y of an aircraft i s c u r v i l i n e a r . Elements o f Aircraft Movement in Space The f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n a l l s t a g e s o f f l i g h t i s m a i n t a i n i n g a g i v e n t r a j e c t o r y o f a i r c r a f t movement i n a l t i t u d e .t. a t p o i n t 0 1 o n t h e E a r t h ' s surface.1. . can be L e t us e r e c t a perpendicular 01Y from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s m a l l area which w e have chosen and c o n t i n u e it u n t i l it i n t e r s e c t s the center of the Earth. A s a r e s u l t of t h e c u r v a t u r e of t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . ~~ . 1.NASA T T F-524 C H A P T E R O. d i r e c t i o n a n d t i m e by means o f a complex u t i l i z a t i o n o f n a v i g a t i o n a l means a n d m e t h o d s . However. perpendicular t o t h e f i r s t .. which w e can c a l l t h e v e r t i c a z of t h e Z o c u s . ~- T h u s .1). i n t o account t h e l a r g e r a d i u s of curvature of t h e Earth's a s m a l l a r e a c a n a l w a y s b e d e l i n e a t e d on i t whose s u r f a c e a s s u m e d t o b e p l a n e ( F i g . Obviously. -. Y. 1. __ . l e t u s draw a s t r a i g h t l i n e t h r o u g h t h e p o i n t 01 a n d t a k e i t a s t h e X a x i s . w e w i l l o b t a i n a r e c t a n g u l a r system of space coordinates X. and t h e a c t i o n s of t h e c r e w . t h e n a t u r e of t h e a i r c r a f t movement. t h e n l e t u s draw a n o t h e r s t r a i g h t l i n e t h r o u g h t h e p o i n t 01 i n t h e plane of t h e area. 1 .NE COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND ELEMENTS O F A I R C R A F T N A V I G A T I O N 1. - . I n t h e p l a n e o f t h e s m a l l area which w e have c h o s e n . t h i s w i l l be a p e r p e n d i c u l a r l i n e . Z. Numbers i n t h e m a r g i n i n d i c a t e p a g i n a t i o n i n t h e f o r e i g n t e x t .

(b) Position of the longitu­ d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h e v e r t i c a l p l a n e ( a n g l e of p i t c h o f the a i r c r a f t ) .c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s i s a s s u m e d t o b e t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e o r i g i n o f t h e g l i d i n g s y s t e m . ( g ) A n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f a i r c r a f t roll. The p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n s u r f a c e . In t h i s coordinate system. To a n a l y z e t h e e l e m e n t s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . ( e ) V e r t i c a l s p e e d ( a l t i t u d e g a i n and loss). l e t u s combine t h e X a x i s of t h e gliding-coordinate system with a given f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y of the aircraft. Dip Angle of t h e T r a j e c t o r y of A l t i t u d e Gain. ( c > Position of t h e l a t e r a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h e ver­ t i c a l plane (lateral banking). t h e f o l l o w i n g elements can be d i s t i n ­ guished: 44 F i g . (a) P o s i t i o n o f t h e l o n g i t u ­ d i n a l axis of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h e horizontal plane (aircraft course). Since t h e o r i g i n of t h i s system is b e i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y s h i f t e d . However.c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s . or t h e w i n d v e c t o r a n d i t s d i r e c t i o n ( w i n d s p e e d and d i r e c t i o n ) . 1 . ( f ) C o m p o n e n t f l i g h t s p e e d a l o n g t h e X a n d Z a x e s or t h e v e c ­ t o r o f g r o u n d s p e e d a n d i t s d i r e c t i o n ( g r o u n d s p e e d and f l i g h t a n g l e ) . 2 . l e t u s d e s i g n a t e it as a g l i d i n g r e c ­ ­ /8 t a n g u l a r s y s t e m of c o o r d i n a t e s .The t r a v e l of a n a i r c r a f t o v e r t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w i l l i n ­ v o l v e b o t h a s h i f t i n t h e p o i n t 01 ( o r i g i n o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s ) a n d t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e axes o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e system around t h e c e n t e r of t h e E a r t h ( p o i n t 0 ) . t h e most widely used of which a r e t h e g e o g r a p h i c s y s t e m a n d t h e r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m whose m a j o r a x i s c o i n c i d e s w i t h a g i v e n f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . I n o r d e r t o keep t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h e r e c t i l i n e a r h o r i z o n t a l 2 . ( h ) Component wind speed along t h e X and Z axes of t h e system. ( d ) D i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e v e r t i c a l from t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ( t h e a r e a w h i c h we h a v e c h o s e n ) t o t h e a i r c r a f t ( f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ) . . t h e s y s t e m o f c o o r d i n a t e s which w e have o b t a i n e d can b e u s e d for d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e a i r c r a f t a x e s a n d t h e component f l i g h t s p e e d v e c t o r s . U s u a l l y t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e c r a f t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s t r e a t e d i n s u r f a c e .

X I . 1 . t h e r e w i l l be no l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n ( t o t h e r i g h t or l e f t ) . a given f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y is maintained a t a constant value of t h e v e r t i c a l velocity vy*v. . i f we n e g l e c t t h e c u r v a t u r e o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y . e . . t h e v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y Vy a n d t h e l a t e r a l component o f t h e v e l o c i t y V z .1) i n t o a c c o u n t . i . t h e c r e w m u s t h o l d t h i s t r a j e c t o r y b y m a i n t a i n i n g t h e /9 v e r t i c a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l f l i g h t v e l o c i t i e s ( V y and Vx>.1) where 0 i s t h e d i p a n g l e of t h e f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y . When t h e a i r c r a f t t r a v e l s f r o m t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t X I t o t h e mov­ i n g p o i n t X . e . 2 ) . we may a s s u m e - (1. t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s changed by t h e v a l u e AH= (. w i l l b e equal t o z e r o . and t h e l o n g i ­ t u d i n a l f l i g h t v e l o c i t y Vx ( a l o n g t h e X a x i s ) w i l l b e a s g i v e n . a t a constant dip angle of t h e f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y . t h e l a t t e r w i l l have a c u r v a t u r e i n t h e v e r t i c a l p l a n e j u s t as i n horizontal flight.-X. 3 . X- (1. H I . T h e r e f o r e .2) and t h e v a l u e o f t h e moving f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s or i f we t a k e F o r m u l a (1. Translator's note: tg = tan.segment o f t h i s t r a j e c t o r y .5) C h e c k i n g of t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t a t g i v e n v a l u e s o f the varying f l i g h t a l t i t u d e is carried out only at specific points on t h e s l o p i n g t r a j e c t o r y . Since the a l t i t u d e during a sloping trajectory i s a variable value. (1. X 2 a r e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o i n t s o f t h e s l o p i n g segment o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y . H2 r e p r e s e n t a g i v e n a l t i t u d e a t t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o i n t s . . m a i n t a i n a given d i p a n g l e of t h e t r a j e c t o r y 0 ( F i g . XI) tg 8. t h e crew must m a i n t a i n a f l i g h t c o n d i ­ t i o n i n which t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l n o t be s h i f t e d a l o n g t h e v e r t i c a l ( a l t i t u d e g a i n and l o s s ) .tgeo'r v -v y- H2-Hl X. If t h e f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y i s i n c l i n e d ( s e g m e n t s o f a l t i t u d e g a i n a n d loss). Obviously. i .

s o t h a t t h e f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n becomes v a r i ­ a b l e and can be r e p l a c e d by a p a r a m e t e r which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e c u r v a t u r e o f t h e roll t r a j e c t o r y t h r o u g h t h e r a d i u s o f roll or t h e angular velocity.0. t h e y a r e s e l e c t e d i n s u c h a way a s t o e n s u r e r e t a i n i n g t h e given f l i g h t t r a j e c t o r y r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h l s surface. f o r t h e f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n parameter a l t i t u d e parameter (HI: +=consf. c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e a i r s p a c e a l s o s h i f t s . and a l t i t u d e . a n d /10 ~~~ roll. dt2 Analogously.t . f o u r main f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d : h o r i z o n t a l r e c t i l i n e a r f l i g h t . The m a i n s i g n o f a s t a b l e f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n i s t h e e q u a l i t y t o zero of t h e first derivative of t h e given parameter with time d2S or o f t h e s e c o n d d e r i v a t i v e p a t h w i t h t i m e - () g d. H o r i z o n t a l r e c t i l i n e a r f l i g h t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t w o c o n s t a n t parameters: h e i g h t and f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n . For e x a m p l e . dd. ( 9 ) and t h e i f -. The m o t i o n p a r a m e t e r s o f a n a i r c r a f t a r e u s u a l l y m e a s u r e d r e l ­ ative t o airspace. and unstable i f i t s parameters a r e v a r i a b l e . dt 4 .. f o r t h e v e l o c i t y p a r a m e t e r V = c o n s t . a n d v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y or d i p a n g l e o f t h e t r aj e c to r y .2. s i n c e t h e r e a r e always f a c t o r s changing t h e a i r c r a f t ' s motion parameters. a l t i t u d e loss.l ­ dt H=const. B a s e d on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t r a j e c t o r y a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . s t r i c t l y s p e a k ­ i n g . dH i f --.0. F l i g h t p r a c t i c e shows t h a t f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . A l t i t u d e g a i n and l o s s c o n d i t i o n s e a c h have two c o n s t a n t param­ eters: f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n . speed.. The c o n d i t i o n o f roll i s a l w a y s c o m b i n e d w i t h o n e o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . However. a l t i t u d e g a i n .0 . Concepts o f S t a b l e and U n s t a b l e F l i g h t C o n d i t i o n s A n a v i g a t i o n a l f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e m o t i o n p a r a m e t e r s o f a n a i r c r a f t a l o n g a t r a j e c t o r y or b y n a v i g a t i o n a l elements of f l i g h t : course. A f l i g h t condition is s t a b l e i f i t s p a r a m e t e r s a c q u i r e c o n s t a n t v a l u e s . a r e n e v e r f i x e d f o r any p r o l o n g e d t i m e . i f -dv df -0 dzS or .

For example. S i s t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a o f t h e m i d s h i p s e c t i o n . w e know t h a t i n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t a t a v e . A stable f l i g h t condition based on a given parameter e x i s t s o n l y a t t h e extreme p o i n t s . 1 .I f f o r c e s a r i s e d u r i n g f l i g h t w h i c h c h a n g e t h e a i r c r a f t ' s mo­ t i o n parameters. t h e r e a r i s e s a d i s t u r b ­ i n g f o r c e which changes t h e f l i g h t v e l o c i t y .3). From a e r o d y n a m i c s . t h e p o i n t s of a s t a b l e condition are d e s i g n a t e d b y o n e l i n e . e . With a d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m . " 2 ' which c a u s e s an i n i t i a l a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t dV -=­ dt AP m ' where m i s t h e m a s s of t h e a i r c r a f t i n kg. l o c i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y less than t h e speed of sound. s i n c e t h e first d e r i v a t i v e p a r a m e t e r s b a s e d on t i m e a t these points are equal t o zero while t h e d i s t u r b i n g f o r c e s are absent. i . when t h e s e c o n d d e r i v a t i v e p a ­ r a m e t e r s b a s e d on t i m e a r e e q u a l t o On a c u r v e c o n ­ zero (Fig. and p i s t h e a i r d e n s i t y a t flight altitude. . 3 . t h e drag of an aircraft i n a counterflow is /11 - w h e r e ex i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f d r a g o f t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e extreme v a l u e s o f t h e motion parameters ( ? . structed f o r the velocity parameter. . 5 . 1. e . The d i s t u r b i n g f o r c e s a c q u i r e a maximum v a l u e a t p o i n t s o f i n f l e c t i o n . I t i s obvious t h a t t h e a i r s p e e d w i l l be s t a b l e i f t h e t h r u s t o f t h e e n g i n e s ( P ) i s e q u a l t o t h e d r a g o f t h e a i r c r a f t P = Qx. F i g . w h i l e p o i n t s of maximum d i s t u r b i n g f o r c e s a r e d e s i g n a t e d by two l i n e s . w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e t h r u s t of t h e engines t h e d i s t u r b i n g f o r c e w i l l be equal t o : AP=P'-c~ p. t h e p o i n t s o f t h e maxima a n d m i n i m a o n t h e c u r v e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e change o f t h e g i v e n p a r a m e t e r w i t h t i m e ) i n d i c a t e e q u i l i b r i u m of these forces. Graph o f t h e Changes o f a N a v i g a t i o n a l P a r a m e t e r and P o i n t s w i t h a Stable Flight Condition.

i t s l i f t (Y) i s d i r e c t e d n o t a l o n g t h e v e r t i c a l p l a n e b u t a l o n g t-he a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . S. From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f m a i n t a i n i n g f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n . D u r i n g b a n k i n g o f a n a i r c r a f t . during navigational c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r each parameter. a l a t e r a l p r e s s u r e on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e a i r c r a f t a r i s e s : w h e r e c z i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f l a t e r a l d r a g o f t h e a i r c r a f t .he t a n g e n t t o t h e t r a j e c t o r y o f i t s m o v e m e n t . e . t h e airspeed diminishes. mean v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y . . Changes i n a i r s p e e d which a r e a n a l o g o u s i n n a t u r e a r i s e d u r i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h e h e a d w i n d or t h e i n c i d e n t a i r f l o w a t flight altitude. i s t h e l a t e r a l v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t e q u a l t o uz. ? . The i n i t i a l l a t e r a l a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s : Subsequently. mean d i ­ rection. e . i t s mean v a l u e f o r a d e f i n i t e l e n g t h o f t i m e i s c a l l e d a s t a b l e flight condition: mean v e l o c i t y . t h e f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n w i l l approach a c o n d i t i o n which i s s t a b l e in direction. i . This provides a surplus of engine t h r u s t . t h e v e l o c i t y v e r y s l o w l y ap­ proaches a s t a b l e value logarithmically. with an increase i n v e l o c i t y . For e x a m p l e . T h e v a l u e of t h i s d r a g w i l l a p p r o a c h t h e v a l u e of t h e t h r u s t o f t h e e n g i n e s . e . w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h e incident airflow. etc. 1 . which i s d e f l e c t e d from it ( F i g . The r o l l i n g o f a n a i r c r a f t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e c o o r d i n a t e d i f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t c o n s t a n t l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h t. . t h e r o l l c o n d i t i o n i s a l s o e x a m i n e d a s s t a b l e or u n s t a b l e . . an increase i n airspeed occurs logarithmically. If t h e l a t e r a l component o f t h e wind s p e e d c h a n g e s . i s t h e c r o s s . i . T h e e n t r a n c e or e x i t o f a n a i r c r a f t f r o m roll. t h e drag of t h e aircraft w i l l also increase. Y .s e c t i o n a l a r e a o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h e XY p l a n e . a s w e l l a s roll w i t h v a r i a b l e b a n k i n g . a i r ­ craft r o l l is an u n s t a b l e condition. d e r o f t h e a i r c r a f t f o r b a n k i n g i n a roll. the lateral velocity of t h e aircraft w i l l log­ a r i t h m i c a l l y a p p r o a c h t h e l a t e r a l component o f t h e wind v e l o c i t y . e x t e r n a l or i n t e r ­ T h i s i s a c h i e v e d by t i l t i n g t h e r u d ­ n a l a i r c r a f t glide is absent. If a g i v e n t r a j e c t o r y i s c u r v ­ i l i n e a r . 4 ) . c a n s e r v e a s e x a m p l e s o f u n s t a b l e roll c o n d i t i o n s . Usually.L a t e r . Subsequently. ­ /12 6 .

and R i s t h e r a d i u s o f t h e co­ o r d i n a t e d roll. F.4. and t h e y a r e used i n c a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e r a d i u s and p a t h o f t h e a i r ­ craft along a curvilinear f l i g h t trajectory. 3. a g l o b e w i t h a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h ' s sur­ f a c e t h a t s a t i s f i e s t h e demands o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n would b e s o l a r g e t h a t i t s u s e i n f l i g h t would be i m p o s s i b l e . which i s curved i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . w h e r e f3 craft. taking i n t o account t h a t m = - 9 . on a p l a n e ( s h e e t s of p a p e r ) are used. I n t h i s case. i. t h e h o r i z o n t a l ( c e n t r i p ­ e t a l ) component o f t h e l i f t i s : Yr=Gtg8. 7 . it i s necessary first of a l l t o d e a l w i t h d i s t a n c e s a n d d i r e c t i o n s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e which are t h e r e s u l t o f t h e mutual d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o b j e c t s through which t h e f l i g h t p a t h p a s s e s . dif­ f e r e n t means o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e E a r t h . 6 ) r e l a t e t h e r a d i u s o f s t a b l e c o o r d i n a t e d roll o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h t h e a i r s p e e d and a l s o w i t h banking i n r o l l i n g . is t h e banking angle of t h e air­ Since w e a r e examining a c o o r d i n a t e r o l l (without gliding of the aircraft). Therefore. where m i s t h e m a s s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . 1. H o w e v e r . i t s r e l i e f a n d m u t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o b ­ j e c t s c a n b e m o s t a c c u r a t e l y e x p r e s s e d on a m o d e l o f t h e E a r t h ( a globe).. G Transforming t h i s equation. The E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .e. w e w i l l o b t a i n formulas f o r d e t e r m i n i n g b o t h t h e r a d i u s and p a t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h c o o r d i n a t e d roll: F o r m u l a s ( 1 .R o l l i n g o f an a i r c r a f t w i t h o u t d e s c e n t o r w i t h s t a b l e v e r t i c a l v e l o c i t y i s p o s s i b l e o n l y when t h e v e r t i c a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e l i f t ( Y 1 ) i s e q u a l t o t h e w e i g h t of t h e a i r c r a f t G. t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e i n t h e roll Fig. Form and D i m e n s i o n s o f t h e E a r t h /3 1 I n t h e p r a c t i c e of aircraft navigation.=R m V2 w i l l be e q u a l t o t h e c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e . Resolution of Forces During R o l l i n g of an A i r ­ craft.

ion. 3 5 6 . e q u i v a l e n t i n volume t o t h e E a r t h ' s e l l i p s o i d . t h e f o r m c l o s e s t t o a g e o i d . 3 7 8 . i t i s t a k e n as a t r u e s p h e r e . w h i c h coincides with t h e a x i s of t h e E a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n . t h e m a j o r s e m i a x i s o f t h i s e l l i p s o i d ( a ) . 5 . The f l a t t e n i n g o f t h e E a r t h a t t h e p o l e s i s e = . i f w e imagine t h a t i t s e n t i r e s u r f a c e i s cov­ The s u r f a c e o f a g e o i d a t a n y p o i n t e r e d w i t h w a t e r a t sea l e v e l ) . A de­ s c r i p t i o n of a g e o i d by m a t h e m a t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s i s v e r y c o m p l e x .The E a r t h h a s a c o m p l e x f o r m c a l l e d a g e o i d ( w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r ­ i n g t h e l o c a l r e l i e f .b ­ /14 a ­ 1 298. K r a s o v s k i y . N . i s e q u a l t o 6 .5. The r a d i u s o f s u c h a s p h e r e i s e q u a l t o 6 3 7 1 km.3 ' T h e s e d i m e n s i o n s show t h a t t h e E a r t h ' s e l l i p s o i d o f r e v o l u t i o n i s p r a c t i c a l l y c l o s e t o a s p h e r e . which c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e r a d i u s of t h e e q u a t o r . i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n of g r a v i t y . G r e a t a n d S m a l l C i r c l e s on t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e . 8 6 3 km ( F i g . 1 . is equal t o 6 .-a-. t h e n it i s p r a c t i c a l l y impossible t o e x p r e s s i t s form mathematically. a ) . 1. T h e maximum d i s t o r t i o n o f d i s t a n c e s c a u s e d b y t h e r e p l a c e m e n t 8 . The m i n o r s e m i a x i s o f t h e e l l i p s o i d ( b ) . 2 4 5 km. i n c a l c u l a t i o n s t h e form o f t h e E a r t h i s t a k e n as an e Z Z i p s o i d of revoZu+. t o s i m p l i f y t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e m a j o r i t y o f p r o b l e m s i n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . Fig. a ) Semi- A c c o r d i n g t o m e a s u r e m e n t s made b y S o v i e t s c i e n t i s t s u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of F . b ) S m a l l C i r c l e . T h e r e f o r e . and i f w e c o n s i d e r t h e f o l d s i n t h e r e l i e f o f t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . a x i s o f t h e E a r t h a n d Great C i r c l e .

t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s t a k e n a s a n e l l i p s o i d of r e v o l u t i o n . 1. t h e p l o t t i n g o f maps.5%. Earth's which w we c u t t h e p l a n e o f t h i s t r u e h o r i z o n i n a n y d i r e c t i o n b y plane along the t r u e v e r t i c a l (through t h e center of t h e t h e l i n e formed by t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s p l a n e w i t h t h e s u r f a c e f o r m s a c l o s e d g r e a t c i r c l e . t h e mean r a d i u s o f i l l be equal t o t h e r a d i u s o f t h e Earth. d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s s i b l e i n s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n s c a u s e d by t h e varying r e l i e f . a ) j o i n i n g t h e c e n t e r o f t h e E a r t h w i t h t h e p o i n t o f t h e o b s e r v e r ' s p o s i t i o n . t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y of d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e densest masses i n t h e E a r t h ' s c r u s t . i s c a l l e d t h e p l a n e of t h e t r u e h o r i z o n . 8 5 2 km. The d i r e c t i o n a n d v e l o c i t y o f a i r c r a f t movement a t e v e r y p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a r e examined i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e t r u e h o r i ­ zon. The l e n g t h o f t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f s u c h a r a d i u s i s e q u a l t o 4 0 . w e w i l l l o c a t e a p e r p e n d i c u ­ l a r ( a r e s t i n g pendulum) a t any p o i n t above t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . w h i l e o n e m i n u t e o f a r c i s e q u a l t o 1 . a n d t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f d i r e c t i o n s i s n o t more t h a n 1 2 m i n u t e s o f a n g l e . t a n g e n t t o t h e s p h e r e a t t h e p o i n t of t h e o b s e r v e r and p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e t r u e v e r t i c a l o f t h e l o c u s . With an i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e E a r t h ' s s p h e r e by a p l a n e which 9 . 4. 0 0 0 km.5. 5 . Then. The l e n g t h o f a segment of t h e arc o f a g r e a t c i r c l e a t one minute o f a n g l e i s c a l l e d a nautical mile. I n g e o d e s y a n d c a r t o g r a p h y . The p l a n e on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . T h e mean r a d i u s o f a g r e a t c i r c l e i s a s s u m e d t o b e e q u a l t o 6 3 7 1 km.o f t h e E a r t h ' s e l l i p s o i d b y a s p h e r e d o e s n o t e x c e e d 0. and c o n t i n u e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c e l e s t i a l s p h e r e (Y). If another Earth). it i s p o s s i b l e t o consider t h a t t h e l i n e of t h e perpendicular runs i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e c e n t e r of the Earth. as w e l l as i n o t h e r b r a n c h e s o f s c i e n c e w h e r e more a c c u r a t e c a l c u l a t i o n s o f d i s t a n c e s and d i r e c t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y . 1 . w h i l e t h e a l t i t u d e change i s examined i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e true vertical. The p e r p e n d i c u l a r l i n e ( s e e F i g . /15 - The s h o r t e s t d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n two p o i n t s A B on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r ­ f a c e or p a r t o f t h e a r c o f a g r e a t c i r c l e i s c a l l e d t h e o r t h o d r o m e ( s e e Fig. a ) . i s c a l l e d t h e geo­ c e n t r i c v e r t i c a l of t h e l o c u s . and t h e t a n g e n t i a l a c c e l e r a t i o n s con­ nected with t h e E a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n . One d e g r e e o f a r c o f a g r e a t c i r c l e i s e q u a l t o 111.1 km. E l e m e n t s W h i c h C o n n e c t t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e with Three-Dimensional Space T a k i n g t h e E a r t h as a t r u e s p h e r e .

coordinate systems: With a c o n s t a n t l e n g t h o f t h e r a d i u s . 1. p o i n t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n s of t h e X . i f a n g l e s X and 4 a s s u m e all p o s s i b l e v a l u e s . we d e t e r m i n e the length of the radius-vector R from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m t o a p o i n t . 10 . c o n s t a n t . t h e g e o m e t r i c l o c a t i o n o f t h e p o i n t s of t h e end of t h e v e c t o r r a d i u s w i l l be a s p h e r e . a n d Z a x e s . 1 . Obviously.7). o n c e and f o r a l l . To d e t e r m i n e c o o r d i n a t e s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . A spherical coordinate sys­ tem i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a r e c ­ t a n g u l a r s y s t e m ( C a r t e s i a n ) by the fact t h a t instead of deterF i g .v e c t o r (R) t o t h e p l a n e X Z . The s m a l l c i r c l e s p a r a l l e l t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e e q u a ­ t o r are c a l l e d parallels ( s e e Fig. /6 1 The p l a n e o f t h e e q u a t o r a n d t h e p l a n e o f t h e p r i m e ( G r e e n w i c h ) meridian a r e taken as t h e i n i t i a l r e f e r e n c e p l a n e s i n a geographic coordinate system.d o e s n o t p a s s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t e r of t h e E a r t h . 5 . The p o i n t c o o r d i n a t e s o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e b e a r t h e name " l o n g i t u d e o f t h e l o c u s " a n d " l a t i t u d e of t h e l o c u s " (Fig. 6 ) . Y . t h e r a d i u s o f w h i c h w i l l a l w a y s b e l e s s t h a n t h e mean r a d i u s of t h e E a r t h .v e c t o r ( R ) . b ) . t h e l i n e o f i n t e r ­ s e c t i o n of t h i s p l a n e w i t h t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e forms a c l o s e d s m a l l c i r c l e . and two a n ­ gles: a n g l e X b e t w e e n t h e XY p l a n e and t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e 'ra­ d i u s . t h e r e i s n o This coorneed t o i n d i c a t e t h e r a d i u s of t h e E a r t h ( R ) each time. 1 . t h e s p h e r i c a l coordinate system is transformed i n t o a two-dimensional s u r f a c e system which i s c a l l e d a geographic system of coordinates. For t h e hurposes o f a i r c r a f t navigation. T h e r e i s an o b v i o u s r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s p h e r i c a l a n d r e c t a n g u l a r . R e l a t i o n s h i p Between a S p h e r i c a l System of Coordimining t h r e e distances t o a n a t e s and a R e c t a n g u l a r System. 6 .v e c t o r R . Thus. d i n a t e i s c o n s i d e r e d . 1 . a n d a n g l e 4 b e t w e e n t h e X Z p l a n e and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r a d i u s . a coordinate system which unequivocally determines t h e p o s i t i o n of an a i r c r a f t and o b j e c t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e is necessary. a s p h e r i c a l coordinate system w i l l be t h e most convenient ( F i g .

then i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e d i h e d r a l angle between t h e p l a n e s of t h e meridians. Reading o f t h e l o n g i t u d e i s c a r r i e d o u t from 0 t o 180° e a s t o f t h e rpime m e r i d i a n ( e a s t long­ i t u d e ) a n d f r o m 0 t o 180° w e s t o f t h e rpime m e r i d i a n (west long­ i t u d e ) . b u t t o d e t e r m i n e d i r e c t i o n from one p o i n t t o a n o t h e r . The a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e p l a n e of t h e e q u a t o r a n d t h e t r u e v e r t i ­ c a l o f a g i v e n p o i n t (or t h e l e n g t h o f t h e m e r i d i a n a r c . However. i t i s more c o n v e n i e n t t o c a r r y o u t a reading of longitude i n t h e e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n from z e r o t o 360O. t h e y t u r n o u t t o be o r t h o g o n a l ( p e r p e n d i c u l a r i n one p l a n e ) . I n navigational calcu­ l a t i o n s . east longitude is taken as p o s i t i v e and i s d e s i g n a t e d by a plus sign. e x p r e s s e d i n d e g r e e s . n e g a t i v e . .7. Since a set of t r u e v e r t i c a l s a t a c o n s t a n t l a t i t u d e forms a cone w i t h t h e v e r t e x i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e E a r t h and an a n g l e a t t h e v e r t e x e q u a l t o 90°-4. Determination of t h e longitude can be given i n arc values: t h e length of the a r c o f t h e e q u a t o r (or t h e p a r a l ­ l e l ) . 11 . expressed i n degrees.. A geographic coordinate system i s a surface c u r v i l i n e a r system. Spherical Coordinate S y s t e m on t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e . we s h a l l call a similar angle i n other spherical systems. ps Fig. /7 1 A geographic coordinate system is used n o t only t o determine t h e l o c a t i o n o f a p o i n t ( o b j e c t ) on t h e E a r t h . while w e s t longitude i s n e g a t i v e a n d i s d e s i g n a t e d by a minus s i g n . Two s p e c i a l p o i n t s o n t h e E a r t h ' s surface ( t h e geographic poles) are an exception. In navigational calculations. from t h e p l a n e of t h e e q u a t o r t o t h e p a r a l l e l o f a g i v e n p o i n t ) i s c a l l e d t h e Z a t i t u d e of t h e p o i n t ( 9 ) . t h e conic angle. north l a t i t u d e is considered p o s i t i v e and s o u t h . 1. i f w e e x a m i n e t h e m e r i d i a n s a n d p a r a l l e l s on any u n i t area of t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . i n c a r r y ­ ing out navigational calculations. However. Reading of t h e l a t i t u d e i s c a r r i e d o u t from t h e plane of t h e e q u a t o r t o t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h f r o m 0 t o 9 0 ° ( n o r t h and s o u t h Z a t i ­ tude). be­ PN tween t h e prime m e r i d i a n and t h e meridian of a given point is called the longitude of the point.e..The d i h e d r a l a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e p l a n e o f t h e p r i m e m e r i d i a n a n d t h e p l a n e of t h e m e r i d i a n o f a g i v e n p o i n t i s c a l l e d t h e l o n g i t u d e of t h e p o i n t ( A ) . t h e m e r i d i a n s of t h e c o o r d i n a t e g r i d on t h e E a r t h a r e n o t parallel.

S i n c e t h e m e r i d i a n s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t p a r a l l e l . espe­ c i a l l y when t h e t w o p o i n t s a r e f a r a p a r t . t h e more i t c h a n g e s . s u r f a c e on a p l a n e /8 1 A common g e o m e t r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n i s t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e of s i g h t ( w h i c h p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e e y e o f t h e o b s e r v e r 12 . T h e r e f o r e . it i s n e c e s ­ s a r y t o mention from which meridian t h i a d i r e c t i o n i s measured.The a n g l e i n c l u d e d b e t w e e n t h e n o r t h e r n d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m e r i ­ d i a n which p a s s e s t h r o u g h a g i v e n p o i n t and t h e orthodrome d i r e c t i o n Read­ t o a p o i n t s e t t i n g a c o u r s e i s c a l l e d t h e b e a r i n g or a z i m u t h . made w i t h a variable scale according t o a d e f i n i t e r u l e . d i r e c t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a z i m u t h . The c h a n g e i n a z i m u t h w i t h a c h a n g e i n t h e moving l o n g i t u d e d o e s n o t make i t p o s s i b l e t o u s e m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s f o r moving a l o n g t h e orthodrome without i n t r o d u c i n g corresponding c o r r e c t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o p r o c e e d t o a more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e l e ­ ments o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n and t h e i r measurement. The s p h e r i c i t y o f t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e d o e s n o t a l l o w i t t o b e r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h com­ p l e t e a c c u r a c y on a p l a n e s u r f a c e . f o l l o w i n g a con­ s t a n t magnetic course w i l l cause t h e meridians t o i n t e r s e c t a t iden­ tical angles. The l i n e w h i c h i n t e r s e c t s t h e m e r i d i a n s a t a c o n s t a n t a n g l e i s c a l l e d t h e loxodrome. C h a r t s . 5. t h e r e a r e many w a y s o f p r o j e c t i n g t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e o n t o a p l a n e w h i c h make i t p o s s i ­ b l e t o r e p r e s e n t m o s t a c c u r a t e l y on t h e map o n l y t h o s e p a r a m e t e r s ( e l e m e n t s ) which a r e most n e c e s s a r y under t h e g i v e n c o n d i t i o n s of application. D i s t o r t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t h e c u r v a t u r e o f t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s p r a c t i c a l l y a b s e n t on a c h a r t . If t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n d o e s n o t c h a n g e . Maps . M e t h o d s or l a w s o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e E a r t h ' s are called cartographic projections. surface in a A map i s a c o n t i n u o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e E a r t h or a p a r t o f i t w i t h o u t d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s a n d f o l d s . i n g o f t h e a n g l e s o f b e a r i n g or a z i m u t h i s d o n e c l o c k w i s e f r o m 0 t o 360O. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e m a k i n g o f m a p s . t h e v a l u e o f t h e a z i m u t h c h a n g e s w i t h a c h a n g e i n t h e mov­ i n g l o n g i t u d e a l o n g t h e l i n e which j o i n s t h e two p o i n t s . t h e g r e a t e r Therefore. and C a r t o g r a p h i c P r o j e c t i o n s The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e on a plane is called a chart. t h e i r s c a l e s . f o r t h e orthodrome t h e l a t i t u d e . The c o n v e n t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h ' s p l a n e i s c a l l e d a map. a n d some f e a t u r e s o f c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n s .

The e x t e n t of t h e o v e r a l l d e c r e a s e i n t h e E a r t h ' s d i m e n s i o n s t o t h e f i x e d dimensions of a globe i s c a l l e d a principaz scale. which must be c o n t i n u o u s a n d w e l l . s a M= ASe. a n d i s a s e g m e n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e segment on t h e g l o b e . a n d I$ a n d X a r e t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s o f a p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ( s p h e r e ) . I t i s a s p e c i a l case o f c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n . and F 4 ) . w h e r e p a n d 6 a r e t h e m a i n d i r e c t i o n s o n maps o f c o n i c a n d a z i m u t h a l p r o j e c t i o n s . s i n c e t h e map i s made w i t h o u t d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s s o t h a t a s i n g l e p o i n t o n t h e map c o r r e s p o n d s t o e v e r y p o i n t i n t h e location. A principal scale is numerically equal t o t h e r a t i o of t h e d i s t a n c e on t h e g l o b e t o t h e a c t u a l d i s t a n c e a t a l o c a t i o n : A.d e f i n e d . 1 . A S g i s a s e g m e n t on t h e g l o b e . 13 . If w e c a l l o n e o f t h e m a i n d i r e c t i o n s o n a map t h e X a x i s a n d t h e perpendicular t o it t h e Z a x i s . (~p. The p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n s w i l l d e p e n d on t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e s e f u n c t i o n s (F1. The E a r t h i s d e c r e a s e d t o t h e d e f i n i t e d i m e n s i o n s o f a The g l o b e i s u n r o l l e d t o f o r m a p l a n e . t h e p r i n c i p a l s c a l e i s u s u a l l y s h o w n a s a f r a c t i o n ( n u m e r i c a l s c a l e ) a n d by means o f a s p e c i a l s c a l e ( l i n e a r s c a l e ) . ) or P= 1) an d ii = F. A c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n i s set a n a l y t i c a l l y as a f u n c t i o n o f g e o g r a p h i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s on t h e E a r t h ( s p h e r e ) b e t w e e n t h e c o o r d i ­ n a t e s o f a p o i n t on a p l a n e . On m a p s . 4 w h e r e M i s t h e p r i n c i p a l s c a l e .and t h e p r o j e c t e d p o i n t ) w i t h t h e p l a n e o n t o which t h e g i v e n p o i n t is projected. F2.s. A). F 3 . t h e n X = F l ( r p . A) a n d z=&('9. b) p r o c e s s i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s t a g e s . Map S c a l e s The map-making a) globe. A p r i n c i p a l s c a l e i s a l w a y s i n d i c a t e d o n t h e e d g e o f a map a n d makes it p o s s i b l e t o j u d g e t h e d e c r e a s e o f t h e l e n g t h o f a s e g m e n t i n t r a n s f e r r i n g i t from t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e t o t h e g l o b e .

0 0 0 means t h a t i f w e t a k e 1 c m on a maps t h e n 1 . - A l i n e a r s c a l e i s a s c a l e on a map i n w h i c h a d e f i n i t e n u m b e r o f k i l o m e t e r s a t a l o c a t i o n correspond t o s p e c i a l segments of t h e scale. 1 0 km) w i l $ c o r r e s p o n d t o i t . a n i n f i n i t e l y s m a l l c i r c l e with radius r . I t i s e i t h e r s o m e w h a t l a r g e r or s o m e w h a t s m a l l ­ e r than the principal scale. 0 0 0 .8.8) Fig. 0 0 0 . t h e s p e c i a l ment i n a l o c a t i o n ( g l o b e ) . a p r i n c i p a l s c a l e ( n u m e r i c a l and l i n e a r ) i s i n s u f f i ­ c i e n t f o r a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e s on t h e e n t i r e f i e l d o f a map. . ( a ) S c a l e on a G l o b e . (1. i s a f r a c t i o n . 0 0 0 c m a t a l o c a t i o n ( i . /19 F o r e x a m p l e . a ) . t o a n a n a l o g o u s s e g ­ A t e a c h p o i n t on t h e m a p . e . 1 : 1 . scale is different. D i s t o r t i o n o f S c a l e s on a P l a n e : ( b ) S c a l e on a P l a n e . f2 = x2 + P. The l a w s o f c h a n g e i n t h e p r i n c i p a l s c a l e a l o n g t h e map f i e l d a r e d e t e r m i n e d by a s p e c i a l s c a l e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e l a w s o f d i s t o r t i o n o f d i s t a n c e s and d i r e c t i o n s . 1 . However.The n u m e r i c a l s c a l e . A special scale i s t h e r a t i o of an i n f i n i t e l y small segment i n a g i v e n p l a c e on t h e map i n a g i v e n d i r e c t i o n . 14 . t h e n u m e r a t o r o f w h i c h i s o n e . w h i l e t h e d e n o m i n a t o r s h o w s how many s u c h u n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t fit i n t o t h e location. l e t us a l s o designate a rectangular coordinate system' Then on t h e s p h e r e by x a n d z ( F i g . Distort ions o f Cartographic Project ions E l l i p s e of D i s t o P t i o n s L e t u s draw on a s p h e r e ( g l o b e ) . 1. 8 .

i t i s p o s ­ s i b l e t o choose two m u t u a l l y p e r p e n d i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n s which w i l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a map w i t h o u t a n y d i s t o r t i o n s . b). i t i s known t h a t t h i s i s t h e f o r m u l a o f a n e l l i p s e with conjugate diameters.10) OM r ­ /21 15 . therefore: a) Any i n f i n i t e l y s m a l l c i r c l e o n t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e E a r t h ' s s p h e r e i n any p r o j e c t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a n i n f i n i t e l y s m a l l e l ­ lipse. b) with i t s t r a n s f e r t o a p l a n e . it i s always p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t an e l l i p s e o f d i s t o r t i o n s which w i l l make it p o s s i b l e t o judge t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n s o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n as a whole. 21 = nz S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e l a t t e r i n (1.V ( W + n i p ( D (1.I n t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e coordinate system from t h e sphere (globe) t o the plane. Knowing t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s ( m a n d n ) i n t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c ­ t i o n s . 1 .81. In the majority of projections. t h e d i s t o r ­ t i o n o f t h e s p e c i a l scale i n any d i r e c t i o n ( A S .9) From m a t h e m a t i c s . b) On t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e E a r t h ' s s p h e r e ( g l o b e ) .axes is dis­ torted (Fig. a n d t h e n d i v i d i n g b o t h s i d e s o f t h e e q u a t i o n b y r2. w e o b t a i n mr + (") nr = . These d i r e c t i o n s are c a l l e d p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s . (1. 1. the direction of the coordinate. Having d e s i g n a t e d t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s on a p l a n e (map) b y m i n t h e d i r e c t i o n X and n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n z .0 1 4 . w e o b t a i n : XI = mx.8. Distortion of L e n g t h s I f a n i n f i n i t e l y s m a l l c i r c l e on t h e E a r t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by an e l l i p s e (Fig. ) can be expressed as f o l l o w s : ASa=-. the d i r e c t i o n s along t h e m e r i d i a n s and p a r a l l e l s are t a k e n as t h e p r i n ­ cipal directions. 9 .

9 . (b) L e n g t h Xl Fig. e . a: ~ = s ! n a r . 1. t h e n tga=%-. . wh then ASa= m sinza + n2 cos2 a . mr (1. ~ i 1 ett=cosar. z (1. D i s t o r t i o n of D i r e c t i o n s Let us take t h e radius r = 1 (Fig. t h e d i s t o r t i o n of t h e l e n g t h o f t h e segment as a w h o l e ) . 1. Distortion i n a Plane: ( a ) L e n g t h on a G l o b e . on a P l a n e .12) 16 . c i r c l e on t h e E a r t h .b u t from t h e c i r c l e i n F i g u r e 1 . we can always judge t h e value o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e i n any d i r e c t i o n ( a n d t h e r e f o r e . k n o w i n g t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s for t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s .10. X 1.11) Fig. D i s t o r t i o n of D i r e c t i o n s o n a Map.10) nz o f an i n f i n i t e l y small I w h i le t g e = . ( a ) D i r e c t i o n on a G l o b e . ( b ) D i r e c t i o n o n a Map i ..9.

( b ) A r e a o n a Map. The d i s t o r t i o n o f a r e a s i s e q u a l t o t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e s p e c i a l scales f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s . . H e n c e . then AP = ab ­ /22 or.Dividing Equations (1.14) b u t i f we t a k e t h e r a d i u s o f t h e c i r c l e o n t h e E a r t h a s e q u a l t o 1 . D i s t o r t i o n of A r e a s T h e d i s t o r t i o n o f a r e a s AP c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y a c o m p a r i s o n o r d i v i s i o n o f t h e a r e a of t h e e l l i p s e ( S e l l by t h e a r e a o f a c i r c l e (sei). knowing t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c ­ t i o n s . w e can give t h e complete c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of any map p r o j e c t i o n . 17 . w e o b t a i n : tgB =mtg a. i t i s a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a n a n g l e f3 o n a map f o r a n a n ­ g i e a i n a l o c a t i o n . D i s t o r t i o n o f A r e a s o n a Map.11: (1. ( a ) Area on a G l o b e .. we o b t a i n : LIP = mn. w e s e e t h a t i f w e know t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s for t h e p r i n ­ c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s . and v i c e v e r s a . s e e F i g u r e 1.12) i n t o one a n o t h e r .13) Obviously. II (1. .11. (1. 1. i f w e e x p r e s s a a n d b b y s p e c i a l s c a l e s f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c ­ t i o n s .15) x Fig.

s o t h a t i n p r o j e c t i n g a s u r f a c e o f a g l o b e o n t o a p l a n e (map). C o n f o r m a b i l i t y o f F i g u r e s o n Maps.. ( a ) Preserving the C o n f o r m a b i l i t y of a U n i t A r e a . By norma2 grid w e mean t h e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m o n a g l o b e w h i c h i s m o s t s i m p l y r e p r e s e n t e d o n a map.on s T h e r e a r e many c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n s .12. 1.C 1 a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C a r t o g r a p h i c P r o j e c t i. Obviously. t h i s i s a system o f m e r i d i a n s and p a r a l l e l s . and (b) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e means o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ' o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e normal g r i d . 18 . e . t h e a n g l e s a n d s i m i l a r f i g ­ u r e s do n o t change. Therefore. Isogonal o r conformal p r o j e c t i o n s These p r o j e c t i o n s must s a t i s f y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f e q u a l i t y o f a n g l e s and s i m i l a r i t y o f f i g u r e s ( c o n f o r m a b i l i t y ) w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f u n i t areas of t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . a c c o r d i n g t o two b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : They c a n b e d i v i d e d (a) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n s . b) CI c I 41 I xf IX z Fig. 1 3 ) it i s ob­ v i o u s t h a t i n t h i s c a s e m = n. ( b ) D e s t r o y i n g t h e C o n f o r m a b i l i t y o � a Long S t r i p . According t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e e l e m e n t s w h i c h h a v e t h e l e a s t d i s t o r t i o n on a map. c a r t o g r a p h i c projections are divided i n t o t h e following groups: 1. i . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t i p u l a t i o n . t h e a n g l e o n a map m u s t b e e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e a t t h e l o c a t i o n : L 6 = L a . b u t from ( 1 . . Division of Projections b y the Nature of the Distortions The c h o i c e o f c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n s d e p e n d s on t h e p r o b l e m s f o r whose s o l u t i o n t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d . t h e equation of s p e c i a l scales f o r p r i n c i p a l d i r e c ­ tions is a condition for isogonality.

Since t h e scales mx.12 g i v e s a n example of p r e s e r v i n g t h e c o n f o r m a b i l i t y o f a u n i t area and d e s t r o y i n g t h e c o n f o r m a b i l i t y o f a l o n g s t r i p . the similarity of small figures i n isogonal projec­ tions is preserved. T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e map s c a l e w i l l be p r e s e r v e d i n one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l directions. 1 n n=-. w e do n o t o b t a i n a c o n f o r m a l figure. a ) i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e map o n a d e f i n i t e scale without d i s t o r t i o n s . The l o n g s t r i p ( F i g . Figure 1. t h e c o n f o r m a b i l i t y (and therefore t h e isogonality) are not preserved. 19 . when u s i n g s u c h a map w e c a n m e a s u r e t h e d i s t a n c e i n o n e o f t h e d i r e c t i o n s by means o f a scale. Equally spaced o r equidistant projections The e q u i v a l e n c e t o u n i t y o f t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s f o r a p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n ( m = 1 o r n = 1) i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f t h i s g r o u p of projections. 1 3 . ) is destroyed. i. o n l y on a d i f f e r e n t s c a l e . Here m = c o n s t . while n is a function of Z.. z 4 X $ ? .On l a r g e p a r t s o f t h e s u r f a c e . T h e r e f o r e . seas. . 2. e a c h o f w h i c h w i l l b e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e map o n a s o m e w h a t c h a n g e d s c a l e . Equally large or equivalent projections T h i s group o f p r o j e c t i o n s must s a t i s f y the condition of equivalence of a r e a s i. 1 m These p r o j e c t i o n s do n o t have an e q u i v a l e n c e o f a n g l e s and a similarity of figures. 1 .13. Fig. (b) Appearance of t h e F i g u r e o n a Map. 1 . 1 2 . w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f w h i c h i t i s impossible t o d i s r e g a r d t h e change i n scale. t h e r e ­ f o r e . 1 . T h e u n i t a r e a ( F i g .e. /24 l a t e r a l l i m i t s o f t h e s m a l l a r e a s . b ) c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f u n i t a r e a s . e t c . Distortion of Conformability i n Equally Spaced P r o j e c t i o n s : ( a ) Appearance o f a Figu r e i n a L o c a t i o n .e.and nz a r e i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s t r i p . 3. t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e s p e c i a l scales f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s w i l l be i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l : ¶ m=-. The n a t u r e o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n of c o n f o r m a b i l i t y i n t h e s e projections i s shown i n F i g . J. e a c h o f t h e s m a l l a r e a s i s r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e map w i t h t h e c o n f o r m a ­ By e q u a t i n g t h e b i l i t y b e i n g p r e s e r v e d . 1 2 . the product of t h e s p e c i a l scales f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c ­ t i o n s m u s t e q u a l u n i t y ( m n = 1). while the similarity of large figures (large l a k e s . 1.

i f t h e E a r t h ' s a x i s c o n c i d e s w i t h t h e a x i s o f t h e f i g u r e o n t o which t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s p r o j e c t e d . t h e y a r e a l s o u s e d when c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l p o r t i o n s o f t h e E a r t h ' s surface are projected onto a plane where t h e d i s t o r t i o n s o f t h e a n g l e s and t h e s c a l e s f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s a n d a l o n g t h e e n t i r e map f i e l d a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t a n d t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f f i g u r e s and a r e a s which s a t i s f y t h e n e e d s o f t h e i r This group o f p r o j e c t i o n s i n ­ practical application is preserved. c l u d e s a b a s i c f l i g h t map o n a s c a l e o f 1:1. t r a n s v e r s e . projections. c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c ­ t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l g r o u p s . m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n s . i f t h e a x i s of t h e E a r t h d o e s n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e a x i s of t h e f i g u r e and i n t e r s e c t s it a t an a n g l e which i s n o t e q u a l t o 90°. H o w e v e r . Arbitrary projections P r o j e c t i o n s o f t h i s g r o u p d o n o t s a t i s f y a n y of t h e c o n d i t i o n s mentioned above. 1 4 . e . if t h e E a r t h ' s a x i s f o r m s a n a n g l e o f 90° w i t h t h e a x i s o f t h e f i g ­ u r e . I n F i g u r e 1 . a simple normal c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n i s g i v e n . i . and o b l i q u e . /25 - D i v i s i o n of P r o j e c t i o n s A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Method of C o n s t r u c t i o n ( A c c o r d i n g t o t h e A p p e a r a n c e of t h e Normal G r i d ) Depending on t h e method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n .000. Cy1 i n d r i c a l Projections Normal ( e q u i v a l e n t ) cy1 i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n A l l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s a r e f o r m e d by means o f t h e i m a g i n ­ a r y t r a n s f e r o f t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ( g l o b e ) t o a t a n g e n t i a l or i n ­ tersecting cylinder. For t h e p u r p o s e s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . w h i c h i s c o n ­ s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a s p e c i a l l a w a n d w h i c h h a s b e e n a c c e p t e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement. They i n c l u d e maps o f h o u r z o n e s . . c l i m a t o l o g i c a l a n d m e t e o r o l o ­ g i c a l maps. a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e E a r t h on a t a n g e n t i a l c y l i n d e r . ( c ) group of azimuthal p r o j e c t i o n s . with subsequent unrolling. (b) group o f c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s and t h e i r v a r i a n t s . c o m p o s i t e d i a g r a m s o f t o p o g r a p h i c a l map s h e e t s . t h e b a s e s o f which a r e t h e following: (a) group o f c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s . (d) group of s p e c i a l p r o j e c t i o n s .000. e t c . E q u a l l y l a r g e a n d e q u a l l y s p a c e d p r o j e c t i o n s o f maps a r e u s e d i n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n o n l y a s s u r v e y maps f o r s p e c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . .4. polyconic Each of t h e s e p r o j e c t i o n s i s d i v i d e d i n t u r n i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g categories: normal. t h e m o s t n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s a r e ( o b v i o u s l y ) i s o g o n a l i t y and e q u a l s c a l e o f t h e maps.

PS Fig.14.t h e a x i s of which c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e a x i s * o f t h e E a r t h ( g l o b e ) . Simple E q u a l l y S p a c e d C y l i n d r i c a l P r o j e c t i o n I n t h i s p r o j e c t i o n . 2 = RS. s i n c e it satisfies t h e condition o f an equivalence of areas. and R is the Earth's radius. Normal (Equivalent) Cylindrical Projection Fig. L e t u s d e t e r m i n e what t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n s are equal t o i n t h i s p r o j e c t i o n : 21 . 1. t h e meridians are compressed while t h e p a r a l l e l s are extended t o a d e g r e e which i n c r e a s e s w i t h l a t i t u d e . Z r e p r e s e n t s t h e coordinates of a point along t h e equator. (1.15. I t s equation can be w r i t t e n i n t h e following form: X = R sin v. while the height of t h e cylinder is proportional t o the length of the axis.16) where X r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f a p o i n t a l o n g t h e m e r i d i a n . The p r o j e c t i o n i n c l u d e s a c a t e g o r y o f e q u a l l y l a r g e a n d e q u i v a l e n t p r o j e c t i o n s . 1.

17) (1.18) where m i s a p a r t i a l scale a l o n g a m e r i d i a n . 2 . asmap The p r o d u c t o f t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s i s 1 =1 mn -cos or m = d . e . 1 . a s shown i n F i g . I t s e q u a t i o n s have t h e form : X=R'p. /27 - S i m p l e equally spaced c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n If w e t a k e t h e h e i g h t of a c y l i n d e r t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l n o t t o the length of the Earth's axis. (1. w h i l e t h e p a r a l l e l s w i l l b e e x t e n d e d The m a g n i t u d e o f t h e j u s t as i n a normal ( e q u i v a l e n t ) p r o j e c t i o n . t h e axis of t h e globe coincides with t h e a x i s o f t h e cylinder. i s a n i n c r e a s e i n d i s t a n c e on t h e map.20) 22 .(1. n i s a p a r t i a l scale along a parallel. I n t h i s p r o j e c t i o n . t h e meridians w i l l be transformed t o t h e i r f u l l s i z e d u r i n g t h e i r t r a n s f e r f r o m t h e g l o b e ' s s u r f a c e t o a map ( i . The s p e c i a l s c a l e s a r e e q u a l t o : (1. i s it p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r i t i s o g o n a l and e q u a l l y spaced. i n t h e l i m i t s f r o m 0 t o f 5 O a l o n g i t s l a t i t u d e . Since m # n . effect increases with l a t i t u d e . n = 11. the given projection is equal. e q u a l l y s p a c e d I t i s r e g a r d e d as normal s i n c e cylindrical projection is obtained. but t o t h e length of a meridian. d S g l o b e i s a n i n c r e a s e i n d i s t a n c e on t h e g l o b e .sec = cos 'p along the p a r a l l e l n= 'p. 1 5 .19) 1 . w h i l e n=. a n d t h e e q u a t o r a l s o w i l l b e t r a n s f o r m e d t o full s i z e ( a t t h e e q u a t o r . m = l). t h e n a s i m p l e . T h e c o o r d i n a t e g r i d o f t h e map o f t h i s p r o j e c t i o n h a s t h e a p ­ pearance of a uniform r e c t a n g u l a r r u l i n g . 1 1 n 'p cos 'p Therefore.R A . m # 1 and n # 1 i n t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s ( m e r i d i a n s and p a r a l l e l s ) it i s n o t i s o g o n a l and n o t e q u a l l y spaced. . Only i n t h e e q u a t o r i a l band. and i n s t e a d o f simply p r o j e c t i n g w e u n f o l d t h e m e r i d i a n s t o t h e c y l i n d e r w a l l s .

e q u a l l y spaced c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n by a r t i f i c i a l l y e x t e n d i n g t h e s c a l e a l o n g t h e l a t i t u d e ( l e n g t h e n i n g t h e m e r i d i a n s ) . . I t i s o b t a i n e d from a s i m p l e . e q u a l l y d i s t a n t c y l i n ­ maps d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s are u s e d i n a v i a t i o n o n l y as r e f e r e n c e s : o f h o u r z o n e s . a n d R d + i s a n increase i n distance along t h e meridian at the loca­ tion. m = n = s e c 6. e x c e p t f o r t h e equa­ t o r i a l band i n t h e l i m i t s from 0 t o + 5 O a l o n g t h e l a t i t u d e . t h e p r o ­ j e c t i o n i s n o t i s o g o n a l and n o t e q u a l l y l a r g e . Le t i o n of along a dinate) f i n d m: t us w r i t e an equa­ t h i s map p r o j e c t i o n meridian (X-coor­ f o r which w e can /28 m= dS dS --d X ­ globe Rdv ' w h e r e dS i s a n i n c r e a s e o f distance along the meridian on t h e map. maps o f n a t u r a l l i g h t . p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e change i n s c a l e a l o n g t h e l o n g i ­ tude.S i n c e m = 1. e t c . The r e a s o n f o r i t s u s e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a n g l e s m e a s u r e d o n t h e map a r e e q u a l t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a n g l e s a t t h e l o c a t i o n . where it i s p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r i t i s o g o n a l and e q u a l l y l a r g e . S i n c e m # n a n d mn # 1. Coordinate Grid of an Isogonal Cylindrical Projection. 1. Maps i n n o r m a l ( e q u i v a l e n t ) a n d s i m p l e . I s o g o n a l cy1 i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n An i s o g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n ( M e r c a t o r p r o j e c t i o n ) i s t h e most v a l u a b l e of a l l t h e c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s f o r n a v i g a t i o n . % . W must have e m = sec 'p. W s h a l l then equate the e r i g h t . T h e c o o r d i n a t e g r i d o f t h e map o f t h i s p r o j e c t i o n i s s h o w n i n Figure 1. t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s e q u a l l y s p a c e d a l o n g t h e m e r i ­ d i a n s and a l s o a l o n g t h e e q u a t o r . .16.sec +. e .h a n d s i d e s of t h e s e equations: Fig.'w h e n c e R 4 dX e : dX- Rd'p -a(l..16.21) cos 'p 23 .

Usually the s t r i p along t h e tangent does not e x t e n d m o r e t h a n 5 0 0 . i n t h i s p r o j e c t i o n has t h e appearance of a s t r a i g h t l i n e .000. s o t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n two p o i n t s i n d i r e c t i o n s n o t p a r a l l e l t o t h e l i n e s o f t h e g r a t i n g c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d o n l y by c a l c u l a t i o n . 24 . primarily i n m a r i n e n a v i g a t i o n d u r i n g t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f n a v a l maps.1 4 0 0 km t o e i t h e r s i d e of t h e given middle l i n e of t h e r o u t e s . Means for m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e s o n maps w i t h s u c h a p r o j e c t i o n a r e i n d i c a t e d i n m a n u a l s for m a r i n e n a v i g a t i o n . e q u a l l y s p a c e d c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s . along the meridian: we w i l l obtain t h e X-coordinate X = R I n t g 45 ( O +- i ). w h i l e on t h e i n ­ t e r s e c t i n g c o n e i t d o e s n o t e x t e n d m o r e t h a n 1 0 0 0 . 1. 1. 0 0 0 .s o u t h and e a s t . I n a n i s o g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . T h e t a n g e n t i a l ( F i g .18) c y l i n d e r is s i t u a t e d a t such an angle t o t h e axis of t h e globe t h a t t h e tan­ g e n t o f t h e c y l i n d e r ' s s u r f a c e t o t h e g l o b e or t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n r u n s along t h e f l i g h t path. Here. s i n c e t h e loxodrome Therefore. T h i s makes it p o s s i b l e t o m e a s u r e d i s t a n c e s b y m e a n s of c o m p a s s e s . the projection is isogonal but not equally spaced a n d n # 1) and n o t e q u a l l y l a r g e ( m n # 1 ) . Isogonal oblique cylindrical projections T h e b a s i s f o r c r e a t i n g maps i n a n i s o g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c ­ its isogonality.000. 0 0 0 . T h e b a s i c a d v a n t a g e o f maps i n a n i s o g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c ­ t i o n i s t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e i r u s e w i t h m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s for moving f r o m o n e p o i n t on t h e E a r t h t o a n o t h e r .w e s t ) . The c h a n g e i n s c a l e w i t h l a t i t u d e i s a d i s a d v a n t a g e o f n o r m a l cylindrical projections. used i n c i v i l a v i a t i o n .17) or i n t e r s e c t i n g ( F i g . b u t a t a n y p o i n t o n t h e map i t i s i d e n t i ­ cal in the principal directions.22a) (m # 1 Since m = n . t h e isogonal c y l i n d r i c a l projection has been used widely. i n normal ( e q u i v a l e n t ) and s i m p l e .6 0 0 km t o e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e r o u t e (or t h e m i d ­ d l e l i n e o f t h e r o u t e . t h e map s c a l e i s n o t i d e n t i ­ c a l i n t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s ( n o r t h . 1 : 2 . i f i t h a s d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s ) . (1. t h e map s c a l e a l o n g t h e l a t i t u d e i s a l s o v a r i a b l e .After i n t e g r a t i n g (1.211. t i o n i s a property of t h e Mercator projection: S u c h p r o j e c t i o n s a r e u s e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s p e c i a l f l i g h t maps and 1:4.000 which a r e o n s c a l e s o f 1:1. for w h i c h a s c a l e ( v a r y i n g w i t h t h e l a t i t u d e ) i s drawn on t h e w e s t e r n an d e a s t e r n e d g e s o f t h e map. (1.22) while the Z-coordinate ple equation: a l o n g t h e p a r a l l e l i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s i m ­ z= Rh.000.

T h e d i s t o r t i o n s o f l e n g t h s o n f l i g h t maps o f o b l i q u e t a n g e n t i a l p r o j e c t i o n s do n o t exceed 0.I n p r a c t i c e . s i n c e t h e c y l i n d e r i s i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e g l o b e a l o n g t h e a r c o f a g r e a t c i r c l e or c u t s t h e g l o b e c o m p a r ­ a t i v e l y c l o s e t o t h e a r c o f a g r e a t c i r c l e . Isogonal Oblique (Tangential) Cylindrical Projection. Thus. s u c h f l i g h t maps a r e i s o g o n a l . i s o g o n a l t r a n s v e r s e c y l ­ i n d r i c a l G a u s s i a n p r o j e c t i o n i s u s e d f o r c o m p i l i n g maps o n a l a r g e s c a l e . a f l i g h t map o n a s c a l e o f 1:1. 1. and e q u a l l y l a r g e . e q u a l l y s p a c e d .17.5%. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f maps w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f maps with oblique cylindrical projections. e a c h o f w h i c h h a s a l a t i t u d e o f 6 O a n d i s p r o j e c t e d o n t o i t s own c y l i n d e r which i s t a n g e n t i a l t o t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a l o n g t h e mid­ d l e meridian of t h e g i v e n zone. where t h e s p e c i a l p r i n c i p l e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n are used.2%. t h e o r t h o d r o m e on t h e s e maps w i l l i n p r a c t i c e b e r e p r e s e n t e d b y a s t r a i g h t l i n e . w h i l e t h e t a n g e n t i a l c y l i n ­ d e r on w h i c h t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s p r o j e c t e d h a s a n e l l i p t i c a l b a s e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e form of t h e E a r t h ' s e l l i p s o i d .000 f o r L e n i n g r a d .exceed 0. A s p h e r o i d ( E a r t h ' s e l l i p s o i d ) i s t a k e n as t h e f i g u r e from which t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s p r o j e c t e d .K i e v h a s b e e n c o m p i l e d o n such a projection. f o r i n t e r s e c t i n g p r o j e c t i o n s t h e y do n o t . i n o r d e r t o p r o j e c t t h e whole s u r f a c e o f t h e E a r t h .8%-1. H o w e v e r . I s o g o n a l t r a n s v e r s e and c y l i n d r i c a l G a u s s i a n p r o j e c t i o n The a x i s o f t h e c y l i n d e r i n G a u s s i a n p r o j e c t i o n s i s p e r p e n d i c u ­ l a r t o t h e a x i s of r o t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h ( g l o b e ) .18. The e n t i r e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s d i v i d e d b y m e r i d i a n s i n t o z o n e s . however. ­ /30 Fig. 1. on t h e w h o l e . it is necessary t o t u r n t h e e l l i p t i c a l c y l i n d e r mentally around t h e 25 . (Intersecting) Cylindrical Projection. Isogonal Oblique Fig.000. F o r e x a m p l e .

­ /31 Fig.000.000. 1. it i s p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e e q u a t o r and from t h e c e n t r a l meridian o f t h e zone t o t h e o b j e c t ( p o i n t ) . D i s t o r t i o n s o f l e n g t h s o n t h e s e maps a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t a n d d o n o t exceed 0.000. M e r i d i a n s a n d p a r a l l e l s on maps o f t h i s p r o j e c t i o n a r e c u r v e d l i n e s a n d d o n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e Gaussian system.14% a l o n g t h e edges o f t h e zone i n t h e l a t i t u d e which i s e q u a l t o z e r o (140 m a t 1 0 0 k m ) . a .19. w h i l e i n Figure 1. Isogonal Transverse-Cylindrical Gaussian Projectioh. In Figure 1. E a c h z o n e o n maps w i t h a s c a l e o f 1:200.c y l i n d r i c a l G a u s s i a n p r o j e c t i o n are used b o t h i n a v i a t i o n f o r a d e t a i l e d o r i e n t a t i o n and l o c a t i o n 26 . w h i c h i s c a l l e d t h e Gaussian kilometer system. and 1:25. The a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e X o f t h e G a u s s i a n s y s t e m and t h e l i n e t o t h e o b j e c t ( p o i n t ) i s c a l l e d t h e d i r e c t i o n a l angle. b y the unrolling of a semicylinder after its rotat i o n around t h e E a r t h ' s a x i s i n o r d e r t o p r o j e c t several zones i s shown.000. By m e a n s o f t h e G a u s s i a n s y s t e m a n d f i g u r e s i n t h e f r a m e s o f t h e maps.a x i s of t h e E a r t k ' s e l l i p s o i d t h r o u g h 6O a t a t i m e . 1:200.000 a n d l a r g e r h a s i t s own s p e c i a l X a n d Y(Z) r e c t a n g u l a r c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m . t h e a n g l e s o f t h e convergence o f t h e system w i t h t h e t r u e and magnetic In addition. the m e r i d i a n s a r e i n d i c a t e d o n t h e e d g e o f t h e map. v e r t i c a l s e c t i o n o f a map ( f r a m e ) a l w a y s r u n s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the true meridian. W i t h s u c h a p r o j e c t i o n .19. t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f o n l y one zone f o r 6 O l o n g i t u d e i s shown. The l a t t e r a r e e s s e n t i a l l y c h a r t s . a l l maps a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o n t h e scales: 1:500. The v e r t i c a l l i n e s o f t h e r e c t a n g u l a r Gaus­ s i a n system a r e p a r a l l e l t o t h e c e n t r a l m e r i d i a n o f t h e zone and do n o t c o i n c i d e with o t h e r meridians o f t h e zone.19. I n order t o o b t a i n t h e t r u e o r magnetic d i r e c t i o n ( a n g l e ) . 1:100.000. 1:50. Maps o n a n i s o g o n a l t r a n s v e r s e .

Translator's note: - P'= Po + R (cpo 3. Conic P r o j e c t i o n s ­ Conic p r o j e c t i o n s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d by p r o j e c t i n g t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e E a r t h ' s spheroid (globe) on a tangent o r i n t e r s e c t i n g cone. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n s of t h e axes o f t h e g l o b e a n d c o n e . and r a d i o engineering f a c i l i t i e s i n a l o c a t i o n . a n d i n many b r a n c h e s o f t h e n a t i o n a l e c o n o m y f o r l i n k i n g p r o j e c t s . w h i l e p a r a l l e l s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by a r c s o f c o n c e n ­ t r i c circles (Fig. and f o r a c c u r a t e geodesic c a l c u l a t i o n s o f d i s t a n c e s and d i r e c t i o n s . c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s can be normal. t r a n s v e r s e . From F i g u r e 1 . 27 n .23) ctg = cot. 2 0 . I n a normal c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n .o f t a r g e t s . m e r i d i a n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by s t r a i g h t l i n e s . i t i s e a s y t o s e e t h a t t h e r a d i u s o f a p a r a l l e l of tangency (p. equipment. The e q u a t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t i o n i s w r i t t e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g form: 8r. ( b ) U n r o l l i n g o f t h e C o n e t o Form a P l a n e .) c a n b e e x p r e s s e d by t h e E a r t h ' s r a d i u s : where R i s t h e r a d i u s o f t h e E a r t h ( g l o b e ) and $ 0 i s t h e l a t i t u d e of t h e p a r a l l e l o f tangency. 1. a . a ) .aA. e t c . However. w i t h i t s subsequent u n r o l l i n g t o form a p l a n e s u r f a c e ( F i g .cp). ( a ) Tangent ( i n t e r ­ Construction of Conic P r o j e c t i o n s : F i g . and oblique. 1 . s e c t i n g ) c o n e . b). 2 0 . 1 . 2 0 . 1 3 2 f o r determining geodesic r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s .20. i n o u r p u b l i c a t i o n s n o r m a l p r o j e c t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y u s e d when t h e a x j s o f t h e cone c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e a x i s of t h e g l o b e . (1.

0 0 0 . ( a ) I n t e r s e c t i n g Cone. have been published. a n d 01 i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e a n g l e o f convergence of t h e m e r i d i a n s . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . in = l). a n d e v e n 1 : 1 .21. ­ /33 S i m p l e normal c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n A simple normal c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n i s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e con­ s i d e r a t i o n t h a t t h e m e r i d i a n s o n t h e w h o l e map a n d t h e p a r a l l e l o f tangency b e t r a n s f e r r e d from a g l o b e w i t h o u t d i s t o r t i o n s t o t h e i r n a t u r a l v a l u e ( i . w h i l e f o r t h e p a r a l l e l s o f t a n g e n c y ($0) m = n = 1. 1 : 2 . ( b ) U n f o l d i n g o f t h e Cone t o a P l a n e . 1. w h i c h a r e u s e d i n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n for g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t h e approximate d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s i ­ t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t by means o f r a d i o e n g i n e e r i n g f a c i l i t i e s ( a i r ­ c r a f t r a d i o compasses. which i n c r e a s e s w i t h d i s t a n c e from the intersecting parallels. intersection para1 l e l s @ -J. w h i l e o n t h e i n t e r s e c t i n g p a r a l l e l s i t i s i s o g o n a l a n d e q u a l l y l a r g e ( F i g . s i n c e m = 1.21. Their disadvantage is t h e d i s t o r t i o n of d i r e c t i o n s .@ i -b ----- Fig. b). 0 0 0 . e t c . 5 0 0 . I t is equally spaced. Many a i r c r a f t maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1 : 2 . 2 1 . T h e i r p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e i f t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t o r t i o n of l e n g t h s i n t h e s t r i p *So from t h e i n t e r s e c t i n g p a r a l l e l s . 28 . S i m p l e Normal C o n i c P r o j e c t i o n . 1.x where 6 and p are t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s i n t h e p o l a r c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m a l o n g t h e p a r a l l e l a n d m e r i d i a n . ground r a d i o g o n i o m e t e r s . 3 4 % ( 3 4 0 m for 1 0 0 k m ) . a ) . 5 0 0 . which d o e s n o t e x c e e d 0 . Such a p r o j e c t i o n forms t h e b a s i s o f t h e improved i n t e r s e c t i n g conic Kavrayskiy p r o j e c t i o n (Fig. r e s p e c t i v e l y . e . ) . 1 . .

0 0 0 . Maps w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 2 . This v a l u a b l e q u a l i t y i s u s e d d u r i n g f l i g h t s on c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r l i n e s o f a v e r a g e l e n g t h by u s i n g g y r o s c o p i c and a s t r o n o m i c a l c o m p a s s e s A t g r e a t d i s t a n c e s .000. t h e orthodrome f o r following t h e orthodrome. and 1:5. a l s o have d i s t o r t i o n s of l e n g t h which a r e p e r m i s s i b l e i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n .8 km f o r 1 0 0 k m .000. T h e o r t h o d r o m e on m a p s o f a n i s o g o n a l c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n f o r d i s ­ t a n c e s u p t o 1 2 0 0 km a p p e a r s a s a p r a c t i c a l l y s t r a i g h t l i n e . t h e maximum l e n g t h d i s t o r t i o n s d o n o t e x c e e d 51. T h i s i s more v a l u a b l e f o r u s e i n a v i a t i o n .000. 2 2 . 0 0 0 . /34 - Fig. 0 0 0 i n t h i s p r o j e c t i o n . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . b e s i d e s h a v i n g t h e b a s i c advantage of i s o g o n a l i t y . a simple normal c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an i s o g o n a l p r o j e c t i o n by r e ­ ducing (equating) t h e scale along t h e meridians t o t h e s c a l e along t h e p a r a l l e l s ( m = n). d e s t r o y i n g t h e e q u a l s p a c i n g .Isogonal conic projection By a n a l o g y w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n i s o g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l Mercator p r o j e c t i o n . 1 : 4 . 29 . The loxodrome i s r e p r e s e n t e d by an a r c o f a l o g a r i t h m i c s p i r a l .000 are published w i t h a normal i s o g o n a l c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n f o r a v i a t i o n . Projection: Angle o f Convergence o f t h e M e r i d i a n s o f a Tangent Conic ( a ) A r c o f 9 P a r a l l e l on a G l o b e . A i r c r a f t maps w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 2 . ( b ) A r c o f a P a r a l l e l o n a Map. On a n i n t e r s e c t i n g c o n e i n a s t r i p f r o m 4 0 ° t o 7 0 ° i n l a t i t u d e . 0 0 0 a n d s u r v e y maps on s c a l e s o f 1:3. 1 . ( a s a r e s u l t o f a c h a n g e i n s c a l e ) i s b e n t by a b u l g e t e n d i n g t o ­ ward a l a r g e r s c a l e .

t h e a n g l e o f c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s w i l l b e d i f ­ ferent. on t h e e q u a t o r t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s a = 0 . f o r e . I t i s also p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t ( c o n t i n u e ) t h e l o x o d r o m e a l o n g a n a n g l e measured i n t h e middle o f t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e j o i n i n g t h e /35 c o n t r o l ( r o t a t i n g ) landmarks of t h e r o u t e .8 0 0 km i n d i r e c t i o n s which i n t e r s e c t t h e m e r i d i a n s on a map. Knowing t h e c o e f f i c i e n t a . i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e any a n g l e of convergence o f t h e m e r i d i a n s 6 a l o n g a p a r a l l e l o f t a n g e n c y or i n t e r s e c t i o n : 8 =A h . a t t h e p o l e s c1 = 1. and A 6 out the necessary reductions. A6 = aAA. 30 I . t h e a r c MN i s e q u a l t o t h e a r c M I N I ( F i g . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s . 2 2 .T h i s c r e a t e s d i f f i c u l t i e s . b) t h e arc M l N l = poA6. 1 . we obtain: a=Sinyo. where r i s t h e r a d i u s o f t h e p a r a l l e l . is t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l o n g i t u d e between t h e given meridians. On a map o f a c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n (Fig. w h i l e measurement o f t h e f l i g h t a n g l e i s c a r r i e d o u t a l o n g t h e c e n t r a l m e r i d i a n o f t h e r o u t e which i s maintained i n f l i g h t by means o f a m a g n e t i c compass. 2 2 .24) But r = R cos $ 0 and P O = R c o t $ 0 . d e p e n d i n g on t h e p a r a l l e l s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n or t a n g e n c y . s i n c e s i n 9 0 ° = 1.25) O b v i o u s l y . i n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n by means o f m a g n e t i c compasses. a s t r a i g h t l i n e i s c o n s t r u c t e d . t h e c o e f f i c i e n t a w i l l b e d i f f e r e n t from A t any o t h e r l a t i t u d e . and from t h e e q u a t i o n of a c o n i c S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e v a l u e s o f r . projection (1. (1. P O . 1 . s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h i s a n g l e when d e t e r m i n i n g d i r e c t i o n s ( f l i g h t a n g l e s ) or t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t b y m e a n s o f a i r c r a f t r a d i o compasses. A (1.24) and c a r r y i n g (1. a n d i n t h e g e n e r a l c a s e f o r c e n t r a l l a t i t u d e s . I n a d d i t i o n .26) w h e r e A?. in (1. O < a < l . - Convergence a n g l e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s The p r i n c i p a l s c a l e o f c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s i s t a k e n a l o n g t h e There­ m e r i d i a n s a n d p a r a l l e l s o f t a n g e n c y or i n t e r s e c t i o n ( $ 0 ) . for d i s t a n c e s u p t o 5 0 0 . t h e a r c M N = r A A . I t i s known t h a t on a g l o b e ( s p h e r o i d ) ( F i g . The d i s a d v a n t a g e o f a l l maps w i t h c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s i s t h e p r e ­ s e n c e o f an a n g l e o f convergence o f t h e m e r i d i a n s from t h e p a r a l l e l s It is neces­ of t a n g e n c y ( p a r a l l e l s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n ) t o t h e p o l e . a ) . 1 . then r A = poA8. s i n c e s i n O o = 0 . 2 2 ) .23).

Polyconic Projection: ( a ) I n t e r s e c t i n g Cones on t h e G l o b e . w h e r e t h e map s c a l e w i l l b e minimum. The p r i n c i p l e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s u c h p r o j e c t i o n s i s shown i n Figure 1. f o r example. p a r t o f t h e r o u t e .t h e c o e f f i c i e n t a a t a l a t i t u d e of tangency ( i n t e r s e c t i o n ) . ­ Polyconic projections Polyconic (multiconic) projections are t h e g r e a t e s t perfection o f c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s for t h e p u r p o s e o f d e c r e a s i n g d i s t o r t i o n s o f l e n g t h s and a n g l e s i n p r o j e c t i n g t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e o n t o a p l a n e . a n d $mid i s t h e m i d d l e l a t i t u d e b e t w e e n t h e i n d i c a t e d points (places).23. A. 1. which c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s i n e o f t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e middle p a r a l l e l between t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n p a r a l l e l s . r e ­ s p e c t i v e l y . it i s p o s s i b l e t o l e t a m 0 . t h e c o e f f i c i e n t a i s assumed c o n s t a n t f o r a g i v e n map o f a c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n . f o r a p p r o x i m a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f an a i r c r a f t o r t h e f l i g h t a n g l e s . There­ f o r e . a. a n d h a a r e t h e l o n g i t u d e s o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n a n d a i r c r a f t .23. 8 . f o r approximate c a l c u l a t i o n s i n t h e p r a c t i c e of aircraft navi­ g a t i o n d u r i n g t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f l i g h t a n g l e s or l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t . The c e n t r a l m e r i d i a n o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n s i s a Fig. 0 0 0 and a normal i s o g o n a l c o n i c /36 p r o j e c t i o n . or t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . f o r a map w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 2 . (b) U n r o l l i n g o f Cones on a P l a n e . I n some c a s e s . 31 . 0 0 0 . i s t a k e n as w h e r e A2 a n d A 1 a r e t h e l o n g i t u d e s o f t h e f i n a l a n d i n i t i a l p o i n t s . t h e mean l a t i t u d e o f t h e r o u t e . Thus.

it is r e l a t e d t o an a r b i t r a r y pro­ jection. w h i l e meridians i n t h e form of curved l i n e s are s i t ­ u a t e d t o t h e w e s t and e a s t o f it. A s a r e s u l t of t h e i n c r e a s e i n s c a l e i n proportion to t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e c e n t r a l meridian t o t h e w e s t and e a s t . e a c h The p r i n ­ s h e e t o c c u p i e s 1 2 O o f l o n g i t u d e .000. 0 0 0 . i n terms o f t h e nature of t h e d i s t o r t i o n s . t h e p r i n c i p a l s c a l e i s given along t h e o u t e r p a r a l l e l s of t h e s h e e t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e g l o b e by a c o n e a l o n g t h e s e p a r a l l e l s ( w h e r e n = 1) a n d a l o n g t h e m e r i d i a n s . International projection I n terms o f t h e method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n .000.000. The p a r a l l e l s a r e c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c e n t e r s .000.24.24. I n t h e r a n g e o f l a t i t u d e s f r o m 64O t o 8 0 ° . 32 . where m = 1 (Fig.000. w i t h a S c a l e o f 1:1. a ) .000. l y i n g on t h e c e n t r a l m e r i d i a n ( F i g . C o r ­ r e c t i o n s by t h e R u s s i a n G e o d e s i s t S h c h e t k i n " . This projection w a s accepted a t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l geophysical c o n f e r e n c e i n London i n 1 9 0 9 a n d was c a l l e d I r A P r o j e c t i o n o f a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Map o f t h e W o r l d . w h i c h i s g e n e r a l for a l l t h e s h e e t s o f a g i v e n l a t i t u d i n a l s t r i p .000.s t r a i g h t l i n e . 1. 1. which i s t h e most widely d i s t r i b u t e d p r o j e c t i o n a t t h e p r e s e n t time i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e s o f l a t i t u d e a n d 6 O of l o n g i t u d e ( i n a r a n g e o f l a t i t u d e s f r o m 0 t o 6 4 O ) . a n d f r o m 8 0 t o 88O. On e a c h s h e e t . and 1:4. c i p a l scale of these sheets is also given along the outer p a r a l l e l s o f t h e s h e e t ( t h r o u g h 4O) a n d a l o n g t h e m e r i d i a n s w h i c h a r e d i s t a n t 4O /37 Fig. i s c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s own l a w . This projection. International Projection: ( a ) Construction of t h e Sheet. s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e c e n t r a l m e r i d i a n o f t h e s h e e t by 2 O t o t h e w e s t and e a s t . (b) B r e a k s i n t h e S p l i c i n g o f S h e e t s . i s u s e d f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f f l i g h t maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1:1. E v e r y s h e e t o f map w i t h a s c a l e 1:1. 24O.000. a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o ­ j e c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o a m o d i f i e d p o l y c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n . 1. such p r o j e c t i o n s a r e used o n l y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i n coun­ t i r e s extended along a meridian. b). 1 : 2 .23. 0 0 0 .

076% ( 7 6 m i n 1 0 0 km). b ) . t h e s h e e t o f a map w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 2 . 0 ~ 0 . i n t h e mid­ d l e l a t i t u d e s does n o t exceed 0. In a range of l a t i ­ t u d e s f r o m 0 t o 6 4 O . 2 4 . The m e r i d i a n s i n t h i s p r o j e c t i o n a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by s t r a i g h t l i n e s which have an a n g l e o f convergence t o t h e p o l e s . w h i l e t h e p a r a l l e l s are curved l i n e s which a r e constructed according t o a s p e c i a l mathematical l a w . S p l i c i n g of a l a r g e number o f s h e e t s i s n o t recommended. r e s p e c t i v e l y . respectively. 0 0 0 o c c u p i e s 12O of l a t i t u d e a n d 18O o f l o n g i t u d e ( n i n e s h e e t s o f a m i l l i o n t h . 0 0 0 a r e c o n s t r u c t e d . The c e n t e r s o f t h e c i r c l e . o n 1 : 4 . T h e p r i n c i p a l s c a l e o f a 1 : 2 . 1O30'. m a p s o f o n l y o n e s t r i p or o n e c o l u m n a r e s p l i c e d w i t h o u t b r e a k s ..from t h e c e n t r a l m e r i d i a n o f t h e s h e e t by 4 and 8 O . 0 0 0 . as a r e s u l t of t h e f e a t u r e s of i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n .000. The d i s t o r t i o n o f l e n g t h s i n t h e m i d d l e l a t i t u d e s on maps w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 2 . 0 0 0 w i t h s u c h a p r o j e c t i o n . r e s p e c t i v e l y . A c c o r d i n g t o s t u d i e s b y L i m n i t s k i y . w h i l e a map w i t h a s c a l e o f 1:4. 1 . a n g l e s region of t h e equator: up t o 7 ' .5%.000 o c c u p i e s 24 and 3 6 O . A d i s a d v a n t a g e o f maps i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n o n a l l s c a l e s i s t h e p r e s e n c e of d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n t h e s p l i c i n g o f s e v e r a l Sheets of s h e e t s .000. 0 0 0 m a p s .000 ( 3 x 3 ) . a n d t h e m e r i ­ d i a n s a r e 12O t o t h e w e s t a n d e a s t f r o m t h e c e n t r a l p a r a l l e l a n d the central meridian. d i s t o r t i o n o f l e n g t h s r e a c h e s l. w h i l e d i s t o r ­ t i o n of d i r e c t i o n s i s 5 ' . a n d t h e u s e o f s u c h a map d o e s n o t r e ­ s u l t i n p e r c e p t i b l e d i s t o r t i o n s of l e n g t h s a n d a n g l e s . 1 4 % . 5 % . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e . 0 0 0 .000.p a r a l l e l s a r e s i t u a t e d on t h e c e n t r a l m e r i d i a n o f a g i v e n sample of s h e e t s . 138 ­ 33 . 0 0 0 . t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s which arise are p a r t i a l l y evened o u t b y d e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p a p e r . I n s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t o r t i o n s make i t p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e map as a p r a c t i c a l l y i s o g o n a l . t h a t o f a n g l e s . The r e g i o n s o f t h e p o l e s a r e p r o j e c t e d o n t o s e p a r a t e s h e e t s i n a central (polar) projection. e q u a l l y s p a c e d .000.000 a n d 1 : 4 . w h i l e o n a map w i t h a s c a l e o f 1:4. 0 0 0 . 3 x 3). a n d t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e a n ­ e g l e s i s 30'.000 t h e p a r a l l e l s which a r e d i s t a n t by 8 O 5 0 ' t o t h e n o r t h a n d 8O10' t o t h e s o u t h a r e g i v e n w i t h o u t d i s t o r t i o n s . d i s t o r t i o n s o f l e n g t h s on maps w i t h a s c a l e of 1 : 1 . 0 0 0 . The g r e a t e s t d i s t o r t i o n s a r i s e i n t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f l e n g t h s up t o 0 . ~ 0 r0 a c h e s 0 .. s h e e t s o f maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1:2. w h i l e t h e i r r a d i i are p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e cotangents of the intersection l a t i t u d e s : R~ = ctg R~ = c t g 'p2 e t c'. 0 0 0 map i s g i v e n a l o n g t h e o u t e r p a r a l l e l s o f t h e s h e e t and t h e m e r i d i a n s w h i c h a r e d i s t a n t f r o m t h e c e n t r a l m e d i a n o f t h e s h e e t by 6 O t o t h e w e s t a n d e a s t ( F i g . D u r i n g s p l i c i n g o f n i n e s h e e t s o f m a p s o n a s c a l e o f 1:1. and w i t h e q u a l l y l a r g e projection. s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s .

000. 1. 0 0 0 . when t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n c o ­ incides with the center of t h e Earth (globe): p o i n t A. 0 0 0 . 34 . scale o f 1:1.24. . Azimuthal /39 - ' (Perspective) Projections Azimuthal ( p e r s p e c t i v e ) p r o j e c t i o n s are c o n s t r u c t e d according t o t h e laws o f a s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c p e r s p e c t i v e . w i t h a n a p ­ proximate formula 6 = (A. a ) . and secondly on aircraft with gas-turbine engines. d e p e n d i n g on t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e plane of t h e f i g u r e . 0 0 0 on a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n a r e u s e d a s f l i g h t maps. U s u a l l y . 2 5 . mi d where Xr i s t h e l o n g i t u d e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . w h i l e t h e f l i g h t a n g l e i s measured i n t h e middle o f a p a r t o f a r o u t e i n o r d e r t o l e s s e n by a f a c t o r o f 2 t h e e r r o r o f t h e measured a n g l e d u r i n g f l i g h t w i t h t h e u s e o f a magnetic compass. a c o r r e c t i o n i s a l l o w e d f o r t h e c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s j u s t a s i n maps o f c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s . b ) . p r i m a r i l y on p i s t o n . c ) .000. a n d o b l i q u e or h o r i z o n t a l ( F i g . they can be of t h e following types (Fig. A t a l a t i t u d e of 60°. I n c i v i l a v i a t i o n .. 0 0 0 a r e u s e d a s a i r c r a f t maps f o r g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n a n d a p p r o x i ­ mate d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t by means o f r a d i o engineering f a c i l i t i e s . t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e s p l i c e d s h e e t s r e a c h e s 1 . CPmid i s t h e mean l a t i t u d e b e t w e e n t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n a n d a i r c r a f t . it i s p o s s i b l e t o s p l i c e o n l y o n e s t r i p or o n e c o l u m n o f t h e s e m a p s . Xa i s t h e l o n g i t u d e o f t h e a i r ' c r a f t . t h e y a r e often called perspective projections. 1 .000 ( w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f one s h e e t ) a p p e a r s i n p r a c t i c e as a s t r a i g h t l i n e .. Maps w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 4 . t r a n s ­ v e r s e or e q u a t o r i a l ( F i g .e n g i n e a i r c r a f t and h e l i c o p t e r s . 8 cm. 0 0 0 .000 During t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t by means o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s . t h e r e f o r e .e. 1 . 2 ) without a break. w h i l e t h e loxodrome i s t h e arc of a logarithmic s p i r a l . T h e o r t h o d r o m e w i t h a l e n g t h u p t o 1 2 0 0 km o n . 0 0 0 .26): a ) C e n t r a l or gnomonic. i n d i r e c t i o n s which i n t e r s e c t t h e m e r i d i a n s . 1. 2 5 . According t o t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e p l a n e o f t h e f i g u r e . azimuthal p r o j e c t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o n o r m a l or p o l a r ( F i g . or t h e mean l a t i t u d e o f t h e s h e e t ( s h e e t s ) i f t h e ' a p ­ p r o x i m a t e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s unknown.. t h e l o x o d r o m e s e c t i o n s w i t h a l e n g t h up t o 6 0 0 km a r e l i k e w i s e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e f o r m o f a s t r a i g h t l i n e . 000 from f o u r s h e e t s ( 2 x . 2 5 . T h e r e f o r e . maps w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 1 .I t i s e v e n i m p o s s i b l e t o s p l i c e a map w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 2 . 1 .-- ha\ sin p. m a p s w i t h a and 1:2. 36 km (see Fig. 0 0 0 a n d 1:2. b).

Centers of Projection i n Azimuthal P r o j e c t i o n s . on s u c h p r o j e c t i o n s p o i n t s M and N on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w i l l b e p r o ­ j e c t e d a t a d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e from t h e point of tangency of t h e plane o f t h e f i g u r e w i t h t h e E a r t h ' s sur­ face. 2 6 . Fig. fi Position of the Fig. (b) T r a n s v e r s e . d) External. ( c ) Oblique.25.b) Steriographic. when t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s l o c a t e d above t h e p l a n e o f t h e f i g u r e : p o i n t D. when t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s i n f i ­ n i t e l y s e p a r a t e d from t h e p l a n e o f t h e f i g u r e : p o i n t C.26. Azimuthal P r o j e c t i o n s : ( a ) Normal. 35 . when t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s s e p a ­ r a t e d from t h e p o i n t of c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p l a n e o f t h e f i g u r e by a p o i n t B. 1 . D 1 1 A s i s e v i d e n t from F i g . I n a v i a t i o n . P a r a l l e l s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by concentric circles. 1. c e n t r a l p o l a r and s t e r e o g r a p h i c p o l a r p r o j e c t i o n s are generally used. the r a d i i of which depend on t h e c e n t e r of t h e p r o j e c t i o n and t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e position. distance equal t o the diameter of the Earth (globe): c) Orthographic. Meridians i n azimuthal ( p o l a r ) p r o j e c t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by s t r a i g h t l i n e s which converge t o a p o l e a t an a n g l e e q u a l t o t h e d i f ­ ference i n longitude: 6 = AA. 1.

. ( b ) Appearance of t h e P r o j e c t i o n . (1. l e t u s f i n d t h e s p e c i a l s c a l e s ( m . e . 1. n ) for t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s ( m e r i d i a n s and p a r a l l e l s ) : w h e r e dp i s t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a d i u s of t h e u n r o l l i n g .27) Here. 1. From F i g u r e 1 . r = R cos $ i s t h e r a d i u s of t h e p a r a l l e l . C e n t r a l P o l a r (Gnomonic) P r o j e c t i o n : ( a ) Position of t h e P l a n e o f t h e F i g u r e .27. Integrating the latter. we obtain: c _ m= Rd'p Rdv sec2 'p + - 1 L=ec2. n = cosec 'p.. (1.Central polar (gnomonic projection) The c e n t e r o f p r o j e c t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e center of the Earth (globe) a t the point 0 (Fig.9 or m coset2 'p. e . a ) . I n order t o have a complete i d e a of t h e p r o j e c t i o n . i . .27. i . 2 7 . p = R ctg 'p. a p o s i t i v e i n c r e a s e i n l a t i t u d e ( $ ) c o r r e s p o n d s t o a n e g a t i v e i n c r e a s e /41 in the radius (p). Translator's note: 36 cosec = c s c . .28) a > P l a n e o f the Figure 90' Fig. projection: it i s p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e t h e e q u a t i o n of t h i s 6 = A.

t h e moving a z i m u t h o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e o n i t . I n t h i s case. 1 8 0 . which i n t h i s case a p p e a r s q s t h e c e n t e r of t h e p r o ­ jection. The p r o p e r t y o f o r t h o d r o m i c i t y o f a c e n t r a l p o l a r p r o j e c t i o n h a s been used f o r t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f o b l i q u e c e n t r a l p r o j e c t i o n s which have been used a t r a d i o g o n i o m e t r i c p o i n t s i n c i v i l a v i a t i o n . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . a n d n o t e q u a l l y l a r g e ( m n # 1 ) . t h e orthodrome on it i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s t r a i g h t l i n e . while the intersection of the plane of a great circle with t h e plane of t h e f i g u r e is a s t r a i g h t l i n e .29) while it i s p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e a c t u a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e ortho­ drome a t t h e l o c a t i o n a n a l o g o u s l y w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e m e a s u r e d a n g l e o n t h e map: (1. n o t e q u a l l y s p a c e d ( m # 1 a n d n # 11. i f i t i s n o t e q u a l t o 0 . and t h e d i r e c t i o n . t h e coordinates of i t s intermediate p o i n t s . The m i d d l e o f t h e base ( t h e m i d d l e o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e d i s t a n c e b e ­ t w e e n two r a d i o g o n i o m e t e r s ) w a s t a k e n as t h e p o i n t o f t a n g e n c y o f t h e p l a n e o f t h e f i g u r e o f s u c h maps. t h e c o o r d i n a t e s 37 .Therefore. Although t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s n o t i s o g o n a l . The d i s t o r t i o n s o f d i r e c t i o n s a n d d i s t a n c e s on t h i s p r o j e c t i o n are g r e a t . it i s i m p o s s i b l e t o u s e a p r o t r a c t o r t o m e a s u r e t h e d i r e c t i o n s a n d a s c a l e t o m e a s u r e t h e d i s t a n c e s on t h e map w i t h o u t c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o r r e c t i o n s .30) ­ /42 w h e r e B i s t h e m e a s u r e d a n g l e o n t h e map o f a g i v e n p r o j e c t i o n . The l o x o d r o m e a n d o t h e r l i n e s o f p o s i t i o n o f t h e g i v e n p r o j e c t i o n a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by complex c u r v e s . D i s t o r t i o n o f d i r e c t i o n s o n t h e map w i l l b e e q u a l : (1. c1 i s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a n g l e i n a l o c a t i o n . or 2 7 0 ° . and @ i s t h e l a t i t u d e of t h e f i n a l point of t h e orthodrome. t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s n o t isogonal (m # n). T h i s remarkable p r o p e r t y i s ex­ p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p l a n e o f t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f a g r e a t c i r c l e ( p l a n e of t h e o r t h o d r o m e ) a l w a y s p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t e r o f t h e E a r t h . while the regularity i n the distortion of directions is u s e d for c a l c u l a t i n g t h e n o m o g r a m s o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e d i r e c t i o n . d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e a z i m u t h on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . 9 0 . S i n c e t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s n o t i s o g o n a l . T h e g n o m o n i c s y s t e m a n d t h e nomogram o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e d i r e c ­ t i o n can be used f o r t h e g r a p h i c (approximate) c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e length of t h e orthodrome. A c e n t r a l p o l a r p r o j e c t i o n i s u s e d for c o n s t r u c t i n g g n o m o n i c systems.

s i n c e t h e s p h e r i c a l h y p e r b o l a on t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d by a hyperbola.--111-111 I I III 111111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . w i t h c i r c l e s p l o t t e d a t e q u a l d i s t a n c e s from t h e a i r p o r t . 1 1 1 1 11-11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II” - . 1. equal t o the principal scale t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e g l o b e . f r o m w h i c h i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e s h o r t e s t o r t h o d r o m e d i s t a n c e i n a n y a i ­ r e c t i o n t o a g i v e n p o i n t o n a map. Equally spaced azimuthal ( c e n t r a l ) p r o j e c t i o n T h i s p r o j e c t i o n i s c o n s t r u c t e d by c a l c u l a t i n g and t r a n s f o r m i n g conventional meridians ( r a d i i ) t o f u l l s i z e . The p r o j e c t i o n i s u s e d o n l y f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f s p e c i a l s m a l l .28.. ­ /43 Stereographic polar projection The c e n t e r o f p r o j e c t i o n i n a s t e r e o g r a p h i c p o l a r p r o j e c t i o n Fig.. 0 0 0 .1 ) a r e made o n s u c h a p r o j e c t i o n . Stereographic Polar Projection: ( a ) Position of the P o i n t o f P r o j e c t i o n .o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t a r e v e r y e a s i l y d e f i n e d as t h e i n ­ t e r s e c t i o n o f t w o s t r a i g h t orthodrome b e a r i n g s ( l i n e s ) extended from t h e radiogoniometers. The g e o g r a p h i c m e r i d i a n s a n d p a r a l l e l s a r e r e p r e ­ s e n t e d by complex c u r v e s .1111. ( b ) Appearance o f t h e P r o j e c t i o n . 38 --.r a n g e n a v i g a t i o n ( D S L N .=1 = -I. Maps o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l r a n g e f i n d i n g ( h y p e r b o l i c ) s y s t e m o f l o n g .1 - . w h i c h a r e u s e d a s r e f e r e n c e maps f o r m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e s f r o m a c e n t r a l p o i n t o n t h e map. f o r e x a m p l e .s c a l e maps ( 1 : 4 0 . U s u a l l y a l a r g e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or a v i a t i o n c e n t e r . 0 0 0 ) . This does not allow t h e d i r e c t i o n s t o be measured. I n such a pro­ j e c t i o n . a map i s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e p o i n t o f t a n ­ g e n c y a t Vnukovo A i r p o r t . i s c h o s e n as t h e p o i n t o f t a n ­ gency o f t h e p l a n e o f t h e f i g u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n .

m = n= s e d . III.1111-~-. 1 .~111111111111111 111 1 I 11111 1 1 11 11111111 I 1111 111.IIIIIIIIII. a ) . The s p e c i a l s c a l e a l o n g t h e p a r a l l e l i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e e q u a ­ tion /44 H e r e C$ = 9 0 ° - 8 .9 . whose r a d i i a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e tangent of t h e l a t i t u d e .I i s s e p a r a t e d from t h e p o i n t of tangency o f t h e p l a n e of t h e f i g u r e by two r a d i i o f t h e g l o b e a t t h e p o i n t B ( F i g .~-I -1 .31) . The p a r a l l e l s a r e c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s . and from t h e p o i n t o f tangency of t h e plane o f t h e paper a t an angle equal t o t h e d i f f e r ­ ence i n longitude: 6 = Ax. b ) . 39 ip I 1 1 1 1 II I. 2 tg- e .SecZsin 6 2 i. p e = 2R tg - 2 ' The m e r i d i a n s i n t h e p r o j e c t i o n a r e s t r a i g h t l i n e s w h i c h d i ­ v e r g e r a d i a l l y from t h e p o l e ( F i g . while after integration m= 1 cos2 2 e = sec 26 -2 (1.e.= secz 2 e (+)90- .9) = s i n 8 . w h i l e t h e a n g l e An e q u a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n c a n b e d e r i v e d f r o m e q u a t i o n s o f t h e e l e m e n t s shown i n F i g u r e 1 . H e r e t h e a n g l e 8 = 90° . 2 8 . 2 8 .30) The s p e c i a l s c a l e a l o n g t h e p a r a l l e l i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e e q u a ­ tion 2R tgodA a 2 but cos 9 = cos (90 . 2 8 . (1. 1 . so t h a t e 2 = n = . ti = A.

T h i s makes t h e p r o j e c t i o n i n ­ e f f e c t i v e f o r use i n rangefinding systems. A k k u r a t o v . respectively. i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e determining d i r e c t i o n s i n t h e p o l a r regions according t o a sugges­ t i o n by V . t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e l e n g t h s a t t h e p o l e s d o e s n o t e x c e e d 3% ( a n d a t 60° l a t i t u d e . 1:3. The b a s i c a d v a n t a g e o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s i t s i s o g o n a l i t y a n d i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t o r t i o n of lengths i n the p o l a r regions. I . Then t h e t r u e G r e e n ­ wich f l i g h t a n g l e w i l l e q u a l : where TFAar i s a n a r b i t r a r y f l i g h t a n g l e m e a s u r e d f r o m a d i r e c t i o n p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e G r e e n w i c h m e r i d i a n ( A = g o o ) . since l i n e s of equal l e n g t h w i l l b e r e p r e s e n t e d by e c c e n t r i c c i r c l e s . a c i r c l e d r a w n o n t h e g l o b e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a c i r c l e on t h e p l a n e ( m a p ) .000.000. A e = 90° i s t h e 40 .T h e r e f o r e . 2 8 . a s u p p l e m e n t a r y s y s t e m o f " a r b i t r a r y " mer­ i d i a n s ( F i g . i t h a s b e e n u s e d f o r p u b l i s h i n g maps o f t h e p o l a r r e g i o n s with s c a l e s of 1:2. which a r e u s e d f o r g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and a p p r o x i m a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t by m e a n s o f r a d i o d e v i c e s . a c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e a n g l e of convergence o f the meridians i s allowed according t o t h e formula /45 - w h e r e A. It is p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e it ( j u s t as i n c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s ) a l o n g t h e f l i g h t a n g l e . T h e o r t h o d r o m e on maps o f a s t e r e o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n h a s a n i n s i g n i f i c a n t bend toward t h e e q u a t o r and i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n p r a c ­ t i c e as a s t r a i g h t l i n e .000. The l o x o d r o m e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a l o g a r i t h m i c s p i r a l . On maps o f a s t e r e o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n . The maximum d i s t o r t i o n o f l e n g t h s a t 7 0 ° l a t i t u d e d o e s n o t e x ­ c e e d 3 % ( 3 km i n 1 0 0 k m ) . On maps o f a s t e r e o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n . a r e t h e l o n g i t u d e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n a n d t h e a i r ­ craft . and 1:4. There­ f o r e .000. t h i s p r o j e c t i o n i s i s o g o n a l ( m = n). 1 . a n d A.000. h o w e v e r . 4 % ) . b ) p a r a l l e l t o t h e Greenwich m e r i d i a n ( A = O o ) and perpendicular t o it ( A = 90°) i s p l o t t e d . which i s measured i n t h e middle o f t h e p a r t o f t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e j o i n i n g t h e c o n t r o l ( r o t a t i n g ) p o i n t s of t h e f l i g h t path.000. w h e r e a s i f t h e p l a n e o f t h e f i g u r e i s i n ­ t e r s e c t e d ( f o r e x a m p l e . I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t by means o f an a i r ­ c r a f t r a d i o compass. b u t n o t e q u a l l y s p a c e d ( m # 1 a n d n # 1) or e q u a l l y l a r g e ( m n # 1 ) . t h e c e n t e r of t h i s c i r c l e does not coincide with t h e projection of t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c i r c l e on t h e g l o b e . a t 70° l a t i t u d e ) .

and w e w i l l ob­ t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y row o f map s h e e t s : 50 + > 12. columns /46 - To c h o o s e t h e n e c e s s a r y map s h e e t . the point c o o r d i n a t e s l a t i t u d e 50° N. T h e o r d i n a l n u m b e r o f t h e s h e e t w i l l t h e n b e 30 + 1 2 = 42. T . the map s h e e t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h r o w . Nomenclature o f Maps A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .000. The s h e e t s a r e s i t u a t e d i n r o w s a l o n g p a r a l l e l s w h i c h r u n f r o m t h e e q u a t o r t o a l a t i t u d e o f 84O. M . e q u a l l y s p a c e d c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n by r u l i n g t h e i n d i c a t e d map e v e r y 4 d e g r e e s i n l a t i t u d e a n d e v e r y 6 d e g r e e s i n l o n g i t u d e .000 (1 c m = 1 km) w h i c h i s e x e c u t e d i n a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e b a s i c t o p o g r a p h i c a l map o f t h e w o r l d . c o m p o s i t e t a b l e s h a v e been c o n s t r u c t e d . longitude L e t u s d i v i d e t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t by 4 . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e a p p r o x i m a t e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e p o i n t f o r whose r e g i o n t h e s h e e t i s selected. w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e s i g n a t i o n s showing t h e rows and c o l u m n s o f o r d i n a l n u m b e r s o f t h e maps ( S u p p l e m e n t 1 ) .s c a l e maps w i t h a s t r a i g h t . number f r o m 1 t o 6 0 . I . and Xw = 270° i s t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r o u t e ( p a r t o f t h e p a t h ) t o t h e w e s t o f t h e Greenwich m e r i d i a n . Thus. G . R . E a c h s h e e t o f a row h a s a n o r d i n a l i n g o f t h e s h e e t s b e g i n s from t h e 180th w e s t t o east. Therefore. E . B . Countmeridian and proceeds from t o t h e prime (Greenwich) number 31. J . L . T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n i s c a l l e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l map nomenclature. P . E a c h row i s d e s i g n a t e d by a l e t t e r i n t h e L a t i n alphabet: A . As d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . w h i c h i s d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e l e t t e r M. C . T h e s e t a b l e s a r e e x e c u t e d on s m a l l .l o c a t i o n of t h e r o u t e ( p a r t o f t h e p a t h ) t o t h e e a s t o f t h e Green­ wich m e r i d i a n . S . For t h e p u r p o s e o f q u i c k l y c h o o s i n g a g i v e n s h e e t o f a m a p . H . 0 . J+ L e t u s d i v i d e t h e l o n g i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t by 6 . e a c h o f them b e a r s a d e s i g n a t i o n o f i t s r a n k i n a d e f i n i t e s y s t e m . For e x a m p l e : 69O E . F. There a r e a t o t a l o f 2 1 rows i n each hemisphere. 41 ““4. N . e a c h s h e e t o f t h i s map e n c o m p a s s e s a t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f 4 O o f l a t i t u d e and 6 O o f l o n g i t u d e . T h i s h a s made i t p o s s i b l e t o com­ p i l e an i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e s h e e t s o f maps. a n d w e w i l l o b ­ tain: 6 9 + 6 > 11. T h e map s h e e t s r e f e r r i n g meridian from t h e east have t h e o r d i n a l o f map n u m b e r s a r e o b t a i n e d . a map w i t h a s c a l e o f 1:1. Q . K . i . U (maps f o r l a t i t u d e s g r e a t e r t h a n 84O a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n p e r ­ spective projections). For c o n v e n i e n c e i n s e l e c t i n g map s h e e t s . D .

0 0 0 . searching f o r small objects i n t h e execution of s p e c i a l t a s k s . a n d 1:2. a map s h e e t w i t h a s c a l e o f 1:1. c r e w s e n g i n e e r i n g and a s t r o n o m i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . 0 0 0 a n d u p . and 1:500.000.000 a n d 1 : 5 0 0 . 1 .000. b e g i n n i n g w i t h a s c a l e o f 1:1.000 c o n t a i n s 4 map s h e e t s w i t h a scale o f 1:500. 0 0 0 i n t o s h e e t s w i t h l a r g e r scales i s carried out. 0 0 0 . 5 0 0 . Roman a n d A r a b i c n u m e r a l s a r e u s e d for t h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n .000.000. Crews o f l i g h t a i r c r a f t and h e l i c o p t e r s a t c o m p a r a t i v e l y low s p e e d s u s e w h i l e crews o f h i g h maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1:1. 0 0 0 . which are d e s i g n a t e d by l e t t e r s o f t h e R u s s i a n a l p h a b e t : A.I n a d d i t i o n . S h e e t s o f maps w i t h l a r g e r s c a l e s have s t a n d a r d schemes q f arrangement with­ i n t h e l i m i t s o f a sheet with a scale o f 1:1.000 a n d u p ( F i g . Scheme f o r S p l i c i n g Map S h e e t s with an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Projection.000. H e r e t h e map nomenclature r e t a i n s t h e designation of t h e s h e e t s i n t h e i n i t i a l d i v i s i o n . 1 : 1 . o n t h ' e f a c e o f e a c h map s h e e t i s a d i a g r a m s h o w i n g The how t h e g i v e n s h e e t f i t s .000. B y C y and D . o f l i g h t a i r c r a f t a t l o w s p e e d s a n d h e l i c o p t e r s u s e maps w i t h o n l y t h e l a s t two s c a l e s .. 0 0 0 . 2) F l i g h t maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1 : 2 .000. 2 9 ) .. 5 0 0 . 1:3. 1 : 2 . t o t h e a d j o i n i n g o n e ( F i g .000.000 a r e u s e d i n c i v i l a v i a t i o n for g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and p l o t t i n g o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s w i t h t h e a i d o f r a d i o For t h e s e p u r p o s e s . and f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s ) . 1 . 3 0 ) . 1 : 2 . F i g . 0 0 0 .000.000) i s n o t i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d i s e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e y a r e p r i n t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e g i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e p u b l i s h e d a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e map s h e e t s .000.000.000. 2 9 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 a n d 1:1. i t i s p o s ­ s i b l e t o d i v i d e maps i n t o s e v e r a l g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s c a l e s . a r e u s e d i n c i v i l a v i a t i o n d u r i n g f l i g h t s for s p e c i a l p u r ­ p o s e s ( g e o m a g n e t i c mapping and p h o t o g r a p h y . T h e n o m e n c l a t u r e o f map s h e e t s w i t h s m a l l s c a l e s ( 1 : 2 . Maps U s e d f o r A i r c r a f t Navigation ' /47 - D e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k s t o b e f u l f i l l e d . s h e e t on which t h i s d i a g r a m i s drawn f i t s i n t h e m i d d l e and i s shaded. compi­ l a t i o n o f diagrams f o r p i e r c i n g c l o u d s .000. 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . c h e m i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f areas. 42 ­ /48 . " j o i n i n g " o f r a d i o e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s i n a i r p o r t r e g i o n s . w i t h s c a l e s o f 1 : 5 0 0 . t h e d i v i s i o n o f a map s h e e t w i t h a s c a l e o f 1:1. 0 0 0 . s p e e d a i r c r a f t u s e maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1 : 2 . 0 0 0 . 1) Maps w i t h d e t a i l e d o r i e n t a t i o n . 3) A i r c r a f t maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1:4. a n d 1:4.000. 1 .000 a r e u s e d i n c i v i l a v i a t i o n a s b a s i c f l i g h t m a p s . By a n a n a l o g o u s m e t h o d .000. F o r e x a m p l e .

000. 0 0 0 a n d u p ( t o w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s on d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s o f a p p l i ­ cation: l i n e s of e q u a l d i s t a n c e from d e f i n i t e p o i n t s . c o m p o s i t e t a b l e s o f map sheets. s p e c i a l f l i g h t maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1:1.000. azimuths from r a d i o . T h e s e i n c l u d e maps w i t h r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s o f s m a l l e r s c a l e s : maps w i t h t i m e z o n e s . Scheme for D i v i d i n g a Map S h e e t w i t h a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Projection.S p e c i a l maps w i t h s c a l e s o f 1 : 4 0 .000 a n d w i t h p l o t t e d and marked f l i g h t r o u t e s a r e p u b l i s h e d f o r c i v i l aviation. T h e o r t h o d r o m e o n s u c h maps i s p r a c ­ tically a straight line. are used. w i t h t h e l e a s t d i s t o r t i o n s o f a n g l e s and l e n g t h s along t h e r o u t e .30. A l s o . t h e a e r o g r a p h i c f e a ­ t u r e s of t h e r e g i o n s f o r which it i s compiled. 1:2.000 T h e c o n t e n t s o f a map d e p e n d o n i t s s c a l e . m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n s . A s a r u l e . 43 .000). 0 0 0 . 4) 1:2. t h e y a r e c o m p i l e d on o b l i q u e c y l i n d r i c a l or o b l i q u e c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s . etc.e n g i n e e r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n s . a h y p e r b o l i c system. and t h e purpose o f t h e map. 1. etc. Fig.000.

swamp. T h e n u m b e r o f p o i n t s d r a w n d e p e n d s on t h e s c a l e o f t h e map a n d t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y o f t h e a r e a . and country r o a d s . color. meadow. In l i g h t l y populated areas. d e p e n d i n g o n t h e s c a l e o f t h e map a n d t h e a r e a l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p o i n t s .s c a l e maps o f d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . (c) populated p o i n t s . H y d r o g r a p h y i s shown on m a p s b y a b l u e p e n d s on t h e s c a l e a n d p u r p o s e o f t h e map. etc. t h e h e i g h t o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l s a b o v e s e a l e v e l i s d e s i g n a t e d by numbeps. 3) I t i s e x p r e s s e d by brown s h a d i n g . a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y c o n t o u r s or c o n ­ v e n t i o n a l s y m b o l s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p o i n t ' s d i m e n s i o n s or i t s population. r i v e r s . w i t h h e i g h t i n t e r v a l s d e p e n d i n g on t h e s c a l e o f t h e map.On maps o f a l l s c a l e s . . On s m a l l . l a k e s ) . volumetric idea of t h e nature of t h e r e l i e f . B e s i d e s t h e above g e n e r a l c o n t e n t s o f maps. a n d t h e s c a l e o f t h e map a n d i t s p u r p o s e . 2) I t i s e x p r e s s e d by l a y e r e d c o l o r i n g . w i t h a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e h e i g h t o f t h e s e p o i n t s above s e a l e v e l . a relief i s e x p r e s s e d by t h r e e m e t h o d s : 1) I t i s e x p r e s s e d b y i s o l i n e s o f e q u a l h e i g h t on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e r e l i e f ( h o r i z o n t a l s ) . This use of color gives a n a t u r a l . (d) network o f r a i l r o a d s . /49 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e methods o f r e p r e s e n t i n g r e l i e f on maps. specially prepared 44 . . a s p e c i a l c o l o r d e s i g ­ n a t e d on a s p e c i a l ( h y p s o m e t r i c ) s c a l e o n t h e l o w e r e d g e o f t h e map i s a s s i g n e d t o each i n t e r v a l of r e l i e f h e i g h t . t h e v e g e t a t i v e or g r o u n d c o v e r . . by s p e c i a l c o l o r i n g w i t h t h i c k e n i n g of b r o w n i n t h e h i g h e s t a r e a s o f t h e r e l i e f a n d t h e steepest slopes. a r e shown. some o f t h e p o i n t s a r e omitted.). (b) hydrography ( s e a s . e . I t s d e t a i l de­ P o p u l a t e d p o i n t s . e . a l l populated points a r e designated. i . sand. On m a p s . desert. m a r k s o f command h e i g h t s ( w h i c h e x c e e d n e i g h b o r i n g h e i g h t s ) . . highways. (e) v e g e t a t i o n or g r o u n d c o v e r ( l a r g e f o r e s t s . The l e g e n d s o f t h e i n d i c a t e d e l e m e n t s a r e u s u a l l y e x e c u t e d on t h e maps a t t h e l o w e r e d g e o f t h e s h e e t . The d e t a i l o f t h e h i g h w a y n e t w o r k d e p e n d s o n i t s d e n s i t y . t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e d r a w n i n some k i n d o f detail: (a) relief. (f) i s o l i n e s o f m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n s and m a g n e t i c a n o m a l i e s . l i n e s formed a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of a r e l i e f w i t h h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e s which are s i t u a t e d one above t h e o t h e r .

and c o o r d i n a t e s i n f l i g h t a l o n g a n o r t h o ­ d r o m e . I n F i g u r e 1 . . 1. . a n d s p e c i a l m a r k i n g s f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l meas­ u r e m e n t s and c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e shown. t h e arrange­ ment o f r a d i o . Orthodrome on t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e : (a) P o s i t i o n of t h e Orthodrome on a S p h e r e . . An o r t h o d r o m e . l i n e X O M i s t h e o r t h o d r o m e e x a m i n e d b y u s . which l i k e w i s e a p p e a r s as an o r t h o d r o m e . 1. l e t u s e x a m i n e a n o r t h o d r o m e on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ( F i g . e . o r t h o d r o m e d i r e c t i o n i s t h e main and most w i d e s p r e a d d i r e c t i o n . 3 1 . s o m e t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e g e n e r a l c o n t e n t s a r e o m i t t e d or s i m p l i f i e d for t h e p u r p o s e o f a m o r e d e t a i l e d a n d g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the navigational situation. On s o m e f o r m s o f s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d m a p s ( m a p . i s a n e x c e p t i o n .31.d i a g r a m s ) . l i e s a t a n a n g l e t o t h e E a r t h ' s e q u a t o r and i n t e r s e c t s it a t two p o i n t s . i s t h e m e r i d i a n o f t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e o r t h o ­ drome w i t h t h e e q u a t o r . an I n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n a l l t h e problems connected with measuring moving a n g l e s . of 6. 45 I . Only t h e e q u a t o r . t h e d i s t a n c e between which ( a l o n g t h e a r c o f t h e e q u a t o r ) i s e q u a l t o 180O.31). M e a s u r i n g D i r e c t i o n s and D i s t a n c e s on t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e Orthodrome on t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e In the practice of aircraft navigation at the present t i m e .f l i g h t maps r e p r e s e n t a n a v i g a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . d i s t a n c e s . l i n e X O M ~i s t h e a r c of t h e e q u a t o r . i n g e n e r a l .e n g i n e e r i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . P H Y M I P s i s t h e m e r i d i a n o f t h e p o i n t M on /50 - Fig. p o s i ­ t i o n l i n e s o f a i r c r a f t . PNXOP. a a n d b . p o i n t s 10 a n d X O + 1 8 0 are t h e p o i n t s of i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e orthodrome with t h e equator. ( b ) R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n L o n g i t u d e s a n d L a t ­ i t u d e s o f P o i n t s on t h e Orthodrome.

. Determining D i s t a n c e on a n O r t h o ­ drome.de o f t h e p o i n t M . X i s t h e 1ondigu. sec A sec '9. Then I n t h e f u t u r e .t h e o r t h o d r o m e . e . L e t us d r o p from p o i n t s MI and M 2 . Fig. I t is obvious t h a t t h e t r i a n g l e 0 M1M2 w i l l be a r i g h t t r i ­ angle. 90° .tgq. ( i s t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t M.a o ) . b ) and e x t e n d it t o an i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e v e r t i c a l o f p o i n t M o n t h e or­ thodrome ( p o i n t M2). L e t us e r e c t a normal t o t h e p l a n e of t h e equator a t p o i n t M1 ( s e e Fig. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e moving a z i m u t h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e formula tg a -. ? . we w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e l o n g i t u d e o f A0 e q u a l t o z e r o . f o r t h e s a k e o f s i m p l i c i t y . H e r e MlM. Xo I t i s obvious t h a t l i n e M1N w i l l be a l i n e of t h e s i n e of angle A . 3 2 ) i s v a l i d o n l y f o r c a s e s when t h e p o i n t A 0 i s the point of origin of the longitude. w h i l e an­ g l e M1NM2 w i l l b e t h e a p e r t u r e a n g l e o f t h e p l a n e o f t h e e q u a t o r Here t h e t r i a n g l e w i t h t h e p l a n e o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e (90° .33) 46 . +B a r e p o i n t s on t h e o r t h o ­ I d r o m e o f maximum l a t i t u d e . w i l l b e t h e t a n g e n t line of the angle 4 .32) F o r m u l a ( 1 . t h e r e f e r ­ ence system o f l o n g i t u d e s must be r e d u c e d t o t h i s p o i n t . perpendiculars t o t h e aperture axis of t h e o r t h o d r o m e w i t h t h e e q u a t o r 1 0 0 . One o f them w i l l l i e i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e equator. following equation w i l l be v a l i d : tg(90"-uo) = '8 'p the ­ sln A (1. NM1M2 w i l l a l s o b e a r i g h t t r i a n g l e .a0 i s t h e a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e p l a n e o f t h e e q u a ­ t o r and t h e p l a n e of t h e o r t h o d r o m e .B . 1 . (1. t h e l o n g i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t A0 must be s u b t r a c t e d from t h e l o n g i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t M(AM). w h i c h a r e c a l l e d v e r t e x p o i n t s . T h u s . . 3 1 . When t h e l o n g i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t i s n o t e q u a l t o z e r o . b o t h w i l l converge a t one p o i n t on t h e a p e r t u r e a x i s ( p o i n t N ) . t h e second i n t h e plane of t h e orthodrome. for p o i n t M a n d for a n y p o i n t o n t h e o r t h o d r o m e . 1.32.

F o r m u l a s ( 1 . i t tg 4 tg a =.33) (1. 3 3 a ) : tg a = tg h cosec y. t h e l i n e a r s c a l e o f l o n g i t u d e i s e q u a l t o t h e l i n e a r s c a l e of l a t i t u d e m u l t i p l i e d by t h e c o s i n e o f l a t i ­ tude. and (1. 47 .33) t o A cosec 'p (1. With t h e ex­ c e p t i o n o f s p e c i a l c a s e s . i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y d i f f e r ­ ence q u o t i e n t s i n X and t g w i l l a l s o be constant f o r every length of an orthodrome and w i l l e q u a l : sin A tg 4 = t g a0 = c o n s t r e m a i n s v a l i d f o r e v e r y + sin h -= d d t g 'p tg a0 = const. c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t sin h tg%=- tgcp tre a r r i v e a t ( 1 .tg 4. d'p I wh e n c e cos -. e .33a) are o b t a i n e d by d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n l e n g t h o f an o r t h o d r o m e . t h e t a n g e n t of t h e moving a z i m u t h of t h e o r t h o ­ d h .33a) or of Formulas (1.tg is possible t o reduce (1.32).tg =o COS a COS^ 'p or. 3 3 ) c a n b e u s e d o n l y i n t h o s e c a s e s when t h e p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f a n o r t h o d r o m e w i t h t h e e q u a t o r ( i . d i v i d e d by t h e co­ drome w i l l b e e x p r e s s e d b y t h e d e r i v a t i v e 3 s i n e of t h e l a t i t u d e : dh d? tga=- COS 'p .tgao or On t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . Therefore. Since the r a t i o ctg a = ctg h sifi y. 3 2 ) i n t h e form: dsinh dh d T _-. it i s u s u a l l y n e c e s ­ s a r y t o d e a l w i t h two p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . T h e r e f o r e .-­1 sec2~ dh dy . 3 2 ) a n d ( 1 . I n t h e p r a c t i c e o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n .C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t g a0 = t h e form: sin A -.dk . . it i s p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e ( 1 . n e i t h e r o f t h e m i s on t h e e q u a t o r .

e q u a l t o z e r o ) i s known. w h i c h m a k e s i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o n g i t u d e of t h e p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n of an orthodrome with t h e is very important.ctg (Al .A. t h e w i d t h of which i s Elements of a S p h e r i c a l T r i a n g l e . according t o (1.) sin LA. makes it p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e e a s i l y a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g e l e m e n t s of t h e orthodrome. -4) sin (Al . ( b ) R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Angles and S i d e s of a S p h e r i c a l T r i a n g l e . A + cos ((Ai- A.t h e l o n g i t u d e o f a p o i n t on t h e o r t h o d r o m e .34) from which ctg (AI . ( a ) T r i a n g l e on a Fig.b)COS AA + COS (A. 1. E q u a t i o n (1. L e t u s d e r i v e a n e q u a t i o n which makes i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e X o f a g i v e n p o i n t on an o r t h o d r o m e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t w o known p o i n t s o n i t . S p h e r e .) sin AX tg '92 D i v i d i n g b o t h s i d e s o f t h e e q u a t i o n by s i n ( A 1 i n g by t g 4 2 .A I ) . Transforming t h e right-hand sin (?I s i d e of t h i s e q u a t i o n . w e o b t a i n : cos AX /53 - k 'PI -4) - sln (Al -) .).32a). Knowledge o f t h i s c o o r d i n a t e equator (A.341. -­ (1.no) = tg 'pz ctg -ctgdk.) and m u l t i p l y ­ . e n c e of t h e l o n g i t u d e s o f t h e s e p o i n t s a s A A ( A A = A2 . w e w i l l have: tg h -. .33. L e t u s assume t h a t w e have two a r b i t r a r y p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s W w i l l take the differ­ e s u r f a c e w i t h c o o r d i n a t e s 4111 a n d 4 2 1 2 .A.tg 'PI sif(hi - A.) = cos Ah 4. cosec AA sin A). Then.

' The h y p o t e n u s e of t r i a n g l e ONMl i s e q u a l t o t h e r a d i u s o f t h e E a r t h . 3 3 ) . 3 4 ) i n d e p e n d e n t l y . If t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e a n d t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f a n y two p o i n t s a l o n g it are known. w h i l e ON' i s a l i n e o f t h e c o s i n e of a r c 5. we o b t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n f o r a p o i n t w i t h t h e c o o r ­ d i n a t e s 1$1X1: XO). Simple t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f (1. cos s. 3 3 a ) t h e v a l u e c t g X f r o m ( 1 .35) F o r m u l a ( 1 . I n F i g u r e 1 . 3 2 . and t h e n f i n d t h e s o l u t i o n by s u b s t i t u t i n g X i n t o ( 1 . T h e f o r m u l a s f r o m ( 1 . I n g e n e r a l . 3 2 ) and ( 1 . Therefore ­ /54 . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e or d i s t a n c e s a l o n g i t (S) l e t u s d e r i v e e q u a t i o n s w h i c h c o n n e c t t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e p o i n t s of t h e orthodrome with i t s l e n g t h . and s u b s t i t u t i n g i n t o ( 1 . make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i n i t i a l and moving a z i m u t h s o f t h e o r t h o ­ drome.34) f o r t h e v a l u e ( X I as b e f o r e . and a l s o t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f i t s i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s . t h e t r i a n g l e s ONMl and ON1Mz are s i m i l a r . ctg a = t g '92 cos '91 cosec Ah -ctg Ah sin 71. w h i l e t h e h y p o t e n u s e o f t r i a n g l e ON1M2 i s t h e l i n e of t h e cosines of arc 4. g i v e n b y u s . sin A = tg 'p t g a p (1.36a) Given t h e a r b i t r a r y v a l u e o f a p o i n t c o o r d i n a t e on t h e o r t h o ­ d r o m e $ or A . t h e d i s t a n c e ( S ) b e t w e e n t h e l a t t e r i s d e t e r m i n e d as t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e d i s t a n c e s t o the i n i t i a l point: 49 . 3 6 1 . = (1.37) E q u a t i o n ( 1 .l i n e segment o f t h e p a t h when t h e r e i s n o n e c e s s i t y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g elements of t h e orthodrome.'p.36) (l. i t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n t h e v a l u e o f t h e s e c o n d c o o r ­ d i n a t e o f t h i s p o i n t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e f o r m u l a s . 3 5 ) i s u s u a l l y u s e d for c a l c u l a t i n g t h e a z i m u t h o f an orthodrome a t t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t of t h e s t r a i g h t . (1. 3 2 ) t h r o u g h ( 1 . 3 4 1 . i t i s b e t t e r t o s o l v e ( 1 . cos A cds . The s t r a i g h t l i n e ON i s a l i n e o f t h e c o s i n e o f t h e a r c A .32) r e d u c e t o f o r m u l a s w h i c h make it p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s o n an orthodrome : tg 'p = sin h ctguo.Having s u b s t i t u t e d t h e v a l u e X i n (1. 3 7 ) makes i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e orthodrome t o any o f i t s p o i n t s w i t h known c o o r d i n a t e s .

S . T a k i n g t h e r a d i u s o f t h e E a r t h a s e q u a l t o 1. ' L e t u s j o i n p o i n t s P N M a a n d Mb b y v e r t i c a l s w i t h t h e c e n t e r o f t h e E a r t h 0. seSb=l+tgzb Therefore. 4 1 ) i s t h e f i r s t b a s i c formula of s p h e r i c a l t r i g o ­ nometry and i s widely used i n aircraft n a v i g a t i o n with t h e use of astronomical facilities ( t h e remaining formulas of s p h e r i c a l trigo­ nometry a r e given i n Supplement 2 ) . F o r m u l a (1. a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r determining t h e o t h e r elements of t h e orthodrome ( b e s i d e s t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e two p o i n t s ) i s l a c k i n g .. I* Z I f 2 h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t a r e n o t known. 3 3 a ) . t h e l e f t hand s i d e o f t h e f i r s t e q u a t i o n i s e q u a l t o t h e r i g h t . (1. it is necessary t o use t h e s p h e r i c a l t r i a n g l e (PNMaMb) ( F i g . Ma1Mbl=(PNMal) 2 f ( P N M b l ) '-2PNMalPNMb liCOSMalPNMb A t t h e same t i m e . L Malo% 7p .h a n d s i d e o f t h e second. Obviously.cosp (1. b ) .38) For i t s d e r i v a t i o n .40) we o b t a i n : Multiplying both s i d e s of cos a cos b 2 s i n a sin.2tg b tg a cos P = secz a + secz'b. b I + ( 0 Mb . = OMb1 = sec a.39). 2 tg a tg bcos P = 2-2 Seca secb-cosp. f r o m t h e r i g h t t r i a n g l e s O P N M . W w i l l o b t a i n two p l a n e tri­ e a n g l e s PNMalMbl a c d OMalMbl w i t h t h e common s i d e M a l M b l .2sec a sec b cos p . seda=l+t@a. t h e n t h e i n d i c a t e d d i s t a n c e can b e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a cos S = sin 'pl sin 'pz + cos 'pl cos 'p2 cos Ak. OM*. ~ a n d OPNMbl we f i n d : PNM. S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e i n d i c a t e d v a l u e s i n t o (1. 50 .bcos P = cos a cos b . 1 . tg& Pqqb tg a. = sec b.38) i s n o t d e r i v e d f r o m s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c r a t i o s .s1. w e o b t a i n : tg2 b+ tg2 a .I .39) S i n c e M a l Mb1 i s t h e common s i d e o f t h e t r i a n g l e . 1 . (1. L MR1 PNMb TP. L e t u s d r a w t a n g e n t s t o t h e a r c s PNMa a n d PNMb a t t h e p o i n t P N up t o t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e i n d i c a t e d v e r t i c a l s a t p o i n t s Ma1 a n d Mbl ( F i g . = S . 3 3 .40) b y Formula ( 1 . Ma 1 M = (OM.20Ma 1OMb COS Ma OMb 1 (1.

i n which it i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e l i n e M N 1 . 3 2 . 3 6 a ) . t h e r e i s t h e same n e c e s s i t y t o s o l v e t h e i n v e r s e p r o b l e m s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e known o r t h o c r o m i c d i s t a n c e ( S ) .41) h a s t h e form: cos S = sin y1 sin yz + cos 'pl cos 'p2 cos M. and i s a l i n e of t h e s i n e o f t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h i s p o i n t . . sln y = sin Scos a .42) Formula ( 1 .43a) I t i s obvious t h a t b o t h formulas are o b t a i n e d from t h e e q u a t i o n sin S sin 01 = cos 'p2 sln Ah. i which i n t u r n i s d e r i v e d by means o f F i g u r e 1 . i. F o r e x a m p l e . w e have an a n a l y t i c a l form o f a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y t r a n s ­ f o r m a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e on t h e Earth's surface. : (1. 4 3 ) can be t r a n s f o r m e d t o determine t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n p o i n t s a t a known a z i m u t h : sin S =-cos 'p2 sin M sirwr (1. The c o o r d i n a t e X i n t h i s c a s e i s d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 . w h i l e /56 ­ I 51 .I n o u r case. However. l Thus. i s a p e r p e n d i c u l a r dropped from p o i n t B t o t h e p l a n e of t h e equat o r . $ a l o n g t h e t r a v e r s e d orthodrome d i s t a n c e from t h e sin h = tg 'p tg ao. 4 2 ) makes i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e i n i t i a l point. where l i n e B B . F o r t h i s l e t u s r e t u r n t o F i g u r e 1 . t h e azimuth of t h e orthodrome ( a ) a t t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t can be d e t e r mined by t h e f o r m u l a sin a = I [ cos 'p2 sin Ah SihS * (1. 3 4 . (1. i f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t w o p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a n d t h e o r t h o d r o m e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e m S a r e known.is t h e l i n e o f t h e s i n e o f t h e a r c S .. i When d e t e r m i n i n g p o i n t c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e .e. Therefore.43) Formula ( 1 . i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n it i s s o m e t i m e s more c o n v e n i e n t t o a p p l y o t h e r f o r m u l a s w h i c h d e ­ termine s e p a r a t e elements of t h e orthodrome. A t t h e same t i m e . w h i l e l i n e MM2 i s e q u a l t o M N 1 c o s " 0 . MM i s t h e l i n e o f t h e s i n e s f o r arc $.

l i n e OPN i s t h e a x i s o f t h e E a r t h .l i n e B1A2 i s a p e r p e n d i c u l a r dropped from p o i n t B1 t o t h e p l a n e of t h e m e r i d i a n which p a s s e s t h r o u g h p o i n t A . Fig. a r c AoMB i s t h e o r t h o ­ d r o m e . U P 0 i s t h e a x i s o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e . M i s a p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . I f we r o t a t e t h e i n d i c a t e d p l a n e a r o u n d t h e . c a s e . By a s i m i l a r m e t h o d . 1.l i n e B A 1 i n s u c h a way t h a t i t r e m a i n s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e m e r i d i a n o f p o i n t A u p t o t h e moment when l i n e A 2 A 1 b e c o m e s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o In this t h e v e r t i c a l o f p o i n t A . t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e or t h e l a t i t u d e of t h e v e r t e x p o i n t i s determined i f t h e azimuth o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e a t a n y p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s known. t h e d i s t a n c e BA1 w i l l n o t change. and B i s t h e v e r ­ tex point. 52 . Determining S p e c i a l Elements o f an Orthodrome.34. Fig. 1. A2B1 = cos Q~ sin dA. w h i l e i t s l e n g t h w i l l b e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a A1B= A2B1 ­ sina ' from which it f o l l o w s t h a t sin S sin a = cos y2 sin dA. Determining t h e I n i t i a l Azimuth o r t h e V e r t e x o f an Orthodrome. s t r a i g h t l i n e BA1 w i l l be t h e l i n e o f t h e s i n e o f t h e a r c A B . Obviously. 3 5 .35. we w i l l t h e n o b t a i n p l a n e A l A 2 B l B p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e e q u a t o r and t h e p l a n e o f t h e m e r i d i a n o f p o i n t A . a r c A O A B i s t h e e q u a t o r . Let us e r e c t another perpendicular t o t h e plane of t h e equator a t p o i n t A 2 . I n F i g u r e 1 .

t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e a0 a n g l e a r e r e p l a c e d by i n v e r s e f u n c t i o n s of t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e v e r t e x p o i n t which are e q u a l t o them. L e t u s a l s o draw a p l a n e p a r a l l e l t o t h e p l a n e of t h e e q u a t o r t h r o u g h t h e p o l e s P N . Po.44) cos (pB =sin a. dinates: l o n g i t u d e 40° E . ­ /57 POP@ PoPld. l o n g i t u d e 30° E . since t h e p l a n e o f t r i a n g l e h a s a s l o p e t o t h e a x i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o PMO a n d p a r a l l e l t o It i s o b v i o u s t h a t a n g l e P o O P ~i s e q u a l t o t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e v e r t e x p o i n t . c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e v e r t e x p o i n t r a t h e r t h a n of t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t a r e used. t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e o f t h e or­ I n some c a s e s . i n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e t h e e l e m e n t s o f . 3 3 a ) . t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t can be ob­ t a i n e d d i r e c t l y a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 . W i t h a known a z i m u t h o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e a t a n y p o i n t o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . M2 = l a t i t u d e 8 0 ° N . j u s t as f u n c t i o n s o f l o n g i t u d e are. opN=op6 cos (PB whence oP&f TM. s i n c e l i n e s P. w h i l e (1. (1. I n t h e s e c a s e s . To e x p l a i n t h e procedure f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a l l t h e elements o f a n o r t h o d r o m e . from which it f o l l o w s t h a t tg h = sin? tg a . (1.44) is used t o f i n d t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e v e r t e x p o i n t . For e x a m p l e .sin a . ' Angle P o P ~ Oi s a l s o a r i g h t a n g l e . The a n g l e s P o P ~ Oa n d P M P N O w i l l b e r i g h t a n g l e s . ( 1 . and P M . 3 6 a ) h a s t h e f o r m : cos AB = tg ? ctg ?E. l e t u s e x a m i n e ( a s an e x a m p l e ) a n o r t h o d r o m e w h i c h p a s s e s t h r o u g h two p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w i t h t h e s e c o o r ­ M I = l a t i t u d e 60° N . 3 6 a ) . 53 . = cos yM sin a. t h e s t a r t ­ t h o d r o m e u p t o 90°. i n g p o i n t o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e i n t h i s case c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y ( 1 . s i n c e t h e s e a n g l e s d i f f e r b y 90°. t h e o r t h o ­ d r o m e .j L e t us e r e c t a p e r p e n d i c u l a r PMO t o t h e v e r t i c a l o f p o i n t M from t h e c e n t e r of t h e E a r t h s o t h a t it i s l o c a t e d i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e m e r i d i a n o f p o i n t M.45) T h e n it i s n o t d i f f i c u l t thodrome. w h i l e a n g l e PMOPN i s e q u a l t o t h e l a t i t u d e o f p o i n t M. Formula (1. cos OFB= OP. which a l s o a p p e a r s as a complement o f t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e o f t h e o r ­ The l o n g i t u d e o f p o i n t M r e l a t i v e t o .45) h a s t h e f o r m : ctg AB = sin 'p tg u.PN a n d P M P N l i e i n a p l a n e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o PNO. Therefore.

= sin A ctg 7."cosec10".&l = 13. A= (A2- -0) 14'15'. : C o o r d i n a t e s o f any i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t can be determined accord­ ing t o (1. S = 80'17'.246. t h e l o n g i t u d e o f p o i n t M 2 a c c o r d i n g t o i t s l a t i ­ tude is sin 12 =: tg 80"Ig 2"29' = 5. 3 3 a ) . a c c o r d i n g t o (1. w h i l e t h e d i s t a n c e t o p o i n t M 2 .0.455.0. t h e moving a z i m u t h o f t h e orthodrome ( a ) = i4. a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 .043 = 0. .36a).9972. . ~ r= 299'. = 60"4'.36) or (1.371. i s COSS~=COS 14"18'*~0~80"=0. w i l l be: tg cr.F i r s t w e s h a l l c a r r y o u t t h e g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n of t h e p r o b l e m o f f i n d i n g t h e e l e m e n t s 'of a n o r t h o d r o m e . e q u a l s COS S ='COS 4 " 1 8 ' * ~6'~ = 0.57A.0433. A2 = 39'57'.969*0.228. 54671'0*5774--fj.1736=0. 3 2 ) .0.ctg 60"= 0.sin600= 13.ctg 10". For e x a m p l e .S = 80'17' i -60'04' = 20'13'.) ctg (A.1736 The i n i t i a l a z i m u t h o f a n o r t h o d r o m e .A. a c c o r d i n g t o t h e same f o r m u l a .. w e o b t a i n : -A. ctg (A. = sin 4"18'.671.075 ='0. The d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e t o p o i n t M I . M I i s e q u a l t o ctgu = ctg4°18'. for p o i n t .34).. =' 0.868 u = 5".1682. .0. S u b s t i t u t i n g i n t o t h i s equation t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e coord i n a t e s of t h e p o i n t s M I and M2. i s t h e n d e f i n e d a s t h e d i f f e r ­ ence between t h e d i s t a n c e s t o t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t : S = S. /58 ­ According t o ( 1 .­ L e t us d e t e r m i n e it on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f p o i n t tg cr. For t h i s w e s h a l l u s e (1. 54 . i 0 S.228.4986.5 = 0.) = tg 80"ctg W. 2 T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n M I a n d M.

866. L e t u s now a s s u m e t h a t w e h a d t o d e t e r m i n e o n l y t h e a z i m u t h o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e a t p o i n t M I .1736 a =5. 0. u s i n g p o i n t M I .36).431.671 0. For our o r t h o d r o m e . Elementary Segment o f a n Orthodrome o n a Map of a C y l i n d r i ­ cal Projection. 01' I Using t h e azimuth o f t h e orthodrome a t one p o i n t . "= ~ r== . After t h i s . 4 3 a ) .Thus.5. it i s p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e elements of an orthodrome b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t w o p o i n t s a c c o r d i n g t o (1. l e t u s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a n e l e m e n ­ n o r m a l c o n e a t some l a t i t u d e . i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s t a n c e t o a n y p o i n t b y u s i n g ( l .36. O r t h o d r o m e on T o p o g r a p h i c a l Maps o f Different Projections L e t u s e x a m i n e a n o r t h o d r o m e o n maps o f a s i m p l e e q u a l l y s p a c e d c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . Fig. = cos 60"sin 5 ' 0. For t h i s w e w i l l u s e ( 1 . 3 5 ) : ctg a = 0.44). 1. determined. it is p o s s i ­ b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e v e r t e x p o i n t or t h e i n i t i a l azimuth of t h e orthodrome according t o (1.5*0.1736 sin S = 0. c h a n g i n g t o t h e m o v i n g a z i m u t h a c c o r d i n g t o (1.671 -0.38).1736*0. which e s s e n ­ t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a geographical coord i n a t e s y s t e m on a s c a l e o f a n g l e s . a l l t h e necessary elements o f an orthodrome are e a s i l y determined. w e l examine it on t h e above p r o j e c (Fig. however. or i n o u r e x a m p l e : 0. a n d t h e n t o t h e l a t i t u d e of t h e vertex point according t o (1. t h e r a d i u s o f t h i s c o n e when u n r o l l e d e q u a l s : 55 . " = 11.42251 Knowing t h e a z i m u t h o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e a t o n e o f i t s p o i n t s makes.5-5.3456.0436. 20 '' 3. A s i s a l r e a d y known. w e o b t a i n : sin cr. 1. A A sinv / - AA draw tary shal tion T o e x p l a i n t h i s .0872 S = 2'3.0872=Q.44). t h e intermediate p o i n t s o f an orthodrome are e a s i l y /59 Thus.

e a c h o f i t s e l e m e n t s ( i n c l u d i n g e l e m e n t s o f our s t r a i g h t l i n e ) w i l l 1 Therefore. Therefore. Po = ctg 'Po. t h e s t r a i g h t . P = ~ A ~ B ctg . uated i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e axis of t h e cylinder does not acquire a curvature. 'Pa D u r i n g e x t e n s i o n o f our c o n e a l o n g a p a r a l l e l t o a s c a l e n z . Obviously. b u t t h e y must be u n r o l l e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s u r f a c e e l e m e n t s t o an a n g l e e q u a l t o Ah s i n $. b u t curved i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c ­ tion.20) t h e s c a l e of t h e p r o j e c t i o n along t h e p a r a l ­ 1 cos q n=-.l i n e element is s i t u a t e d a t an a n g l e t o t h e a x i s o f t h e c y l i n d e r . (1. i f t h e s t r a i g h t . 1 'p sin a.cosec 'p. i t s r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e w i l l equal: ctg '9 'AB. Therefore. ~ ctg 'p l A s is e v i d e n t . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o s t r a i g h t e n t h e cone f i r s t and t h e n e x t e n d i t . I n o r d e r t o d r a w our u n r o l l e d c o n e o n a c y l i n d r i c a l s u r f a c e . t h e curv­ a t u r e o f our e l e m e n t w i l l e q u a l : =sin r ~ . L e t u s now d r a w a s t r a i g h t l i n e A B i n t h e e a s t . (1. s i t u a t e d a l o n g t h e p a r a l l e l ( i n g e n e r a l . direction During s t r a i g h t e n i n g of t h e cone. i n a d i r e c t i o n perpendicular t o t h e a x i s o f The s t r a i g h t . /60 r ~ l= Coscp . t h e c u r v a t u r e of a curve i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a value inverse t o t h e radius of the curvature.l i n e e l e m e n t .46) I n geometry.or.w e s t on a n e l e m e n t a r y c o n e .l i n e element w i l l i n c r e a s e and w i l l equal: . t h e segments of t h e meridians remain s t r a i g h t l i n e s dur­ i n g s t r a i g h t e n i n g of t h e cone. ~ . Therefore. According t o l e l is equal to: (1. t h e radius of t h e undergo an e x t e n s i o n e q u a l t o cos $ s t r a i g h t . t h e r a d i u s of which w i l l be e q u a l t o t h e r a d i u s of t h e u n r o l l e d cone (r). t a k i n g t h e r a d i u s o f t h e E a r t h a s 1.. t h e i n d i c a t e d s t r a i g h t l i n e w i l l a c q u i r e a c u r v a t u r e . = cos 'p sin a = 1 cosec 'p cosec a.l i n e e l e m e n t s i t ­ the cylinder) acquires a curvature.47) 56 .

The m o v i n g a z i m u t h o f a n o r t h o d r o m e a l o n g a c u r v e c a n b e d e t e r ­ mined i f w e c o n s i d e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s c a l e s m and n a t the investigated points. w h i l e t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t s . f r o m w h i c h i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e maximum c u r v a t u r e o f t h e o r t h o ­ drome w i l l b e o b s e r v e d a t i t s v e r t e x p o i n t s . t h e a c t u a l l y moving a z i m u t h o f t h e orthodrome i n an e q u a l l y s p a c e d c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a tga=d)l d'p /61 cos 'p. The more it i s i n c r e a s e d . However. a n d t h e g r e a t e r t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e vertex points. w i l l appear as p o i n t s o f i n f l e c t i o n . t h e a m p l i t u d e o f t h i s c u r v e w i l l b e increased. t h e o r t h o d r o m e o n a map of an equally spaced c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n h a s a form r e m i n i s c e n t of a s i n e curve.An o r t h o d r o m e o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e d o e s n o t h a v e i t s own c u r v a t u r e o f e a c h e l e m e n t o f a n o r t h o d r o m e o n a map i n a n o r m a l . dy ' I I n o u r c a s e . i n t h i s p r o j e c t i o n t h e d i p angle of t h e tangent t o t h e curve w i l l correspond t o t h e moving a z i m u t h o f t h e orthodrome a t any p o i n t . s i n c e t h e s c a l e s along t h e l o n g i t u d e and l a t i t u d e are e q u a l t o : m = It = sec 'p. 1 . 3 7 . With e q u a l s c a l e s .471. . ILLIT "I gbTA A s a r e s u l t of t h e nonisogon­ a l i t y of an equally spaced projec­ tion. 3 7 ) . This curve is t h e graph of t h e r a t i o of t h e coor­ d i n a t e s of t h e orthodrome with a known i n i t i a l a z i m u t h ( a ) . 1 . t h e d i p a n g l e o f t h e t a n g e n t t o t h e c u r v e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a tgad'h ­ F i g . Theref o r e . I t i s obvious t h a t i n an i s o g o n a l normal c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c ­ t i o n . Graph o f an Ortho­ drome i n a C y l i n d r i c a l Projection. w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e a z i m u t h a t s t a r t i n g p o i n t s . 57 . e q u a l l y s p a c e d c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n w i l l b e e x p r e s s e d b y (1. t h e p o i n t s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e orthodrome w i t h t h e equator (Fig.e. T h u s . t h e s m a l l e r t h e i n i t i a l a z i ­ muth o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e w i l l b e . t h e orthodrome w i l l a l s o have a shape r e m i n i s c e n t of a s i n e curve. I n c o n t r a s t t o an e q u a l l y spaced p r o j e c t i o n . a s a r e s u l t o f t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s c a l e a l o n g t h e l a t i t u d e ( n = no s e c I$). t h e s c a l e n h = no s e c 4 or n h = n 4 s e c 4 ... the slope of a tangent t o t h e c u r v e o f t h e orthodrome d o e s n o t r e f l e c t i t s d i r e c t l y moving a z i m u t h . .

1 . The s c a l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e m e r i d i a n s i n any p a r t o f t h e r e c t a n g l e i s e q u a l t o one. each s t r a i g h t . 1 . R L. Since 1 -= P A 0. f o r an e q u a l l y spaced c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . 1 LA&-. 3 9 .=1. f o r a s t r a i g h t l i n e p a s s i n g a t an a n g l e t o t h e 1 -._ r m e r i d i a n we w i l l h a v e sin rq sin a. L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t we h a v e a s p h e r i c a l t r a p e z o i d w h i c h i s r e p ­ r e s e n t e d on a map i n t h e f o r m o f a r e c t a n g l e ( F i g . 58 .l i n e e l e m e n t on i t s s u r f a c e a c q u i r e s a c u r v a t u r e . A minus s i g n shows t h a t b e n d i n g o c c u r s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a d e c r e a s e i n t h e v a l u e o f . ---=_ f-A 1 a cos 'p dq r sin 7. 3 8 ) . The l e n g t h o f a n y p a r a l l e l ( L A ) on t h e t r a p e z o i d i s e q u a l t o i t s l e n g t h on a r e c t a n g l e d i v i d e d by t h e s c a l e o f i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . t h e orthodrome i n a c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n h a s t h e form of a c u r v e which i s convex i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e T h i s f e a t u r e o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e i s common s c a l e of t h e p r o j e c t i o n . During extension of t h e t r a p e z o i d i n t o a r e c t a n g l e . 1. t o a l l p r o j e c t i o n s which have an i n c r e a s e i n one d i r e c t i o n .Thus. i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g e n e & a l c a s e . Conical Trapezoid R e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Form o f a Rectangle. Bending o f an O r thodrome i n t h e D i r e c t i o n s of Scale Increases. Therefore. I a -I I__- +LA --- Li" Fig. F i g .38.or i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a n i n c r e a s e i n n the scale. Let us c i t e a b r i e f a n a l y s i s o f t h e bend o f t h e orthodrome with a v a r y i n g map s c a l e .

.40. . a t l a t i t u d e s lower t h a n t h e l a t i t u d e o f a p a r a l l e l which b) i s t a n g e n t t o t h e e q u a t o r ( F i g . t h e s c a l e a l o n g t h e l a t i t u d e i n t h e s e maps r e m a i n s p r a c t i c a l l y c o n ­ s t a n t . 1. O r t h o d r o m e o n a Map o f a T a n g e n t i a l Conic P r o j e c t i o n . w i l l simultaneously undergo bending i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . a n o r t h o d r o m e drawn a t a n an­ g l e t o t h e m e r i d i a n w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f o n e s h e e t o n t h i s map w i l l b e a wavy l i n e a r o u n d a s t r a i g h t p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n . cos dx 1 a­ mz T h e r e f o r e . b o t h p a r a l l e l s and t h e orthodrome w i l l have b r e a k s ..39)]. i t s p o i n t of i n f l e c ­ t i o n i s s i t u a t e d on t h e middle p a r a l l e l between the parallels of intersection. w h i l e i n t h e p l a c e s w h e r e s e p a r a t e map s h e e t s a r e s p l i c e d .a. 0 0 0 . 1. e . Here. F i g . passing a t an angle t o t h e m e r i d i a n w i t h a change i n t h e scales i n two p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e . w h i l e t h e scale along t h e l o n g i t u d e h a s s m a l l changes i n t h e l i m i t s o f e a c h map s h e e t . 1 a -n 1 --r dz a- 1 sin a - a­ * 1 "p dA cosa - sln a .L e t u s now a s s u m e t h a t w e h a v e a p r o j e c t i o n . a c h a n g e i n t h e s c a l e o f w h i c h o c c u r s i n t w o p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s [for e x a m p l e .40). s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e n o r t h a n d e a s t ( F i g . 1. i . 59 . on maps w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 1 . However. t h e o r t h o d r o m e o n maps c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t a n g e n t i a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s w i l l have convexity: a t l a t i t u d e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e l a t i t u d e of a p a r a l l e l which a) is tangent t o a geographic pole. It is obvious t h a t a s t r a i g h t l i n e AB. -r tC o n ir o mset r a i g h t c --O hod line O f special interest i s t h e o r t h o d r o m e o n maps i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l pro­ jection. A s i s known. In intersecting conic /63 projections . d e v i a t i o n s from t h e p r i n c i p a l d i ­ r e c t i o n w i l l be s o i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e y are p r a c t i c a l l y u n n o t i c e ­ a b l e . 0 0 0 . the ortho­ d r o m e h a s t h e same f o r m a s i n tangential projections. i t s component c u r v a t u r e s w i l l b e s u b t r a c t e d : il­ drp r For t h e g e n e r a l case.

it i s n e c e s s a r y t o u s e g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n s o f a n o r t h o d r o m e on t h e E a r t h ' s surface. 2 9 ) and ( 1 . 9 0 . T h i s l e a d s t o a bending o f t h e f l i g h t p a t h which does n o t l e n d i t ­ self t o precise analytical descriptions. The c u r v a t u r e o f a l o x o d r o m e i n a h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e i n c r e a s e s s h a r p l y w i t h an approach t o t h e E a r t h ' s p o l e s . a loxodrome i s a s p i r a l l i n e which goes t o t h e A s a r e s u l t of t h i s . as w e l l as t h e u s e o f r a d i o . it has curvature not only i n Earth's poles. on w h i c h a n o r t h o d r o m e w i t h a ! e n g t h u p t o 1 2 0 0 km i s p r a c t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by a s t r a i g h t l i n e . t h e orthodrome i s a l s o a nearly straight line. a loxodrome i s a l i n e on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r face which j o i n s two p o i n t s and i n t e r s e c t s t h e m e r i d i a n s a t a con­ s t an t angle. 3 0 ) . i t s moving p r o j e c t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d by a s t r a i g h t l i n e . w e a r e l i m i t e d o n l y by t h e s m a l l amount o f a v a i l a b l e g e o m e t r i c i n f o r m a t i o n . e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f i r s t t w o c a s e s by a g r e a t c i r c l e a n d i n t h e l a s t case b y a s m a l l c i r c l e on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . b u t demand t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o r r e c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 . n o t a geographic b u t a magnetic loxodrome d i r e c t i o n i s used. A s w e a l r e a d y know. it i s n o t u s e d a t a l l for f l i g h t s i n p o l a r l a t i t u d e s . The u s e o f maps i n a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n . b u t r a t h e r an o r t h o ­ d r o m e s e c t i o n w i t h a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e mean p a t h a n g l e . l o x o d r o m e on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . I n t h i s case. b u t i n a h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e as w e l l . 1 8 0 . and 270° c a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d b y s i m p l e m e a s u r e m e n t s o n a map.A s w e have a l r e a d y shown. ' W i t h t h e u s e o f m a g n e t i c com­ p a s s e s . and p a r a l l e l s which are a l s o loxodrome l i n e s . A p p l i c a t i o n o f p r e c i s e g y r o s c o p i c and a s t r o n o m i c a l n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s g e n e r a l l y e l i m i n a t e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f u s i n g t h e loxodrome Therefore. t o d e t e r m i n e i t s a z i m u t h . a v e r t i c a l p l a n e . w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t i o n s 0 . Meridians. 60 . I n a p o l a r s t e r e o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n . a r e t h e e x c e p t i o n .e n g i n e e r i n g f a c i ­ l i t i e s f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n by o r t h o d r o m e b e a r i n g s . a s t r i c t l y l o x o d r o m i c l i n e i s n o t t a k e n as t h e loxodrome. /64 L e t u s determine t h e c u r v a t u r e of a loxodrome. However. i t s e x t e n s i o n . L o x o d r o m e on t h e E a r t h ' s Surface The l o x o d r o m e d i r e c t i o n a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e i s u s e d o n l y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e mean p a t h a n g l e o f f l i g h t o n s h o r t s e g m e n t s o f a p a t h by t h e u s e o f m a g n e t i c compasses. t h e orthodrome i n a c e n t r a l p o l a r However. t h e e q u a t o r . A s a r e s u l t . I n g e n e r a l . l e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e orthodrome l i n e of t h e p a t h o f an a i r c r a f t i s p r a c t i c a l l y m a i n t a i n e d w i t h o u t b e i n g d e p e n d e n t o n a s y s t e m o f meas­ u r i n g d i r e c t i o n s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . i n studying the properties of a d i r e c t i o n of f l i g h t . a z i m u t h .

direction. 4 1 . 61 . t h e angle of t u r n o f t h e loxodrome from p o i n t A t o p o i n t B w i l l b e e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e of c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s ( 6 ) b e t w e e n t h e s e p o i n t s ( F i g . 4 1 ) . The r a d i u s o f c u r v a t u r e o f t h e l o x o d r o m e ( r ~ )a n b e d e t e r m i n e d c as t h e r a t i o o f t h e l e n g t h o f p a r t ( S ) t o t h e angle o f t u r n ( 6 ) . In t h i s case. i f t h e loxodrome p a s s e s n o t have a h o r i z o n t a l c u r v a t u r e . = 12742 km w h e r e R 3 i s t h e r a d i u s of t h e E a r t h . is the w h e r e A A a n d A B a r e t h e l o n g i t u d e s o f p o i n t s A a n d B a n d $I mean l a t i t u d e b e t w e e n p o i n t s A a n d B . a t an angle t o t h e meridian.and i t s d e f l e c t i o n as compared t o t h e orthodrome d i r e c t i o n a t a given l a t i t u d e 9. L o x o d r o m e o n a Map o f a C o n i c occurs i n an e a s t e r l y Projection. L e t u s assume t h a t a f l i g h t a t a l t i t u d e $I F i g . COSec a = clg 'p cosec a. (1. t h e r a d i u s of i t s c u r v a t u r e a t any point w i l l equal: r = r. and it w i i l v a n i s h i n a flight t o the north or south. 8=- (AB .AA) sin 'PI Its length ( S ) from p o i n t A t o B w i l l be S = (AB . I f we t a k e t h e r a d i u s o f t h e E a r t h a s 1. t h e n S ri=8 /65 =ctgrp.48) The p a r t o f t h e l o x o d r o m e w h i c h r u n s a l o n g t h e m e r i d i a n d o e s T h e r e f o r e . T h e maximum c u r v a ­ t u r e of a loxodrome a t a given f l i g h t a l t i t u d e w i l l o c c u r when t h e f l i g h t i s i n an e a s t e r l y or w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n . 1 . ctg 45" cosec 30"= ZR.AA) COS 'p. S o l u t i on : r = R. 1 .49) Example: Determine t h e r a d i u s o f c u r v a t u r e o f a loxodrome p a s s i n g a t a n a n g l e o f 30° t o t h e m e r i d i a n a t a l a t i t u d e o f 4 5 O . (1.

I n Figure 1 . arc AB i s t h e loxodrome. The r a d i u s o f c u r v a t u r e o f t h e l o x o d r o m e w i l l b e : r=r. l o x o d r o m e i n a h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e c r e a t e s some l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e s t r a i g h t .7002=4461 km The a n g l e o f t u r n of -b=((h2-A1)slncp.6 57. 4 2 . t h e l o x o d r o m e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a b=-3O0sin55"= -3O0-O. t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e loxodrome c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e E a r t h ' s p a r a l l e l at a l a t i t u d e of 5 5 O .3 km From t h i s e x a m p l e .l i n e p a r t s o f t h e p a t h .50) Example: Determine t h e l e n g t h e n i n g of t h e p a t h a l o n g t h e loxo­ drome p a s s i n g t h r o u g h p o i n t s A a n d B on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .3 .=Rgctg55"=6371. S i n c e t h e l a t i t u d e of t h e s t a r t i n g and end p o i n t s i s t h e same. w i t h f l i g h t p a t h s u p t o 2 .0. 0 0 0 . t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e AB i s t h e orthodrome.2127 &5. the following coordinates: B: l a t i t u d e 55O N .. l o n g i t u d e 3 8 O E . The l a t e r ­ a l d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e l i n e o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e d i r e c t i o n may t u r n out t o be very s i g n i f i c a n t here. S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e v a l u e of t h e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e and t h e an­ we obtain: g l e of t u r n of t h e loxodrome i n t o ( 1 .576". i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a t m i d d l e l a t i t u d e s . Lengthening o f t h e p a t h a l o n g t h e loxodrome ( A S ) by t h e f o r m u l a & = Rs -2R sin 3 i s determined 6 ­. t h e c u r v a t u r e o f t h e loxodrome creates r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l l e n g t h e n i n g s o f t h e p a t h ( i n o u r 62 . l o n g i t u d e 6 8 O E . w i t h A: l a t i t u d e 55O N . 6 i s t h e a n g l e o f t u r n of t h e lokodrome from p o i n t A t o point B. The l e n g t h o f t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e i s w h i l e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e a r c is AB = RB.8192=24.4461 4. 2 (1. 0 0 0 km l o n g .The c u r v a t u r e o f t h e . 5 0 ) . /66 As= 24*576'4461 -2.

l e s s t h a n 1 % )h o w e v e r . 0 0 0 km. i t s g r e a t e s t discrepancy w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e orthodrome ( d e f l e c t i o n ) w i l l be observed a t h a l f t h e p a t h between p o i n t s A and B . t h e a z i ­ muth o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e ( a ) . l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e p a t h a l o n g t h e l o x o ­ d r o m e c a n e x c e e d 4 .e x a m p l e . . it i s obvious t h a t w i t h a c o n s t a n t r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e o f t h e loxodrome. a t a l a t i t u d e o f 40°. S i g n i f i c a n t l e n g t h e n i n g s o f t h e p a t h a l o n g t h e loxodrome o c c u r a t m i d d l e l a t i t u d e s w i t h v e r y l o n g d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n p o i n t s on t h e Earth's surface. e v e n a t c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n This is p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .51) I n t h e example a n a l y z e d by u s .54) 63 . t h e b a s i c c a u s e of t h e l i m i t a t i o n of t h e l e n g t h o f t h e loxodrome segments of t h e p a t h . . F o r e x a m p l e .R COS­ ? i 2 or A 2 = R (1 -cos $). R a d i u s of C u r v a t u r e of a ~ 0 x 0 ­ drome. together with a decrease i n t h e r a d i u s o f c u r v a t u r e o f t h e loxodrome. i n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e p o l a r l a t i t u d e s . . 4 2 . A2 . I n Figure 1 . e . s i n c e t h e loxodrome d i r e c t i o n of f l i g h t i s used only i n l i m i t e d path segments. 8 0 r t h o d rome A A2 Here Loxodrome F i g . 4 2 . w i l l b e v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l . lengthening of the path w i l l increase.52) /67 The l e n g t h o f t h e l o x o d r o m e s e g m e n t o f t h e p a t h m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a (S) is deter­ (1. w i t h a d i s t a n c e o f 1 1 . m e a s u r e d on t h e c e n t r a l m e r i d i a n b e t w e e n t h e s t a r t i n g and end p o i n t s o f t h e segment i s t a k e n as t h e loxodrome d i r e c t i o n of t h e f l i g h t . m o r e t h a n 3 0 % . .9771) = 102.53) or (1. 0 0 0 km b e t w e e n p o i n t s . A 2 = 4461 (1 -0. T h i s a n g l e c a n a l s o b e d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a p p r o x i m a t e formula (1. t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e loxodrome l i n e o f t h e p a t h and t h e o r t h o d r o m e . .6 km Thus. 1 . (1. I n t h e p r a c t i c e o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n .

This leads t o large a r i t h ­ m e t i c e r r o r s i n c a l c u l a t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y t o a n a m b i g u i t y i n t h e solution. COS 62" = l e t us find t h e d i r e c t i o n of 68-33 -38 0 3 2 . Solution: t h e loxodrome: tga=- 47 According t o (1. Considering t h a t t h e loxodrome i n t e r s e c t s t h e meridians a t a constant angle. Formula ( 1 . t h e l o x o d r o m e is a c u r v e d l i n e i n t e r s ' e c t i n g t h e m e r i d i a n s a t a c o n ­ T h e r e f o r e . However. knowing t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e loxodrome s t a n t angle a. i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e distance along t h e l o x o d r o m e . 5 3 ) : S = l l l . l . Ill I. . 5 3 ) . l o n g i t u d e 38O E . Example: Determine t h e loxodrome d i r e c t i o n and t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n p o i n t s A a n d B on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . t h e e r r o r s i n which w i l l be n e g l i g i b l y s m a l l . I I I I Formulas (1. i t i s more a d v a n t a g e o u s t o a p p l y ( 1 . t h e v a l u e s $ 2 . which a r e : l o n g i t u d e 47O E . . 5 3 ) are approximate and have a simple is derived analytically. 11.381. t h e r a t i o remains constant: from which In t h e majority of cases.68-56. 5 4 ) . i n o r d e r t o d r a w i t o n a map i t i s s u f f i c i e n t a t t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t 64 . t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f A : l a t i t u d e 56O N .51 Let us d e t e r m i n e t h e loxodrome d i s t a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 .52) geometrical interpretation. i t i s more a d v a n t a g e o u s t o u s e ( 1 . a = 1994'. B : l a t i t u d e 68O N .$ 1 and cos a s i m u l t a n e o u s l y approach z e r o . O n maps o f n o r m a l i s o g o n a l c o n i c a n d a z i m u t h a l p r o j e c t i o n s .54) and (1. I n t h e s e c a s e s . =I413 km cos 1924' Loxodrome on M a p s o f Different Projections A l o x o d r o m e h a s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a s t r a i g h t l i n e o n l y on maps of a normal i s o g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . s i n c e a s m a l l d i f f e r ­ e n c e i n t h e l a t i t u d e s b e t w e e n t h e p o i n t s m e a n s t h a t t h e mean c o s i n e o f t h e l a t i t u d e b e c o m e s p r a c t i c a l l y e q u a l t o t h e c o s i n e o f t h e mean latitude. w i t h l o x o d r o m e d i r e c t i o n s c l o s e t o 9 0 or 2 7 0 ° .I 1111I1111IIIIIlII.

General Recommendations f o r Measuring D i r e c t i o n s and D i s t a n c e s O r t h o d r o m e d i r e c t i o n s a n d d i s t a n c e s for s t r a i g h t . a s w e l l a s on t h e means a n d m e t h o d s o f a i r ­ craft navigation used. i n u s i n g p r e c i s e a u t o m a t i c n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s . W i t h a l e n g t h o f t h e p a t h s e g m e n t s o f more t h a n 2 0 0 0 k m . which depends on t h e r a t i o o f t h e scales t g a m = tga- n m (1. For e x a m p l e . On maps w i t h n o n i s o g o n a l p r o j e c t i o n s . i n e x t r e m e c a s e s . 0 0 0 . On s h o r t p a t h s e g m e n t s ( u p t o 1 2 0 0 . n a n d m a r e t h e s c a l e s o f a map a t a g i v e n p o i n t a l o n g t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s east-west and n o r t h south.1 0 0 0 km.55) where a i s t h e a n g l e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e loxodrome w i t h t h e m e r i ­ d i a n a t a l o c a t i o n . it i s always advantageous t o use a n a l y t i c a l forms t o s o i v e t h e s e problems. 0 0 0 ( t h e l a t t e r w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f o n e (or.t o p l o t t h i s d i r e c t i o n up t o t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e n e x t m e r i ­ d i a n . C ~ M i s t h e a n g l e of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e l o x o ­ d r o m e w i t h t h e m e r i d i a n o n a m a p . t w o ) a d j o i n i n g ' s h e e t s ) . t h e m e t h o d s o f d e t e r m i n i n g d i r e c t i o n s and d i s t a n c e s depend on t h e s c a l e and p r o ­ j e c t i o n o f t h e m a p s . . . For e x a m p l e . whereas it h a s a n a t u r a l c u r v a t u r e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e equator. t h e l o x o d r o m e w i l l h a v e a v a r i a b l e a n g l e t o t h e m e r i d i a n s . e . . where m tg am= tg a sec '4. respectively. Continuing our p l o t t i n g t o t h e f i n a l p o i n t .000 or 1 : 2 . p r o j e c t i o n . ­ /69 65 . i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e s c a l e s a n d map p r o j e c t i o n s used.1 5 0 0 k m ) . t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s of t h e orthodrome must a l s o be d e t e r m i n e d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e m d o e s n o t e x c e e d 8 0 0 . we w i l l obtain a broken l i n e very c l o s e t o t h e loxodrode. t h e loxodrome w i l l have a c u r v a t u r e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of a p o l e . o n m a p s w i t h a n e q u a l l y s p a c e d n o r m a l c y l i n d r i c a l = sec @.1 5 0 0 km i n a l l c a s e s m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d b y a n a l y t i c a l m e a n s . w i t h t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p a t h s e g m e n t s b e i n g n o t m o r e t h a n 1 5 0 0 km i f t h e s e maps a r e e x e c u t e d o n a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l y c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n a n d h a v e a s c a l e o f 1:1.000.l i n e s e g m e n t s o f a p a t h o f m o r e t h a n 1 2 0 0 . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y o u t d i r e c t measurement o f d i s t a n c e s a n d d i r e c t i o n s o n maps b y m e a n s o f a s c a l e a n d p r o t r a c t o r . where t h e i n d i c a t e d d i r e c t i o n must b e e x t e n d e d t o t h e n e x t meridian i n l i n e .

p r o j e c t i o n c a n b e meas­ t h e e d g e o f t h e map.e n g i n e e r i n g n a v i g a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i s c o n ­ ~~ /70 ones.4 0 0 km o n t h i s u r e d by means o f a v a r y i n g s c a l e l o c a t e d on measured d i r e c t l y o n l y Here. e l e m e n t s o f a i r c r a f t m o v e m e n t a r e e x a m i n e d i n a moving rectangular coordinate system. For some p u r p o s e s . r e c t a n g u l a r and geo­ g r a p h i c c o o r d i n a t e systems a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t . 66 . tem. S p e c i a l C o o r d i n a t e S y s t e m s on t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e I n t h e p r a c t i c e o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . odrome l i n e d o e s n o t show s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e o r t h o d r o m e a s a r u l e . On maps i n o t h e r p r o j e c t i o n s . i t i s c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l t o t h e o r t h o d r o m e a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e mean m e r i d i a n b e t w e e n t h e s t a r t ­ i n g and end p o i n t s o f t h e p a t h segment. Since t h e loxodromic f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n i n s h o r t p a t h segments i s u s e d a s t h e mean o r t h o d r o m e d i r e c t i o n . t h e r e s u l t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w o r s e e h a n on maps w i t h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l y c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n . A c t u a l l y . o n l y t h e a n a l y t i c a l form of d e t e r m i n i n g d i s t a n c e s and d i r e c t i o n s . With t h e u s e of gyroscopic d e v i c e s a s w e l l as a s t r o n o m i c a l it is necessary t o use a u n i v e r s a l ( s t e l l a r ) coordinate sys­ The u s e o f r a d i o . I n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n s h o r t s e g m e n t s o f t h e p a t h t h e lox-. The c e n t e r o f a r e c t a n g u l a r s y s t e m moves i n o n e o f t h e s u r f a c e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s w h i c h i s c o n ­ n e c t e d w i t h t h e g i v e n f l i g h t p a t h . a s u p p l e m e n t a r y c o ­ o r d i n a t e s y s t e m whose c e n t e r s h i f t s i n t h e moving r e c t a n g u l a r s y s t e m . e . seg­ projection. The l o x o d r o m i c f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n c a n b e on maps w i t h a n i s o g o n a l n o r m a l c y l i n d r i c a l m e n t s o f d i s t a n c e s u p t o 3 0 0 . t h e r e i s n o need t o m e a s u r e and p l o t t h e loxodrome l i n e o f t h e p a t h i n p a r t s of m3rie t h a n 3 0 0 . e v e r . T h e i n d i c a t e d o r d e r o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s i s minimal. i n d i r e c t i o n s a t a n a n g l e t o t h e a x i s of t h e r o u t e map. g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g . w i t h c a l c u ­ l a t i o n o f i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s a l o n g t h e orthodrome a f t e r e v e r y 200­ 3 0 0 km o f t h e p a t h . i . 7. and it i s n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a t l e a s t t h r e e or f o u r c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o e x a m i n e a i r ­ c r a f t movement r e l a t i v e t o t h e a i r s p a c e . I n u s i n g maps c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a l l o t h e r p r o j e c t i o n s . . i t i s n o t p l o t t e d o n maps b u t i s c o n s i d e r e d c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e orthodrome. m u s t b e a p p l i e d .fl W must n o t e t h a t good r e s u l t s i n m e a s u r i n g d i r e c t i o n s and d i s ­ e t a n c e s c a n b e o b t a i n e d ' o n r o u t e maps c o n s t r u c t e d o n o b l i q u e c y l i n ­ d r i c a l or o b l i q u e c o n i c p r o j e c t i o n s when t h e f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n c o i n ­ How­ c i d e s w i t h or i s l o c a t e d c l o s e t o t h e a x i s o f t h e r o u t e map. which i n t u r n i s determined i n a geographic coordinate system.4 0 0 km.

l i n e segments of t h e p a t h . Fig. I n F i g u r e 1 . 1. i t i s p o s s i b l e t o t a k e t h e s p h e r i c a l s u r f a c e of t h e Earth within t h e a r e a of t h e p o s s i b l e d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e X-axis o f t h e orthodrome system as a c y l i n d r i c a l s u r f a c e . a n d c o v e r s a d i s t a n c e S . Orthodromic Coordinate System. Z. . 67 . 4 3 . . Then t h e u n r o l l i n g o f t h e c y l i n d e r g i v e s u s a r e c t a n g u l a r s y s t e m XZ on a p l a n e . I n t h i s system.l i n e s e g m e n t s . t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s t r a i g h t . n o t more t h a n 2 0 .a l . L e t u s examine t h e most i m p o r t a n t used i n aircraft navigation.43. 1 . t h e X-axis and a l s o s i t u a t e d i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e h o r i z o n i s t h e sec­ o n d a x i s . L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t a n a i r c r a f t m o v e s f r o m p o i n t 01 a t a s m a l l a n g l e t o t h e 01x1 a x i s e q u a l t o J.l i n e p a t h segment The l i n e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o ( F i g . 4 3 ) i s t a k e n as t h e main a x i s X.3 0 km). t h e a n g l e T A l i s t h e a n g l e o f t u r n of t h e orthodromic c o o r d i n a t e system a t point 0 2 . a n g l e s 01 a n d “2 a r e t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e f i r s t and second s t r a i g h t . P o i n t s 01 a n d 0 2 a r e t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t s of t h e segments. surface coordinate systems Orthodromi c C o o r d i n a t e System . t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of which a r e de­ termined i n t h e geographic coordinate system. /71 S i n c e an a i r c r a f t moving above t h e E a r t h ‘ s s u r f a c e i n a g i v e n d i r e c t i o n h a s o n l y s m a l l random d e v i a t i o n s from t h e g i v e n f l i g h t p a t h ( a s a r u l e . measured from t h e meridians of t h e i r s t a r t i n g p o i n t s .The orthodromic c o o r d i n a t e system f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p a t h o f a n a i r c r a f t i s t h e one most w i d e l y u s e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .I n e c t e d w i t h t h e u s e of a whole s e r i e s o f s p e c i a l t y p e s o f s u r f a c e c o o r d i n a t e s by w h i c h t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t o n t h e E a r t h ‘ s surface is determined. The o r t h o d r o m e d i s t a n c e s 0102 a n d 0 2 0 3 a r e t h e l e n g t h s o f t h e s t r a i g h t .

5 5 ) t o ( 1 . P e r i o d i c m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e X a a n d Z a c o o r d i n a t e s make i t p o s ­ s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e a l l t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f a i r c r a f t movement...a. l o c a t i o n s o f g r o u n d r a d i o f a c i l i t i e s .59) w h e r e Xrem d) = 0102 . . b) Speed of a i r c r a f t movement a l o n g a g i v e n f l i g h t p a t h ( W ) (1.111 . 1.X a .111.. 1 (1.57) Xa2-Xa1 where X a l . ..... . Za= S sin (JI .. N e c e s s a r y f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n for a r r i v a l a t p o i n t 0 2 : + = 01- arctg z -k Xre (1.--.. 1.. . Za2 a r e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e s e c o n d p o i n t ._ .111111111--1. To r e f i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h e o r t h o d r o m e s y s t e m .. Zal are c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e f i r s t p o i n t ... 6 0 ) a r e e n t i r e l y o b v i o u s and do n o t r e ­ q u i r e s p e c i a l d e r i v a t i o n s or p r o o f s .al). . . f o r example : a) D i r e c t i o n o f a i r c r a f t movement ($): Jr = arctg Za2-Zai .. (Fig. ’ (1..._ The c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t a t p o i n t t h e equations’: M._ . I I. .60) Formulas ( 1 . . . . v i s u a l or r a d a r l a n d m a r k s on t h e E a r t h ’ s s u r f a c e . + a.).II ..56) M e a s u r i n g t h e Xa c o o r d i n a t e c o n s t i t u t e s c h e c k i n g o f t h e p a t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t a c c o r d i n g t o d i s t a n c e .58) where t i s t h e f l y i n g t i m e o f t h e a i r c r a f t between p o i n t s Xal and c) Remaining f l y i n g t i m e t o p o i n t 0 2 Xrem ‘re%? Xa2 . (1.. w e c a n u s e c o r r e c t i o n p o i n t s ( C P ) . w h i l e measuring t h e Za coor­ d i n a t e c o n s t i t u t e s checking of t h e path according t o direction.. /72 - T r a n s l a t o r ’ s note: 68 a r c t g = cot’’... X a 2 .. . etc. . . I .44)... _. a r e d e t e r m i n e d by Xa= S cos (JI . .

(b) w i t h D e v i a t i o n o f t h e A i r c r a f t f r o m t h e P a t h of a Given Course.If t h e c o r r e c t i o n p o i n t i s o b s e r v e d from a n a i r c r a f t a t a n a n g l e 0 t o t h e g i v e n r o u t e . the coordinates of the aircraft w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a s : X. e . This t r a n s f e r i s connected with transforma t i o n s o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e orthodrome s y s ­ t e m of t h e preceding s t a g e t o t h e system of t h e following stage. ? . when t h i s p o i n t i s o b s e r v e d a t a n a n g l e e q u a l t o 90° t o t h e f l i g h t path. coordinates of t h i s p o i n t i n t h e system of t h e following s t a g e w i l l be e q u a l t o 69 /73 - . 1. (1. . p o i n t M l o c a t e d on t h e f l i g h t p a t h o f t h e preceding stage of f l i g h t is t h e point of the beginning of turn f o r Obviously. (1. i n o r d e r t o e m e r g e w i t h o u t d e v i a t i o n a t t h e n e x t s t a g e o f t h e or­ thodrome p a t h . Determining t h e Orthodromic Coordinates of an A i r c r a f t from a Correc­ tion Point.R COS 8. T r a n s f e r of t h e Next Stage i n a Course t o an Orthodromic Coordinate System: ( a > w i t h t h e A i r c r a f t P o s i t i o n on t h e P a t h o f t h e G i v e n C o u r s e . make i t t h e m o s t a c c e p t a b l e c o o r ­ d i n a t e system f o r a given f l i g h t path. a . a t a d i s t a n c e from t h e a i r c r a f t e q u a l t o R .45. I n high-speed aircraft ( a s a r e s u l t of a l a r g e t u r n i n g r a d i u s ) . The s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e g e o m e t r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a n d t h e n a ­ t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e a i r c r a f t i n an orthodrome s y s t e m . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e l i n e a r advance t o the angle of turn ( T A ) .61) is simplified and t a k e s t h e form: Fig. xa= X C P z.44. Fig. 4 5 . Za= X c p .R .R sine.61) During f l i g h t o v e r t h e c o r r e c ­ t i o n p o i n t . t h e a r r i v a l at the flight path of the following stage.= Z c p . 1.= Xc p. I n F i g u r e 1 . b o t h of t h e p a t h c o v e r e d by t h e a i r c r a f t and o f t h e d e v i a ­ t i o n a l l o w e d f r o m t h e g i v e n p a t h .

The l i m i t s o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f a n a r e a l r e c t a n g u l a r c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m a r e l i m i t e d b y t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s p h e r i c i t y of t h e E a r t h o n t h e p r e c i s i o n of measurements. and a r e c t a n g u l a r c o o r ­ d i n a t e system i s c o n s t r u c t e d from t h i s .= z sin ~n .. COS (1. . 4 6 1 1 i s t a k e n as t h e X . g . s u c h a s y s t e m c a n b e u s e d w i t h i n a r a d i u s o f 3 0 0 . In practice.a x i s . p u r ­ I n t h e s e cases.62) I n g e n e r a l . sin T A. R e c t a n g u l a r Coort h e p o i n t o f o r i g i n of t h e coor­ d i n a t e S y s t e m for F l i g h t d i n a t e s or some o t h e r d i r e c t i o n [for e x a m p l e .re m cos T A. 1 . pose f l i g h t s .l a n d i n g zone a t an a i r ­ p o r t ( F i g .).x. t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e meridian at F i g . The f l i g h t i s c a r r i e d o u t a l o n g t h e g i v e n c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e p o i n t s o f t h e r o u t e [for e x a m p l e . x. when t h e c o o r d i n a t e Z a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t u r n if t h e aircraft is not located s t r i c t l y o n t h e g i v e n f l i g h t p a t h when b e g i n n i n g t h e t u r n .o f f . without noticeable dis­ t o r t i o n s . ) . for m a n e u v e r ­ i n g of an aircraft i n t h e region o f a n a i r p o r t a n d for s p e c i a l . a r e c t a n g u l a r c o ­ o r d i n a t e s y s t e m i s u s e d for f l i g h t o v e r a n a r e a . t h e t r a n s f o r m a ­ t i o n of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s m u s t b e c a r r i e d o u t a c c o r d s n g t o t h e f o l ­ lowing formula (Fig. t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e o v e r a n Area. i . The o r t h o d r o m e s y s t e m examined by us i s sometimes c a l l e d t h e stage In orthodromic coordinate system. ( X 3 Z 3 ) . e . (X. z2= z yn + x r e m . some i n s t a n c e s . t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t are m e a s u r e d i n t h e s y s t e m o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r t of t h e f l i g h t i n w h i c h their calculation after turning is carried out. 70 . etc. 1. 4 6 . I t i s a l s o a p p l i e d w i t h t h e u s e of n a v i g a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s i n f l i g h t . t a k e . Z .4 0 0 km from t h e p o i n t of o r i g i n of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s . (X4Z4)1.45. when t h e o r t h o d r o m e d i r e c t i o n o f p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e i s t a k e n as t h e X a x i s . b ) : is n o t e q u a l t o z e r o . . 1 .Z.63) I n t h e p r o c e s s of t u r n i n g . a l o n g t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e b e ­ g i n n i n g of e a c h o f t h e four t u r n s i n t h e r e c t a n g u l a r m a n e u v e r o f m a k i n g a n a p p r o a c h t o l a n d a t a n a i r p o r t ( X . e .(1.

4 7 .47. or v i c e v e r s a . t h e p l a n e o f t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n i s c h o s e n i n s u c h a way a s t o p a s s through t h e c e n t e r o f t h e E a r t h and t h e p o l e s o f t h e geographic s y s ­ t e m and t h e a r b i t r a r y c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s . I t i s obvious t h a t w i t h t h e approach of t h e a i r c r a f t t u d e e q u a l t o 90°. the air­ o grow To a v o i d a l o s s o f a c c u r a c y i n s o l v i n g n a v i g a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . i n t h e s e systems a l l the analytical transformations of d i s t a n c e s and d i r e c t i o n s which a r e c a r r i e d o u t for a g e o g r a p h i c c o o r d i nate system a r e j u s t i f i e d . In Figure 1. L i n e s AB and A l B l i n F i g u r e 1 . P A Arbitrary s p h e r i c a l systems d i f f e r from a g e o g r a p h i c a l s y s t e m by t h e fact t h a t t h e poles of t h e s e systems do n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e g e o g r a p h i c poles. t h e t a n g e n t 4 w i l l a p p r o a c h i n f i n i t y . f o r t h e purpose of i l l u s ­ t r a t i o n . Therefore. L e t us a g r e e t h a t a r e a d i n g o f t h e l o n g i t u d e b o t h i n t h e geo­ g r a p h i c a l and a r b i t r a r y systems w i l l run from t h e i n d i c a t e d p l a n e of i n t e r s e c t i o n . angle e i s a combination of t h e a x e s o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l a n d random s y s t e m s . e s p e c i a l l y by a u t o m a t i c n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s . t o a lati­ Therefore. e . /75 - 71 . P1 i s t h e p o l e o f t h e a r b i t r a r y system.A r b i t r a r y (Ob1 i q u e and T r a n s v e r s e ) S p h e r i c a l and P o l a r C o o r d i n a t e S y s t e m s I n t h e s o l u t i o n o f n a v i g a t i o n a l problems w i t h a geographical coordinate system i n p o l a r regions. and t h e l i n e s p a r a l l e l t o t h e m . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e r i v e s p e c i a l equations: l e t us examine F i g u r e 1 . o n l y ( 1 . Fig. s o a s t o appear as t h e p l a n e o f t h e m e r i d i a n i n both t h e geographic and a r b i t r a r y s y s ­ t e m s simultaneously. r a n d o m s p h e r i c a l c o ­ o r d i n a t e systems are employed.47. Transformation of S p h e r i c a l C o o r d i n a t e s on t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e . . For t r a n s f e r r i n g from a geograph­ i c a l c o o r d i n a t e system t o an a r b i t r a r y s p h e r i c a l s y s t e m . 4 7 . a p p e a r as l i n e s of i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e p l a n e s o f t h e e q u a t o r and t h e p a r a l l e l s i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l and a r b i t r a r y systems. I t i s obvious t h a t such a plane e x i s t s with any d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o l e s o f an a r b i t r a r y s p h e r i c a l system. A s p e c i a l c h a p t e r i s devoted t o problems o f accuracy i n air­ craft navigation. s m a l l e r r o r s i n m e a s u r i n g t h e l a t i t u d e of t h e l o c a t i o n o f craft w i l l cause t h e e r r o r s i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e longitude t indefinitely. very s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r s arise. I n t h e present s e c t i o n . 3 6 a ) i s examined. 1. P o i n t P i s t h e p o l e of t h e geographic c o o r d i n a t e system. a cross section Here o f t h e E a r t h ' s s p h e r e i s shown. i .

it i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n t r o d u c e a cor­ r e c t i o n i n t o t h e A c o o r d i n a t e e q u a l t o t h e l o n g i t u d e of t h e P I pole i n t h e geographic coordinate system. ? . - - F o r m u l a s ( 1 . 6 4 ) and ( 1 . t h e l i n e o f t h e s i n e o f t h e l o n g i ­ t u d e i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e p a r a l l e l of t h e p o i n t i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c c o o r d i n a t e system w i l l be sin A = sin AI cos 'pl sec y. a t t h e same t i m e . I t is ob­ v i o u s t h a t OL w i l l a p p e a r a s t h e l i n e o f t h e s i n e s o f t h e l a t i t u d e o f p o i n t M i n a n a r b i t r a r y s y s t e m . sin AI sin k cos 'p sec ql. 6 5 ) make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e coordinates of a p o i n t i n a geographical coordinate system accord­ i n g t o i t s c o o r d i n a t e s . 6 4 ) a n d ( 1 . from which it f o l l o w s t h a t MMI . f o r t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e r e v e r s e t a s k ( t r a n s f e r r i n g from t h e geographic system t o t h e a r b i t r a r y o n e ) . cos yl sin 0. e .L e t u s c h o o s e p o i n t M ( 9 1 x 1 ) on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a n d p r o ­ j e c t i t o n t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n ( p o i n t Mi). S i n c e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s p h e r i c a l and geograph­ i c coordinate systems are i d e n t i c a l .65) F o r m u l a s ( 1 . t h e E a r t h was t a k e n a s a s p h e r e w i t h a mean r a d i u s . cos y1 =sin A COS 'p. 6 4 ) a n d ( 1 . 6 5 ) were g i v e n w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f l a t t e n i n g o f t h e E a r t h a t t h e p o l e s . = (1. 6 5 ) w h e r e e v e r t h e y o c c u r and t o add them where t h e y are a b s e n t : sin TI -sin 'p COS 0 COS k COS 'p sin'$. e sin cos 0 -cos or sin 'p = sin A.64) and ( 1 . 6 5 ) . 176 - 72 . i. A f t e r s o l v i n g t h e problems ac­ cording t o (1.e. i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o d r o p t h e s u b s c r i p t s i n t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h e co­ o r d i n a t e s o f ( 1 . LM1= COS A1 COS ~ 1 .64) I t i s obvious t h a t a p e r p e n d i c u l a r dropped from p o i n t M t o t h e p l a n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n ( p o i n t M i ) w i l l b e t h e l i n e o f t h e s i n e of t h e l o n g i t u d e i n t h e a r b i t r a r y s y s t e m i n t h e p l a n e of t h e p a r a l l e l o f t h i s p o i n t .LM. The l a t i t u d e of p o i n t M i n t h e geographical system w i l l equal: sin 'p = Ot cob e . known i n t h e a r b i t r a r y s y s t e m u n d e r t h e condition t h a t t h e plane coinciding with t h e axes of both systems i s t a k e n as t h e i n i t i a l m e r i d i a n .sin A. (1. w h i l e LM1 w i l l a p p e a r a s t h e l i n e of t h e c o s i n e s o f t h e l o n g i t u d e o f p o i n t M of t h i s system i n the plane of i t s p a r a l l e l . ..

and c o n c e n t r i c /77 - 73 . I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t b y o p t i c a l or r a d i o ­ m e t r i c means. t h e p a r a l l e l on w h i c h t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d w i l l b e a p o s i t i o n l i n e of t h e second family.Position L i n e s of a n A i r c r a f t on t h e E a r t h ' s Surface Thus f a r . t h e r e are several types of coordinate systems which are used as f a m i l i e s o f a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n l i n e s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f r a d i o . 2) P o l a r o r azimuthaZ r a n g e .f i n d i n g s y s t e m . w e h a v e examined c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e as s y s t e m s which c o n n e c t t h e p o s i t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t w i t h t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e d u r i n g i t s movement i n a g i v e n d i r e c t i o n . i n w h i c h t h e r a d i a l l i n e s ( b e a r i n g s ) d i v e r g i n g f r o m two p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w i t h known c o o r d i n a t e s a r e f a m i l i e s o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s . t h e f a m i l i e s o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s g e n e r a l l y do n o t c o i n ­ c i d e e i t h e r w i t h t h e g r i d o f g e o g r a p h i c c o o r d i n a t e s or w i t h t h e given f l i g h t d i r e c t i s n . it i s o f t e n necessary t o determine t h e e l e m e n t s of a i r c r a f t movement a c c o r d i n g t o c o n s e c u t i v e c o o r d i n a t e s . T h e g e o m e t r i c l o c u s o f p o i n t s of t h e p r o b a b l e l o c a t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s c a l l e d t h e p o s i t i o n Z i n e of an aircraft. I n aircraft n a v i g a t i o n .e n g i n e e r i n g and a s t r o n o m i c f a c i l i t i e s o f aircraft navigation. I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t means and methods f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of a n a i r c r a f t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . They i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) A two-poZe a z i m u t h a Z s y s t e m . Usually t h e two-dimensional s u r f a c e c o o r d i n a t e s of an aircraft a r e d e t e r m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y a c c o r d i n g t o two l i n e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t ' s p o s i t i o n m e a s u r e d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s or a c c o r d i n g t o t w o l i n e s measured s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . t h e a z i m u t h o f w h i c h i s e q u a l t o 9 0 or 2 7 0 O . I n some c a s e s . i n which t h e b e a r ­ i n g s f r o m a p o i n t o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w i t h known c o o r d i n a t e s a r e t h e first f a m i l y o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s of t h i s system. Similar groups of a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n l i n e s are c a l l e d a f a m i Zy of p o s i t i o n Z i n e s . i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o d e t e r ­ mine one l i n e o f t h e a i r c r a f t ' s p o s i t i o n . The l o n g i t u d e o b t a i n e d by s u c h a method i s a p o s i t i o n l i n e o f t h e s e c o n d f a m i l y . A t t h e present t i m e . L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t t h e l o n g i t u d e of a n a i r c r a f t w a s d e t e r m i n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a l t i t u d e o f a s t a r . For example. a n d n o t i n a l l c a s e s . i f t h e l a t i t u d e of t h e l o c a t i o n of an a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d by a s t r o n o m i c means b a s e d on t h e e l e v a t i o n o f P o l a r i s . Direct measurement o f t h e geographic c o o r d i n a t e s o f an a i r c r a f t i s p o s s i b l e o n l y by a s t r o n o m i c m e a n s .

a r e p o s i t i o n l i n e s i n t h e azimuthal coordinate system. i n which each family of p o s i t i o n l i n e s i s b i p o l a r ._ c i r c l e s a t e q u a l d i s t a n c e s from t h e i n d i c a t e d p o i n t family ._ . 1 II 1111111111 1111 I I1111 Im-1111 . a constant difference of dis­ t a n c e s t o t h e p o l e s of t h e s y s t e m i s p r e s e r v e d on e a c h p o s i t i o n line. . 6) c o n f o c a z h y p e r b o Z i c . ~ .1 1 .e Z Z i p t i c a Z s y s t e m . f o r a hyperbolic system t h e difference i n d i s ­ t a n c e s s e r v e s as a n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r .. orthodrome l i n e s d i v e r g i n g f r o m t w o p o i n t s o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w i t h known c o o r d i n a t e s .. . .111 II . From t h e a b o v e l i s t o f c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s . . are t h e second 3) L i n e s of e q u a l a z i m u t h s ( L E A ) . . .1 I 11 I 1 1 I ~ I I .1 I . B i p o l a r Azimuthal C o o r d i n a t e System B e a r i n g s f o r an a i r c r a f t . t h e concept of a u n i f i e d coordinate system i s sometimes i n t r o d u c e d f o r t h e purpose of study­ i n g t h e g e n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f a l l t h e above systems. 4) Difference-rangefinding (hyperbolic system).. e t c . I n e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e accuracy of n a v i g a t i o n a l measurements. i n w h i c h t h e fam­ i l i e s of p o s i t i o n l i n e s a r e e l l i p s e s and hyperbolas confocal with them.. considering t h a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i n g segments of t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e s of any s y s t e m can be assumed t o be s t r a i g h t .. e .. a t e a c h o f w h i c h t h e a z i m u t h o f a known p o i n t r e t a i n s a c o n s t a n t v a l u e .example. and i n an a z i m u t h a l s y s ­ tem ( o r f o r l i n e s o f e q u a l a z i m u t h s ) t h e a z i m u t h s e r v e s 'as a n a v i ­ gational parameter. a c o n s t a n t sum o f t h e d i s t a n c e s t o t h e p o l e s o f t h e s y s t e m i s p r e s e r v e d on t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e s .l i n e segments i n t h e region of t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o con­ n e c t e a c h o f them w i t h t h e g e o g r a p h i c s y s t e m f o r l o c a t i n g t h e i n ­ t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s o f t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e s .. . i n w h i c h t h e f a m i l y o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s i s b i p o l a r . . i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t each has a r i s e n from t h e n a t u r e of t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l v a l u e s measured by t h e d e v i c e s u s e d . 74 . . I n a d d i t i o n .. I 1 .1 1 1 1 1 1 . i n o r d e r t o p l o t t h e m on a map. .I I . I n s t u d y i n g t h e s e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s . I 11. i . ..... For.. . i n c l u d i n g t h e g e o g r a p h i c and orthodrome s y s t e m s . The i n d i c a t e d v a l u e s a r e c a l l e d n a v i g a t i o n a Z parameters. w h i c h a r e p o s i t i o n l i n e s r e l a t i v e t o known p o i n t s o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . 11.I I I ... as i s done i n a u t o ­ matic navigational devices.. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e a n a l y t i c a l f o r m f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f a n a i r c r a f t i n a g e o g r a p h i c or o r t h o ­ d r o m e s y s t e m o n t h e b a s i s o f known p a r a m e t e r s o f n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s ­ t e m s w i t h o u t p l o t t i n g p o s i t i o n l i n e s on t h e map.. . 5) Over-aZZ r a n g e f i n d i n g ( e Z Z i p t i c a Z ) s y s t e m .

. G i v e n t h e d e f i n i t e v a l u e SI a n d s u b s t i t u t i n g d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s f o r cil. a n d a v a l u e 0 f . 1. I f t h e map b e i n g u s e d h a s b e e n e x e c u t e d o n a p r o j e c t i o n h a v i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f i s o g o n a l i t y a n d o r t h o d r o m i c i t y . 1. 0 1 a s t h e a z i m u t h a for t h e l o n g i t u d e i n t h e s p h e r i c a l s y s t e m . l e t us obtain ( i n t h e geographical coordinate system) sin 'p = cos S1cos 0 .48.'Po. g .'11.48). g r e a t e r t h a n l o . on a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n . S2 = OzM = 90".. s p h e r i c a l coordinate system. 6 5 ) . f o r m u l a s l e t u s u s e t h e g i v e n f o r m u ­ las t o find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the a z i m u t h a l l i n e s w i t h t h e c i r c l e o f e q u a l d i s t a n c e SI i n t h e g e o g r a p h ­ i c system. . sin A = sin al sin S1sec 'p. t h e i n d i c a t e d p o s i t i o n l i n e s o n t h e map c a n b e t a k e n a s s t r a i g h t l i n e s o r i g i n a t i n g a t p o i n t s 01 a n d 0 2 . s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c u r a c y i n determining t h e coordinates of an aircraft a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e b e a r i n g s a s s t r a i g h t l i n e s on a map i s p r e s e r v e d a t c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l d i s t a n c e s a n d o n l y on maps with an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n . G i v e n a n o t h e r v a l u e �or S 1 a n d h a v i n g c a r r i e d o u t t h e same o p e r a t i o n s w i t h "1. B i p o l a r A z i m u t h a l and 0 2 a s p o l e s o f an a r b i t r a r y Let Coordinate System.sin a1sin SI 0. f o r the precise p l o t t i n g o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s on a map.64) a n d ( 1 .I L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t w e h a v e t w o p o i n t s 01 a n d 0 2 o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ( F i g . t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of p o i n t M i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l s y s t e m a r e d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o (1. l e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e p o i n t s 01 F i g . /78 However. w e w i l l o b t a i n t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e p o i n t s o f intersection of the azimuthal l i n e s with a circle of equal distance having t h i s radius.'p2- I n t h i s case. 9 0 ~f o r SI a s t h e l a t i t u d e i n t h i s system. us c o n s i d e r t h e d i s t a n c e s S from t h e s e p o i n t s t o a n y p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e M a s c o m p l e m e n t s o f t h e l a t i t u d e o f p o i n t M i n t h e s e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s . sin where 0 = 90". e . C o n t i n u i n g t o i n c r e a s e S1 t o a f u l l r a d i u s o f operation of a 75 . T a k i n g t h e m e r i d i a n o f p o i n t 01 a s t h e p r i m e m e r i d i a n o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c s y s t e m . In general. up t o 9 0 ° : S1 = 01M = 9' 0 . g . e .

where 8 is the a n g u l a r d i s t a n c e o f 0102. we o b t a i n e d b o t h c o o r d i n a t e s o f p o i n t M i n t h i s s y s t e m . l o n g i t u d e s o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s f o r t h e i n d i c a t e d v a l u e A. r u n n i n g f r o m p o l e 01 i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l c o o r d i n a t e system. 6 5 ) it i s e v i d e n t t h a t sinkl --sinh. w i t h t h e l o n g i t u d e changed Introducing a correction i n the values of the t o the value hol.66) Substituting i n t o (1. cosec hl sec 0 + COS A. a n d as t h e p r i m e m e r i d i a n t h e l o n g i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t 02 ' 76 -. we o b t a i n : i n s t e a d o f c o s $1 i t s v a l u e a c c o r d ­ sin -.A2 ..n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e . l e t us o b t a i n t h e l o n g i t u d e s of t h e s e p o i n t s from t h e prime meridian of t h e geographic system. 6 4 ) and ( 1 . e. . 6 4 ) and ( 1 . From ( 1 .. According t o ( 1 . i t i s a g a i n p o s s i b l e t o u s e ( 1 . For t r a n s f e r r i n g t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m .__. i n g t o ( 1 . L e t u s now d e t e r m i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f p o i n t M i n t h e g e o ­ g r a p h i c a l s y s t e m . . taking t h e azi­ m u t h o f p o i n t 01 a s t h e p r i m e m e r i d i a n .cos A2 s i n e s i n AI or tg y2 = sin A. s i n 11 = s i n A. On a map o f a n y p r o j e c t i o n . l e t us o b t a i n t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e interme­ d i a t e p o i n t s o f t h e a z i m u t h a l p o s i t i o n l i n e s . cos 'p2 sec:cpl. 6 4 ) .cos% cos'pl sink2 or---. " 2 . t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of p o i n t M i n t h i s system a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e e q u a t i o n s : sin 'pl = sin 9. it i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n t h e f a m i l y o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s from p o i n t 0 2 .. 1.g.67) Since t h e azimuth of p o i n t M i n t h e 02 system i s considered k n o w n . c o n s i d e r i n g as a n g l e 0 t h e v a l u e $ 1 ~ 2 . without recourse t o t h e p l o t t i n g of position l i n e s . . b a s e d o n known a z i m u t h s m e a s u r e d a t p o i n t s 0 1 a n d 0 2 . 6 5 ) . cos 8 ' /79 - -cus A2 cos cpz sin 0. w h e r e A l h 2 a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y cil. (1. tg 0. 02 (see Fig. Let us f i r s t s o l v e t h i s problem i n t h e s p h e r i c a l system o f one o f t h e p o l e s of a navigational device. I n t h i s way. .52). b y j o i n i n g t h e p o i n t s o b t a i n e d b y l i n e s r u n n i n g f r o m p o i n t 01. we w i l l o b t a i n position l i n e s of t h e first family. t a k i n g it as t h e p o l e of t h e second a r b i t r a r y s p h e r i c a l coordinate system.481.tgcpz cos e . 6 5 ) ..sinkl ­ cosyl coscpz (1.

i . t a k i n g t h e v a l u e 90° .= A -. 6 5 ) .69) F o r m u l a s ( 1 .Z o f t h i s p o i n t as t h e a n g l e 0 The c o o r d i n a t e s o f p o i n t M i n t h e o r t h o ­ drome s y s t e m w i l l t h e n e q u a l : . t h e coordinates of t h e point M w i l l equal: sln 'p = sln '4. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e v a l u e 90° .A I - (1. This i s n e c e s s a r y f o r determining t h e p o s i t i o n of an air­ c r a f t relative t o a given f l i g h t path. n o t e q u a l t o X o 2 . In the geographical system.COS A. . sin A = sin k1 cos 'pl'sec'p. A c t u a l l y . If t h e X o .c o o r d i n a t e s n o t a s l i n e a r b u t as a n g u l a r m e a s u r e s . 6 4 ) and ( 1 .f i n d i n g s y s t e m i s t h e m o s t c o n v e n i e n t s y s t e m f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c or o r t h o d r o m e s y s t e m ..S i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t M i n t h e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m w i t h p o l e 01. A f t e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .68) I t i s a l s o obvious t h a t after transforming t h e coordinates i n t o ­ /80 g e o g r a p h i c a l o n e s .and Z . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n t r o d u c e a c o r r e c t i o n i n t o c o o r d i n a t e A2 f o r t h e l o n g i t u d e o f p o i n t 0 2 : A. 6 4 ) a n d ( 1 . . e .c o o r d i n a t e . cos B -cos A1 cos 'pl sin 8. Since d i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e are measured s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h i s system. 6 5 ) a l s o make i t p o s s i b l e t o i m p l e m e n t a t r a n s f e r from a s p h e r i c a l system w i t h p o l e 0 2 t o t h e orthodrome system. sin X = sin 'p2 COS B . it is p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e orthodrome system as a s p h e r i c a l system i f w e measure t h e X. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n t r o d u c e a c o r r e c t i o n 77 . 6 4 ) a n d ( 1 . 'p2 sin 8. i s t a k e n a s t h e prime meridian. Goniometric Range-Finding Coordinate System The g o n i o m e t r i c r a n g e .. cos ?In Z = sin A cos 'p2 sec X . i .$ o l for a n g l e 0 and A o l f o r t h e prime m e r i d i a n . then after transforming the coordinates according t o ( 1 . w h i l e t h e a z i ­ muth o f p o i n t M i s c o n s i d e r e d as t h e l o n g i t u d e . e .I t is obvious t h a t here it is necessary t o introduce a correc­ t i o n i n t o t h e A 2 c o o r d i n a t e f o r t h e v a l u e o f t h e a z i m u t h of p o i n t 0 1 f r o m p o i n t 0 2 . 6 5 ) a c o r r e c t i o n e q u a l t o Xo2 i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e XM c o o r d i n a t e . f o r conversion t o t h e geographical system it i s s u f f i ­ c i e n t t o u s e ( 1 . .c o o r d i n a t e as A and t h e Z a s $. w e t a k e t h e X . it i s advantageous t o t a k e t h e X-coordinate o f p o i n t 0 2 a s t h e p r i m e m e r i d i a n a n d t h e v a l u e 90° . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e . t h e c o r r e c t e d v a l u e o f A2 w i l l e q u a l : (1.

1 . 1. Fig. If t h e r a d i u s o f a c t i o n o f t h e b o n i o m e t e r r a n g e .f i n d i n g c o o r d i n a t e system i s s m a l l (on t h e o r d e r of 300-400 km).71) (1.71a) i s t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e orthodrome segment of t h e p a t h r e l a ­ where t i v e t o p o i n t 01. 5 0 . t h e coordinates of point M i n t h e o r t h o d r o m e s y s t e m c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e fol­ lowing formulas: In Figure 1.f i n d i n g s y s t e m ( F i g .+).67). 78 . Bipolar Range-Finding (Circular) Coordinate System + I n a b i p o l a r r a n g e . Conversion of Polar ( G o n i o m e t e r .R a n g e . 1. 1. t h e d i s t a n c e t o t w o p o i n t s o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w i t h known c o o r d i n a t e s i s a meas­ ured navigational parameter. The i n d i c a t e d d i s t a n c e i s u s u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t i m e o f passage o f r a d i o s i g n a l s from t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e ground r a d i o . R COS (U Z = Zol + R sin (a-+).50).49).49. /81 - i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t w i t h known v a l u e s o f R a n d system. (1.t o t h e c o o r d i n a t e A f o r t h e l o n g i t u d e o f p o i n t 01: (1. F i g .49. it i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s r e g a r d t h e s p h e r i c i t y o f t h e E a r t h i n c o n v e r t i n g t o t h e or­ thodrome system and t h e problem of t r a n s f e r i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s i m p l i ­ f i e d (Fig.70) The c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e o r t h o d r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m i s i m p l e ­ m e n t e d i n t h e same m a n n e r a s w a s d o n e i n t h e b i p o l a r a z i m u t h a l s y s ­ t e m after solving (1.F i n d i n g ) Coo r d i n a t e s t o Orthodromic Coor­ dinates. e i p o l a r Range-Find­ i n g Coordinate System.r e l a y equipment and back t o t h e a i r c r a f t . a i n t h e goniometer range-finding X ='Xoi $. .

cos yz sin 0 . sin y. i t i s obvious t h a t i n f l y i n g from n o r t h t o s o u t h . it is evident t h a t t h e task of determining t h e coordinates of an aircraft i n a c i r c u l a r system i s double-valued. 7 2 ) makes it p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e A .c o o r d i n a t e Since t h e $-coordinate i n t h i s system i s deter­ i n t h e 0 2 system. b) Tendency toward a change i n d i s t a n c e d u r i n g f l i g h t i n a definite direction. On maps w i t h d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t i o n s . sin 0 ' 79 . Carrying out simple transformations. r e s p e c t i v e l y . /82 I n c o n v e r t i n g f r o m a c i r c u l a r t o a g e o g r a p h i c or o r t h o d r o m e s y s t e m . with t h e s o l e difference being t h a t a f t e r determin­ ing the coordinates of intermediate points. b u t by c i r c u l a r l i n e s . cos 0. t h e d i s t a n c e s R1 a n d R2 w i l l d e c r e a s e a t p o i n t M a n d i n c r e a s e a t point MI. Formula ( 1 . it i s necessary t o determine t h e coordinates of t h e i r intermediate points. c i r c u l a r p o s i t i o n l i n e s w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t appearance. I n Figure 1.R 2 . Since t h e r e a r e t w o s u c h p o i n t s for a n y p a i r o f c i r c l e s . e .t h e a i r c r a f t . we obtain: (1. a d d i t i o n a l s i g n s a r e u s e d for c h o o s i n g t h e a c t u a l p o i n t . m i n e d d i r e c t l y a s 90° . a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n o n w h i c h t h e a p ­ proximate form o f t h e c i r c l e s i s p r e s e r v e d . $ 2 a r e 9 0 ° .yl = sin y2 cos 0 .In Figure 1. it i s n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f p o i n t M i n t h e s p h e r i c a l s y s t e m r e l a t i v e t o one o f t h e p o l e s o f t h e c i r ­ c u l a r system. the l a t t e r are not j o i n e d by r a d i a l p o s i t i o n l i n e s . 6 4 ) w i l l be sin.R 2 . t h e l a t i t u d e of p o i n t M i n t h e s y s t e m 01 a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 . : a) Provisional a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n a t t h e moment o f m e a s u r e m e n t . F o r p l o t t i n g t h e i n d i c a t e d l i n e s on a map w i t h a n y p r o j e c t i o n .cos A. $ 1 . U s u a l l y t h e y a r e p l o t t e d o n maps on a n o b l i q u e c e n t r a l .sin il cos 7. The p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e c i r c l e s o f e q u a l d i s t a n c e t o t h e p o l e s 01 a n d 02 i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e l o c a t i o n o f . cos A = . w h e r e 9 i s t h e a n g u l a r d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n p o i n t s 01 a n d 0 2 . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e l i n e 0102 a s t h e i n i t i a l m e r i d i a n o f t h i s s y s ­ t e m .R1 a n d 90° .72) -. g . i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r t h e p r o b l e m solved..50.50. T h i s p r o b l e m i s s o l v e d i n t h e s a m e way a s f o r b i p o l a r a z i ­ muthal systems.

it i s u s e d a l o n g one l i n e of e q u a l a z i m u t h s o f t w o f a m i l i e s .T h e c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c or o r t h o d r o m e s y s t e m i s i m ­ p l e m e n t e d b y t h e same means a s i n t h e a z i m u t h a l a n d g o n i o m e t e r range-finding systems. Determining t h e Coordinates of Intermediate P o i n t s o f a n LEA. w a s t h e most r e f i n e d nav­ igational facility. w h e r e a s i n o r d e r t o p l o t b e a r i n g s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e a p p r o x i m a t e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t for c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c o n ­ vergence of t h e meridians.52. on e a c h o f w h i c h t h e a z i m u t h o f t h e known p o i n t r e t a i n s a c o n s t a n t v a l u e (Fig. a s i s d o n e a l o n g two b e a r ­ i n g s i n an a z i m u t h a l b i p o l a r s y s t e m . i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h b e a r i n g s f o r a n a i r c r a f t . Along w i t h l i n e s of e q u a l a z i m u t h s . 1 . I n e x a m i n i n g l i n e s o f e q u a l a z i m u t h s . measuring t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e ground r a d i o s t a t i o n . a method o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f an a i r c r a f t by p l o t t i n g b e a r i n g s from a r a d i o s t a t i o n t o an aircraft ( t a k i n g account of t h e convergence of t h e m e r i d i a n s b e t w e e n t h e m ) h a s become w i d e s p r e a d . An a d v a n + a g e o f t h e l i n e s o f e q u a l a z i m u t h s . F o r f i n d i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t . Line of Equal Azim u t h s (LEA). 1.51). 5 1 . t h e r e i s no s e n s e i n de­ r i v i n g an a n a l y t i c a l form o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s f o r c o n v e r t i n g t o t h e ­ /83 F i g . 80 . 1. Lines o f Equal Azimuths L i n e s o f e q u a l a z i m u t h s (LEA) a r e a f a m i l y o f a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n l i n e s w h i c h c o n v e r g e a t one p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ‘ s s u r f a c e . i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e p r o b ­ l e m of determining an a i r c r a f t ’ s coordinates i s independent of i t s l o c a t i o n . L i n e s o f e q u a l a z i m u t h s w e r e w i d e l y u s e d i n t h e p e r i o d when t h e radiocompass ( a i r c r a f t r a d i o g o n i o m e t e r ) . Fig.

ao2. given t h e v a l u e s of t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e s "0. i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d t h e l o n g i t u d e A0 of t h e p o i n t s of i n t e r s e c t i o n of a f a m i l y o f orthodromes with t h e e q u a t o r . cos vs = cos 'p nn a. converge.73) Formula ( 1 . I t i s obvious t h a t t h e l o n g i t u d e o b t a i n e d w i l l be measured from t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t s o f t h e family of orthodromes. The l o n g i t u d e o f t h e i n d i c a t e d p o i n t c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d ­ i n g t o ( 1 . s i n c e t h e s e n d i n g and r a d i o . (1. Difference-Range-Finding ( H y p e r b o l i c ) C o o r d i n a t e System ­ /84 The c i r c u l a r r a n g e . is solved analogously. Therefore. Having s o l v e d t h i s problem f o r e v e r y v a l u e o f a0 w i t h g i v e n v a l u e s of a . 3 6 a ) by s u b s t i t u t i n g i n t o i t t h e g i v e n i n i t i a l a n g l e o f t h e orthodrome and t h e l a t i t u d e o b t a i n e d from ( 1 . The p r o b l e m o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s on l i n e s o f e q u a l a z i m u t h s o f t h e s e c o n d f a m i l y . . it i s necessary t o introduce a correction for t h e l o n g i t u d e of t h e i n d i c a t e d i n i t i a l p o i n t s . I n F i g u r e 1 . cos 'p = sin a .e n g i n e e r i n g equipment t o t h e a i r c r a f t . one o f t h e l i n e s o f e q u a l a z i m u t h s o f a f a m i l y c o n v e r g i n g a t p o > i n t M i s shown. e t c . A t t h i s p o i n t . w h o s e p l o t ­ t i n g on a m a p ' y i e l d s a g r i d o f i n t e r s e c t i n g a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n l i n e s . 7 3 ) . sin a . where t h e azimuth o f p o i n t M i s e q u a l t o t h e given v a l u e of a. A c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 .44).f i n d i n g s y s t e m o f a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n l i n e s examined e a r l i e r i s used w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l d i s t a n c e s from t h e ground r a d i o . 81 . 7 3 ) makes it p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l a t i t u d e o f a p o i n t on any l i n e of t h e f a m i l y o f o r t h o d r o m e s which c o n v e r g e a t p o i n t M. L e t us l i m i t o u r s e l v e s t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e means of c a l c u l a t i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s f o r p l o t t i n g t h e m o n a map i n o r d e r t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of an a i r c r a f t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e s o f e q u a l a z i m u t h s o f t w o f a m i l i e s o n a map w i t h a n y p r o j e c t i o n .g e o g r a p h i c or o r t h o d r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m . 5 2 . Or s i n c e c o s c$B = s i n a o . t o reduce it t o t h e geographic system. t h e orthodromes i n ­ t e r s e c t i n g t h e equator a t d i f f e r e n t angles a o l . 3 2 ) . l e t u s o b t a i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s of t h e f a m i l y of l i n e s of e q u a l azimuths. A c c o r d i n g t o (1.r e l a y i n g of r a d i o s i g n a l s t o t h e a i r c r a f t o v e r great distances involves technical d i f f i c u l t i e s .

Fi. Here t h e t h i s system. 1 . i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o m e a s u r e n o t t h e a b s o l u t e d i s t a n c e s from t h e ground i n s t a l l a t i o r i s t o t h e aircraft.SI and 90° S2 i n t h e F2 s y s t e m . a n d t a k i n g t h e d i s t a n c e FlF2 as t h e a n g l e 8. The d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e f o c a l a x i s f r o m t h e f o c u s t o t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n j u g a t e a x i s i s d e s i g n a t e d by t h e v a l u e r r e ' f . Difference-RangeFinding (Hyperbolic) Coordinate System. 5 3 1 . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e s i g n a t e h y p e r b o l i c a i r c r a f t p o s i t i o n l i n e s o n a map b y d o u b l i n g t h e v a l u e o f as an o r d i n a l /85 number.r a n g e ­ finding or hyperbolic system. 82 .The t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m i s g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d i f .64) i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m : - cos (SI 2a) = cos S cos 2c I E + . e .cos (3. b u t o n l y t h e d i f f e r e n c e . p a i r s of f o c a l axes are usually used. The d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e f o c a l a x i s f r o m t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c ­ t i o n of t h e f o c a l and c o n j u g a t e a x e s t o t h e peak of t h e h y p e r b o l a i s t h e v a l u e "a1'.cos A1 sin S1 sin 2c.cos 2c Fig. w i t h t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t r e c e p t i o n by t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e v a l u e S2. t w o f a m i l i e s o f h y p e r b o l i c p o s i t i o n l i n e s c o n s t r u c t e d from t h r e e p o i n t s forming A t each of these points.53. m H Hence COS A1 = . g . 1.e n g i n e e r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n s .74) . The s y s t e m of p o s i t i o n l i n e s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d i s t a n c e s t o two p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i s c a l l e d t h e d i f f e r e n e e . To d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t . 5'1 t 2 a . i s c a l l e d a hyperbola. we send simultaneous r a d i o s i g n a l s from two ground r a d i o . t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s of h y p e r b o l a s i s y s t e m o f one o f i t s f o c i . cos s. a r e d e t e r m i n e d d i r e c t i o n F1F2 i s t a k e n a s t h e i n i t i a l m e r i d i a n o f - a map w i t h a n y n the spherical f i r s t . t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n whose d i s t a n c e s t o t w o g i v e n p o i n t s ( f o c i ) i s a c o n s t a n t v a l u e e q u a l t o 2a ( F i g .in d i s t a n c e s t o t h e m . + 2a) sin s1sfn 2~ (1. However. i t i s p o s s i b l e t o w r i t e (1. ground r a d i o . B e a r i n g i n mind t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a t i t u d e of any p o i n t i n t h e F 1 s y s t e m e q u a l s 9 0 ° . instead of relaying aircraft r a d i o s i g n a l s .e n g i n e e r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n s f o r synchronous t r a n s m i s s i o n of radio signals a r e established. I n o r d e r t o p l o t h y p e r b o l i c p o s i t i o n l i n e s on p r o j e c t i o n . The g e o m e t r i c l o c u s o f p o i n t s .

Hyperbolic coordinate systems are usually used in the applica­ tion of radionavigational devices with a large effective radius.75a) Formulas (1. the intermediate points are recalculated according to (1.cos I ~ ~ ( I 201) S + s i n &sin 2cl -- cos S cos 2c2 I ~ . we obtain: COS 2cl .75) are used for determining the coordinates of an 83 .cos 2c2 sin 2 c1.s i n 2 c cos 2 a l + s l n 2EI ~ 0 ~ 2 % ~ = tg S ( s i n 2cl s i n 2a2 .74).cos 2al + s i n %l. cos 22---cos - 2% $- tg S1 s i n 2u2 sin 2 2 Multiplying both sides o f the equation by sin 2cl.54). after which they are plotted on a map and joined by smooth lines. 1.651.cos ( I 2%) S sin SIs i n 2c2 + Expanding the value of the cosines of the sum of the angles and carrying out a reduction.cos 2 q + tg S I s i n 2al s i n 2cl . i. it is possible to determine the value of X of all the hyperbolas of the family at points of intersection with the indicated circles. F o r conversion t o the geographical coordinate system.e.sin 2c2 and rearranging the terms.75) The task is simplified even more if the distances FF1 and FF2 which are chosen are identical.Given the definite values of S as circles of equal radius and changing the values of 2a. According to (1. the automatic conversion of the hyperbolic coordinates t o geographical or orthodromic coordinates is advantageous. cos A.sim%1 ' (1.s i n 2 2 s i n I h ­ /86 or tg SI= sin 2cz (cos 21-COS 2 q ) sin 2 1 Sirria2 . 2cl = 2c2. In this case tgq= cos 2 -. we obtain: cos 2c1 s i n 2 2 .cos 2%) (1. .sin 2c2 s i n 2u1 s i n 2cl (cos 2c2 . = cos S cos 2 q . Therefore.64) and (1. The problem indicated is solved comparatively easily when all three foci of the hyperbolic system are situated on one orthodrome line (Fig.

1. the following equation is valid: cos (AI -tp) sin 2 e cogec 2c2 ctg 2.55. we obtain: COS 11 == ctg S1 ctg 2 1 .cos 2 1 cosec 2 ~ 1 or ctgS1= - * (1.74) can be reduced t o the form: cos AI = . It is obvious that (1.74).cos S1 cos 2a1 ~­ sin S1sin 2 + sin S1 sin !2u1 ­ 1 Carrying out simple transformations. For conversion t o the geographic or ortho­ drome system. 1. Conversion of Hyper­ bolic Coordinates t o Spherical Coordinates (General Case).76) /87 - In Fig. is much more complicated to solve. cose42c2 ctgq= - - (1.54. The problem of conversion t o the spherical (and consequently. therefore. Fig. sin 2al cosec 21 ~. COS S1 cos 2cl. 1. ctg 2 1 .ctg S1cos 2al cosec 2 1 + sin %zl cosec %I cos A.76a) Designating the second terms of the numerators of (1. The X-coordinate with a known value of S is easily determined i on the basis of (1.76a) by X and the denominators by Y and reducing t o a common denominator. bearing I in mind that ( = 90° . the same formulas (1. Conversion of Hyper­ bolic Coordinates t o Spherical Coordinates (Special Case) 84 Fig. cos 242.64) and (1.aircraft in a spherical system with the pole at point F . . 1. t o the geographic coordinate system) if the foci of the hyperbolic system are not located on one orthodrome line (Fig.Si.55 it is evident that i n the FF2 system A M = X I t f3.65) are used.551. we obtain: M ' .

Y2)2( Y 2 .77). 2c1. In practice. and then t o convert t o the geographic or orthodrome system using (1. on the basis of the known values of 2 a 1 .Rearranging the terms.COS 2al cosec 2c. 6 5 ) .x.cosp + Y2.x. and squaring both sides o f the equation we obtain: cos~~(Y~-cospYl)-XlY2+ X2Y1= . e. = ctg 2cl.cos 2a2cosec 2cz. where Xl = s i n 2al cosec 2cl.. and 2 c 2 . Y2 = ctg 2cz . There is no sense in substituting the indicated values X I .Y. according t o ( 1 .64) and ( 1 . it is easier t o determine the numerical values of these magnitudes first.)[(X.cosLA.Si. 2 a 2 . and Y2 into (1. . and t o substitute them into (1. replacing sin A . Overall-Range-Finding (Elliptical) Coordinate System /88 Hyperbolic navigational systems are the most easily implemented technologically of a l l the range-finding systems.771. Knowing the coordinate A makes it possible t o determine easily the coordinate $ 1 . since this hampers its solution greatly. .g.~ l . However.c o s 2 A 1 slnPY1 or Thus.77) Y:: -2Y.Yz)2-si112 pv:] (1. by d 1 . X2 = sin 2a2cosec 2c2. the coordinate A 1 is determined by the solution of a quadratic equation f 1/ (XZY. 7 6 1 . from 85 . keeping in mind the fact that $ 1 = 90° . Y 1 . X2.cos pulp ­ .Y.(Y:-2Y1 Y2 cos $ + Y.. Y .

e l l i p t i c a l system of p o s i t i o n l i n e s . obviously t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e second f o c u s is 2a. t h e y are g e o m e t r i c a l l y disadvan­ Both f a m i l i e s o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s a r e d i v e r g e n t . with an increase i n d i s t a n c e . t h e angle of i n t e r ­ s e c t i o n of t h e h y p e r b o l i c l i n e s of t h e two f a m i l i e s d e c r e a s e s . tageous. t h e d i s t a n c e t o one o f them i s m e a s u r e d . i n determining aircraft coordinates with an increqse i n t h e distance from t h e c e n t e r . Combination of h y p e r b o l i c p o s i t i o n l i n e s with e l l i p t i c a l l i n e s t u r n s o u t t o b e more a d v a n t a g e o u s ( F i g . it i s e a s y t o i m p l e m e n t t h e h y p e r b o l i c .e l l i p t i c a l system include the following: (a) There i s an absence of divergence i n t h e second family of p o s i t i o n l i n e s . The elliptical position lines are c l o s e d . 86 ( b ) Orthogonality of t h e /89 ­ . s o t h a t t h e a c c u r a c y of determining the a i r c r a f t ’ s p o s i t i o n a l o n g them d o e s n o t decrease with an i n c r e a s e i n distance.a x i s . . of t h e e l l i p s e and ah i s t h e parame­ Obvious advantages of t h e h y p e r b o l i c . i . a x i s from i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e minor a x i s t o t h e t o p of t h e e l l i p s e . i’n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e s t o t h e f o c i . cal Coordinate System. T h i s a l s o l o w e r s t h e a c c u r a c y of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s . i s c a l l e d a n e z z i p s e . e . t h e s u m o f whose d i s t a n c e s t o two g i v e n p o i n t s ( f o c i ) i s a c o n s t a n t m a g n i t u d e The d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e m a j o r e q u a l t o 2a.56. 1. and a t d i s t a n c e s e x c e e d i n g 2c from t h e c e n t e r of t h e s y s t e m are p r a c t i c a l l y d i r e c t e d This leads t o an increase i n e r r o r a l o n g t h e r a d i i of t h i s c e n t e r . 5 6 ) . In a d d i t i o n . i n t h i s case. = 2S1 t 2 a h where a e i s t h e m a j o r s e m i . I f .I I 1 t h e p o i n t of view o f u s e i n f l i g h t . i t s s e m i . i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e v a l u e llall. i f o n e d i s t a n c e S i s known a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n i t h e d i s t a n c e s A S = 2ah. Hyperbolic-Ellipti­ Fig. 1 .a x i s t e r a of t h e hyperbola. The d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e a x e s t o t h e f o c i i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e ItcI1 v a l u e . I t i s known t h a t t h e g e o m e t r i c a l p l a c e o f p o i n t s . A c t u a l l y .

78) where X 1 is an angle with the vertex at point F 1 . 6 4 ) and (1.cos (2a. In a confocal hyperbolic-elliptical system. measured from the major axis of the ellipse. sin s1 2~ sin (1. the value of S and the parameter 2a in this system 87 . This leads t o a simplification of the transfor­ mations during conversion t o a geographic or orthodrome system. Recalculation of intermediate points is implemented in the geographic system according t o ( 1 . instead of the three f o r a hyperbolic system. Given the different values of S and determining the values of i for each of them with a constant value of 2 a . the intermediate points are determined according t o the same formulas as the family of hyperbolas. (c) Two foci. Hence.65) as in other cases analyzed by us. It is therefore possible to determine the travel time of the signals. 7 4 ) . we obtain intermediate points of the next elliptical position line. considering the second distance in it ( S 2 ) not as the sum SI + 2ah. are sufficient for the construction of a confocal hyperbolic- elliptical system. but as the difference 2ae SI. However. the position lines intersect only at a right angle. To plot elliptical lines on a map with any projection. etc. in ( 1 . strict stabilization of the reference frequency on board the aircraft is the main task for the technical implementation of hyperbolic-elliptical systems. For example . the conversion t o the geographic or orthodromic coordinate system is very simple.SI) . A 1 Changing the value of 2a and performing these operations with Si. The above problem is solved by keeping on board the aircraft a reference frequency (quartz-crystal clock) which permits syn­ chronization of the transmission of radio signals from the ground with reference signals on board the plane.cos 2c . we shall obtain intermediate points of an ellipse in a spherical system F 1 . in spite of the advantages of a hyperbolic-elliptical system indicated above. - COB hi = -___- cos s.position lines appears at any point of the system. i In fact. This was 'connected with great technical difficulties in measuring distance t o points on the Earth's surface at distances exceeding straight- line geometric visibility of the object from flight altitude. In the hyperbolic-elliptical system. a wide distribution was not obtained.

A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . Elements of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a r e divided i n t o t h r e e groups which d e t e r m i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n . p a r a m e t e r s o f a i r c r a f t move­ ment r e l a t i v e t o t h e a i r s p a c e a r e u s u a l l y m e a s u r e d t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t p o s s i b l e .78) i s u s e f u l f o r t h e p r o b l e m o f c a l c u l a t i n g t h e s p h e r i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s of an a i r c r a f t along measured p a r a m e t e r s a n d f o r a s u b s e q u e n t t r a n s f e r t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c or orthodrome system. 88 . How­ e v e r . E l e m e n t s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e F l i g h t Direction The b a s i c e l e m e n t w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a i r c r a f t movement i n a i r s p a c e i s c a l l e d t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . a s w e l l as t h e s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n o f i t s s h i f t relative t o the Earth's surface. I n s o l v i n g n a v i g a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . The p h y s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f a i r s p a c e .a r e measured. U s u a l l y it i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e a i r s p e e d v e c t o r o f an a i r ­ c r a f t i n t h e p l a n e of t h e h o r i z o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e longitudinal a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t . Therefore. 8. an understanding of t h e course o f t e n c o i n c i d e s with an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e f l i g h t a i r ­ speed vector. t h i s problem h a s been solved. The p a r a m e t e r s o f a i r c r a f t m o v e m e n t w i t h w h i c h we m u s t c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s i n c a r r y i n g o u t a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a r e c a l l e d ezements of a i r c r a f t navigation. U n t i l r e c e n t l y . Elements o f A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n Aircraft f l i g h t s a r e c a r r i e d out i n airspace. a n d t h e n a d d i t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t w h i c h are c o n n e c t e d w i t h m o v e m e r t i n a i r s p a c e a r e found. t h e d i r e c t measurement o f t h e s p e e d and d i r e c ­ t i o n o f a i r c r a f t movement r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w a s a problem. exert a substantial influence on t h e t r a j e c t o r y of a i r c r a f t m o v e m e n t i n a g e o g r a p h i c or o r t h o d r o m i c coordinate system. The a i r c r a f t course ( g e n e r a l l y d e s i g n a t e d b y y ) i s t h e a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a m e r i d i a n on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t i n a h o r i z o n t a l plane. (1. it i s n o t a d v i s a b l e t o i n s t a l l t h e complex and e x p e n s i v e e q u i p m e n t w h i c h m e a s u r e s t h e i n d i c a t e d p a r a m e t e r s on a l l a i r c r a f t . although t h i s is a c t u a l l y not entirely true. t h e v a l u e and d i r e c t i o n of t h e speed v e c t o r of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o the Earth's surface a r e found. Summarizing t h e m e a s u r e d p a r a m e t e r s o f a i r c r a f t movement. T h e r e f o r e . s p e e d . and a l t i t u d e of f l i g h t .

b u t we h a v e b r o a d e n e d t h i s c o n c e p t t o i n c l u d e a l l m e t h o d s o f measuring an a i r c r a f t course with an i n s t r u m e n t . . Y = c c +nc A s a c o r r e c t i o n f o r any measurement. ? . a n d n e g a t i v e when t h e c o m p a s s r e a d i n g s a r e t o o h i g h . by means of a s t r o n o m i c a l s y s t e m s . by means of gyroscopic devices. g . there is a n o t h e r c o n c e p t . . I n d i v i d u a l components of e r r o r s i n t h e c o u r s e d e v i c e s a r e components of t h e d e v i a t i o n . a c o u r s e b a s e d on t h e r e s p o n s e s o f a compass. 89 . /91 In addition t o these varieties of a i r c r a f t courses.79) I n t h e g e n e r a l case.. The l a t ­ t e r i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e p o s i t i o n p o i n t o f t h e a i r c r a f t (PA): (b) The o r t h o d r o m e c o u r s e ( O C ) i s m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n end of a geographic meridian of t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of a r e c t i l i n e a r (orthodrome) segment of t h e p a t h or from a n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n a l l y chosen ( r e f e r e n c e ) m e r i d i a n a l o n g which t h e z e r o p o i n t o f t h e course-reading scale i s established. e . (c) The m a g n e t i c c o u r s e ( M C ) i s r e a d f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n e n d of t h e magnetic m e r i d i a n which p a s s e s through p o i n t PA. True c o u r s e . t h e v a l u e Ac i s c o n s i d e r e d p o s i t i v e when t h e c o m p a s s u n d e r e s t i m a t e s t h e v a l u e o f t h e m e a s u r e d m a g n i t u d e . A l l o f t h e s e m e t h o d s h a v e i n s t r u m e n t a l e r r o r s or a deviation d e s i g n a t e d b y A. % . t h e c o n c e p t o f compass c o u r s e h a s i n c l u d e d o n l y m a g n e t i c compasses. e .Depending on t h e reference system chosen. Any o f t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f a i r c r a f t c o u r s e s c a n b e o b t a i n e d from r e s p o n s e s o f a c o u r s e d e v i c e . t h e compass course ( C C ) . . R e f e r e n c e c o u r s e . s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e z e r o r e a d i n g o f t h e compass a l o n g t h e m e r i d i a n s : M a g n e t i c c o u r s e . by means o f m a g n e t i c s y s t e m s . e . A i r c r a f t c o u r s e s a r e m e a s u r e d by t h r e e d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s . a l l o w i n g for i t s d e v i a t i o n . t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l v a r i e t i e s o f a i r c r a f t c o u r s e s can b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d : (a) A true course ( T C ) i s m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n e n d o f a geographic m e r i d i a n which p a s s e s through t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e Earth's surface with t h e v e r t i c a l of t h e aircraft. (1. I n t e x t b o o k s on a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n .

is established with the least d i f f i c u l t y . I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of A i r c r a f t Courses. i s shown by a d o t t e d l i n e w h i c h i n t e r s e c t s t h e g e o g r a p h i c Therefore meridian a t angle 6. ­ /92 it i s e v i d e n t t h a t MC =TC . t h e r e f o r e . t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n P r a m . I n F i g . a: Magnetic The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c m e r i d i a n p a s s i n g t h r o u g h p o i n t PA i s d e s i g n a t e d by P n .80) In t h e case of AM.81) 90 . (1. 1 . Fig. Since the magnetic meridian is s h i f t e d t o t h e l e f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e geographic meridian.AM. t h e abso­ l u t e v a l u e of t h e t r u e c o u r s e t u r n s o u t t o be l e s s t h a n t h e magnetic course. 1 .57. t h e magnetic d e c l i n a t i o n a t the given With a p o s i t i v e d e v i a t i o n . t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n b y Pw. 1 . C o n v e r t i n g f r o m t h e t r u e or m a g n e t i c c o u r s e t o t h e o r t h o d r o m e c o u r s e (or v i c e v e r s a ) i s m o r e c o m p l e x ( F i g . when w e s t u d y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e t h r e e t y p e s of a i r c r a f t c o u r s e s q w e w i l l c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e v a l u e of each h a s b e e n c o r r e c t e d for t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e d e v i c e . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a g n e t i c a n d t r u e f l i g h t c o u r s e s s i n c e theqe c o u r s e s are m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e m e r i d i a n s w h i c h p a s s t h r o u g h p o i n t PA ( F i g . and True.A . 5 7 . t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d point is negative. 1. ian is s h i f t e d t o the r i g h t r e l a t i v e t o the geographic meridian. From t h e f i g u r e . TC =MC +. 5 7 a t h e n o r t h e r n g e o g r a p h i c m e r i d i a n is d e s i g n a t e d b y P n . 5 7 a ) . b: True and Orthodrome. b ) . t h e value i s negative. (1.I n t h e f u t u r e .

arctg (tg A. t h e a n g l e o f c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s . On s m a l l p a t h s e g m e n t s ( 5 0 0 . i s t h e a n g l e o f c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s f r o m t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t t o t h e moving p o i n t o f t h e l a s t p a t h s e g m e n t ( o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e same f o r m u l a ) .. from which it f o l l o w s that 91 . 8 0 ) and ( 1 . w i l l be e q u a l t o 8 = a .82) In g e n e r a l . _. i s t a k e n as t h e r e f e r ­ ence m e r i d i a n .s where 6 1 . i f t h e a z i m u t h o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e i s known a t t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e p a t h s e g m e n t . t h e a n g l e o f c o n v e r g e n c e of t h e meridians is approximately equal t o : (1. .. f o r c o n v e r t i n g from t h e orthodrome course t o a t r u e c o u r s e or v i c e v e r s a . o n t h e b a s i s o f ( 1 . 3 4 1 . For c o n v e r s i o n f r o m a n o r t h o d r o m e c o u r s e t o a m a g n e t i c c o u r s e and v i c e v e r s a .83) where A and A 1 a r e measured from t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e o r t h o ­ drome. 3 3 a ) . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o n g i ­ tude of t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of t h e orthodrome of each r e c t i l i n e a r p a t h s e g m e n t . a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 . 8 1 ) are u s e d . 3 3 a ) . . (1.6 0 0 k m ) . 6 2 a r e t h e angles of convergence of t h e meridians between t h e s t a r t i n g and end p o i n t s o f t h e p r e c e d i n g p a t h segments d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f ( 1 .+$+ . cosec TI). on t h e b a s i s o f ( 1 .a1 = arctg (tg A cosec '4) /93 - . ( 1 . 8 3 ) . 6.o f f of t h e a i r c r a f t . g . g . e .The v a l u e 6. t h e a n g l e of convergence of t h e m e r i d i a n s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d a s t h e sum: a=s. The a n g l e o f c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s c a l c u l a t e d i n t h i s way a l l o w s c o n v e r s i o n f r o m a t r u e c o u r s e t o a n o r t h o d r o m e c o u r s e a n d v i c e v e r s a a t a n y f l i g h t d i s t a n c e w i t h a n y number o f b r e a k s i n the path. e . If t h e l o n g i t u d e o f a n y o t h e r p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . or. t h e p o i n t of t a k e .. i s c o n s i d e r e d p o s i t i v e when t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c m e r i d i a n a t p o i n t PA i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n e x t e n d e d c l o c k w i s e ( t o t h e r i g h t ) a n d n e g a t i v e when t h e g e o g r a p h i c m e r i d i a n is shifted t o the left. The a n g l e o f c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e m e r i d i a n s b e t w e e n t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e p a t h s e c t i o n Mi a n d a n y m o v i n g p o i n t M on a s e c t i o n .

c o u r s e s a r e used i n t h e s o l u t i o n s of n a v i g a t i o n a l problems t h e d r i f t a n g l e i s d e s i g n a t e d by t h e R u s s i a n l e t t e r s f o r D A . form : . The f l i g h t a n g l e . I n g e n e r a l . OV i s t h e d i r e c t i o . u i s t h e wind s p e e d v e c t o r . The g e n e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e f l i g h t a n g l e i s $. 8 4 ) a s s u m e s t h e v i c e v e r s a . For example. can be measured from t h e r e f e r e n c e meridian.58). MC = O C . 1. l i k e t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t . The a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e n o r t h e r n e n d o f t h e m e r i d i a n a n d t h e g r o u n d s p e e d v e c t o r or t h e v e c t o r o f t h e s p e e d o f t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a ­ t i v e t o t h e E a r t h ’ s s u r f a c e i s c a l l e d t h e f l i g h t angle (FA). t h e geographic meridian. t h e a n g l e between t h e a i r s p e e d v e c t o r and t h e groundspeed v e c t o r i n a h o r i z o n t a l plane is c a l l e d t h e d r i f t angle (Fig. 1 .58.84) The sum o f t h e m a g n i t u d e s A M + 6 i s t a k e n a s t h e o v e r a l l c o r ­ r e c t i o n f o r conversion from a magnetic t o a n orthodrome course and Then ( 1 . 92 ( a > The o r t h o d r o m e f l i g h t a n g l e i s O F A . .(1. O F A 4 0 = 96O. I n an a i r c r a f t .A . 1. Angle o f F l i g h t . a n d i s d e s i g n a t e d by A .f t h e a i r s p e e d v e c t o r a n d t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l n o a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . The d r i f t a n g l e i s t h e s e c o n d e l e m e n t d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a i r c r a f t movement. OW i s t h e d -r e c t i o n o f t h e g r o u n d s p e e d v e c t o r i r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h ’ s s u r f a c e . and a m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n p a s s i n g t h r o u g h p o i n t PA. OPN i s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m e r i d i a n a t p o i n t In P A . OC = MCfA. The d r i f t a n g l e o f a n a i r c r a f t i s c o n s i d e r e d p o s i t i v e when t h e g r o u n d s p e e d v e c t o r ( v e c t o r o f a i r c r a f t movement r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h ’ s s u r f a c e ) i s f u r t h e r t o t h e r i g h t of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t and n e g a t i v e i f it i s f u r t h e r t o t h e l e f t . . t h e d r i f t a n g l e i s d e s i g n a t e d by t h e I n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s when s p e c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n s for Latin l e t t e r a. w i t h o b l i g a t o r y i n d i c a t i o n by a s u b s c r i p t of t h e l o n g i t u d e of t h e r e f e r e n c e meridian. .. 5 8 .F i g . S p e c i a l v a l u e s of t h e f l i g h t a n g l e s have t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s i g n a t i o n s : /94 The P a t h Fig.

93 . 1. + A. A = TFP . i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o know t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t a s t h e a n g l e between t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e m e r i d i a n and t h e l a t e r a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t .58.A . Lateral Glide Fig.60. + DA. For p r e c i s e l y d e t e r m i n i n g t h e w i n d a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .(b) (c) The t r u e f l i g h t a n g l e i s T F A . w i t h T r a n s v e r s e Roll.85) The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s p e c i a l v a l u e s o f t h e f l i g h t a n g l e s and t h e method o f c o n v e r s i o n from one s p e c i a l v a l u e t o a n o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d s c o m p l e t e l y t o t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between special values of a i r c r a f t courses: OFA TFA + 6 TPA = O F A MFA = O F A - 6 = MFA + A. (1. T h e m a g n e t i c f l i g h t a n g l e i s MFA. Moment a n d C o n t r o l Force w i t h Assymetry o f Engine Thrust. =MFA I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a i r c r a f t movement r e l a t i v e t o ­ /95 t h e E a r t h ’ s s u r f a c e . 1. I t i s obvious t h a t t o do t h i s it i s necessary n Fig.. it i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e f l i g h t a n g l e is g e n e r a l l y or i n s p e c i a l c a s e s : O F A r OC TFA L TC M F A = MC + DAI + DA. t o g e t h e r w i t h elements o f f l i g h t s p e e d . These e l e m e n t s . I n Figure 1.. make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n o f t h e wind a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . and t h e d r i f t a n g l e as t h e a n g l e be­ tween t h e l a t e r a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e d i r e c t i o n of i t s movement.59. i t i s necessary t o s e p a r a t e t h e p a r t of t h e d r i f t angle of an a i r c r a f t c a u s e d by t h e w i n d .

For s t a b i l i z i n g t h e f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n . i . ‘X APL (1... a n d L . in With a l l o w a b l e l a t e r a l b a n k i n g component o f t h e l i f t w i l l a p p e a r : (Fig. e . t h e h o r i z o n t a l w h e r e G i s t h e w e i g h t of t h e a i r c r a f t a n d B i s t h e a n g l e o f banking.59) L e t u s assume t h a t w i t h s y m m e t r i c a l d r a g . Assymetry o f the Engine t h r u s t or A i r c r a f t D r a g (Fig.-. lateral For e x a m p l e .60). a moment m u s t b e a p p l i e d t o t h e empennage o f t h e a i r c r a f t w h i c h i s e q u a l i n m a g n i t u d e and o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n t o t h e moment o f t h r u s t . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h r u s t AP w i l l p r o d u c e t o r q u e i n t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e v e r ­ t i c a l a x i s . c a u s e s a 94 ----. 1. t h e course of t h e aircraft w i l l change. FZ i s t h e c o n t r o l f o r c e . w i t h a f l y i n g w e i g h t o f t h e a i r c r a f t o f 7 5 t . t h e a l l o w a b l e b a n k i n g i n h o r i z o n t a l f l i g h t . There are s e v e r a l c a u s e s of l a t e r a l g l i d e i n a i r c r a f t d u r i n g flight. a r i s i n g i n f l i g h t . 1. . I . The b a s i c c a u s e s a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g . .t o determine t h e direation of t h e airspeed vector of t h e aircraft as t h e c o u r s e and g l i d e o f dynamic o r i g i n . The d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e l a t e r a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e c e n t e r o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s the a r m of t h i s force. t h e f o r c e which c a u s e s g l i d i n g o f an aircraft with assymetry of drag arises. i s t h e a r m o f c o n t r o l ( f r o m t h e c e n t e r of t h e empennage a r e a t o t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y o f t h e a i r ­ craft) The l a t e r a l f o r c e w h i c h c a u s e s g l i d i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l be: ­ /96 F * = d ._ . e q u a l t o lo. w h e r e AP is t h e a s s y m e t r y o f t h e t h r u s t . e . Allowable L a t e r a l B a n k i n g o f an A i r c r a f t Horizontal Flight. 1. i .86) I n an analogous manner. LT i s t h e a r m of t h r u s t a s s y m e t r y ( f r o m t h e a x i s o f t h e e n g i n e t o t h e a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t ) . o n e of t h e e n g i n e s h a s a somewhat g r e a t e r t h r u s t t h a n t h e o t h e r ._. t h e moment o f r o t a t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t c a u s e s e x c e s s d r a g on o n e wing o f t h e a i r c r a f t . 2. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e .

This causes l a t e r a l g l i d i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t V z . Ay i s t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e c h a n g e i n t h e a i r c r a f t ' s c o u r s e . W m sin 7. F i r s t . = 20. From t h e a b o v e f i v e e x a m p l e s o f l a t e r a l a i r c r a f t g l i d i n g . l a t e r a l a i r f l o w o v e r t h e a i r c r a f t or s o m e t h i n g s i m i l a r ( g l i d i n g i n a i r s p a c e ) w i l l a p p e a r . 5 . W i s t h e speed of t h e aircraft r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . and The i n d i c a t e d l a t e r a l g l i d i n g o f a n a i r c r a f t g r a d u a l l y d i e s down a s a r e s u l t o f a c c e l e r a t i o n c a u s e d b y t h e l a t e r a l a i r f l o w over i t s surface. e q u a l t o : w h e r e V i s t h e s p e e d o f t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o che a i r s p a c e . f o l l o w e d by a change i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a i r c r a f t movement. (1.89) L . 3. a n d $ i s t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t P A .l a t e r a l component o f l i f t = 1. G l i d i n g During Changes Component a t i n t h e Lateral Flight Altitude Wind Speed This type of g l i d i n g arises a s a r e s u l t of t h e i n e r t i a of t h e aircraft. Two-dimensional Fluctuations i n t h e A i r c r a f t Course D u r i n g t w o . w h i l e a b r u p t b e g i n n i n g and g r a d u a l d i m i n u t i o n o f g l i d i n g a r e t h e c a u s e s i n t h e l a s t two c a s e s .d i m e n s i o n a l rolls ( w i t h o u t b a n k i n g ) . as a r e s u l t o f t h e d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .3 t. a l a t e r a l Coriolis f o r c e a c t s on t h e a i r c r a f t : F .87) where Oe i s t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y of t h e E a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n . 4. constant l a t e r a l f o r c e s are t h e causes of t h e g l i d i n g i n t h e first t h r e e cases. a n a i r c r a f t (as a r e s u l t of i n e r t i a ) t r i e s t o maintain t h e i n i t i a l d i r e c t i o n of movement. m i s t h e mass o f t h e a i r c r a f t . Coriolis Force During f l i g h t i n t h e E a r t h ' s atmosphere. The m a g n i t u d e o f s t a b l e g l i d i n g w i t h a c o n s t a n t l y a c t i n g l a t e r a l f o r c e can be determined according t o t h e formula z = czs PW or ­ vz=f+ 95 2 (1.

s i s t h e area of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t w i t h a v e r t i c a l p l a n e . To c a l c u l a t e g l i d i n g i n f l i g h t .7 -a g l (1. The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a i r s p e e d v e c t o r formula TI. w h o s e c a u s e i s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e wind a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .92) A s w e have a l r e a d y s a i d . a n d t h e s t a b i l i t y a n d c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f a n a i r c r a f t d e p e n d on t h e square of t h e airspeed. t h e r e i s no need t o s e p a r a t e o u t t h e c a u s e s o f l a t e r a l a i r c r a f t movement. a n d p i s t h e mass density of the a i r f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . cz i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f l a t e r a l drag of t h e a i r c r a f t . l o n g i t u d i n a l component of l o n g i t u d i n a l s p e e d . a t f l i g h t speeds which a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n t h e s p e e d o f s o u n d . M e a s u r i n g t h e s p e e d o f a i r c r a f t movement r e l a t i v e t o t h e a i r space i s s i g n i f i c a n t both from t h e p o i n t o f view o f f l i g h t a e r o ­ dynamics ( s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l o f t h e a i r c r a f t ) and from t h e p o i n t ov view o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . F o r example. determining t h e g l i d i n g of a n a i r ­ c r a f t i n a i r s p a c e i s n e c e s s a r y only f o r p r e c i s e measurements of For t h e p u r p o s e s o f wind s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . t h e d r a g o f a n a i r c r a f t . is the i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e =r+ag2 (1. E l e m e n t s Which C h a r a c t e r i z e t h e F l i g h t S p e e d o f an A i r c r a f t The f l i g h t s p e e d o f a n a i r c r a f t i s m e a s u r e d b o t h r e l a t i v e t o t h e a i r s p a c e surrounding t h e a i r c r a f t and r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h ' s surface. i t m u s t b e i n t e g r a t e d a n d converted t o angular g l i d e ( a g l ) : where V z i s t h e l a t e r a l component o f t h e a i r s p e e d and V.7" = + .where Z i s t h e o p e r a t i v e l a t e r a l f o r c e . /98 I t i s known t h a t t h e l i f t o f a w i n g . t h e d r a g o f a n a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e formula 96 . a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . w i l l b e : a = 9.91) The d r i f t a n g l e o f a n a i r c r a f t .

w i t h a n a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e o f 7 6 0 m m Hg and an ambient a i r t e m p e r a t u r e of 1 5 O C . For t h e p u r p o s e s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . . To e n s u r e s a f e p i l o t a g e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n these instances. a n d p i s t h e mass a i r d e n s i t y a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . it i s necessary t o increase f l i g h t airspeed. T h e v a l u e . ex i s t h e d r a g c o e f ­ f i c i e n t . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r . the. however. -p v 2 2 c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e aerodynamic p r e s s u r e of t h e a t m o s p h e r e on t h e s u r f a c e o f a n a i r c r a f t . aero­ dynamic s p e e d d o e s n o t c o m p l e t e l y c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a n a i r c r a f t which a r e d e t e r m i n e d u n d e r t h e c o n d i ­ t i o n s o f a s t a n d a r d a t m o s p h e r e and which a r e i n h e r e n t i n f l i g h t speed. e . speed i n d i c a t o r s which m e a s u r e a i r s p e e d on t h e b a s i s o f a e r o d y n a m i c p r e s s u r e a r e c a l i b r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r a m e t e r s of a s t a n d a r d a t m o s p h e r e . The a c t u a l a i r s p e e d . a corresponding correction is introduced i n t o t h e i n d i c a t i o n s of aerodynamic speed. S i s t h e maximum a r e a o f t h e l a t e r a l c r o s s s e c t i o n of a n a i r c r a f t . a i r d e n s i t y d e c r e a s e s . although responses of t h e airspeed i n d i c a t o r which m e a s u r e a i r s p e e d on t h e b a s i s o f a e r o d y n a m i c p r e s ­ s u r e remain constant. aerodynamic p r e s s u r e (and t h e r e f o r e t h e speed of f l i g h t ) reduce t o conditions i n a standard atmosphere. i .w h e r e Q i s t h e l a t e r a l d r a g o f a n a i r c r a f t . t h a t w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t speed. t o f l i g h t conditions n e a r t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . which w e s h a l l c a l l s i m p l y a i r s p e e d ( V ) . A 1 1 t h e a e r o d y n a m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of mined r e l a t i v e t o t h i s v a l u e . e s p e c i a l l y i n approaching t h e speed of sound. This i s becuase t h e f a c t o r of a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y begins t o e x e r t an influence. F l i g h t a i r s p e e d which i s m e a s u r e d on t h e b a s i s o f a e r o d y n a m i c p r e s s u r e and which i n f l u e n c e s t h e a e r o d y n a m i c s of t h e f l i g h t o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s c a l l e d aerodynamic speed (Vaer). i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e a c t u a l s p e e d o f a n a i r c r a f t i n s p a c e . Therefore. an a i r c r a f t are d e t e r ­ I n determining t h e aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an a i r c r a f t . c a n b e o b t a i n e d from a e r o d y n a m i c s p e e d by i n t r o d u c i n g c o r r e c t i o n s for t h e c h a n g e i n a i r d e n s i t y w i t h f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a n d t e m p e r a t u r e : /99 97 . T o preserve aerodynamic p r e s s u r e a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . With a n i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .

cmp. a i s t h e L /1 98 . t h e r e a r e d e v i c e s which i n d i c a t e f l i g h t airspeed directly. 1 . for s p e e d a s a r e s u l t o f a i r c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y C o r r e c t i o n f o r f l i g h t a l t i t u d e is of b a s i c jmportance. increasing airspeeds e a c h of them i s " i n d i c a t e d " . i f t h e wind s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a r e known. In a d d i t i o n . a n d a l s o c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f f l y i n g t i m e b e t w e e n t w o l a n d m a r k s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . Cor­ r e c t i o n f o r a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller and i s i n t r o ­ d u c e d o n l y i n t h o s e c a s e s when t h e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t f l i g h t a l t i ­ t u d e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e temperature c a l c u l a t e d f o r this altitude. AV$ i s t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r is the correction s p e e d a s a r e s u l t o f a i ' r t e m p e r a t u r e . C o r r e c t i o n s must be i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e r e s p o n s e 6 o f t h e s e d e v i c e s o n l y f o r i n s t r u ­ m e n t a l e r r o r s of t h e d e v i c e s and ( i n i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s ) f o r a d i s ­ crepancy between t h e a c t u a l a i r temperature and t h e c a l c u l a t e d temperature a t a given a l t i t u d e . 6 1 a n a v i g a t i o n a l s p e e d t r i a n g l e i s shown f o r a g e n e r a l c a s e . Navigational Speed Triangle The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n a n d s p e e d i n t h e c h o s e n frame of r e f e r e n c e of a i r c r a f t c o u r s e s i s c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d by a n a v i g a t i o n a l s p e e d t r i a n g l e . S t r a i g h t l i n e s OPN a n d O ~ P Ni n t h e f i g u r e s h o w t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m e r i d i a n a t p o i n t PA. W i s t h e g r o u n d s p e e d v e c t o r . groundspeed ( W ) . . T h i s h a s c a u s e d a new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a i r s p e e d s . taking a ltitude i n t o account. surface F l i g h t g r o u n d s p e e d c a n b e m e a s u r e d d i r e c t l y by means o f D o p p l e r or i n e r t i a l s y s t e m s . d e t e r m i n e d b y s i g h t i n g a l o n g a s e r i e s o f l a n d ­ m a r k s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . i . g r o u n d s p e e d c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d by a d d i n g t h e a i r s p e e d a n d wind v e c t o r s . I n F i g . y is t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t ( C ) . i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e m e r i d i a n which i s u s e d as t h e b a s i s for m e a s u r i n g a n a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . AVH i s t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r s p e e d a s a r e s u l t o f f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s . c o r r e c t e d f o r methodological and i n s t r u m e n t e r r o r s . In addition. have r e q u i r e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o r r e c t i o n s i n aerodynamic flight speed. I n p u b l i s h e d t e x t b o o k s on a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . and as " i n d i c a t e d . a i r s p e e d h a s b e e n c l a s s i f i e d as " i n d i c a t e d " ( m e a s u r e d on t h e b a s i s o f a e r o d y n a m i c p r e s s u r e ) b u t t r u e . V i s t h e a i r s p e e d v e c t o r . a n d AVa. The s p e e d o f a i r c r a f t movement r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h ' s i s c a l l e d f l i g h t . " S i n c e t h e r e a r e now d e v i c e s w h i c h m e a s u r e b o t h t h e s e s p e e d s . e .w h e r e Vaer i s t h e a e r o d y n a m i c s p e e d .

r e a d f r o m t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . 1 I n t h i s case.94) The d r i f t a n g l e o f a n a i r c r a f t a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 . 1. a i r s p e e d . combining t h e loga r i t h m o f t h e s i n e o f t h e wind a n g l e with the logarithm of the airspeed. A s p e e d t r i a n g l e i s s o l v e d a n a l y t i c a l l y on t h e o a s i s o f a known s i n e t h e o r e m . - A s p e e d t r i a n g l e c a n be s o l v e d g r a p h i c a l l y b y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f v e c t o r s o n p a p e r or b y a m e c h a n i c a l a p p a r a t u s .93) t h e v a l u e of t h e d r i f t a n g l e and t h e f l i g h t ground­ s p e e d a r e e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s o f known v a l u e s o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t c o u r s e .9. V (1. i s t h e f l i g h t a n g l e ( F A ) . From F i g u r e 1 .d r i f t a n g l e ( D A ) . we obtain directly: /101' I Fig. 6 i s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e wind v e c t o r r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n f o r r e a d i n g t h e a i r ­ c r a f t c o u r s e . & $ i s t h e f l i g h t a n g l e o f t h e w i n d (WA) r e a d f r o m t h e g i v e n l i n e o f t h e p a t h .61.95) The v a l u e o f t h e f l i g h t g r o u n d s p e e d i s t h e n e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d : V sin 6 w= P 4. Now. (1. u s i n g a s p e c i a l d e ­ v i c e ( a wind-speed i n d i c a t o r which i s a combination o f r u l e s . i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n t h e g i v e n case t h e s i n e theorem w i l l have t h e form: (1.93) From (1.sid 6+. (1. Navigational Speed T r i a n g l e 99 I - . l e t u s d e f i n e t h e p a t h a n g l e of t h e wind: b+ = b .96) These problems a r e e s p e c i a l l y simple t o solve with s l i d e r u l e s having a combination of s i n e logarithms with a l o g a r i t h m s c a l e of l i n e a r v a l u e s . 6 3 . J. a n d h i n g e s w i t h movable a n d immovable j o i n t s ) . and t h e speed and d i r e c t i o n of t h e wind. d i a l s . a n d 6 y = a t 6 $ i s t h e c o u r s e wind a n g l e (CWA). 9 3 ) i s d e t e r ­ mined from t h e f o r m u l a sin a = U .

. ( 1 .lg sin u . l e t us use Figure 1.VCOSDA The f l i g h t a n g l e o f t h e w i n d d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s way p e r m i t s t h e f u r t h e r s o l u t i o n of problems on t h e b a s i s of t h e s i n e theorem [Equation (1. c o s D A e 1.e. .9311. Determining t h e A n g l e a n d S p e e d o f t h e Wind w i t h Known V a l u e s o f t h e Groundspeed and D r i f t Angle of t h e A i r c r a f t . i t f o l l o w s that O D = VCOSDA. DM=OM-OD= W-VCOS DA. 1. a n d d r i f t a n g l e . W i t h s m a l l d r i f t a n g l e s ( p r a c t i c a l l y u p t o loo).99) F o r s o l u t i o n on a s l i d e r u l e . Therefore .igW or o n s c a l e s o f n a v i g a t i o n a l r u l e r s w i t h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n s u s e d w i t h special values f o r aircraft courses.62. tg W A = % = .98) Vsin D .ig u = Ig sin b+. From t h e f i g u r e ._--.97) T o d e t e r m i n e wind s p e e d s a n d d i r e c t i o n s a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e on t h e b a s i s o f known v a l u e s o f a i r s p e e d . (1. Fig.62. w-v (1.l g v = lg sin 8. 9 9 ) i s reduced t o t h e form: Translator's note: 1 00 lg = log. 01D = Vsin DA. it i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r i n approximation t h a t tgWA= Vsin D A i. g r o u n d s p e e d . u v w (1.D A DM W . .

To e n s u r e t h e s a f e t y o f f l i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l a i r c r a f t a t l o w a l t i ­ t u d e s .63): t h e following kinds of a l t i t u d e s are d i s ­ Nabs I +Fig. it i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e be measured from t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e r e l i e f o v e r which t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g . t h e i n i t i a l l e v e l f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e a l t i t u d e on e a c h a i r c r a f t m u s t b e g e n e r a l . /lo2 E l e m e n t s Which D e t e r m i n e F l i g h t A l t i t u d e The f l i g h t special initial for m e a s u r i n g f l f o r which it i s a l t i t u d e o f a n a i r c r a f t (HI i s measured f r o m a l e v e l of t h e Earth’s surface. L e v e l / r = 7 6 0 mm H g I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of D i f f e r e n t Systems f o r Measuring Flight Altitude 101 4 .63.or o n a s l i d e r u l e . - w-v v A f t e r f i n d i n g t h e f l i g h t a n g l e of t h e wind. f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s meas­ ured from t h e l e v e l of t h e l a n d i n g p o i n t . U s u a l l y 2 or 3 k i n d s o f a l t i t u d e s a r e m e a s u r e d a t t h e same time. 1. tinguished (Fig. 1. i n o r d e r t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e c o u n t e r and i n c i d e n t a l movements o f a i r c r a f t i n a i r s p a c e ( f l i g h t e c h e l o n s ) . A t the present t i m e . DA. t h e v a l u e o f t h e w i n d s p e e d i s d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s of t h e s i n e t h e o r e m . WA I--I igsinlgtg llgspl . For example. In m a k i n g a n a p p r o a c h t o l a n d a t a n a i r p o r t . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o c l a s s i f y them a n d t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. T h e r e f o r e . The i n i t i a l l e v e l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s c h o s e n d e p e n d i n g on t h e p u r p o s e s measured.

and from r e l a t i v e a l t i ­ t u d e by t h e h e i g h t o f t h e r e l i e f above t h e a i r p o r t l e v e l from which r e l a t i v e a l t i t u d e i s measured: (1. Absolute. The l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n i s s a t i s f i e d . (c) True f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ''Htr" i s measured from t h e s u r f a c e of t h e r e l i e f o v e r which t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g . t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e s e a i r c r a f t w i l l be i d e n t i c a l . i t h a s no d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e f i r s t t h r e e k i n d s o f a l t i t u d e s . The l a t t e r c a n a l s o b e m e a s u r e d b y r a d i o a l t i m e t e r s a n d a i r c r a f t r a d a r e q u i p m e n t or d e t e r ­ There is a r e l a t i o n s h i p be­ mined by a i r c r a . and t r u e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s are determined by b a r o m e t r i c a l t i m e t e r s w i t h c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e i r r e a d i n g s f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l and methodological e r r o r s . s i n c e i f we p e r m i t t w o a i r c r a f t t o m e e t i n o n e r e g i o n a n d a t o n e a l t i t u d e . (b) R e l a t i v e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ( H r e l ) i s measured from t h e l e v e l o f t h e t a k e . such a meeting cannot occur i f a i r c r a f t maintain d i f ­ f e r e n t a l t i t u d e s b a s e d on i n s t r u m e n t s . AHr h e i g h t of t h e r e l i e f above t h e l e v e l of t h e a i r p o r t .100) w h e r e H r i s t h e a l t i t u d e o f t h e r e l i e f a b o v e s e a l e v e l . (d) Conventional barometric a l t i t u d e "H7601t i s measured from t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l b a r o m e t r i c l e v e l on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . Therefore. 6 3 i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t r u e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a b s o l u t e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e by t h e h e i g h t o f t h e r e l i e f o v e r which t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g . Therefore. is the 10 2 . w h e r e t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i s e q u a l t o 7 6 0 mm Hg.( a ) A b s o l u t e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ( H a b s > i s m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e mean l e v e l o f t h e B a l t i c S e a i n t h e same way a s t h e h e i g h t o f a r e l i e f on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .o f f or l a n d i n g a i r p o r t .1 0 0 0 m . t w e e n t h e t h r e e i n d i c a t e d a l t i t u d e s which makes it p o s s i b l e t o s w i t c h from one k i n d of a l t i t u d e t o a n o t h e r . The m a i n a d v a n t a g e o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l b a r o m e t r i c a l t i t u d e i s t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f u s i n g it f o r e c h e l o n i n g f l i g h t s a c c o r d i n g t o a l t i t u d e s when t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s n o t t h e p r e c i s e m e a s u r i n g o f a l t i t u d e b u t only t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of s a f e a l t i t u d e i n t e r v a l s between neighboring echelons. From F i g u r e 1 . r e l a t i v e . f t s i g h t i n g d e v i c e s . and a t a high f l i g h t a l t i t u d e it can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e abso­ l u t e a l t i t u d e c l o s e s t t o it b y 9 0 0 . C o n v e n t i o n a l b a r o m e t r i c a l t i t u d e i s m e a s u r e d by b a r o m e t r i c altimeters without considering methodological e r r o r s .

R e l a t i v e a l t i t u d e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t r u e a l t i t u d e by t h e h e i g h t o f t h e r e l i e f . s t r a i g h t l i n e s OAl a n d OB1 a r e v e r t i c a l s o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t a t p o i n t s A and B . S i n c e t h e v e r t i c a l a t a n y o f t h e s e p o i n t s on t h e i n d i c a t e d l i n e l i e s i n t h e plane of a g r e a t circle. I n t h e f i g u r e .64). a b s o l u t e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e v a l u e s o f t r u e or r e l a t i v e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e : /lo4 (1. f l i g h t a l t i t u d e d o e s n o t e x e r t a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e v a l u e o f t h e m e a s u r e d a n g l e s or o n t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s . Obviously t h e d i s t a n c e S between p o i n t s A 1 and B1 a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s g r e a t e r t h a n d i s t a n c e S between p o i n t s A a n d B on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e : Fig. Calculating Flight Altitude i n Determining Distances. 1.101) F i n a l l y .102) C a l c u l a t i n g F l i g h t A l t i t u d e i n Determining Distances on t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e I n m e a s u r i n g d i r e c t i o n s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . f l i g h t a l t i t u d e does not e x e r t a n i n f l u e n c e on t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e and t h e r e f o r e on d i r e c t i o n on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . 1. w h i l e it i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m a b s o l u t e a l t i ­ t u d e by t h e h e i g h t o f t h e a i r p o r t above sea l e v e l : (1. 1 03 . -- I n m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . f l i g h t a l t i t u d e can p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e and can l e a d t o l a r g e measurement e r r o r s i f w e do n o t allow f o r errors i n f l i g h t altitude (Fig.64. b y d i r e c t i o n o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w e mean d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e h o r i z o n p l a n e w i t h t h e p l a n e o f a g r e a t c i r c l e ( o r t h o d r o m e ) which j o i n s two p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s surface. A c t u a l l y .

8 6371 UA. w h i l e t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d a t p o i n t B1 . h y p e r b o l i c d e v i c e s t u r n s o u t t o b e more s u b s t a n t i a l . 6 6 . a d i s t a n c e o n t h e E a r t h ’ s s u r f a c e e q u a l t o 3 0 0 0 km l e n g t h e n s t o t h e v a l u e 3000~10~0. The i n d i c a t e d l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e p a t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t d o e s n o t e x e r t a s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e t i m e of t h e a i r c r a f t f l i g h t along the path. AB: = AD2 +. a t a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e o f 1 0 km. a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . A s i s e v i d e n t from F i g u r e 1 . L e t u s assume t h a t a r a n g e f i n d i n g d e v i c e i s l o c a t e d a t p o i n t A on t h e E a r t h ’ s s u r f a c e .4 . The i n f l u e n c e of f l i g h t a l t i t u d e on d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t by r a n g e f i n d i n g a n d .016 =4. while the distance along t h e Earth’s surface S is equal t o AB.. ‘ *‘0° 6371 For e x a m p l e .OB.016%. since 10 4 . t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e ground radio-engineering apparatus t o the a i r c r a f t R along a straight l i n e w i l l equal A B I . Each k i l o m e t e r o f f l i g h t a l t i t u d e l e n g t h e n s t h e p a t h between p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ’ s s u r f a c e by a v a l u e e x p r e s s e d i n p e r c e n t : /lo5 -= 0. e s p e c i a l l y . O b v i o u s l y . whence (1.104) w h e r e R e i s t h e r a d i u s o f t h e E a r t h ( e q u a l t o 6 3 7 1 km) a n d H i s t h e flight altitude. L e t u s d r o p a p e r p e n d i c u l a r from p o i n t A o n t h e E a r t h ‘ s s u r f a c e t o p o i n t D on t h e v e r t i c a l O B I .

B e a r i n g i n mind t h a t a s a r e s u l t of t h e r e f r a c t i o n o f l i g h t or r a d i o w a v e s i n a v e r t i c a l p l a n e . (1. a n d e. we o b t a i n t h e a p p r o x i m a t e f o r m u l a s= v2q.. or o f a n a i r c r a f t f r o m t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . w h i l e c o s S M 1.(1. t h e d i s t a n c e o f g e o m e t r i c a l v i s i b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y by 8%. Therefore .g d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u e H 2 as n e g l i g i b l y s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h 2ReH.105) t a k e s t h e f o r m : F i g u r e 1 .107) t h e v a l u e o f ( 6 3 7 1 km) w e o b t a i n : (1.105) With s m a l l a n g u l a r d i s t a n c e s S ( u p . when R s i n S M S .7 0 0 k m .e. OA2 + A B : = OB: or Expanding t h e r i g h t . l i n e A B 1 m u s t b e tangent t o the Earth's surface. t o 6 O a l o n g t h e a r c of t h e o r t h o ­ d r o m e ) . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t w i t h maximum v i s i b i l i t y .h a n d side of the equation. it i s l o c a t e d i n t h e plane of the horizon. . a n g l e OABl w i l l be a r i g h t a n g l e . R t S = S . t h e p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t w i l l be : - 1 05 .. S u b s t i t u t i n g i n (1. I n t h i s c a s e . we obtain: C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t a t d i s t a n c e s up t o 6 0 0 . 6 6 c a n l i k e w i s e b e u s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e maximum d i s t a n c e o f g e o m e t r i c a l v i s i b i l i t y of o b j e c t s o n t h e g r o u n d f r o m o n b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t .107) t h e r a d i u s of t h e E a r t h S=1/12742H= 113fi.

i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s u p t o 2 5 km i t is always p o s s i b l e t o use (1. e . 1. .104) or ( 1 . w h i c h o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e c o r r e s p o n d s t o 6 6 6 km. i . t h e a i r c r a f t i s a t p o i n t B a t a l t i t u d e H.svis= VE 122 (1. ground r a d i o e n g i n e e r i n g equipment i s l o c a t e d a t p o i n t A on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .108) d e t e r m i n e s t h e l i m i t s o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y of (1. . Fig. t h e n t h e l i n e o f r a d i o wave p r o p a g a t i o n b e ­ comes c o n c e n t r i c w i t h t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a n d w i l l h a v e a r a d i u s o f c u r v a t u r e R 1 = Re + H/2.65). 1.65. 1 06 . S i n c e w e have a g r e e d t o c o n s i d e r c o s S = 1 and R s i n S = S u p t o S = 6O.lo7 L e t u s p a u s e now t o d i s c u s s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f l i g h t a l t i t u d e on t h e a c c u r a c y o f measuring d i s t a n c e s a t v e r y s m a l l r a n g e s . Therefore. 2 5 km. I n t h e f i g u r e . Calculating F l i g h t A l t i t u d e i n Determining t h e Path L e n g t h o f E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Wave P r o p a g a t i o n /. e . i n c a s e s when l o n g r a d i o w a v e s c a p a b l e o f t r a v e l i n g a r o u n d t h e E a r t h ' s surface are used (Fig. I f w e c o n d i t i o n a l l y move t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e t o t h e r i g h t b y a v a l u e e q u a l t o H / 2 . i . It i s necessary t o use t h e precise. 1 0 6 ) . t h e i n c r e a s e i n d i s t a n c e from p o i n t A t o p o i n t B c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d as a l e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e a t a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e e q u a l t o H/2.104) a t d i s t a n c e s This is possible a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s exceeding o f m o r e t h a n 7 0 0 km. L i n e A B i s t h e c u r v e o f p r o p a g a t i o n o f a r a d i o wave front.106).formula (1.108) F o r m u l a (1.

V = 600 k m / h r u.E l e m e n t s o f A i r c r a f t Roll I t i s known t h a t t h e r a d i u s o f a i r c r a f t r o l l i n a i r s p a c e a t a given banking B equals: If a f l i g h t i s c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a c o u n t e r or i n c i d e n t a l w i n d . -- 107 .2 " 3.66. f o r a change i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e groundspeed v e c t o r o f a n a i r c r a f t b y 90°. . t h e r a d i u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n a i r s p a c e with banking of 1 5 O w i l l be 1672 = 10500 9. r o l l i n g o f a n a i r c r a f t t h r o u g h a n a n g l e o f 9 0 ° i n v o l v e s a n i n c r e a s e or d e c r e a s e i n t h e mean r a d i u s o f r o l l of an aircraft r e l a t i v e t o t h e Earth's surface (Fig. A c c o r d i n g t o (1.6). I n f a c t . Deformation of the R o l l Trajectory i n the P r e s e n c e o f Wind.arctg 6oo .66). Fig. it i s necessary t o execute a r o l l of an a i r c r a f t t o t h e r i g h t or l e f t t h r o u g h a n a n g l e o f 90° t D A Y and i n c h a n g i n g from t h e p l a n e o f i n c i d e n t wind t o a l a t e r a l wind t o a l a t e r a l p l a n e t h r o u g h a n a n g l e of 90° . w i t h a f l i g h t a i r s p e e d o f 6 0 0 km/h a n d w i t h a c o u n t e r a n d i n c i d e n t w i n d s p e e d o f 2 5 0 km/h ( 7 0 m / s e c ) .81 tg 15" m The d r i f t a n g l e a t t h e e n d o f r o l l i n g t h r o u g h 9 0 ° the following value: w i l l have 20 5 DA. Example. i n t h e second c a s e .+ F ) uI 9-250 k m / h r u1 =O. i n the first instance t h e r e w i l l be a d e v i a t i o n o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t from t h e o r i g i n a l f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n . 1. = t250k m /h r R== During r o l l i n g of an a i r c r a f t i n airspace. w i t h a s h i f t f r o m t h e p l a n e o f i n c i d e n t wind t o a l a t e r a l plane. L e t u s e x a m i n e t h e roll o f a n a i r c r a f t t h r o u g h 9 0 ° .D A . 1. t h e r e / l o 8 w i l l be a deviation opposite t o the o r i g i n a l .

since B. d u r i n g roll: I n t h e first case.5 sin 67"-5 = 4.3 W = L = =0. = ~9 km 0. a n d i n t h e s e c o n d c a s e t h r o u g h 67O.57 3 167. = 10.14. b u t on t h e b a s i s of groundspeed: 90°.5 km R. i n t h e f i r s t case it w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o t u r n t h e a i r ­ c r a f t t h r o u g h 1 1 3 O . = R sin Y P .57.l13O AR. Then t h e g e n e r a l p a t h o f a n a i r c r a f t i n d i r e c t i o n I n t h e first c a s e .s km and i n t h e second case Rt=R-Rsin2$=6km.T h e r e f o r e . T h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f roll a t R = 10.9deg/sec R 10 500 L e t u s d e t e r m i n e t h e a d d i t i o n a l s h i f t o f t h e a i r c r a f t as a r e s u l t o f wind d u r i n g r o l l i n g i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e : 70 m/sec. X w i l l equal: Rx = 10.9 d e g / s e c and i n t h e second i n s t a n c e : ARx == -" 5 0. For c o m p a r i s o n . + 9 = 18. d u r i n g r o l l ( i n t h e f i r s t c a s e t h r o u g h 113O a n d i n t h e s e c o n d c a s e t h r o u g h 67') t h e movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n d i r e c ­ t i o n X w i l l not be i d e n t i c a l .9 70 * 67 km O b v i o u s l y . .5 sin 113" I n t h e second case.5 k m L e t u s now d e t e r m i n e t h e l a t e r a l s h i f t o f t h e a i r c r a f t R . w10 8 Vf us. l e t u s e x a m i n e t h e r o l l o f a n a i r c r a f t t h r o u g h w i t h a r a d i u s c a l c u l a t e d n o t on t h e b a s i s o f a i r s p e e d .500 m w i l l be = 6 0 0 km/h (167 m/sec) and V. Rt= R f R s i r 1 2 3 ~ .

5 14.2 . Some i n a c c u r a c i e s a r i s e ._ . Fig.5 6 From t h e t a b l e .81 tg 1_59 km Let us compile a t a b l e with t h e r e s u l t s obtained: . How­ e v e r .5 10. t h e r a d i u s of r o l l i n g is R= 2372 =21 km 9. t a k i n e . t h i s i s n o t of p r a c t i c a l s i g ­ n i f i c a n c e . i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c a l c u ­ l a t i o n s c a r r i e d o u t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e g r o u n d s p e e d a r e much c l o s e r t o t h e a c t u a l r e s u l t s t h a n c a l c u l a t i o n s p n t h e b a s i s of a i r s p e e d .5 21 18.67. w i l l b e c a r ­ r i e d o u t w i t h an a c c u r a c y o f 1 . 1.5 9.5 4. when e n t e r i n g a new l i n e o f f l i g h t . ----.. 7 * / _----- C a l c u l a t i o n s o f roll on t h e b a s i s of groundspeed with winds a s h i g h a s 2 0 0 .3 0 0 k m / h .5 10. I n aircraft n a v i g a t i o n . i n t o ac­ c o u n t t h e roll t r a j e c t o r y . i n t h e aircraft roll. 10 9 .I n t h e f i r s t case.5 I 10. Approach o f a n A i r c r a f t t o a Given Line w i t h t h e P r e s e n c e o f a n Approach Angle.5 3. b u t only i n the l a t e r a l d i r e c t i o n .5 10. 5 km. f u t u r e w e w i l l p r o c e e d f r o m f l i g h t g r o u n d s p e e d i n c a l c u l a t i n g roll. Roll parameters R Y X u. Z 103 10. i n c l u d i n g maneuvering before l a n d i n g .=o ~ R. t h e t r a j e c t o r y c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g r o u n d s p e e d comes c l o s e r t o the a c t u a l t r a j e c t o r y of Therefore.. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o s o l v e t h r e e t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s . since the d i r e c t i o n of d e v i a t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e new l i n e of f l i g h t .81 tg 15" and i n t h e second c a s e R= 972 =3. With a d e c r e a s e i n t h e a n g l e o f roll.

w h i l e t h e r a d i u s o f roll i s d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e groundspeed and t h e given banking i n t h e roll. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r ­ m i n e t h e v a l u e o f t h e a n g l e s ai = a~ o f t h e c o m b i n e d rolls. I t is o b v i o u s t h a t t h e a n g l e o f r o l l o f t h e a i r c r a f t f o r f o l ­ l o w i n g a l o n g t h e g i v e n l i n e i s e q u a l t o t h e a p p r o a c h a n g l e (a). Combinati'on of Roll w i t h a S t r a i g h t L i n e L e t u s assume t h a t an a i r c r a f t i s a p p r o a c h i n g a g i v e n l i n e of f l i g h t at a definite angle (Fig. Approach of a n A i r c r a f t t o a Given F l i g h t Line with a Paral­ l e l Flight Line. L e t u s d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s t a n c e ( Z ) from t h e g i v e n l i n e on which i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b e g i n t h e roll s o t h a t t h e r o l l t r a j e c t o r y w i l l b e joined with t h e given l i n e . i n e a c h o f t h e t w o c o m b i n e d rolls. Example. 6 8 ) .1. 1 . Determine t h e l a t e r a l d i s t a n c e from t h e l i n e of f l i g h t a t which it i s n e c e s s a r y t o b e g i n a roll f o r a s m o o t h a p p r o a c h t o t h e l i n e . In Figure 1.68. 110 > ------_--­ S i n c e t h e v a l u e of Z i n t h i s c a s e i s c o n s i d e r e d known.46 knl 2.67. d u r i n g f l i g h t a l o n g a given f l i g h t l i n e . /110 it i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s d i s t a n c e i s e q u a l t o : Z=R-Ucosa or = R (1 - (1.67).81 tg 15" = 2 6 . a d e v i a t i o n from i t o c c u r s a n d i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a p p r o a c h t h e g i v e n l i n e by t h e s h o r t e s t t r a j e c t o r y . R--2502 9. 1. t h e r e f o r e . Fig. C o m b i n a t i o n of t w o rolls I f .109) COS a). t h e aircraft approaches t h e f l i g h t p a t h by a v a l u e 2 / 2 . 1. An a i r c r a f t a p p r o a c h e s a g i v e n l i n e o f f l i g h t w i t h a g r o u n d s p e e d o f 9 0 0 km/h a t a 2 5 O a n g l e . . a n a p p r o a c h maneuver i s u s e d which i s a combi­ n a t i o n o f two r o l l s ( F i g . 5 km Z = 26.5(1- cos 25O) = 2. S o l u t i on. L+ CLZ 4 It i s obvious t h a t i n t h i s case.

. Thus. /111 L i n e a r p r e d i c t i o n o f roll i s c a l c u l a t e d i n i n s t a n c e s o f a break i n t h e f l i g h t path a t turning points i n t h e route (Fig.69. l e t u s s a y t h a t a n a i r c r a f t h a v i n g a g r o u n d s p e e d o f 9 0 0 km/h h a s d e v i a t e d f r o m a g i v e n f l i g h t p a t h b y 5 km. Linear p r e d i c t i o n o f roll (LPR) L e t u s examine two s o l u t i o n s t o problems. d i v i d e d i n h a l f : Fig. w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e roll t r a j e c t o r y o f a n a i r c r a f t w h i c h i n c l u d e s o n e r e c t i l i n e a r p a r t of the path. A s i s clear from Figure 1 . i s d i r e c t e d perpendicular t o t h e preceding and following orthodrome segments of t h e p a t h .70. w e have two i d e n t i c a l r e c t a n g u l a r t r i a n g l e s w i t h v e r t e x T h e l i n e a r p r e d i c t i o n o f roll ( L P R ) i s t h e a n g l e s e q u a l t o RA/2.Z -. 1. The l i n e s 0-TPR f o r m t h e b i s e c t o r o f t h e a n g l e o f roll. L i n e a r Lag of A i r Fig. l i n e o f t a n g e n c y o f t h e roll a n g l e . Linear Prediction o f R o l l o f a n A i r c r a f t (LPR). 1. c r a f t R o l l (LLR). i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x e c u t e t w o c o m b i n e d rolls w i t h b a n k i n g of 1 5 O t o a n g l e s u p t o 25O.69).R ( 1 2 whence cosa). (1. 3. t o make t h e a p p r o a c h . TPR i s t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e r o u t e a n d TA i s t h e t u r n a n g l e o f t h e f l i g h t p a t h e q u a l t o t h e roll a n g l e o f a n aircraft (RA).110) For e x a m p l e . 1. a t i t s beginning and end. t h e r a d i u s of r o l l of an a i r ­ c r a f t . 111 . 6 9 . I n t h e f i g u r e .

018. e . ..2 6.18. k r 15" ~ /11: ­ 'roll t o goo 450 60" 750 900 105" 120" 135" 1500 s e c . tg 20" = 9.111) E x a m p l e : D e t e r m i n e L P R w i t h a f l i g h t g r o u n d s p e e d o f 9 0 0 km/h a n d a n a n g l e o f t u r n t o t h e new f l i g h t p a t h o f 40° f o r b a n k i n g i n a roll o f 1 5 O .7 I I I I -l--l--i " I 2.0.0115.3.11. 5. 500 600 700 800 900 7'w 10~600 14 700 18500 23 500 4600 2. .O 8.4 19.0. S o l u t i on.0 8.8. R= 2502 =26. i n f l i g h t s of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s f o r t e s t i n g a i r c r a f t and ground navigational equipment.712.070. 1.0:14.7 9.3. w i t h roll a n g l e s f r o m 0 t o 1 5 0 ° . l i n e a r l a g o f roll ( L L R ) i s c a l c u l a t e d .70).7.613. w h i l e t h e r o l l i s c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e t o t h e t u r n o f t h e new f l i g h t p a t h by t h e a n g l e RA=3600- TA I n F i g u r e 1 ..6 k m Linear predictions i n T a b l e 1.0140 058 087 0 1 'I 'I ' I I I '65 82 100 116 __ 132 148 I n some c a s e s .5 4. In t h e s e cases.5.35.3. M P r e d i c t i o n w i t h roll a n g l e s .0 10.0. a r e g i v e n - Wl km/hr 400 R.5 6. t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r f l i g h t a b o v e t h e T P R w i t h t h e f l i g h t a n g l e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r t o f t h e p a t h c a n a r i s e ( F i g .O 3. w i t h t h e s a m e t u r n a n g l e s .0 4.524. 13. t h e f o r m u l a for t h e L L R r e m a i n s t h e same as f o r t h e l i n e a r p r e d i c t i o n o f roll: 112 .O 7.5140.818.7 3. g . . i n s t e a d of l i n e a r predic­ t i o n .0142.1.25. 7 2 .6 6. e .81 tg 15" ­ L P R = 26.210. it i s c l e a r t h a t t h e LLR i s a l i n e o f t h e t a n g e n t s of t h e t u r n angle of t h e f l i g h t p a t h d i v i d e d i n h a l f . 2 (1.71 7.LPR =Rtg RA -.0.5 18.3mO t o 1 5 0 ° . i .14. ..3 9.052.25.27.023.5 km 9.lI 8.530.032.01!l.1 4.

.i n e r t i a . measurement of t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . t h e r e has been a development of t h e r a d i o e n g i n e e r i n g . /114 113 . a s t r o n o m i c a l .). g r a v i t a t i o n a l . G e o t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a r e b a s e d on h i g h l y d i v e r s e p h y s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e u s e of n a t u r a l geo­ physical f i e l d s of t h e Earth (magnetic. I n r e c e n t y e a r s . and f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . Such d e v i c e s i n c l u d e t h o s e which measure t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . pressure. ematical basis f o r t h e i r regulation. i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e u s e o f o t h e r s p e c i a l d e v i c e s s u c h as t h o s e e m p l o y i n g r a d i o e n g i n e e r i n g or a s t r o n o m y . The o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e d e v i c e s i s more d e p e n ­ d e n t o n t h e p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e medium i n w h i c h t h e f l i g h t i s being c a r r i e d out t h a n i s t h e case f o r devices employing r a d i o T h e r e f o r e . altitude. e . t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . especially with regard t o t h e s y s t e m f o r making c o r r e c t i o n s t o i n s t r u m e n t r e a d i n g s . etc. H i s t o r i c a l l y speaking. G e o t e c h n i c a l Means o f A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n /113 G e o t e c h n i c a l means o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e a p o r t i o n o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l equipment o f a n a i r c r a f t which h a s a n autonomous c h a r a c t e r and i s u s e d u n d e r a l l f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . w h i c h p r o v e d a n e c e s s a r y a d j u n c t t o t h e g e o t e c h n i c a l means o f a i r c r a f t n a v i ­ g a t i o n i n f l i g h t u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s when t h e g r o u n d w a s n o t v i s i b l e . i . a i r s p e e d . f o r e x a m p l e .CHAPTER TWO AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION U S I N G MISCELLANEOUS D E V I C E S 1. turn angle. t h e y have a complex math­ e n g i n e e r i n g or a s t r o n o m y . and a s t r o . a i r s p e e d . 1 systems f o r s o l v i n g problems which a r e i n h c r e n t i n g e o t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . n a m e l y . etc. t h e development of radio-engineer­ i n g and a s t r o n o m i c a l means f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n h a s b e e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d a s o l u t i o n of o n l y o n e p r o b l e m . as w e l l as d e v i c e s f o r a u t o m a t i c s o l u t i o n of n a v i g a t i o n a l problems. Aircraft navigation using only geotechnical devices can be c a r r i e d o u t i n c a s e s when i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c h e c k t h e n a v i g a t i o n ­ a l c a l c u l a t i o n s ( e v e n p e r i o d i c a l l y ) by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t b y o t h e r m e a n s or v i s u a l l y . t h e f i e l d of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e o p t i c a l and i n f r a ­ red range.

and tedious calculation. 2 /115 114 . The m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e E a r t h ( F i g . A s w e have mentioned above. Methods o f U s i n g t h e Magnetic F i e l d o f t h e Earth t o Determine Direction D i r e c t i o n s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e c a n b e m e a s u r e d m o s t ac­ c u r a t e l y by a s t r o n o m i c a l m e t h o d s . Course Instruments a n d Systems Course i n s t r u m e n t s are i n t e n d e d f o r determining t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f a n a i r c r a f t i n t h e p l a n e of t h e h o r ­ i z o n or ( w h a t a m o u n t s t o t h e same t h i n g ) for m e a s u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e aircraft. D i r e c t i o n s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d m o r e s i m p l y a n d i n many c a s e s q u i t e r e l i a b l y b y u s i n g t h e magnetic f i e l d of %he Earth. - (a) (b) D i r e c t i o n a l i t y of t h e h o r i z o n t a l component o f %he f i e l d D i r e c t i o n a l i t y of t h e v e r t i c a l component o f t h e f i e l d (5. cases. t h e r e are no c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t s which completely s a t i s f y t h e requirements of aircraft c o n t r o l under a l l conditions. w h e r e t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u m e n t s i s c l o s e l y related. and t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e system o f c a l c u l a t i o n i s g o v e r n e d b o t h by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n and by t h e t e c h n i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e q u i p p i n g t h e aircraft with the corresponding instruments. 2 . aircraft usually are f i t t e d with several d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t s o p e r a t i n g on d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p l e s and u s i n g d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m s o f c a l c u l a t i o n . c a l l e d c o u r s e s y s t e m s . However.2. Therefore. t h e r e are s e v e r a l systems f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e both t h e f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n and t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o o r i e n t a t i o n p o i n t s on t h e g r o u n d . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . T h i s makes i t p o s s i b l e t o e x p l o i t t h e p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f e a c h o f them i n a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n . 3 ­ and are located i s c a l l e d The a n g l e between t h e p l a n e s ( c ) The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p l a n e i n w h i c h t h e v e c t o r s H a n d Z l i e r e l a t i v e t o t h e geographic meridian a t t h e given p o i n t . e a c h of them i s u s e d I n some under t h e c o n d i t i o n s which are most f a v o r a b l e f o r i t . thes'e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e combined i n t o complexes. complex and a c c u r a t e a p p a r a t u s . The p l a n e i n w h i c h t h e v e c t o r s t h e pZane of t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n . t h i s r e q u i r e s o p t i ­ c a l v i s i b i l i t y o f t h e s k y . 1 ) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a m e t e r s a t e v e r y p o i n t on i t s s u r f a c e : (5.

1. The c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e N o r t h M a g n e t i c P o l e a r e 74ON a n d 1 O O O W . Magnetic F i e l d Fig. Therefore . The p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a t w h i c h t h e m a g n e t i c m e r ­ i d i a n s i n t e r s e c t are c a l l e d magnetic poles. of t h e E a r t h . 6 s t e d s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e magnetic p o l e s . t h o s e of t h e South Magnetic Bole a r e 6 8 O S . w h i l e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e v e r t i c a l component r e a c h e s i t s maximum v a l u e . The d e v i c e o f a f r e e l y r o t a t i n g m a g n e t i c p o i n t e r mounted i n t h e p l a n e of t h e magnetic meridian is used t o d e t e r m i n e d i r e c t i o n on t h e E a r t h ' s surface. n The m a g n e t i c g o l e s o f t h e E a r t h do not coincide with t h e geographic ones. (b) Vertical: from z e r o a t t h e magnetic e q u a t o r t o 0 . 2. The a n g l e w h i c h characterizes the inclination of the vector 115 . as w e l l as t h e i n t e n s i t y of i t s components. it i s e q u a l t o one h u n d r e d t h o u ­ s a n d t h o f an o e r s t e d . a t every point on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e t h e r e w i l l be a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n of t h e t h r e e p a r a m e t e r s which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e Earth. The l i m i t s o f c h a n g e i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e co mp o n en t s t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e Earth a r e t h e following: i n (a) Horizontal: from z e r o i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e magnetic p o l e s t o a maximum a t t h e m a g n e t i c e q u a t o r ( 0 . The t o t a l i n t e n s i t y o f t h e m a . Consequently. i s u s e d f o r v e r y p r e c i s e m a g n e t i c measurements. - (2.1) The o e r s t e d ( O e ) i s t h e u n i t o f m e a s u r e m e n t f o r t h e t o t a l i n t e n s i t y of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d . g n e t j c f i e l d of t h e Earth (vector T ) i s t h e r e s u l t a n t v e c t o r of H and 2 . i n o t h e r w o r d s . 4 o e r s t e d s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of Indonesia). t h e h o r i ­ z o n t a l component o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d i s l a c k i n g a t t h e m a g n e t i c p o l e s . i t i s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f a f i e l d which i n t e r a c t s w i t h a u n i t m a g n e t i c p o l e w i t h a f o r c e o f one d y n e . Obviously . oer­ A s m a l l e r u n i t o f i n t e n s i t y . 143OE ( a s o f 1 9 5 2 ) .r of t h e magnetic and g e o g r a p h i c meridians i s c a l l e d t h e magnetic d e c l i n a t i o n and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by AM. t h e gamma ( y ) .

p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e a i r ­ c r a f t i s r o l l i n g . t h e i s o g o n i c s The p o s i t i v e the Earth's surface. w h i l e t h e n e g a t i v e World w i t h t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a ­ a r e s h o w n a s t h e y a p p e a r on i s o g o n i c s on t h e c h a r t a r e m a r k e d o n e s a r e marked by d a s h e d l i n e s . t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n d e t e r ­ mined from t h e c h a r t a t t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t ( w i t h i t s s i g n . t h e i s o g o n i e s a l s o meet a t t h e g e o g r a p h i c p o l e s . 116 . All o f t h e i s o g o n i c s m e e t a t t h e m a g n e t i c p o l e s o f t h e E a r t h . c a u s e d by t h e m a g n e t i z a t i o n o f t h e s o i l i n t h e u p p e r l a y e r s o f the Earth. t h e r e i s a l s o an anomalous f i e l d . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n o f m a g n e t i c compasses a n d t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e e r r o r s i n t h e i r r e a d i n g s d e p e n d on t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l component of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h . F i g u r e 2 . as a c o r r e c t i o n ) i s e n t e r e d i n t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s . 2 s h o w s a map o f t h e t i o n s e n t e r e d on i t . a n d t h e compass r e a d i n g s ( a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e m a g n e t i c i n c l i n ­ a t i o n ) c h a n g e b y 180° when p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e m a g n e t i c p o l e . s i n c e t h e d i r e c t i o n s of t h e magnetic and geographic meridians a r e opposite between t h e magnetic and geographic p o l e s .s c a l e g e o g r a p h i c maps.of t o t a l i n t e n s i t y of t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e Earth t o t h e plane of t h e t r u e horizon is c a l l e d t h e magnetic incZination "0". 0 arctg - 1116 2 =H (2. To d e t e r m i n e t h e t r u e c o u r s e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s normal f i e l d . A c h a r t of magnetic i n c l i n a t i o n s i s extremely important f o r aircraft navigation. The l i n e s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w h i c h c o n n e c t p o i n t s w i t h t h e same i n t e n s i t y o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l or v e r t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e magnetic f i e l d are c a l l e d isodynamic l i n e s . by s o l i d l i n e s .2) Charts of t h e magnetic f i e l d s are prepared f o r convenience i n using t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e Earth t o determine d i r e c t i o n s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . t h e d e c l i n a t i o n c h a n g e s by 180O. d e p e n d o n l y on t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e v e r t i c a l comonent . Regions and areas of changes i n t h e d e c l i n a t i o n i n s u c h r e g i o n s a r e marked on l a r g e . They a r e p r i n t e d d i r e c t l y on f l i g h t a n d l a r g e . i . .s c a l e c h a r t s . e . b u t coincide a f t e r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e p o l e . L i n e s j o i n i n g p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w h i c h h a v e t h e same m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n a r e c a l l e d i s o g o n i c s . T h e map o f t h e W o r l d s h o w i n g t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n s h a s t h e isogonics only f o r t h e normal magnetic f i e l d of t h e Earth. I n a d d i t i o n . E r r o r s i n t h e r e a d i n g s of c o m p a s s e s .

W o r l d C h a r t of M a g n e t i c D e c l i n a t i o n s .F i g u r e 2 . 4 shows t h o s e f o r t h e v e r t i c a l component. 3 s h o w s a map o f t h e W o r l d w i t h t h e i s o d y n a m i c l i n e s f o r t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t of t h e E a r t h ' s m a g n e t i c f i e l d . Fig. 117 .2. w h i l e F i g u r e 2 . 2.

/118 Fig. 3 . W o r l d C h a r t o f I s o d y n a m i c L i n e s f o r t h e H o r i z o n t a l Com­ ponent of t h e E a r t h ’ s Magnetic F i e l d . 2 . 118 .

Only g e n e r a l ( o u t l i n e ) c h a r t s of i s o d y n a m i c l i n e s a r e u s e d /120 i n aircraft navigation. W o r l d C h a r t o f I s o d y n a m i c L i n e s f o r t h e V e r t i c a l Compo­ n e n t of t h e E a r t h ' s Ma. Variations and O s c i l l a t i o n s i n the Earth's Magnetic F i e l d T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e o r i g i n o f t h e mag­ n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h . L i n e s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w h i c h c o n n e c t p o i n t s w i t h t h e s a m e d e c l i n a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d a r e c a l l e d i s o c l i n e s ./119 I Fig. o u t l i n e maps o f i s o c l i n e s w e r e u s e d j o i n t l y w i t h c h a r t s o f i s o d y n a m i c l i n e s s h o w i n g t h e t o t a l i n t e n s i t y of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d t o determine t h e e r r o r s of magnetic compasses. t h e s e c h a r t s are no l v n g e r u s e d . 2. Possible f a c t o r s i n t h e formation of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d a r e t h e s u b s u r f a c e a n d i o n o s p h e r i c e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t s . Form­ e r l y .gnetic F i e l d . T h e s e l i n e s d o n o t a p p e a r on f l i g h t c h a r t s . as w e l l as t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n a n d m a g n e t i c h y s t e r e s i s 119 . A t the present t i m e .4. s i n c e i t i s b e t t e r t o use t h e isodynamic l i n e s of t h e h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l components of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d . b u t n o n e of them h a s b e e n a d e q u a t e l y p r o v e n as o f t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .

o f t h e i s o l i n e s o f t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s i n t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e Earth and t h e magnetic d e c l i n a t i o n s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e i r c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d b o t h by g e n e r a l l a w s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a g n e t i c f o r c e s i n t h e f i e l d o f a mag­ n e t i z e d s p h e r e . If t h e c h a r t o f m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n s i s o b s o l e t e . (b) The c o n t i n e n t a l f i e l d . A s s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e E a r t h have shown. i . t h e s t a t i o n a r y magnetic f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h i s a s s u m e d t o c o n s i s t o f a sum o f f i e l d s : (a) The f i e l d o f t h e u n i f o r m m a g n e t i z e d s p h e r e . c o m p o s i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e of the Earth's sphere. Therefore. a n d u p t o 4 0 ' a t h i g h l a t i t u d e s . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e p e r i o d when t h e y w e r e m a d e . C h a n g e s or v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e E a r t h have a d i v e r s e n a t u r e . or i s o g o n i c s on f l i g h t c h a r t s . i t does n o t remain s t r i c t l y s t a ­ tionary but undergoes constant changes. Even i f t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e n o t p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e E a r t h . e .c a l l e d i n t e r n a l f i e l d of t h e E a r t h . These a r e e s t i ­ t h e main c a u s e o f w h i c h i s i o n o s p h e r i c c u r r e n t s . ( c ) The a n o m a l o u s f i e l d . The d e s i r e d c o r r e c t i o n i s determined from s p e c i a l c h a r t s of t h e s e c u l a r v a r i ­ The i s o l i n e s o f e q u a l a t i o n s of t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e E a r t h . A n n u a l or c o n s t a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h These v a r i a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e t h e a r e c a l l e d secuzar v a r i a t i o n . T h e c a u s e s for t h e a n n u a l v a r i a t i o n s a r e changes i n t h e components of t h e s t a t i o n a r y f i e l d w i t h t i m e .of t h e s o i l . t h e m a g n e t i c moment o f t h e E a r t h a n d t h e c o n t i n e n t a l f i e l d . t h e r e f o r e . as w e l l a s by l o c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s i n t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e f i e l d . The a n n u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e d e c l i n a t i o n a t m i d d l e l a t i t u d e s r e a c h e d 10-12'. t h e r e a r e a l s o p e r i o d i c a n d e v e n c h a o t i c c h a n g e s which a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s o . s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n s i n d e c l i n a t i o n on a c h a r t a r e c a l l e d i s o p o r s . t h e y are i n any c a s e i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s on i t s s t r u c t u r e a n d s t a b i l i t y . d i f f e r e n c e between t h e average annual v a l u e s f o r t h e elements of t h e E a r t h ' s magnetism. r e l a t e d t o t h e n o n u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e r e l i e f and t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e i n t e r n a l l a y e r s of t h e E a r t h . when u s i n g c h a r t s o f m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n s . c h a n g e s must be /121 made when u s i n g i t f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d e c l i n a t i o n d u r i n g t h e t i m e w h i c h h a s p a s s e d s i n c e t h e c h a r t w a s made. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e slow s y s t e m a t i c changes i n t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e E a r t h . m a t e d p e r i o d i c a l l y or a r e d i s r e g a r d e d e n t i r e l y . 12 0 . r e l a t e d t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d e p o s ­ i t s of m a g n e t i c m a t e r i a l i n t h e u p p e r l a y e r s o f t h e E a r t h ' s c o r e . . An a n a l y s i s .

e. . c o n s i s t i n g o f a c a r d 2 . t h e o n e m o s t u s e d n o w a d a y s i s t h e “KI” ( a n a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r t h e h i s t o r i c name o f t h e m a g n e t i c compasses which were d e v i s e d i n t h e p a s t f o r f i g h t e r a i r c r a f t ) . mounted on t h e m a g n e t i c s y s t e m . s i n c e i t s r e a d i n g s would b e i n a c c u r a t e and u n s t a b l e . i n m o s t . u s u a l l y l i q r o i n . a f l o a t t o r e d u c e t h e w e i g h t o f t h e c a r d a n d r e d u c e t h e f r i c t i o n on t h e b e a r i n g . The s i m p l e s t f o r m o f a n a i r c r a f t m a g n e t i c co mp as s i s t h e i n t e ­ g r a t e d compass. 5 ) : T h e b o w l or c o n t a i n e r 1 o f t h e c o m p a s s . w h i c h would c a u s e d e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e m a g n e t i c n e e d l e from t h e p l a n e o f t h e magnetic meridian. a n e e d l e p i v o t . 2 . on t h e b o t t o m of t h e bowl i s a p i v o t s u p p o r t f o r t h e movable p a r t o f t h e c o m p a s s . The m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s i s t h e s i m p l e s t c o u r s e d e v i c e . i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e t h o u g h n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y accu­ H o w e v e r . i . O f t h e l a r g e number of t y p e s o f m a g n e t i c compasses which h a v e b e e n d e v i s e d a s of t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . a n d a r o t a t i n g s c a l e f’or t h e r e a d i n g s . e . Various kinds of i n t e r f e r e n c e would i n f l u e n c e t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e compass d u r i n g f l i g h t . C o m p a s s e s u s i n g o t h e r s y s t e m s a r e c a 1 l e d d i s t a n c e . including: (a) Movements o f t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o i t s a x i s . a s i m p l e m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s w i t h a f r e e l y t u r n i n g mag­ n e t i c n e e d l e i s n o t s u i t a b l e for u s e o n b o a r d a n a i r c r a f t .m a g n e t i c or g y r o magnetic compasses. w h i c h i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of a m a g n e t i c s y s t e m (H-shaped m a g n e t ) . one i n which t h e c o u r s e t r a n s m i t t e r ( s e n s i ­ t i v e e l e m e n t ) and t h e i n d i c a t o r a r e combined i n a s i n g l e h o u s i n g . Chamber 3 . a m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d f o r u s e on an a i r c r a f t must have d e v i c e s f o r compensating t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e mentioned above. (c) The e f f e c t o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e a i r c r a f t . O b v i o u s l y .. Any i n t e g r a t e d a v i a t i o n a l m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g main p a r t s ( F i g .M a g n e t i c Compasses cases rate. The m o v a b l e p a r t o f t h e c o m p a s s .on /122 121 . compensating f o r thermal expansion and contracti. compass d e v i a t i o n .. w i t h a d a m p i n g s p r i n g a n d p i v o t b e a r i n g made o f a g a t e . . (b) V i b r a t i o n s p r o d u c e d by t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e n g i n e s and b y t h e movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t t h r o u g h t h e a i r . f i l l e d w i t h a damp­ i n g f l u i d t o d e c r e a s e t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s .

5. (b) External View. 122 . s o m e w h a t e l o n g a t e d p o r t i o n of t h e c a r d . Rotation of t h e drums p e r m i t s them t o b e s e t t o a p o s i t i o n w h e r e t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e b a r magnets compensates f o r t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e a i r c r a f t a c t i n g on t h e c o m p a s s c a r d . s e v e r a l f a c t o r s a c t the o n t h e c o m p a s s c a r d t o move i t f r o m i t s c u s t o m a r y p o s i t i o n : p r e s s u r e o f t h e d a m p i n g f l u i d on t h e c a r d . A d e v i c e 4 for g e t t i n g r i d o f d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e c o m p a s s . t h e i n t e g r a t e d compass must b e l o ­ c a t e d i n a p l a c e which i s s u i t a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o u r s e .o f t h e damping f l u i d . ( a ) Cross The d e s i g n o f t h e m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e r e d u c e s t h e effect of i n t e r f e r e n c e with i t s o p e r a t i o n t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e and t h e compass r e a d i n g s a r e q u i t e s t a b l e . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s a r e the following: (1) A l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e c h o i c e o f m o u n t i n g l o c a t i o n for t h e compass a b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . as w e l l as a c h a n g e i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d The d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e compass c a r d of t h e aircraft while turning. (2) T h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g t h e c o m p a s s when t h e a i r c r a f t / 1 2 3 is turning. a n d t h e r e f o r e c l o s e t o o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s a n d m o v i n g p a r t s for c o n ­ t r o l l i n g t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e a c t i o n o f c e n t r i ­ f u g a l f o r c e o n t h e s o u t h e r n . Nevertheless. a l l o w s a i r b u b b l e s t o e s c a p e from t h e bowl i n t o t h e chamber and p e r m i t s t h e f l u i d t o f l o w b a c k a n d f o r t h w i t h e x p a n s i o n a n d con­ I t a l s o p r e v e n t s i t from s p l a s h i n g i n t h e bowl as t h e traction. 4 3 Fig. When t h e a i r c r a f t m a k e s a t u r n . a i r p l a n e moves . m a g n e t i c compasses ( e s p e c i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d o n e s ) h a v e a number o f shortcomings which p r e v e n t t h e c o u r s e from b e i n g c a l c u l a t e d under certain conditions. t h e e x p a n s i o n chamber i s l o c a t e d a b o v e t h e This bowl and i s connected t o i t by h o l e s o f v e r y small d i a m e t e r . which produce a l a r g e and v a r y i n g d e v i a ­ t i o n of t h e compass. 2. w h i c h c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l b a r m a g n e t s p r e s s e d i n t o drums which r o t a t e i n mutu­ a l l y p e r p e n d i c u l a r p l a n e s w i t h t h e a i d o f screws. Combined M a g n e t i c Compass: Section.

/124 tor F I n t h e c a s e o f a i r c r a f t c o u r s e s e q u a l t o 9 0 or 2 7 0 ° . WiZh a m a g n e t i c c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t e q u a l t o z e r o . t h e f o r c e ( F ) of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f m a g n e t i c masses ( m ) i s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n them (r). L e t us assume t h a t t h e e q u i v a l e n t b a r of h a r d magnetized i r o n is l o c a t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y and c o i n c i d e s with t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e longitudinal axis of the aircraft (Fig. A c c o r d i n g t o C o u l o m b ’ s l a w . The i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h a t t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t and i t s changes w i t h t i m e a r e t h e m a j o r s h o r t c o m i n g s of u s i n g m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s o f a l l t y p e s . P a r t s o f t h i s k i n d a r e c a l l e d hard magnetic i r o n . T h e r e f o r e . t h e v e c ­ o f t h e f i e l d i n t e n s i t y of t h e b a r i s l o c a t e d a t r i g h t a n g l e s 123 . t h e v e c t o r F o f t h e f i e l d i n t e n s i t y of t h e b a r c o i n c i d e s i n d i r e c t i o n w i t h t h e h o r i z o n t a l component of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h H. i t i s p o s s i b l e t o sum t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d s coming f r o m i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s of t h e a i r c r a f t and t o s u b j e c t them t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t e f f e c t o f a s i n g l e m a g n e t i z e d bar located a t a certain point. These d e v i a t i o n s are c a l l e d t h e n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n t u r n i n g e r r o r s . 2. D e v i a t i o n o f M a g n e t i c Compasses and i t s Compensation The c a u s e o f m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s d e v i a t i o n i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f p a r t s o n b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t w h i c h a r e made o f m a t e r i a l s e x h i b i t i n g magnetic p r o p e r t i e s . which does n o t p r o d u c e any d e v i a t i o n o f t h e compass c a r d from t h e plane of t h e magnetic meridian. i f we t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e d i v e r s e n a t u r e of t h e a c t i o n o f t h e h a r d and s o f t magnetized i r o n on d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s a n d d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t m o t i o n s o f t h e a i r ­ craft.f r o m t h e p l a n e o f t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n when t h e a i r c r a f t i s t u r n ­ i n g a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e when t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e c r o s s e s t h e n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n d i r e c t i o n s . t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c compass i n c r e a s e s v e r y s h a r p l y w i t h t h e a p p r o a c h of i t s s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t t o p a r t s which have h i g h m a g n e t i z a t i o n . Another g r o u p o f p a r t s a r e m a g n i t i z e d u n d e r t h e e f f e c t of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h a n d a r e c a l l e d soft m a g n e t i c i r o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e of i n d e p e n d e n c e of t h e a c t i o n o f f o r c e s a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n t h e a i r c r a f t . Some o f t h e s e p a r t s h a v e a c o n s t a n t m a g n e t i c field.6). it is better t o subject t h i s f i e l d t o the equivalent action of b a r s w h i c h h a v e a c o n s t a n t a n d v a r y i n g m a g n e t i z a t i o n . H o w e v e r .

2 . i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o make a b a r o f h a r d m a g n e t i c i r o n and p l a c e i t n e a r t h e compass i n s t a l l a t i o n i n s u c h a way t h a t i t s f i e l d i s o p p o s i t e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f i e l d of t h e equivalent b a r of hard magnetic i r o n .4) 124 . 7 ) . when t h e a i r c r a f t i s t u r n i n g a r o u n d i t s v e r t i c a l a x i s through 360°. which i s l o ­ cated i n a c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e Earth.t o t h e v e c t o r H . D e v i a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d is caZZed s e m i c i r c u l a r . D e v i a t i o n o f Compass C a r d b y g r a p h of d e v i a t i o n a B a r o f Hard M a g n e t i c I r o n . but a f i e l d of s o f t magnetic i r o n is located hori­ z o n t a l l y and c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e a c t i o n of t h e e q u i v a l e n t b a r . . it cannot be expected t h a t i n t h e g e n e r a l case t h e equivalent bar of hard magnetic i r o n w i l l I coincide i n direction with the longitudi­ n a l a x i s of t h e a i r craft. r e l a t i v e t o the course scale of t h e a i r c r a f t by a n a n g l e which i s e q u a l t o t h a t between t h e a x i s o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t and t h e a x i s of t h e e q u i v a l e n t b a r . However. To d o t h i s . i t h a s z e r o v a l u e w i t h e v e r y 180° r o t a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t ( F i g . p r o d u c i n g maximum d e v i a t i o n o f t h e c a r d f r o m t h e plane of t h e magnetic meridian. i . t h e r e s u l t a n t v e c t o r ( P t ) of t h e hard magnetic i r o n and t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h w i l l c o i n c i d e a t two p o i n t s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n . coin­ ciding i n direction with the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. i s not magnetized i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e f i e l d b u t along t h e length of t h e b a r . but only shifts the Fig. T h e m a g n e t i z a t i o n o f t h e b a r c a n b e e x p r e s s e d by t h e f o r m ­ /125 ula B = pHcos a . H e n c e . a n d w i l l b e a t a maxi­ mum d i s t a n c e f r o m i t a t t w o o t h e r p o i n t s .6. e . F i n a l l y . S e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n o f a m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s c a n b e compen­ sated easily. 2. L e t u s now a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e i s n o h a r d m a g n e t i c i r o n a b o a r d t h e aircraft. (2. - T h e e s s e n c e o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s o f t m a g n e t i c i r o n on t h e compass r e a d i n g s c o n s i s t s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e b a r . t h i s does not a l t e r the n a t u r e of t h e semi­ circular deviation.

H i s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d . t h e i n d u c t i o n v e c t o r w i l l approach t h e a x i s of t h e b a r which i s c l o s e r t o t h e i n t e n s i t y v e c t o r of t h e magnetic field. On c o u r s e s 0 a n d 180°. it has a quar­ ternary nature. I n a l l o t h e r cases. e . 9 ) . w i t h t h e e x c l u s i o n of r a r e cases. t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e equivalent b a r coin­ cides with the direction o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l compo­ nent of t h e vector of inten­ s i t y of t h e magnetic f i e l d of the Earth (a = 0 ) . t h e r e w i l l b e no compass d e v i ­ ation. I n p r a c t i c e . 2 . i n t h i s case.w h e r e B i s t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n . G r a p h of S e m i c i r c u l a r Deviation. l~ i s t h e m a g n e t i c p e r m e a b i l ­ i t y o f t h e b a r . 7 . . I n changing t h e aircraft c o u r s e f r o m 0 t o 9 0 ° or from 0 t o 270°. I n f a c t . t h e a l t e r n a t i n g m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e a i r c r a f t c a n n o t amount t o t h e e f f e c t o f one b a r o f s o f t m a g n e t i c i r o n . A s i m i l a r change i n d e v i a t i o n w i l l V C C U ~ i n t h e f l i g h t s e c t o r s f r o m 9 0 t o 1 8 0 ° a n d f r o m 1 8 0 t o 270° ( F i g . t h e magnetic F i g . a n d ct is t h e a n g l e between t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e i n t e n s i t y v e c t o r of t h e f i e l d a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e b a r . induction of the b a r w i l l decrease. 90° /126 If w e c o n s i d e r t h e a c t i o n o f one b a r . i . but the angle between t h e v e c t o r s H and B w i l l increase. although t h e magnetic induction of t h e b a r i s maximum. 2. i f w e t a k e two b a r s o f s o f t i r o n and l o c a t e them a t t o one a n o t h e r . The a c t i o n o f o n e m a g n e t i c b a r o f s o f t i r o n c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e quarternary nature of t h e a l t e r n a t i n g magnetic f i e l d of t h e aircraft. 2 . however. t h e v e c t o r o f m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n w i l l change i n v a l u e b u t w i l l always c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e 125 D . t h e r e s u l t a n t v e c t o r of i n d u c t i o n o f t h e b a r s w i l l c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e b i s e c t r i x between them ( B 1 = B 2 ) o n l y i n t h e c a s e when t h e i n t e n s i t y v e c t o r o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d ( H I ) c o i n ­ c i d e s w i t h t h e b i s e c t r i x of t h e a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e b a r s ( F i g . I t i s c l e a r i n t h e f i g u r e t h a t t h e d e v i a t i o n from t h e s o f t m a g n e t i c i r o n d u r i n g o n e c o m p l e t e t u r n of t h e a i r c r a f t a r o u n d t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s passes through zero f o u r t i m e s . I t i s obvious t h a t t h e deviation w i l l then reach i t s maximum a t a c o u r s e o f 4 5 or 3 1 5 O a n d w i l l r e a c h z e r o o n c e a g a i n on c o u r s e s o f 9 0 a n d 2 7 0 ° .8).

w e c a n d i v i d e them i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : 126 .9. H Fig. I n a d d i t i o n .8. if w e d i s r e g a r d t h e d e v i a t i o n o f h i g h e r o r d e r . t h e d e v i a t i o n f r o m s o f t m a g n e t i c i r o n c a n n o t b e e l i m i n a t e d by u s i n g a s u i t a b l e b a r of s o f t i r o n . Therefore.axis of t h e bar. Fig. 2. i n order t o d e t e r m i n e t h e magnitude and s i g n o f t h e d e v i a t i o n f o r v a r i o u s a i r c r a f t c o u r s e s . Graph o f Q u a r t e r n a r y D e v i a t i o n f r o m S o f t M a g n e t i c I r o n . M a g n e t i c I n d u c t i o n o f C r o s s e d Bars o f Soft Iron. 2. T h i s e s s e n t i a l l y e x p l a i n s t h e e x i s t e n c e on t h e a i r c r a f t o f b o t h s e m i c i r c u l a r a n d q u a r t e r n a r y d e v i a t i o n as w e l l as deviations o f higher order.8. EquaZizing t h e Magnetic FieZd o f t h e A i r c r a f t T h e c a u s e of m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s d e v i a t i o n o n b o a r d a n a i r c r a f t i s g e n e r a l l y a l a c k of c o i n c i d e n c e between t h e r e s u l t a n t components of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h t h e v e c t o r o f i n t e n s i t y of t h e E a r t h ' s magnetic f i e l d . t h e a l t e r n a t i n g /127 magnetic f i e l d of t h e aircraft not only r o t a t e s along with i t . t h e magnitude of t h e s e f o r c e s (with t h e exception o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s made o f h a r d m a g n e t i c i r o n ) w i l l v a r y w i t h c h a n g e s i n t h e m a g n e t i c c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t ( Y M ) . it i s a d v i s a b l e t o e x p r e s s i t s f i e l d components i n t h e f o r m of f o r c e s a c t i n g a l o n g t h e a x e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . Obviously. Fig. 2. When t h e a i r c r a f t r o t a t e s a r o u n d i t s a x i s . Fig.9. D e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e a n d c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a c t i o n o f t h e components o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d on t h e s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t o f t h e compass. s i n c e i t w i l l a l s o be magnetized l i k e a l l o t h e r p a r t s of t h e a i r c r a f t and w i l l n o t l e a d t o a r e d u c t i o n b u t r a t h e r t o an increase of t h e deviation. b u t simultaneously changes i n magnitude and s i g n . 2.

t h e y c a n n o t b e v i e w e d as a simple p a r t of t h e r e s u l t a n t vector along t h e axes of t h e air­ craft. e . h . e a r e l o c a t e d along t h e X-axis of t h e a i r c r a f t . 2. Q a l o n g t h e Y . ( 2 ) T h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e a i r c r a f t made of hard magnetic i r o n have t h e designations: P along t h e X-axis of t h e a i r c r a f t . T h i s means t h a t e a c h o f t h e t h r e e b a r s which c o i n c i d e w i t h a g i v e n a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s m a g n e t i z e d b y a component o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e E a r t h w h i c h i s l o c a t e d o n l y a l o n g some o n e a x i s o f the. g . t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s l e a d t o an e q u i v a l e n t effect of n i n e b a r s of s o f t magnetic i r o n . w e o b t a i n t h e e q u a t i o n s for t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e a i r c r a f t : /128 127 .1). Y. I n summing t h e m a g n e t i c f o r c e s a l o n g t h e a x e s .c o m p o n e n t o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h a c t s on b a r s a . and b a r e by component 2 . a n d b a r s g.a x i s . t h e X .a x i s . a n d t h e r e s u l t a n t i n d u c t i o n f r o m t h e s e t h r e e b a r s s h o w s how t h e v e c t o r o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d f r o m t h e s o f t mag­ n e t i c i r o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t ZX w o u l d b e l o c a t e d i f t h e c o m p o n e n t s of t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e E a r t h Y and Z w e r e e q u a l t o zero. As f o l l o w s f r o m w h a t h a s b e e n s a i d a b o v e . b a r a i s m a g n e t i z e d by t h e component of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e E a r t h X . f a r e l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e Y . t h e e q u i v a l e n t b a r s are e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e vec­ t o r s of d i v i s i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n f r o m t h e components o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h a l o n g t h e a x e s of t h e a i r c r a f t ( T a b l e 2. b. Equivalent b a r s a . (3) Components o f s o f t m a g n e t i c i r o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t . aircraft. a n d R a l o n g t h e Z . E q u i v a l e n t b a r s d.a x i s . t h e y a r e m a g n e t i z e d b y t h e same c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e v e c t o r ?. t h e i r designations coincide with t h e desig­ nations f o r t h e aircraft axes X. I n o t h e r words. k a r e l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e Z . o f which t h r e e b a r s c o i n c i d e w i t h e a c h of t h e a x e s of t h e a i r c r a f t . For c o n v e n i e n c e i n m a t h e m a t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s ..s u m m i n g t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n o f t h e compo­ nents of t h e v e c t o r T . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e s o f t i r o n i n t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t e f f e c t of n i n e b a r s a c q u i r e s phys­ i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n . The r e s u l t a n t v e c t o r o f t h e s e components i s T . For e x a m p l e . b a r b by component Y .a x i s . along t h e axes of t h e a i r c r a f t . d .(1) Components o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h a l o n g t h e axes of t h e aircraft.

In addition. TABLE 2 . t o c a l c u l a t e t h e d e v i a t i o n i n h o r i ­ z o n t a l f l i g k t . 1 axis of the aircraft 1 I I T X Y Z I I ' R e s u l t a n t forces E 1 I l x aX dX gx . we c a n c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n Z f r o m the vector T is constant along the v e r t i c d l axis of the a i r c r a f t ( t e r m s c Z . I f we a l s o c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e sum o f t h e v e c t o r s X a n d Y c o n ­ s t i t u t e s t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h H. 1 0 ) . x'. P . - ? I .T h e s e f i e l d s w i l l b e u s e d a s a b a s i s for d e r i v i n g f o r m u l a s f o r t h e d e v i a t i o n o f m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s on a n a i r c r a f t . Y' along t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l and t r a n s v e r s e axes of t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e l o c u s of t h e c o m p a s s . determining Z'. However. a r e t h e components of t h e magnetic f i e l d The v e c t o r s XI. R . 1 ? my ' I 1 . /129 128 . The m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s d e v i a t i o n ( 6 ) i s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e a n g l e between t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e h o r i z o n t a l component of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h H a n d t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e t o t a l magn e t i c f i e l d on t h e a i r c r a f t H ' ( F i g . ' U'=Hsiny+dHcosr-eHsinr+ fZ+Q.5) c a n b e r e w r i t t e n t o r e a d as f o l ­ x = H cos 7 aH cos r bH sin 7 + CL + P . nZ C Z fZl ox OY oz . fZ. where y + - I i s t h e magnetic course of t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e c o n s t a n t t e r m s a r e o n l y t h e c o m p o n e n t s of t h e f i e l d o f t h e h a r d m a g n e t i c i r o n .5). k Z ) . U = HsinT.I . t h e f i r s t two e q u a t i o n s lows : i n (2. P Q R 6Y eY hY kZ T h e sum o f t h e v e c t o r s Y ' a n d Z' g i v e s a t o t a l v e c t o r a c t i n g on t h e s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t o f t h e c o m p a s s . 2 . horizontal f l i g h t w i l l not involve the t h i r d equation i n (2. Q. De v i u t i o n Fo rmu Zas I n t h e e q u a t i o n s of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e a i r c r a f t . X=HCQS~.

it i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h a n d i s d i r e c t e d a t a n a n g l e of 9 0 ° t o t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d ­ ian. 129 . The t e r m s w i t h c o e f f i c i e n t s s i n y a n d c o s y h a v e a s e m i c i r c u l a r character. w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t e q u a l t o u n i t y . The terms which h a v e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s 2 s i n y and 2 cos y have a q u a r t e r n a r y c h a r a c t e r . 7 ) t h e v a l u e s o f X' a n d I " from E q u a t i o n ( 2 . t o i t s p r o j e c t i o n on t h e magnetic m e r i d i a n H " ' : tg8=-= H" H" X sin 7 f Y cos 7 ' ' X cog 7 . e . have a c o n s t a n t c h a r a c t e r .O b v i o u s l y . 8 1 . and a l s o r e d u c e s i m i l a r t e r m s .c o s 2 y ) a n d % ( l t c o s 2 y ) . 6 1 .Y' sin 7 ' ' ~ If w e s u b s t i t u t e i n t o E q u a t i o n ( 2 . All of t h e f o r c e s d e s i g n a t e d by v a l u e s l o c a t e d i n t h e n u m e r a t o r of E q u a t i o n ( 2 . 8 ) a r e d i r e c t e d a t a n a n g l e o f 90° t o t h e m a g n e t i c meridian while those i n t h e denominator coincide with it. t h e y are independent o f t h e a i r ­ craft course at a given magnetic l a t i t u d e .8) The t e r m s i n E q u a t i o n ( 2 . t g 6 i s e q u a l t o t h e r a t i o of t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f v e c ­ t o r HI i n a d i r e c t i o n p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n H " . The f o r c e ~ 2 H i s i n d e p e n d e n t of the a i r c r a f t course. r e p l a c i n g t h e v a l u e s s i n y c o s y . T h i s f o r c e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e m a g n e t i z a t i o n of t h e s o f t i r o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t b y tFle m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h a n d v a r i e s a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e magnetic l a t i t u d e of t h e l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t . w e w i l l h a v e : (2. T h e f o r c e cZtP i s d i r e c t e d a l o n g t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t . 2. W w i l l desig­ e n a t e t h i s f o r c e by A o X H . ?i ( l . . G e v i a t i o n o f M a g n e t i c Compass Aboard an A i r c r a f t . it i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l component o f t h e f i e l d from t h e h a r d magnetic i r o n P and t h e i n d u c t i o n from t h e v e r t i c a l Fig.10. s i n 2 y and cos2y by t h e i r obvious homologues 4 s i n 2 y . i .

w e can l e t t g 6 = 6 ..d e v i a t i o n f o r m u l a . If w e s u b s t i t u t e i n t o E q u a t i o n ( 2 . The p o i n t .component o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i n a t e d BQXH and changes w i t h l o c a t i o n only i n accordgnce o f t h e f o r c e on t h e n o r m a l t t o t h e s i n e of t h e m a g n e t i c e l d of the Earth.a'b H i s d e s i g n a t e d AH. been s i m p l i f i e d f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes. and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s AQ.U + a 2 . This force is desig­ t h e magnetic l a t i t u d e of t h e aircraft /130 with t h e first t e r m .b -a n d -a r e 2 2 r e l a t e d t o t h e s o f t magnetic i r o n on t h e a i r c r a f t . 9 ) of a binomial: [1 can b e e x p r e s s e d i n t h e form (1 + (Bo cos 7 . t h e L a t t e r w i l l g i v e us Expression ( 2 . 8 ) t h e s e d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r t h e f o r c e s a n d d i v i d e t h e n u m e r a t o r a n d d e n o m i n a t o r b y AH. For p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s .Cosin 7 + Do cos 27 -Eosin 27)]-1= a < 1. t h e + a)-'. and t h e r e f o r e c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e magnetic meridian. CQ. BQ. The p r o j e c t i o n o t h e magnetic meridian is proportional c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t .d e v i a t i o n f o r m u l a i s i n c o n v e n i e n t t o u s e . it i s i n t h e denominagor. m a g n e t i z e d by t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h . i t s pro­ a l o n g t h e t r a n s v e r s e a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t . w e c a n l i m i t o u r s e l v e s t o t h e f i r s t 130 . D Q and E Q a r e t h e p o i n t c o e f f i c i e n t s of deviation. . b u t i s d i r e c t e d Consequently. a n d i s ' a n a l o g o u s i n t h e n a t u r e and c h a r a c t e r of i t s changes t o t h e f o r c e BQAH. j e c t i o n on t h e n o r m a l t o t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e cosine of t h e magnetic course of t h e aircraft.a 3 . T h e f o r c e H+. The d e n o m i n a t o r o f F o r m u l a ( 2 .8). In Equation (2. . The f o r m e r i s d e s i g n a t e d D Q A H a n d c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e double c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t . W know t h a t w i t h e the converging series: expansion of t h e binomial gives (1 + a ) . The f o r c e s ' a .~ = l . s o it has S i n c e i t i s a l m o s t a l w a y s n e c e s s a r y t o s e l e c t a p l a c e f o r mount­ i n g t h e c o m p a s s on t h e a i r c r a f t w h e r e t h e d e v i a t i o n d o e s n o t e x c e e d 8-10°. T h e f o r c e fZtQ i s d e s i g n a t e d b y C Q A H . t h e l a t t e r i s E Q X H and i s perpen­ d i c u l a r t o t h e double course of t h e a i r c r a f t . 9 ) i s c a l l e d t h e p o i n t .

. D. can be d i s r e g a r d e d . C a Z c u Z a t i o n of A p p r o x i m a t e D e v i a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s W w i l l a s s u m e t h a t w e know t h e d e v i a t i o n o f a m a g n e t i c com­ e pass at e i g h t symmetrical points: 0 . e .. e s p e c i a l l y i f w e r e c a l l t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e a c t i n g on t h e compass which are very d i f f i c u l t t o allow f o r .10) 1131 Having c a r r i e d o u t t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of t h e m u l t i p l i e r s .0 . 270 a n d 315O. and c a r r i e d o u t s i m p l e t r i g o n o m e t r i c conver­ s i o n s . 1 8 9 . reduced t h e s i m i l a r t e r m s . 9 ) assumes t h e form: 8 = (Ao f Bo sin 7 f Cocos 1 + C. than i n the point-deviation C. s i n c e t h e y a r e much s m a l l e r t h a n a n y o f t h e f i r s t f i v e c o e f f i c i e n t s . 1 0 ) assumes t h e form: 8=A + E sln 7 + C C O S ~D sin27 + ~ c 0 ~ + 7 + 2 Fsln37 + Gcos3y + + H sin 47 + K c o s 4 7 . (2. 1 1 ) a s s u m e s t h e f o r m : . 1 3 5 .12) where A i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of c o n s t a n t d e v i a t i o n . a n d D. (2. 9 0 . According t o Equation must have t h e v a l u e s : %=A+ (2. .. the deviation at these points BsinOO+CcosO"+DslnOO+EcosOO. 131 .12). . i t i s c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . B . sln 7 -Do cos 27 + EOsln q . i . E h a v e a s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t v a l u e formula: The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f d e v i a t i o n o f h i g h e r o r d e r s . B .E a r e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s of quarternary deviation. and i t s c o e f f i c i e n t s are t h e approximate d e v i a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . 1 2 ) i s c a l l e d t h e approximate formula o f d e v i a t i o n . Then F o r m u l a ( 2 . ) + Do SIR 27 f Eo COI 27)(1 -Bo cos 7 + (2. 8 =A + B sin 7 + C cos 7 + D sin 27 + E cos 27. 4 5 .two terms o f t h e series (1 +a)-* x 1 .11) Here t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s A . Formula ( 2 .. C are t h e coef­ f i c i e n t s o f s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n . so t h a t E q u a t i o n ( 2 . 2 2 5 . However. Equation ( 2 . p r o p o r ­ t i o n a l t o t h e s i n e s and c o s i n e s 3 y . 4y.

cos 90" E or. ti4. o ! b5= /132 + - - (2. 45" %26 + Summing E q u a t i o n (2.B sin 45". w e m u l t i p l y e a c h o f t h e E q u a t i o n s ( 2 . T h e n . t h e e q u a t i o n s f o r 6 0 a n d 6 1 8 0 become z e r o a n d t h e r e m a i n ­ d e r s assume t h e form: 6s sin 45" = A sin 45" . To f i n d t h e a p p r o x i m a t e d e v i a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t B . w = A . I n s u m m i n g t h e s i x r e m a i n i n g e q u a t i o n s . t h e sum o f t h e t e r m s c o n t a i n i n g c o e f f i c i e n t A becomes z e r o . 1 3 ) by t h e c o e f f i c i e n t a t B . + B sin2 45" + C sin2 45"-D sin 45". w e o b t a i n : -ib-kb + 8185 -k +gci f %~IJ = 8A or consequently . %i-o=A-B-E. c o s 9 0 ° = 0 .t Since sin00 = 0 .I Ccos 45" + D. = A .8 ~ 2 sin 45" = A sin 45" ~ -8270 = A + B + E. tm=A+B-E: &&=A'+ B sin 45" Ccos 45" D. k e e p i n g i n mind t h e f a c t t h a t sin45O = c o s 4 5 O .C sin2 45" + D sin 45".Ccos 45" D. depending on t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . 8316 = A . cosOo =A - 1. w e can o b t a i n a system of e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e devia t i o n of t h e e i g h t points: =A i C E . 8 ~ 2 A f B . A f B sin45" .D.B sin 45" f CCOS . i f w e c o n s i d e r t h e v a l u e s s i n 9 0 O = 1. symmetrical t o t h e f i r s t . = A + Bsin45"+ Ccos45" f D d S i m i l a r l y . have a minus s i g n . + B sin 45" + Ccos 45' + D sin 90"-I.13).4 sin 45" . t h e n 6 0 = A f C f E. s i n c e t h r e e o f them h a v e a p l u s s i g n and t h e remaining t h r e e . The sum o f t h e t e r m s c o n t a i n i n g c o e f f i c i e n t B i s e q u a l t o 132 .C sin2 45"-D sin 45". + B sin2 45" + C sln2 45" + D sin 45". -$I5 sin 45" =A sin 45" 6135 sin 45" = A + B sin2 45". + B sin2 45".13) b .C + E.

compass d e v i a t i o n r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t .2B + fi 4B s i n 2 45O. as p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e compass c a r d . = 1 t h i s sum w i l l b e 2. i s e q u a l t o z e r o . d o e s n o t r e m a i n f i x e d f o r o t h e r p o i n t s . e q u a l t o 4B. a s w e l l a s t h e sum o f t h e t e r m s c o n t a i n i n g c o e f f i c i e n t D . we c a n f i n d t h e f o r m u l a s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e ­ maining t h r e e c o e f f i c i e n t s : D= -C 4 1 i=O 8 61 COS 21i. Consequently. T h e sum o f t h e t e r m s c o n t a i n i n g c o e f f i c i e n t C . /133 2 b i l l = 4B 1=0 8 or S i m i l a r l y . ~ ~ v i o u s l y . i-0 8 (2. b u t c h a n g e s d e p e n d i n g on t h e m a g n e t i c l a t i t u d e o f t h e l o c u s o f t h e aircraft. b u t s i n c e s i n 2 45O =(?) . Consequently.14) E= Change i n D e v i a t i o n of M a g n e t i c Compasses a s a F u n c t i o n o f t h e M a g n e t i c L a t i t u d e o f t h e L o c u s of t h e A i r c r a f t The d e v i a t i o n o f a m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s d e t e r m i n e d f o r a g i v e n p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . the the the the T h e d e v i a t i o n f r o m m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l com­ p o n e n t of t h e f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h h a s a c o n s t a n t a n d q u a r t e r n a r y character: 133 . change i n d e v i a t i o n c a n n o t t a k e p l a c e as a r e s u l t a o f c h a n g e s i n t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n of s o f t m a g n e t i c i r o n f r o m t h e h o r i z o n t a l component o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h . t h e i n d u c t i o n f r o m t h e c o m p o n e n t p r o d u c i n g d e v i a t i o n w i l l change i n t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n with a change i n h o r i z o n t a l component o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h . By t h e same t o k e n .

This remains constant t a k e s p l a c e b e c a u s e t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e v e c t o r s P.15) w h e r e B 1 . However. W i t h known c o e f f i c i e n t s B + C . i f w e c o n s i d e r t h e p r e d o m i n a n t i n f l u ­ e n c e on t h e a i r c r a f t p r o d u c e d b y t h e h a r d m a g n e t i c i r o n . E s s e n t i a l l y . C1. 134 . we c a n consider i n approximation t h a t t h e semicircular deviation is inversely p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l component o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of the Earth. with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e magnetic l a t i t u d e . 8 I n a d d i t i o n . H I a r e t h e a p p r o x i m a t e c o e f f i c i e n t s a n d t h e h o r i z o n t a l component of t h e E a r t h ' s f i e l d a t t h e p o i n t where t h e d e v i a t i o n i s m e a s u r e d . t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n must increase. r e s u l t i n g from h a r d magnetic iron. B.. C2. which g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r t h e a p p r o x i m a t e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f de­ v i a t i o n B and C : (2.ary Hence. Consequently. w e r e a c h t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e c o n s t a n t and q u a r t e r n ­ deriation a t various magnetic l a t i t u d e s remains constant. t h e change i n t h e d e v i a t i o n with a change i n t h e /134 magnetic l a t i t u d e i s t h e r e s u l t of t h e influence of hard magnetic i r o n a n d p a r t i a l l y as a r e s u l t o f i n d u c t i o n w i t h s o f t m a g n e t i c i r o n f r o m t h e v e r t i c a l component of t h e E a r t h ' s m a g n e t i c f i e l d . H2 a r e t h e s a m e v a l u e s a t a p o i n t w i t h a d i f ­ f e r e n t magnetic l a t i t u d e . t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n a t a g i v e n p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e f o r m ­ ula E l i m i n a t i o n o f D e v i a t i o n i n t h e M a g n e t i c Compasses Modern m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s a r e f i t t e d w i t h a d e v i c e f o r com­ p e n s a t i n g o n l y s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n . t h e i n d u c t i o n o f t h e s o f t m a g n e t i c i r o n f r o m t h e v e r t i c a l component of t h e E a r t h ' s f i e l d i n c r e a s e s with a simultaneous decrease i n t h e directional force H . w i t h a change i n t h e d i r e c t i o n a l v e c t o r H . with an i n c r e a s e i n t h e magnetic l a t i t u d e .

1 1 . The m a x i ­ mum e f f e c t o f t h e s m a l l m a g n e t s w i l l b e o b s e r v e d w h e n t h e y a r e i n the horizontal position (Fig. c ) . When t h e m a g n e t s a r e t i l t e d ( F i g . t h e h o r i z o n t a l component o f t h e i r f i e l d a p p e a r s . i f w e keep i n mind t h e r e l a t i v e l y low v a l u e o f t h e q u a r t e r n a r y d e v i a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n . 2. i n t e n d e d f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r d e v i a t i o n i n 0 a n d 180° c o u r s e s .11. E l i m i n a t i o n o f q u a r t e r n a r y d e v i a t i o n b y m a g n e t i c means e n c o u n ­ ters considerable technical difficulty. 1 1 ) . b ) . Cylinders. w i t h p e r m a n e n t m a g n e t s i n s t a l l e d i n them ( F i g . (4) A c t u a ­ t i n g Cylinders. and p l a c e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n such a way t h a t w h e n t h e y a r e r o t a t e d . 4 N S Fig. w e can c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e c o n s t a n t component of d e v i a t i o n a l o n g w i t h t h e a d j u s t m e n t e r r o r o f t h e compass. Modern r e m o t e c o n t r o l m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s h a v e d e v i c e s f o r m e c h a n i c a l compensation of d e v i a t i o n of a l l o r d e r s . Fig. and c a n b e s e t s o t h a t i t i s e q u a l b u t d i r e c t e d opposite t o t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e aircraft (hori­ z o n t a l component).I n a d d i t i o n . l o c a t e d along i t s t r a n s v e r s e a x i s . 2.11. ( 5 ) Embedded M a g n e t s . w e w i l l not be able t o get r i d of the latter b u t w i l l e n t e r i t on s p e c i a l g r a p h s f o r co mp as s c o r r e c t i o n . t h e i r f i e l d d o e s n o t h a v e a n y i n f l u e n c e on t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e compass card (neutral position. 2 . 2 . by a s u i t a b l e r o t a t i o n o f t h e compass h o u s i n g i n i t s m o u n t i n g s . are arranged along t h e t r a n s v e r s e a x i s of t h e air­ c r a f t .11. ( 2 ) Transverse a t i o n o f t h e Compass. W i t h a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t s . 1135 The d e v i c e f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a s y s t e m o f f o u r c y l i n d e r s m o u n t e d i n p a i r s . a ) . The c y l i n d e r s . 2. D e v i c e f o r C o r r e c t i n g S e m i c i r c u l a r Devi­ (1) F r a m e . t h e s m a l l m a g n e t s c a n t u r n f r o m a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n t o one which i s c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e t r a n s v e r s e a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t . i n w h i c h t h e f i e l d o f h a r d m a g n e t i c i r o n p r o d u c e s t h e deviation. 135 . (3) Longitudinal Cylinders. as w e l l as i t s c o n s t a n t v a l u e a t various latitudes. Therefore .

e x a c t l y a l o n g i t s l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s s o t h a t t h e f o r w a r d a n d r e a r p o i n t s on t h e a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l b e p r o j e c t e d on t h e s i g h t . a n d i t s i n i t i a l c o u r s e i s s e t . D i r e c t i o n f i n d i n g o f l a n d m a r k s f r o m o n b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t .1 0 0 m . To d e t e r m i n e a n d g e t r i d o f d e v i a t i o n s . and t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t i s m e a s u r e d .6 km. f o r l a r g e r a i r c r a f t w i t h a g r e a t e r r a d i u s o f t u r n o n t h e g r o u n d .3 km. A f t e r d e t e r m i n i n g and r e c o r d i n g t h e magnetic b e a r i n g s o f t h e The d i r e c t i o n l a n d m a r k s . f i n d e r i s p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f or b e h i n d t h e a i r c r a f t a t a d i s t a n c e o f 2 0 . i t s h o u l d b e a t l e a s t 5 .The c y l i n d e r s f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g d e v i a t i o n a t c o u r s e s o f 9 0 a n d are mounted i n t h e t r a n s v e r s e a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e s m a l l m a g n e t s c a n b e u s e d t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e compo­ n e n t o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e a i r c r a f t which i s d i r e c t e d a l o n g its longitudinal axis. made o f c o n c r e t e ( f o r h e a v y a i r c r a f t ) / l 3 6 b u t without a metal c o r e .th a b u b b l e l e v e l a n d o r i e n t i n g m a g n e t i c n e e d l e . 270° The r o t a t i o n o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n d t r a n s v e r s e c y l i n d e r s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y m e a n s o f s p e c i a l h a n d l e s made o f d i a m a g n e t i c m a t e r ­ ial. a magnetic d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r or t h e o d o l i t e i s m o u n t e d o n a s t a n d s o t h a t t h e i n d i c a t i n g d i a l i s l o c a t e d e x a c t l y i n a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n . T h e n t w o or t h r e e d i s t i n c t a n d p r o m i n e n t l a n d m a r k s on t h e h o r ­ i z o n are s e l e c t e d ( t o w e r s and chimneys a r e b e s t f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ) . e . t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e f i t t e d wi. The a c c u r a c y o f t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t on a g i v e n c o u r s e for d e t e r m i n i n g a n d g e t t i n g r i d o f d e v i a t i o n c a n b e c h e c k e d i n o n e of t h e f o l l o w i n g two ways: 1. and t h e z e r o r e a d i n g on t h e d i a l c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e magnetic meridian. g . a n d t h e i r m a g n e t i c b e a r i n g s (MB) a r e d e t e r m i n e d w i t h t h e a i d o f a s i g h t . t h e a i r c r a f t i s m o u n t e d on t h e s t a n d . d e p e n d i n g on t h e l e n g t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t . The s t a n d m u s t b e o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e s o t h a t a i r c r a f t o f a n y k i n d can be r o t a t e d i n a c i r c l e and t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e s t a n d t o o t h e r a i r c r a f t and metal s t r u c t u r e s i s a t l e a s t 200 m. T h e l a n d m a r k s s h o u l d b e l o c a t e d as f a r as p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e area s o t h a t t h e s h i f t i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t from i t s c e n t e r d u r i n g r o t a t i o n w i l l n o t produce any n o t i c e a b l e changes i n t h e b e a r i n g s of t h e landmarks. r o t a t i n g o n t h e d i a l u s e d for d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b e a r i n g s . . Then t h e d i a l on t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r i s s e t t o t h e magnetic m e r i d i a n . t h e a i r c r a f t i s p l a c e d o n a s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d s t a n d . 136 . For l i g h t a i r c r a f t . t h i s d i s t a n c e s h o u l d b e a t l e a s t 2 . t h e c e n t e r s of t h e nose and k e e l . I n t h e c e n t e r of t h e area where t h e a i r c r a f t i s t o t u r n . For t h i s p u r p o s e .

I f t h e above c o n d i t i o n i s s a t i s f i e d . 2 . 1 2 ) a p p e a r s a t a c o u r s e a n g l e (CA) e q u a l t o CA = MBL - MC (2. t h i s method w i l l b e i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e . b u t t h e s e l e c t e d landmarks have magnetic b e a r i n g s of 115 a n d 3 2 8 O .I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c a l l t h a t t h e minimum d i s t a n c e f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r from t h e a i r c r a f t i s l i m i t e d by t h e e f f e c t o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e m a g n e t i c n e e d l e o f t h e d e v i a t i o n d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r . 2 . The s e c o n d l a n d m a r k i s a n e x t r a o n e i n c a s e t h e f i r s t i s ob­ s t r u c t e d b y some p a r t o f t h e a i r c r a f t s u c h a s t h e e m p e n n a g e o r w i n g .17) w h e r e MBL e q u a l s t h e m a g n e t i c b e a r i n g o f t h e l a n d m a r k a n d MC i s t h e i n i t i a l magnetic course of t h e aircraft. t h e n t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s �or t h e c o u r s e s w h i c h w e r e q u i r e w i l l have t h e v a l u e s shown i n T a b l e 2 . t h e magnetic n e e d l e i s f i x e d and s e t s o t h a t one of t h e s e l e c t e d l a n d m a r k s ( F i g . 137 . s i n c e a t a d i s t a n c e o f more t h a n 1 0 0 m y w i t h a n a i r c r a f t which i s n o t v e r y l o n g . a t a b l e o f c o u r s e a n g l e s for landmarks f o r e a c h a i r c r a f t c o u r s e i s c o m p i l e d . a n d t h e maximum d i s t a n c e i s s e t b y t h e l e n g t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t . A f t e r t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r h a s b e e n moved t o t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e z e r o p o i n t on t h e direction finder d i a l w i l l coincide exactly with t h e longitudinal a x i s of t h e aircraft. . if t h e d e v i a t i o n h a s b e e n d e t e r m i n e d a t e i g h t p o i n t s . /137 F o r e x a m p l e . t h e s i g h t o f t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r i s s e t t o a g i v e n c o u r s e a n g l e f o r a landmark and t h e a i r c r a f t is t h e n t u r n e d u n t i l t h e a x i s o f t h e s i g h t l i n e s up w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f It is clear t h a t t h e aircraft is then set t h e s e l e c t e d landmark. - MC 0 45 90 135 I80 225 270 315 115 70 25 340 326 295 250 205 160 283 238 19 3 148 103 358 42 1-2 +2 -1 91 133 178 224 271 58 13 +2 t-2 +I -1 +2 313 When u s i n g t h i s t a b l e . p r e c i s e l y on t h e d e s i r e d c o u r s e . To s e t t h e a i r c r a f t on d e f i n i t e c o u r s e s .

. e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e a f i x e d area c a n b e s e t u p a t a n a i r p o r t for c o r r e c t i n g deviaFions and doing o t h e r work t o s e t t h e b e a r i n g s of landmarks and compiling t a b l e s o f c o u r s e a n g l e s for g i v e n a i r ­ craft courses. 1 3 ) t h a t s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n a t t h e 0 a n d 1 8 0 ° p o i n t s i s e q u a l i n v a l u e . t h i s method i s n o t always p r a c t i c a b l e . a d j u s t the zero on t h e d i a l a l o n g t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n . t h i s o p e r a t i o n may h a v e t o The a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s m e t h o d b e r e p e a t e d a f t e r moving t h e a i r c r a f t . and p e c u l i a r i t i e s of a i r c r a f t d e s i g n . 2. I n some c a s e s . T h i s m e t h o d i s u s e d i n c a s e s when i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e t t h e a i r ­ c r a f t on c o u r s e s o f 0 . and i n o t h e r c a s e s t h e visibility may b e i n a d Fig. I t may b e necessary t o t u r n t h e a i r c r a f t f o r a secondary check. s e t it exactly along t h e extension of t h e a i r c r a f t a x i s . 2. Under u n f a v ­ i n addition t o measuring t h e distance t o t h e aircraft.g. b y t h e m e t h o d d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . a n d m a k e t h e d i a l l e v e l . t h e c o r r e c n e s s o f t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t on c o u r s e i s t h e n d e t e r m i n e d a s i n t h e f i r s t c a s e b e f o r e m o u n t i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . f i n d e r on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t i n a p l a c e where t h e r e would be a c l e a r f i e l d o f v i s i o n f o r o b s e r v ­ ing the landmarks. according t o t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e magnetic compass) t o a given c o u r s e . i s i t s independence of t h e e x i s t e n c e of landmarks. 9 0 ° . o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s a b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t .Deviation from p r e s s e d b y t h e maximum v a l u e o f c o e f f i c i e n t C . depend­ i n g on t h e t y p e o f t h e l a t t e r . D i r e c t i o n f i n d i n g o f a n a i r c r a f t from t h e nose o r t a i l . This method i s l e s s c o n v e n i e n t t h a n t h e f i r s t . t h e r e may b e d i f f i culty i n fastening the direction /138 Angle o f a Landmark. S e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n of m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s i s c o r r e c t e d a n d eliminated at four basic points: 0 . In Aircra'ft Course by t h e Course some a i r c r a f t . I t i s c l e a r from ( 2 .12. a n d ex. 4 5 . 180 . s i n c e it i s necessary t o s h i f t t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r f o r each course. 138 . 90 a n d 2 7 0 ° . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of e q u a t e f o r them t o b e s e e n . . However. e t c . In t h i s case. meteorological v i s i b i l i t y . i t may b e i m p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t s u i t a b l e landmarks. Then t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r is l o c a t e d along t h e extension of t h e longi­ t u d i n a l a x i s a t a d i s t a n c e of 20-100 m from t h e a i r c r a f t . b u t o p p o s i t e i n s i g n . t h e aircraft is s e t each time(e.The m e t h o d o f s e t t i n g a n a i r c r a f t on c o u r s e b y t h e m e t h o d d e ­ s c r i b e d above f o r o b t a i n i n g t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s of landmarks i s t h e most p r e c i s e and r e l i a b l e one.

c o r r e c t ­ i n g a p p a r a t u s w i t h t h e m a r k i n g "E-W". t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n w i l l b e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r and t h e c o n s t a n t and q u a r t e r n a r y d e v i a t i o n w i l l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b e compensated f o r . 139 L. a i r c r a f t t o a c o u r s e o f 180°.c o e f f i c i e n t B i s e q u a l t o z e r o on t h e s e c o u r s e s . and i n t h e reverse direction. However. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e t t h e d e v i a t i o n n o t t o zero. . A n a l o g o u s l y . a l l of t h e s e c o u r s e s a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e a c t i o n o f a c o n s t a n t d e v i a t i o n i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t A and q u a r t e r n a r y d e v i a t i o n E i n addition t o the semicircular deviation. w h e r e i t s v a l u e d o u b l e s . Hence . i f t h e d e v i a t i o n on c o u r s e O o i s s e t t o z e r o by t u r n i n g t h e c y l i n d e r o f t h e d e v i a t i o n . by t u r n i n g t h e c y l i n d e r o f t h e d e v i a t i o n . Graph o f D e v i a t i o n o f a M a g n e t i c Compass. I t w i l l c h a n g e w i t h t h e same s i g n t o a c o u r s e Therefore. after s e t t i n g the o f 180°. TABLE 2 3 MC 0 180 12 +4 +7 -2 0 +2 0 -1 90 270 +5 +S a 0 -50 45 YO 135 180 225 270 315 0 -5 Fig'. b u t t o h a l f t h e r o t a t i o n of t h a t c y l i n d e r . 2 . i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e d u c e t h e d e v i a t i o n t o zerio f o r a 90° c o u r s e a n d by h a l f f o r a 270° c o u r s e . t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n f r o m c o e f f i c i e n t C c a n b e e l i m i n a t e d completely and p r e c i s e l y w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g t h e c o n s t a n t and q u a r t e r n a r y d e v i a t i o n s .c o r r e c t i n g a p p a r a t u s w i t h t h e m a r k i n g IrN-S" . 1 3 . /139 which c o m p l e t e l y g e t s r i d o f t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n from c o e f f i ­ c i e n t B without d i s t u r b i n g t h e c o n s t a n t and q u a r t e r n a r y d e v i a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y . T h i s means t h a t t h e v a l u e s of t h e c o n s t a n t a n d q u a r t e r n a r y d e v i a t i o n a r e e q u a l i n v a l u e and s i g n .

t1.7 - = 0. t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n B and C must a l s o b e found w i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e i r changes w i t h magnetic l a t i t u d e . t h e remaining deviation a t t h e s e p o i n t s w i l l be e q u a l t o t 2 O for c o u r s e s o f 0 a n d 180° a n d -lo f o r c o u r s e s o f 9 0 a n d 270°. I n p r e p a r i n g f o r long d i s t a n c e f l i g h t s . . t h e a i r c r a f t i s s e t t o c o u r s e s a t 45O i n t e r v a l s a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g d e v i a t i o n i s An e x a m p l e o f t h e r e c o r d i n g i s s h o w n i n T a b l e 2 .25O produced by t u r n i n g t h e value.85. A f t e r g e t t i n g r i d of t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n . t 1 so t h a t t h e graph o f t h e c o r r e c t i o n s c a n b e compared w i t h t h e r e a d ­ i n g s o f t h e compass ( F i g . I n t h i s case.3). If t h e a i r c r a f t i s i n t e n d e d f o r u s e on f l i g h t s a t m a g n e t i c l a t i t u d e s w h e r e t h e r e w i l l o n l y b e s m a l l c h a n g e s .13). 2.7+ 4 1 .4-0-0.7 ­ 0. w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e changes /140 i n t h e magnetic l a t i t u d e s .+0-0+0.4-2+0. bowl o f t h e compass t h r o u g h lo.2 sin + I sin + I sin 1800 + + 0-2 sin 2x0' + 1 sin 315" --­ 900 1. The o p e r a t i o n w i t h s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d i n a s p e c i a l t a b l e (Table 2. t 2 . 0 . . A f t e r summing t h e r e m a i n i n g d e v i a t i o n f o r e i g h t c o u r s e s ( G r a p h 5 .3~0 ~­ --0 + 1.7 + 0 + 0 + 2-0. measured. T a b l e 2 .1 + 2 + 2 + 1 .2 . Obviously. w e o b t a i n t h e v a l u e of t h e constant deviation A= 2 + 3. 140 . 2 ) a n d d i v i d i n g t h e sum b y e i g h t .1 + 2 8 =+ The b o w l o f t h e c o m p a s s m u s t b e s e t i n i t s m o u n t i n g t o t h i s If w e d i s r e g a r d t h e v a l u e of 0. t h e r e m a i n i n g d e v i a t i o n f o r t h e e i g h t c o u r s e s w i l l h a v e a v a l u e o f t1. t h e c o e f f i c i e n t B w i l l b e e q u a l t o : B- + I sin'0 + 2 sin 450.2 . t 1 . 2 . --__4 4 and c o e f f i c i e n t C w i l l be C= 1+1.. t h i s w i l l mark t h e e n d o f t h e work w i t h d e v i a t i o n .35.

and astronomic s e n s o r s . magnetic. The n e x t s t e p s i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e a c c u r a c y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f /141 o p e r a t i o n o f c o u r s e d e v i c e s w a s made b y t h e g y r o s c o p i c s e m i c o m p a s s e s and magnetic c o u r s e s e n s o r s l i n k e d w i t h g y r o s c o p i c dampers. T h i s made i t p o s s i b l e t o m o u n t t h e c o m p a s s i n t h e p i l o t ' s f i e l d o f v i s i o n a n d e n s u r e optimum c o n d i t i o n s f o r o p e r a t i o n o f t h e compass f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f d e v i a t i o n . such as i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e a d i n g s w i t h m o v e m e n t of t h e a i r c r a f t a n d t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g i t when t h e a i r c r a f t w a s t u r n i n g . c o n t a i n i n g a magnetic t r a n s m f t t e r ( a s e n s i ­ t i v e element) l o c a t e d a t any convenient p o i n t i n t h e a i r c r a f t . However. I n a d d i t i o n . magnetic course devices are d i f f i c u l t t o use i n a f l i g h t a l o n g a n orthodrome f o r l o n g d i s t a n c e s . t h e r e were s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e shortcomings i n t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e compass. whose r e a d i n g s w e r e t r a n s m i t t e d b y means o f s p e c i a l p o t e n t i o m e t r i c t r a n s m i t t e r s t o d i a l s mounted i n t h e c o c k p i t . t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e compass de­ creased. since t h e potentiometric connection with r e l i a b l e contacts produced an a d d i t i o n a l d e l a y i n t h e t u r n i n g of t h e s e n s o r c a r d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n w a s t h e case f o r t h e r o t a t i o n o f a f r e e l y m o v i n g c a r d on i t s b e a r i n g i n a n i n t e g r a t e d c o m p a s s . t h e g r e a t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y a n d a c c u r a c y i n c o u r s e meas­ urements f o r a i r c r a f t h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d by t h e b u i l d i n g of complexes of c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t s ( c o u r s e s y s t e m s ) . A l l o f t h i s h a s made i t n e c e s s a r y t o s e e k new w a y s o f d e v i s ­ i n g c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t s and systems which w i l l s a t i s f y t h e r e q u i r e ­ ments of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a t a l l s t a g e s and a l l c o n d i t i o n s o f flight. t h e i r shortcomings have n o t been completely over­ come.G y r o s c o p i c C o u r s e Devices Regardless o f t h e f a c t t h a t measures have been employed f o r a long p e r i o d of t i m e which are d i r e c t e d toward i n c r e a s i n g t h e accur­ a c y o f r e a d i n g s a n d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d mag­ n e t i c compasses. c o m b i n i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n of gyroscopic. due t o t h e complex­ i t y o f t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n as i t changes along the route. H o w e v e r . Analysis of t h e induction course sensors. free of f r i c t i o n d u r i n g t u r n i n g o f a n a i r c r a f t . The p r i n c i p l e o f t h e s e systems is a s t a b l e and prolongad maintenance o f t h e system 141 4 . s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of magnetic compasses. This made i t p o s s i b l e t o u s e t h e c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t s w h i l e t h e a i r c r a f t w a s t u r n i n g and t o a c h i e v e s t a b i l i t y o f c o u r s e r e a d i n g s under any f l i g h t conditions. I n a d d i t i o n . The f i r s t s t e p s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n w e r e made b y t h e r e m o t e c o n ­ t r o l magnetic compasses.

( 2 ) A x i a Z p r e c e s s i o n of r o t a t i o n u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f mo­ ments of e x t e r n a l f o r c e . g . The f i r s t p r o p e r t y of t h e g y r o s c o p e i s u s u a l l y u s e d f o r s t a b i l i z i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n s of t h e axes of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s f o r d e t e r ­ mining t h e r e q u i r e d v a l u e s . c o m p l e t e c y l i n d e r . for c o m p e n s a t i o n o f t h e a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n o f t h e a x i s d u e t o the diurnal r o t a t i o n of the Earth. e .") J= 2 (2. t h e a n g l e of p i t c h . w i t h maintenance of t h e d i r e c t i o n i n t h e plane of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e f o r c e .". t o t h e v e r t ­ i c a l of t h e locus of t h e a i r c r a f t . y e t h a v e a maximum i n e r t i a l moment which i s r e a c h e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e b a s i c m a s s of t h e g y r o s c o p e as f a r as p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f r o t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e g i v e n dimen­ s i o n s of t h e g y r o s c o p e . L e t u s r e c a l l t h a t t h e i n e r t i a l moment J i n m e c h a n i c s i s t h e p r o d u c t of t h e m a s s t i m e s t h e s q u a r e o f t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e a x i s o f r o t a t i on : J = mr. i . r o t a t i n g around i t s G y r o s c o p e s a r e u s u a l l y made i n a f o r m s u c h t h a t t h e y h a v e r e l ­ a t i v e l y low w e i g h t a n d s m a l l s i z e . 1 4 ) . e t c . a slow r o t a t i o n of t h e a x i s i n a p l a n e which i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e a p p l i e d f o r c e . e . The s e c o n d p r o p e r t y i s u s e d t o s e t t h e a x i s of t h e gyroscope i n t h e d e s i r e d p o s i t i o n . the property of p r e c e s s i o n i s s o m e t i m e s e m p l o y e d i n d e v i c e s w h i c h i n t e g r a t e t h e /142 142 . w i t h a gyroscopic assembly having p e r i ­ o d i c c o r r e c t i o n ?f t h e r e a d i n g s b y m e a n s o f a m a g n e t i c or a s t r o ­ n o m i c a l s e n s o r .f o r estimating the course. or i n p u t o f c o r r e c t i o n s m a n u a l l y a s d e s i r e d b y t h e crew. a x i s of symmetry a t a h i g h a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y . and t h e c o u r s e . t o t h e plane of t h e t r u e h o r i ­ z o n .r.19) The g y r o s c o p e h a s t w o i n t e r e s t i n g p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h a r e u s e d i n a n u m b e r o f d e v i c e s for p i l o t a g e a n d n a v i g a t i o n : (1) A x i a Z s t a b i l i t y . P r i n c i p Z e o f O p e r a t i o n o f Gyroscopic I n s t r u m e n t s The g y r o s c o p e i s a m a s s i v e b a l a n c e d b o d y . t h e a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n t h e d i ­ r e c t i o n o f i t s a x i s o f r o t a t i o n i n s p a c e i n t h e a b s e n c e o f moments of e x t e r n a l f o r c e s t e n d i n g t o c h a n g e t h i s d i r e c t i o n . In addition. w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b a s i c mass o f a g y r o s c o p e ( F i g . . t h e i n e r t i a l moment i s m (ri . e . (2. For a . i .18) w h e r e r l i s t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e mass t o t h e a x i s o f r o t a t i o n . . t h e banking of t h e a i r c r a f t . . 2 .

. so that t h e gyroscope i n t h e p l a n e of t h e a c t i o n be observed. For t h e s a k e o f s i m p l i c i t y . Hence. directed P 1 opposite t o v e c t o r AV and producing t h e p r e c e s s i o n of t h e gyroscope axis. t h e g r e a t e r w i l l b e t h e c i r c u m f e r e p t i a l s p e e d o f t h e e l e m e n t o f mass a n d t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e v e c t o r A V . navigation devices. t h e f o r c e s F and Fp arise at these points. t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e mass o f t h e g y r o s c o p e must p r o ­ duce r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e v e c t o r of v e l o c i t y change a t t h e p o i n t s C and C1. Consequently. t h e d i r e c t i o n of r o t a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t o f mass o f t h e g y r o s c o p e d o e s n o t c h a n g e when i t p a s s e s t h r o u g h p o i n t s A a n d B . It i s easy t o see t h a the external force w i l l be no r o t a t i o n o f t h e a x i s o f D f the external force w i l l /143 t the inertial forces directed against exactly equal t o the latter. . A 1 and B y B1 t a n g e n t t o t h e circum­ ference remain p a r a l l e l .. w e s h a l l a s s u m e t h a t t h e mass o f t h e g y r o s c o p e i s located along t h e circumference around and t h e a x i s of r o t a t i o n ( F i g . Obviously. 2. l e t us e. a t these p o i n t s t h e r e arises a difference i n the velocities AV = V s i n A + . O b v i o u s l y . t h e i n e r t i a of t h e m a s s of t h e g y r o s c o p e w i l l c a u s e p r e ­ c e s s i o n of t h e gyroscope a x i s . i . t h e a x i s of t h e gyroscope has been t i l t e d t o an a n g l e A + . e . w e s h a l l select an element of t h i s m a s s a t some p o i n t on t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e .14. - (2. Gyroscope Rotor. 143 .15).a c t i o n of t h e f o r c e s with t i m e . The f o r c e s p r o d u c i n g t h e p r e c e s ­ s i o n w i l l i n t u r n c a u s e a t i l t i n g of t h e a x i s i n a p l a n e perpen­ d i c u l a r t o t h e a c t i o n of t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e . The t a n g e n t s t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f m o t i o n a t t h e p o i n t C and d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e t o it are a t an a n g l e equal t o A+. thus generating iner­ t i a l forces analogous t o t h e precession f o r c e s b u t directed a g a i n s t the external force. i n t h e construction of i n e r t i a l T o e x p l a i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n o f g y r o s c o p i c d e v i c e s c o n s i d e r t h e p h y s i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e two p r o p e r t i e s of a gyroscope mentioned above. s i n c e t h e motion of t h e element a t p o i n t s A . L e t u s assume t h a t under t h e i n f l u e n c e of a f o r c e F.20) The g r e a t e r t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y of r o t a t i o n of t h e g y r o s c o p e and t h e r a d i u s of t h e r i n g . 2.g. Fig.

Hence. P r e c e s s i o n of a Gyroscope Axis. an o b j e c t s l i d i n g along a given l i n e ( r a i l ) h a s one d e g r e e of f r e e d o m .21) whence 0 1 ' M -. we mean h e r e t h e c h a n g e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e v e c t o r of i n e r ­ tia. D e g r e e of Freedom of t h e G y r o s c o p e By d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m i n m e c h a n i c s . a n o b j e c t moving i n any d i r e c t i o n i n a p l a n e h a s t w o d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m . a n d an o b j e c t w h i c h i s m o v i n g i n t h r e e dimensional space has t h r e e degrees of freedom. Fig. J e q u a l s t h e mo­ ment o f i n e r t i a o f t h e g y r o s c o p e . we mean t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f f r e e m o t i o n o f a body which i s n o t l i m i t e d b y c o n n e c t i o n s o f any s o r t . /144 a c o m p l e t e l y f r e e body h a s s i x d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m . 2. A c h a n g e i n t h e moment of i n e r t i a o f t h e g y r o s c o p e w i t h t i m e w i l l b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e moment o f t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e (2. w i s t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f g y r o .22) w h e r e M e q u a l s t h e moment of t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e . For example. 144 . M By t h e c h a n g e i n t h e moment of i n e r t i a of t h e gyroscope. t h e r e a r e a l s o d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m o f r o t a t i o n a l m o t i o n o f a body a r o u n d i t s three axes. JW (2.' scope r o t a t i o n . which amounts t o a b r a k i n g of t h e gyroscope from i t s i n i t i a l angular velocity t o zero. t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e a x i s of t h e g y r o s c o p e t h r o u g h 180° p r o d u c e s a n o p p o s i t e m o t i o n o f a l l p o i n t s on t h e r o t o r . B e s i d e s t h e d e g r e e s of freedom of l i n e a r m o t i o n . dV A t t h e same t i m e .The p r e c e s s i o n r a t e of t h e g y r o s c o p e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d e a s i l y i f we know t h e moment of i n e r t i a o f t h e r o t o r a n d t h e moment o f the applied external force. and w 1 i s t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y of p r e c e s s i o n .15. with a s u b s e q u e n t s p e e d i n g up i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e same angular velocity.

t h e gyroscope w i l l have only one d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m . In course gyroscopic instruments. However. f r o m i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e u n i t . Three Degrees of R o t a t i o n a l t h e gyroscope w i l l have t h r e e degrees Freedom. 1 6 : t h e d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m o f t h e g y r o s c o p e a r e e n s u r e d by p a i r s o f b e a r i n g s and ( w i t h t h e e x c l u s i o n of t h e f i r s t ) r o t a t i n g frames. The e x t e r n a l f r a m e e n s u r e s f r e e m o t i o n o f t h e a x i s o f t h e g y r o ­ s c o p e i n t h e p l a n e of t h e h o r i z o n . per­ Fig. 145 . t h u s m a k i n g i t p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e aircraft course. then t h e r e w i l l be two d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m . s o t h a t when w e a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m o f a g y r o s c o p e w e a r e r e + f e r r i n g only t o t h e degrees of r o t a t i o n a l motion. A g y r o s c o p e u s u a l l y h a s two r o t a t i n g f r a m e s . w e c a n g e t a n i d e a of t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s r e l a t i v e /l45 t o t h e a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . C The f i r s t d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m of a gyroscope is t h e r o t a t i o n o f its r o t o r a r o u n d t h e a x i s i n b e a r i n g s A. 2.. as i s done f o r example f o r t h e f l y w h e e l s i n machin­ e r y . 2.16). A s w e c a n s e e f r o m F i g u r e 2 .C1). B 1 c a n a l s o h a v e t h e f r e e d o m t o move a r o u n d s t i l l another ( t h i r d ) a x i s . Gyroscope w i t h pendicular t o B. If t h e s e b e a r i n g s a r e t i g h t l y f a s t e n e d t o t h e body o f t h e machine. serves The t o s e t t h e gyroscope a x i s i n t h e plane of t h e t r u e horizon. The i n t e r n a l frame o f t h e g y r o s c o p e along with t h e r o t o r and s e n s i t i v e element f o r correction are c a l l e d t h e gyro assembly. of freedom and i t s a x i s can b e s e t r e a d i l y t o any d i r e c t i o n i n s p a c e . or v i c e v e r s a . CI If b e a r i n g s B . to­ g e t h e r with t h e r o t o r and t h e bearings of t h e gyroscope. i f t h e s e b e a r i n g s c a n move a r o u n d an a x i s perpendicular t o A.The r o t o r s o f g y r o s c o p e s i n n a v i g a t i o n a l a n d p i l o t a g e i n s t r u ­ ments have s u p p o r t s which l i m i t t h e i r l i n e a r motion i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e a x e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e i n t e r n a l frame.A.A1 (bear­ ings B . B 1 ) .B1 (bearings C. same f r a m e c o n t a i n s a s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t f o r c o r r e c t i n g t h e g y r o ­ scope a x i s f o r t h i s plane. i n t e r n a l and ex­ ternal.16. A gyroscope is considered t o be f r e e i f a l l t h r e e degrees of r o t a t i o n a l motion are free ( F i g .

e .f r e e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p r e c e s s i o n o f t h e gyroscope a x i s . e c t i o n of t h e moment o f e x t e r n a l f o r c e . t h e p o l e o f t h e g y r o s c o p e w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g l o c a t e d a t t h e l o w e r e n d o f i t s a x i s ( P o i n t s P a n d P I ) . . t h e p o l e o f t h e moment i s c o n s i d e r e d a s b e i n g d i r e c t e d a l o n g t h e s c r e w . i n i t s r e a r p o r t i o n as shown i n o u r d i a g r a m ( P o i n t (21). For a r a p i d a n d e r r o r . w e u s e t h e concepts o f Ifpole o f t h e g y r o s c o p e " a n d " p o l e of t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e " .h a n d d i r . This c o n d i t i o n a l r o t a t i o n amounts t o a t o t a l of about 1/365 o f t h e a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n of t h e g y r o s c o p e d u e t o t h e d i u r n a l r o t a ­ t i o n of the Earth. On t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . h o w e v e r . t h e lower end o f t h e gyroscope a x i s w i l l tilt b a c k w a r d . For e x a m p l e . a n d t h e u p p e r o n e f o r w a r d . i t s p o l e i s l o c a t e d i n t h e f r o n t p a r t o f t h e p i c t u r e ( P o i n t (2). d u e t o t h e d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h a n d p a r t i a l l y d u e t o t h e c u r v i l i n e a r i t y of i t s m o t i o n a r o u n d t h e S u n . a t t h e u p p e r e n d of t h e a x i s . With a l e f t .15. A p p a r e n t R o t a t i o n of G y r o s c o p e A x i s o n t h e E a r t h ' s S u r f a c e A f r e e l y moving g y r o s c o p e . a n d u s e t h e r u l e of t h e r i g h t . a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e E a r t h m a k e s a com­ p l e t e r o t a t i o n a r o u n d t h e Sun a l o n g i t s o r b i t i n t h e c o u r s e o f a year. I n our diagram.h a n d d i r e c t i o n o f t h e moment o f e x t e r n a l f o r c e .h a n d ro­ t a t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e . Analogously. The a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e d u e t o t h e m o t i o n o f t h e E a r t h a r o u n d t h e Sun i s e x p r e s s e d a s a s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n o f t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s f r o m t h e a p p a r e n t d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h . t h e r e a r i s e s a n a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n of t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s i n t h e v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e s . Hence. t e n d s t o keep t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a x i s of r o t a t i o n of the rotor i n space. w i t h a n i d e a l l y s t a b i l i z e d e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l s u p p o r t and t h e l a c k o f n o t i c e a b l e f r i c t i o n i n t h e b e a r i n g s . t h e a x i s of t h e g y r o s c o p e w i l l r o t a t e c l o c k ­ wise. 146 . w i t h a r i g h t . i n o b s e r v i n g t h e r o t a t i o n o f a g y r o s c o p e w h i c h i s t u r n i n g c l o c k w i s e as v i e w e d f r o m t h e t o p ( t u r n i n g t h e screw i n ­ w a r d ) . w i t h l e f t . i .h a n d screw. if w e l o o k a t t h e draw­ i n g from l e f t t o r i g h t . The p r e c e s s i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e i s a l w a y s d i r e c t e d i n s u c h a manner t h a t t h e p o l e of t h e g y r o s c o p e a t t e m p t s t o r e a c h t h e p o l e o f t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e by t h e s h o r t e s t p a t h .D i r e c t i o n o f P r e c e s s i o n of t h e G y r o s c o p e A x i s The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c p r e c e s s i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e moment o f e x t e r n a l f o r c e s c a n b e s e e n i n F i g u r e 2. t h i s v a l u e w i l l n o t be c o n s i d e r e d i n future.

b ) a n d c o i n c i d e s i n d i r e c t i o n w i t h t h e m e r i d i a n of t h e E a r t h . t h e a p e r t u r e a n g l e of t h e cone w i l l b e e q u a l t o 180°.L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n of t h e gyroscope a x i s a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . 2.17. t h e a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n of t h e gyroscope a x i s w i l l d e s c r i b e a cone w i t h an a p e r t u r e a n g l e a t t h e v e r t e x e q u a l t o 2 (90-4). (2. t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y of t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e h o r i z o n w i l l be equal t o (Fig. t h e axis of i t s r o t a t i o n w i l l coincide with t h e axis of r o t a t i o n of t h e E a r t h and t h e r e w i l l b e no a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n of t h e gyro­ scope a x i s (position A i n t h e diagram). w h o s e a x i s a t t h e i n i t i a l moment coincides with the v e r t i c a l of t h e locus (Fig. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a t i f t h e r e i s any k i n d o f c o r r e c t i n g f o r c e w h i c h a c t s c o n s t a n t l y on t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s i n t h e p l a n e of t h e t r u e h o r i z o n . i t i s c l e a r t h a t a f r e e l y moving g y r o s c o p e c a n b e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t a x i s o n l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g cases: (a) To d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s (banking. i f s u c h a g y r o s c o p e i s p l a c e d on a p o l e o f t h e E a r t h . c ) : a t t h e pole. z e r o . w h i c h a p p e a r s as a r e s u l t of t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e Earth around i t s a x i s . a t t h e E q u a t o r . e q u a l t o 90°-4. I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e a x i s o f t h e g y r o s c o p e l o c a t e d on t h e p o l e ( p o s i t i o n A ) w i l l remain h o r i z o n t a l and w i l l r o t a t e i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e h o r i z o n w i t h t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y of t h e E a r t h . As w e c a n see from t h e d i a g r a m .17. w = 52 s i n $ . W w i l l assume t h a t e /146 w e h a v e a f r e e l y m o u n t e d g y r o s c o p e . t h e angular velocity of r o t a t i o n of t h e E a r t h . 2. 147 . i t w i l l t u r n i n t h e p l a n e o f r o t a t i o n . i t s a x i s w i l l b e a t a n a n g l e t o t h e a x i s o f r o t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h . a t any o t h e r p o i n t . e . I n t h e c a s e when t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e l o c u s i s e q u a l t o z e r o ( p o s i t i o n C i n t h e d i a g r a m ) . The a x i s o f a g y r o s c o p e l o c a t e d a t some l a t i t u d e ( p o s i t i o n B ) w i l l de.23) where R i s t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y of t h e E a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n and w i s t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y of t h e a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n of t h e gyroscope a x i s . Now l e t u s e x a m i n e t h e c a s e when t h e a x i s of t h e g y r o s c o p e a t t h e i n i t i a l moment i s l o c a t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ( F i g . a). O b v i o u s l y . From t h e e x a m p l e s w h i c h w e h a v e s e e n . i . 1 7 . .­ s c r i b e a cone w i t h an a p e r t u r e a n g l e e q u a l t o 2$. 2 . I f t h e g y r o s c o p e w i t h a v e r t i c a l a x i s i s p l a c e d on some l a t ­ i t u d e tp ( p o s i t i o n B i n thse d i a g r a m ) . The a x i s o f t h e g y r o s c o p e l o c a t e d on t h e E q u a t o r w i l l r e m a i n h o r i z o n t a l a n d w i l l h a v e no a p p a r e n t d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n .

or i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e case o f c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t s . p i l o t a g e d e v i c e s ( g y r o h o r i z o n . The s i g n a l s f r o m t h e s e d e v i c e s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o a i r c u r r e n t s i n p n e u m a t i c d e v i c e s a n d t o m o m e n t s of s p e c i a l e l e c t r i c m o t o r s i n electrical devices. A p p a r e n t R o t a t i o n of a G y r o s c o p e on t h e ( b ) With Earth's Surface: ( a ) With V e r t i c a l A x i s . /147 Fig.pitch) only a t t h e poles. 148 . ( c ) With C o n s t a n t C o r r e c t i o n of t h e Axis i n t h e H o r i z o n t a l Plane. 2. (course (b) To d e t e r m i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h c l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t ) only a t t h e Equator. g y r o v e r t i c a l ) . To k e e p t h e a x i s of a g y r o s c o p e c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n . w h i c h a r i s e s a s a r e s u l t o f imperfect balance. a s w e l l a s i t s own d r i f t . w e used d e v i c e s which compensate f o r t h e a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n o f t h e a x i s of t h e g y r o s c o p e d u e t o t h e d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h . f r i c t i o n i n the bearings. etc. Horizontal Axis. a r e u s u a l l y f i t t e d w i t h pendulum d e v i c e s which a c t as s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t s r e a c t ­ i n g t o a n y d e v i a t i o n s w h i c h may a r i s e .17. I n o r d e r t o r e n d e r t h e g y r o s c o p e u s e f u l for d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t a x i s a t a n y o t h e r p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .

i t s chamber i s f i l l e d w i t h a n e l e c t r i c a l l y c o n d u c t i v e l i q u i d ( e l e c t r o l y t e ) . t h e r e m u s t a l s o b e o t h e r d e v i c e s w h i c h c o m p e n s a t e for t h e a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n o f t h e a x i s of t h e gyroscope i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e due t o t h e d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n of t h e Earth.w a y b y e l e c t r o l y t e . 2. i n a d d i t i o n t o d e v i c e s for c o r r e c t i n g t h e a x i s of t h e g y r o s c o p e i n t h e p l a n e of t h e t r u e h o r i z o n . b ) . i n o r d e r t o compensate f o r t h i s " d r i f t " . For c o u r s e d e v i c e s Gravitational Correction. t h e b u b b l e l e v e l i s l o c a t e d s o t h a t a l l f o u r c o n t a c t s a r e cov­ e r e d h a l f .18) i s most widely T h i s d e v i c e c o n s i s t s of a b u b b l e l e v e l used at t h e present t i m e . the current-carrying contacts w i l l n o t b e u n i f o r m l y c o v e r e d by t h e f l u i d (Fig. If �or s o m e r e a s o n t h e g y r o a s ­ sembly v a r i e s from t h e v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n .18..c a r r y i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h a g r a v i t a t i o n a l l e v e l .E l e c t r o l y t i c g r a v i t a t i o n a l c o r r e c t i o n ( F i g . The r o t a t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e r o t o r i s p r o d u c e d by a l t e r n a t i n g t h r e e . The g y r o c o m p a s s h a s h a s a v e r y s e n s i t i v e b a l a n c e a n d low f r i c ­ t i o n i n t h e a x e s o f t h e s u p p o r t s .18. i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o h a v e one p a i r o f c u r r e n t . 2.c a r r y i n g c o n t a c t s . 2. a v e r t i c a l e x t e r n a l frame. Electrolytic ical position. When t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y i s i n a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n ( F i g . which have a v e r t i c a l e x t e r n a l frame and a h o r i z o n t a l l y l o c a t e d axis of t h e gyroscope. i n o r d e r t o r e g u l a t e t h e moment o f t h e f o r c e s a c t i n g o n t h e e x t e r n a l frame .p h a s e c u r r e n t . a ) . 1 8 . and a f l u i d g r a v i t a ­ t i o n a l c o r r e c t o r . t h e gyroscope is f i t t e d i n t h e 149 . G y r o s c o p i c Semicompass I n p r i n c i p l e o f o p e r a t i o n . U n l i k e a conven­ t i o n a l l e v e l . a t t a c h e d t o t h e gyro assembly. t h e g y r o s e m i c o m p a s s (GSC) i s a g y r o ­ s c o p e w i t h t h r e e d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m a n d i t s a x i s o f r o t a t i o n l o c a t e d i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l . s o t h a t t h e moment a p p l i e d t o t h e /148 frame o f t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y b y t h e c o r r e c t i n g m o t o r i s e q u a l t o z e r o . while t h e c o r r e c t i o n of t h e a x i s i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n i s a c h i e v e d b y a n e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c moment a p p l i e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l f r a m e . a t t a c h e d t o t h e lower p a r t of t h e gyro assembly. O b v i o u s l y . f o r t h o s e d e v i c e s w h i c h m e a s u r e d i r e c t i o n on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . 2 . which e n s u r e s a low i n t r i n s i c s h i f t of t h e g y r o s c o p e ( c a l l e d t ' d r i f t t t ) . w h i l e on t h e t o p of t h e s p h e r i c a l s u r f a c e are mounted f o u r c u r r e n t . r e s u l t i n g i n a s u i t ­ able distribution of currents t o the w i n d i n g s of a s m a l l m o t o r a n d i n a moment w h i c h i s a p p l i e d t o t h e a x i s o f t h e g y r o s c o p e i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e p r e c e s s i o n which i s p r o d u c e d b r i n g s t h e gyro assembly t o a given v e r t ­ Fig. i n order t o c o r r e c t t h e l a t t e r t o t h e p l a n e of t h e h o r i z o n . I n a d d i t i o n .

R ' l ( l e f t r i g h t ) . .h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e w i t h a ' s p e c i a l b a l a n c i n g p o t e n t i o m e t e r and motor.24) w h e r e M i s t h e moment a p p l i e d t o t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s . t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r which r e g u l a t e s t h e moment a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a t i t u d e of t h e a i r c r a f t . 2. T h e r e f o r e .22) and t h e formula f o r t h e angular v e l o c i t y of r o t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h ' s m e r i d i a n ( 2 . a l l of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s which e n t e r i n t o t h e r i g h t . 2 3 ) . 2 4 ) . w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f s i n $. a r e m o u n t e d on t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l of t h e gyrocompass ( F i g . w h i c h a p p l y a moment t o t h e e x t e r n a l f r a m e o f t h e g y r o s c o p e i n t h e v e r t i c a l plane. The l a t t e r m u s t b e r e g u l a t e d i n f l i g h t . The e x t e r n a l frame o f t h e g y r o ­ scope is f i t t e d with a scale f o r estimatj-ng t h e gyroscopic course and a s e l s y n . Si i s t h e a n g ­ u l a r r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t y of t h e E a r t h . F i g . T h i s same m o t o r i s u s e d f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g t h e a p p a r e n t d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n o f t h e a x i s of t h e g y r o s c o p e . W i t h a c o n s t a n t r a t e of r o t a t i o n of t h e r o t o r o f t h e gyroscope. of t h e i n d i c a t o r d i a l t o t h e zero p o s i t i o n i s accomplished manually b y t u r n i n g a s p e c i a l h a n d l e on t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l m a r k e d r r L . By c o m p a r i n g t h e f o r m u l a f o r t h e p r e c e s s i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s (2.19). a n d 9 i s t h e l a t i ­ tude of t h e aircraft's location. w e c a n d e t e r m i n e t h e moment w h i c h i s required t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e gyroscope a x i s t o compensate f o r t h e d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n of t h e Earth M = QJw s i n 9 . as w e l l as t h e b a l a n c i n g p o t e n t i o m e t e r . t h e gyrocompass i s a s o r t o f "keeper" f o r the course 15 0 .t r a n s m i t t e r f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e c o u r s e t o t h e i n d i ­ cators. see F i g u r e 2. 2.19. a n d i s t h e r e f o r e f i t t e d w i t h a s p e c i a l l a t i t u d i n a l p o t e n t i o m e t e r . w i s t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y of r o t a t i o n o f t h e r o t o r .t r a n s m i t t e r a r e f r e e t o r o t a t e along w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l frame and can a l s o be s e t with t h e The s e t t i n g a i d o f a motor t o any a n g l e r e l a t i v e t o t h e frame. Control Panel o f KPK-52 G y r o s e m i c o m p a s s . J i s t h e i n e r t i a l moment o f t h e r o t o r o f t h e g y r o s c o p e i n t h e p l a n e of i t s r o t a t i o n .h a n d s i d e of ( 2 . Hence. The i n d i c a t i n g d i a l a n d t h e s e l s y n . (2.19. are c o n s t a n t s . w h i c h r e g u l a t e s t h e moment o f t h e m o t o r i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e r a t e o f p r e c e b s i o n o f t h e g y r o ­ scope a x i s is e q u a l t o and c o i n c i d e s i n d i r e c t i o n w i t h t h e rate / 149 o f r o t a t i o n o f t h e E a r t h ' s m e r i d i a n i n t h e p l a n e of t h e t r u e h o r i ­ zon a t t h e g i v e n l a t i t u d e .

and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e f i x e d a c c u r a c y a n d s t a b i l i t y i n o p e r a t i o n a t a n y p o i n t on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . t h e g y r o s e m i c o m p a s s i s n o t a m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e . /150 However . s i n c e t h e u s e of o t h e r c o u r s e s e n s o r s b e c o m e s necessary only i n t h e i n i t i a l s e t t i n g of t h e readings of t h e GSC a n d a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s t o make c o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h e a c c u m u l a t e d e r r o r s i n its operation. t h i s can be c o r r e c t e d by s h i f t i n g t h e l a t i t u d e s c a l e on t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l r e l a ­ t i v e t o t h e a v e r a g e l a t i t u d e of t h e g i v e n p a t h s e g m e n t . t h e r e f o r e . Degrees 4 5 6 70 90 10 20 The l a t i t u d e on t h e s c a l e m u s t b e i n c r e a s e d i f t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e GSC i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e r e a d i n g s f o r t h e c o u r s e w i t h t i m e . The a d v a n t a g e o f a g y r o c o m p a s s i s i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e of o p e r a t i o n from t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e E a r t h .c a l c u l a t i o n s e t by hand: t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e zero s e t t i n g of t h e c o u r s e on t h e GSC r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t i n t h e p l a n e of t h e h o r i z o n . Nevertheless. T h i s means t h a t t h e d e g r e e by which t h e s c a l e i s s h i f t e d f o r e a c h d e g r e e a t t h e t i m e t h a t the d r i f t occurs w i l l be t h e following a t various flight latitudes : Range o f L a t i t u d e s . it does not reduce t h e value of t h e g y r o s e m i c o m p a s s . Degrees 0 . For t h i s p u r p o s e .6 0 60 70 - Magnitude of Scale Deviation . i t c a n n o t b e u s e d a l o n e w i t h o u t o t h e r course sensors. t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r automatic navigational devices. I t should be mentioned t h a t a l l s h i f t i n g mentioned above with r e g a r d t o t h e gyrosemicompass i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s . It is relatively easy t o eliminate errors i n the operation o f t h e GSC. s o t h a t t h e gyrocompass i s a n orthodromic course d e v i c e .32 32 . w h i c h a r i s e i n t h e f o r m o f " d r i f t " . and i s cap­ a b l e of g u i d i n g a f l i g h t a l o n g a n orthodrome o v e r any d i s t a n c e . I n southern l a t i t u d e s . t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e GSC i s t e s t e d on t h e g r o u n d f o r a p e r i o d o f o n e t o t w o h o u r s w i t h a n a t t e m p t b e i n g made t o u s e t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e b a l a n c i n g p o t e n t i o m e t e r t o s e t t h e minimum e x c u r s i o n s o f t h e needle with t i m e from t h e t r u e s e t t i n g s .42 42 . If a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e n e e d l e f r o m t h e c o r r e c t r e a d i n g s of t h e gyroscope i s n o t i c e d d u r i n g f l i g h t . t h e l a t i t u d i n a l compensations f o r the apparent 151 . as w e l l as t h e ease o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o u r s e w i t h o u t a n y k i n d of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o r r e c t i o n s . b u t one which r e t a i n s t h e c o u r s e s e t t i n g ( t h i s i s where i t g e t s i t s name o f s e m i c o m p a s s ) . and i t must b e reduced i f t h e c o u r s e r e a d i n g s increase with t i m e .

t h i s i n v o l v e s a c e r t a i n amount o f d i f f i c u l t y . . D i s t a n c e G y r o m a g n e t i c Compass The d i s t a n c e g y r o m a g n e t i c compass ( D G M C ) h a s s i g n i f i c a n t ad ­ vantages over t h e i n t e g r a t e d and d i s t a n c e magnetic compasses . When t h e a i r c r a f t i s b a n k i n g less t h a n 8 O . T h e r e f o r e . s i n c e i t i s s u i t a b l e f o r u s e when t h e a i r c r a f t i s b a n k i n g a t a c e r t a i n a n g l e a n d c o m p l e t e l y damps t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e m a g n e t i c c a r d i n f l i g h t i n a t u r b u l e n t atmosphere. e . In addition. i . Shortcomings o f t h e gyrosemicompass i n c l u d e t h e f a c t t h a t it i s necessary t o s e t i t s readings manually a t t h e beginning of a f l i g h t a n d t o make c o r r e c t i o n s e n r o u t e . The e s s e n c e o f t h e C a r d a n e r r o r s i s t h e s h i f t i n t h e r e a d i n g of t h e i n d i c a t o r d i a l during banking. t h e s e e r r o r s do n o t h a v e a n y p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . b u t t h e y r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e d e g r e e of b a n k i n g a n d c a n r e a c h 6-8O. s i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e movement o f t h e i n d i c a t o r n e e d l e due t o c o u r s e v a r i a t i o n s from t h o s e motions which a r e caused by s e t t i n g t h e c o u r s e m a n u a l l y . Maximum e r r o r s a r i s e when t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s i s t h e n a t a n angle of 45O t o t h e plane of t h e banking. h a v e a q u a t e r n a r y n a t u r e . i t s maxima a n d m i n i m a c a n a s s u m e a n y p o s i t i o n on t h e i n d i c a t o r d i a l w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e v a l u e s a n d p e r i o d i c i t y of t h e e r r o r s . e s p e c i a l l y i n rough a i r . t h e GSC i s s u b j e c t t o Cardan e r r o r s d u r i n g t u r n s . They a r e e q u a l t o z e r o i n b a n k i n g i n t h e p l a n e o f r o t a t i o n o f t h e rotor o f t h e g y r o s c o p e a n d i n t h e p l a n e of t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a x i s o f i t s r o t a ­ tion. i . t h e y do c o n s t i t u t e c e r t a i n s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t h e p i l o t a g e of an aircraft. t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o u r s e t o w h i c h /151 t h e GSC must b e s e t becomes v a r i a b l e . t h e system f o r i n t r o ­ d u c i n g c o r r e c t i o n s t o t h e movement of t h e n e e d l e of t h e g y r o s e m i ­ compass must a l s o b e s h i f t e d t o t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . s i n c e t h e rotation of the meridian takes place i n t h e opposite direction rela­ tive t o the northern latitudes. T h e s e e r r o r s a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s a p p e a r when t h e a i r c r a f t comes o u t o f t h e t u r n .r o t a t i o n o f t h e a x i s of t h e g y r o s c o p e m u s t b e r e v e r s e d . a n d a l s o w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e z e r o p o i n t on t h e c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r s c a l e . The C a r d a n e r r o r s .a s s u m e a n y p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e a x e s of t h e a i r c r a f t . i . a n d t h e g r a p h o f t h e b a n k ­ i n g e r r o r i s " f l o a t i n g " . e . During f l i g h t . i n which t h e r o l e o f t h e c o u r s e s e n s o r i s 152 . they d i s t u r b t h e c o r r e c t e s t i ­ m a t i o n o f t h e moment w h e n t h e a i r c r a f t b e g i n s t o s t o p b a n k i n g i n making a t u r n . however. . t h e a x i s of t h e g y r o s c o p e c a n . I n a d d i t i o n . The g y r o m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f m a g n e t i c a n d g y r o ­ s c o p i c c o u r s e d e v i c e s . . e .

2 0 ) . t h e gyro assembly. through which it r e c e i v e s a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t from t h e power s u p p l y . Two-channel amplifier.w i r e c i r c u i t con­ n e c t i n g i t t o t h e gyro-assembly p o t e n t i o m e t e r . as w e l l a s t h e b r u s h e s f o r t h e w i r e s l e a d i n g t o t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r on t h e t r a n s ­ m i t t e r . L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e combined s y s t e m which i s p r e s e n t l y u s e d f o r d i s t a n c e g y r o m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s . The m a g n e t i c t r a n s m i t t e r o f t h e compass h a s a c a r d whose a x i s c a r r i e s a d i a l f o r s h o w i n g t h e c o u r s e d i r e c t l y on t h e t r a n s m i t t e r ( i t c a n b e u s e d t o g e t r i d o f s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n ) . 2 . 2 0 . 153 . and t h e main c o u r s e c o r r e c t o r . 2 . e .p l a y e d by t h e m a g n e t i c t r a n s m i t t e r and t h e r o l e o f t h e s t a b i l i z e r o f t h e r e a d i n g s i s p l a y e d by t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y . The t r a n s m i t t e r i n t h e damping s u s p e n s i o n i s mo u n t ed i n t h e a i r c r a f t a t a l o c a t i o n w h e r e t h e r e i s a minimum i n f l u e n c e on t h e c a r d s of t h e magnetic and e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c f i e l d s of t h e a i r c r a f t . F u n c t i o n a l D i a g r a m o f D i s t a n c e G y r o m a g n e t i c Compass ( D G M C 1. The b a s i c p a r t s o f t h e d i s t a n c e g y r o m a g n e t i c compass a r e t h e magnetic s e n s o r . The t r a n s m i t t e r p o t e n t i o m e t e r h a s a t h r e e . t h e compass must b e f i t t e d w i t h a p o w e r s u p p l y ( n o t shown i n t h e d i a g r a m ) . Rapid compensation b u t t o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e main p a r t s . (c) A mechanism f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g d e v i a t i o n (com-/152 b i n e d w i t h t h e main c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r ) . Compensation L-------_r Fig. . as w e l l a s compen­ s a t i n g and r e g u l a t i n g devices: (a) (b) Compensating mechanism (combined w i t h t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y ) . t h e DGMC-7 ( F i g . (d) (e) Outputs f o r c o u r s e r e p e a t e r s and o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s . g .

i t i s s h i f t e d t o a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n . I f f o r some r e a s o n t h e a x i s o f t h e g y r o s c o p e v a r i e s f r o m t h e plane of t h e t r u e h o r i z o n . The p o t e n t i o m e t e r o f t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y i s f i r m l y f a s t e n e d t o t h e housing. When i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t a r a p i d c o o r d i n a t i o n .p h a s e m o t o r . /153 The e x t e r n a l f r a m e o f t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y c a r r i e s a m a s t e r s e l s y n �or c o n n e c t i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p a l i n d i c a t o r o f t h e c o m p a s s ( t h e p i l o t ' s i n d i c a t o r . t h e c o n t a c t s of t h e c o r r e c t o r w i l l be c o v e r e d n o n u n i f o r m l y by t h e s h i f t i n g c o n d u c t i n g f l u i d .The t r a n s m i t t e r h o u s i n g carries a d e v i c e f o r c o r r e c t i n g s e m i ­ circular deviation. The g y r o s c o p e i s s e t i n m o t i o n b y means o f a t h r e e . s i n c e i n t h i s case i t would n o t improve b u t would r a t h e r d e t r a c t from t h e o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of t h e t r a n s ­ mitter.c i r c u i t e d r o t o r i s t h e r o t o r o f t h e g y r o s c o p e .c o o r d i n a t i o n regime. If t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n a t . H o w e v e r . For c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i ­ t i o n . t h e y c a n a l s o r o t a t e r e l a t i v e t o t h e e x t e r n a l frame by m e a n s o f a s p e c i a l c o o r d i n a t i o n m e c h a n i s m . P I ) and a t h r e e . whose a c t i v a t i n g mechanism i s a m o t o r w h i c h p r o d u c e s a moment o f f o r c e t h a t i s a p p l i e d t o t h e ext e r n a l frame o f t h e g y r o s c o p e and a c t s i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e . The c o o r d i n a t i o n mechanism c o n s i s t s o f a s m a l l m o t o r w i t h a r e d u c t i o n g e a r f o r t h e s l o w . t h e m o t o r i s s w i t c h e d t o r e d u c e d r e d u c t i o n b y means of t h e r a p i d . s i o n of t h e gyroscope a x i s . T h e e x t e r n a l frame o f t h e g y r o assembly r o t a t e s around t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s . t h e p o i n t where t h e magnetic s e n s o r i s mounted does n o t exceed 1-2O. 15 4 . The m a s t e r s e l s y n a n d c a b l e a r e c o n n e c t e d c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r a n d c a n r o t a t e t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l f r a m e o f t h e g y r o assem­ bly. t h e devia­ t i o n d e v i c e i s n o t u s e d . which e n s u r e s t h r e e d e g r e e s of free­ dom f o r t h e g y r o s c o p e r o t a t i o n .4 O p e r m i n u t e .c o o r d ­ The r a t e o f r o t a t i o n of t h e i n a t i o n button and a s p e c i a l r e l a y . s e l s y n i n t h i s c a s e i s r a i s e d t o 15-16O p e r s e c o n d . t h u s r e s u l t ­ ing i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n of c u r r e n t s passing through t h e c o r r e c t o r . The g y r o a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of t h e g y r o s c o p e w i t h a h o r i z o n ­ t a l a x i s and a Cardan s u p p o r t . t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y i s f i t t e d w i t h a twoc o n t a c t g r a v i t a t i o n a l c o r r e c t o r . i n which t h e r a t e o f r o t a t i o n of t h e s e l s y n i s 1 . w h o s e s t a t o r i s m o u n t e d o n t h e i n t e r n a l f r a m e o f t h e g y r o assem­ b l y and whose s h o r t . T h i s i n t u r n t r a n s m i t s a s i g n a l f o r a c o r r e c t i n g moment o f f o r c e A s a r e s u l t of t h e preces­ t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l frame.c o n d u c t o r c o r d f o r connec­ t i o n t o t h e magnetic t r a n s m i t t e r .

If t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e b r u s h e s o f c u r r e n t p i c k u p s A 1 a n d B 1 d i f f e r s from t h e p o s i t i o n o f c o n n e c t o r s A a n d B by an a n g l e which i s n o t 90° ( c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r / s e c t i o n s ) . 155 . a p o t e n t i a l difference w i l l develop between p o i n t s A 1 and B 1 .. I t is clear from t h e f i g u r e t h a t i f t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e brushes o f t h e c u r r e n t p i c k u p s on t h e t r a n s m i t t e r A 1 . W c a n r e a c h a n a n a l o g o u s c o n c l u s i o n if w e c o n s i d e r t h e p a t h e o f t h e c u r r e n t from c o n n e c t i o n B t o p i c k u p s A 1 and B 1 .T h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c t r a n s m i t t e r w i t h a g y r o assem­ b l y i s a c c o m p l i s h e d as f o l l o w s ( F i g . B l r e l a t i v e t o t h e c u r r e n t l e a d s of t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r l a . The a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t p a s s e s t h r o u g h c o n t a c t s A and B t o r e a c h t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r o f t h e g y r o assembly and i s p i c k e d up by p i c k u p s 1.. t h e r e w i l l be a p o r t i o n of t h e poten­ t i o m e t e r i n t'he g y r o a s s e m b l y A . Fig. l a . 3a. 2 . Potentiometric Transagree with the position of e r of Position Signal.A 1 . regard­ of t h e a p p a r e n t r o t a t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s due t o t h e r o t a ­ of t h e E a r t h and t h e n a t u r a l changes i n t h e gyroscope a x i s . 2 1 ) . 3 b y 90°. and t h e n t o t h e motor of t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n mechanism. t h e transmitter card. The p o t e n t i o m e t e r b r u s h e s i n t h e gyro assembly. Consequently.1 a n d a p o r t i o n o f t h e t r a n s m i t t e r p o t e n t i o m e t e r l a . A t t h e s a m e t i m e . Such a l e n g t h o f w i n d i n g of p o t e n t i o m e t e r w i l l b e p l a c e d b e t w e e n c u r r e n t c o n n e c t i o n A a n d c u r r e n t p i c k u p B 1 ( s e g m e n t s A­ 2 and 2a-Bl).21. 2 a . between t h e c u r r e n t connection A and t h e c u r r e n t pickup A 1 i n t h i s case. . begin t o r o t a t e a t a very low s p e e d u n t i l t h e r e i s an e q u i l i b r i u m of t h e cur­ r e n t s on p i c k u p s A 1 a n d B 1 . 2 . 2 . along with t h e selsyn-transmitter. t h e r e w i l l b e a c u r r e n t i n pickups A 1 and B 1 . T h i s cur-. 2a. t h e r e w i l l b e a c u r r e n t i n t h e pickups of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . from w h i c h i t p a s s e s t o t h e p i c k u p s on t h e t r a n s m i t t e r p o t e n ­ tiometer. t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e m a s t e r o f t h e g y r o assembly constantly shifts t o 2. 3 m o u n t e d o n t h e e x t e r n a l f r a m e o f t h e g y r o assem­ b l y . 3a d i f f e r s from t h e p o s i ­ t i o n of t h 8 c u r r e n t p i c k u p s o f p o t e n t i o m e t e r A . rent is fed t o the first channel of t h e a m p l i f i e r . B r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r c u r r e n t c o n n e c t i o n s 1. m i t t less tion Thus. r e p r e s e n t e d a s a sum o f t h e f o u r c i r c u m f e r ­ ences.

I n a s m u c h as t h e a g r e e m e n t of t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e s e l s y n s o f t h e t r a n s m i t t e r and gyro assembly t a k e s p l a c e a t an angular veloc­ i t y which d o e s n o t e x c e e d 4 O p e r m i n u t e . t h e DGMC c o m p l e x i n c l u d e s a c o r r e c t i o n s w i t c h which a u t o m a t i c a l l y s h u t s o f f t h e c o r r e c t i o n mechanism o f t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y f r o m t h e c o m p a s s c a r d when t h e a i r ­ craft is turning.1 . a motor which t u r n s winding with an i n d i c a t o r 156 . Agreement of t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y w i t h t h e b a s i c c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by means o f a m a s t e r s e l s y n ( F i g . t h e c u r r e n t i n it w i l l be e q u a l t o zero. 01-31. 0-2. 0-3. E s t i m a t i o n of t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e a i r c r a f t ‘ s c o u r s e d u r i n g t u r n s i s made w i t h a p u r e l y g y r o s c o p i c o p e r a t i o n r e g i m e o f t h e DGMC. . n o g r e a t e r r o r s i n t h e compass r e a d i n g s are p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e t u r n a n d t h e g y r o m a g n e t i c compass c a n b e u s e d s u c c e s s ­ f u l l y f o r t u r n i n g an aircraft a t a d e s i r e d angle. Inasmuch as t h e a p p a r e n t d i u r n a l r o t a t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e a x i s c a n n o t e x c e e d lo i n f o u r m i n u t e s o f t u r n . t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e r e s u l t a n t c u r r e n t s of t h e s l a v e s e l s y n w i l l be p a r a l l e l t o t h e magnetic f i e l d o f t h e supply winding AB.e. /155 J . Hence. Winding AB r o t a t e s i n s i d e t h e h o u s i n g o f t h e master s e l s y n . C u r r e n t s which a r e s y m m e t r i c a l i n p h a s e a l s o a r i s e i n t h e windings of t h e s l a v e s e l s y n 01-11... t h e mechanism f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n i s a damper which a v e r a g e s o u t t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e compass f o r a n a v e r a g e p o s i t i o n of t h e c a r d . 01-21. i f winding A l B l of t h e s l a v e s e l s y n o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n which i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s u p p l y w i n d i n g A B . I n o r d e r t h a t no t r a n s m i t t e r e r r o r s b e t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y when t h e a i r c r a f t i s m a k i n g a t u r n . 2 2 ) .3 m i n u t e s . T h e r e f o r e . 2 . 2 1 A1B1. w h i l e t h e t u r n i n g t i m e o f t h e a i r c r a f t a t a n a n g l e up t o 90° as a r u l e d o e s n o t e x c e e d 1 . a l l o w i n g a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t t o f l o w i n t h e w i n d i n g s of t h e s e l s y n 0 . t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y c a n n o t show t h e i n f l u e n c e o f r a p i d c h a n g e s i n t h e p o s i ­ t i o n of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r c a r d .

0 1 2 1 . b u t a l s o t o apply a n a d d i t i o n a l stress t o t h e c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r s or t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l i n k s . i t i s n o t recommended t h a t r e s i d u a l d e v i a t i o n g r e a t e r t h a n 2-3O b e c o m p e n s a t e d . t h u s m a k i n g i t more d i f f i c u l t t o t u r n t h e aircraft a t a given angle. The d i r e c t s e l s y n c o n n e c t i o n h a s a l o w e r s e n s i t i v i t y for t h e 157 . d e p e n d i n g on t h e magnetic l a t i t u d e of t h e l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e main i n d i c a t o r h a s a d e c l i n a t i o n s c a l e whose r e v o l u ­ t i o n t o t h e v a l u e of t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n of t h e l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t c o n v e r t s t h e c o m p a s s r e a d i n g s from m a g n e t i c t o t r u e . However.o f r e a d i n g s a n d t r a n s m i t t h e m w i t h h i g h m e c h a n i c a l moments a n d good damping. w h i c h o p e r a t e s by means o f a l e v e r a n d p i n i o n t o p r o d u c e a n a d d i t i o n a l t u r n i n g o f t h e n e e d l e on t h e s c a l e f o r s h o w i n g t h e m a g n e t i c c o u r s e . i . t h e winding A B of the slave selsyn attempts t o set itself a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d . f o r t h e following reasons: (a) Not g e t t i n g r i d o f . t h e main i n d i c a t o r h a s b o t h a master and a s l a v e s e l s y n . b u t c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r . i n g s 0111. /156 (b) When t h e a i r c r a f t i s t u r n i n g a n d t h e m a g n e t i c c o r r e c t i o n is s w i t c h e d o f f w h i l e t h e compass i s o p e r a t i n g i n a regime o f gyro­ s c o p i c s t a b i l i z a t i o n . I n t h e case of d i r e c t s e l s y n c o n n e c t i o n . s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n l e a d s t o c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e s i n i t . The a d j u s t m e n t s c r e w s a r e m o u n t e d a l o n g th. p r o d u c e d b y wind. . The d e v i c e f o r m e c h a n i c a l c o m p e n s a t i o n o f t h e r e s i d u a l d e v i ­ a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a c i r c u l a r c u r v e d s t r i p w i t h s p e c i a l b e n d s . 0 1 3 1 . a n d t o t a k e r e a d i n g s f r o m o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s or d e v i c e s w h i c h u s e course signals. e . u s u a l l y a t every 15O. T o l i n k it w i t h o t h e r d e v i c e s . t h e windings o f t h e s e l s y n i n t r a n s m i t t e r AB and t h e s e l s y n of t h e i n d i c a t o r A l B l are connected i n p a r a l l e l with t h e a l t e r n a t i n g current source. t h e y c a n b e u s e d t o s e t t h e m e c h a n i c a l c o m p e n s a t o r s for d e v i a t i o n . whose i n d i c a t i o n s can b e t r a n s m i t t e d e i t h e r w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e a c t i v a t i n g m o t o r s or b y a d i r e c t s e l s y n connection. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e mechanical compensator f o r t h e r e s i d u a l d e v i a t i o n . This p e r m i t s us n o t only t o o b t a i n p r e c i s e and s t a b l e r e a d i n g s w i t h t h e compass.e e d g e o f t h e s t r i p . t h u s making i t p o s s i b l e t o compensate f o r t h e r e s i d ­ u a l d e v i a t i o n p r a c t i c a l l y down t o z e r o . For e x a m p l e . In this case. t h e mechanical compensation f o r d e v i a t i o n ( i f i t i s shown on t h e i n d i c a t o r ) c a u s e s e r r o r s i n t h e c o u r s e r e a d i n g s i n t h e form of o v e r s h o o t i n g and l a g g i n g . i t a u t o m a t i c a l l y a s s u m e s t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e p o w e r w i n d i n g A B o f t h e m a s t e r s e l s y n . if i t i s p o s s i b l e t o g e t r i d o f i t by a deviation device with a magnetic t r a n s m i t t e r . e q u a l t o t h e v a l u e of t h e c o m p e n s a t e d d e v i a t i o n .

t h e n i n o r d e r t o b r i n g i t u p t o c o m p l e t e s a t u r a t i o n i n t h i s same d i r e c ­ The c h a n g e i n i n d u c ­ t i o n we w i l l r e q u i r e an a d d i t i o n a l v e c t o r AB. 158 .t y p e s e n s i t i v e e l e ­ ment i s t h e d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e a l t e r n a t i n g m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n of t h e c o r e upon t h e p r e s e n c e o f i t s c o n s t a n t c o m p o n e n t . e. T h e f a c t i s . 2 3 . I n d u c t i o n S a t u r a t i o n of t h e Core of t h e S e n s i t i v e Element: ( a ) Induction Vector Coincides with Saturation Vector. and w h i l e i t i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r t u r n i n g t h e f l o a t i n g c a r d . it i s f r e q u e n t l y i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r overcoming t h e f r i c t i o n of t h e b r u s h e s o n t h e c u r r e n t p i c k u p s .g. so that there used f o r t r a n s ­ made on a c c u r ­ t h e main i n d i ­ Gyroinduction Compass In t h e preceding paragraph. e s p e c i a l l y i n f l i g h t a t h i g h mag­ netic latitudes. i t i s m i s s i o n s where t h e r e a r e n o p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h demands acy. t h a t t h e m a g n e t i c moment w h i c h m o v e s t h e t r a n s ­ m i t t e r c a r d t o t h e p l a n e of t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n i s i t s e l f v e r y s m a l l . Therefore. a ) . B I 00 . 2 . f o r p i l o t a g e course repeaters connected t o cator. t h e m a g n e t i c t r a n s m i t t e r o f t h i s compass h a s a s e r i o u s shortcoming. a n d t h e s i z e o f t h e t r a n s m i t ­ t e r is smaller. 2. i f t h e c o r e h a s a c o n s t a n t c o m p o n e n t o f m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e v e c t o r O A ( F i g .I 1 I I m a t c h i n g o f t h e s e l s y n s a n d a s m a l l e r w o r k i n g moment. a) l7 . e r r o r s d u e t o s p l a s h i n g o f t h e f l u i d o v e r t h e s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t or o b s t r u c t i o n . e x e r t e d i n t h e c o r e by t h e h o r i z o n t a l component o f t h e t e r r e s t r i a l magnetism. c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e a r e no. The o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e of t h e i n d u c t i o n . it w a s mentioned t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e g y r o m a g n e t i c compass h a s c o n s i d e r a b l e a d v a n t a g e s o v e r t h e i n t e g r a t e d compass. ( b ) I n d u c t i o n Vector and S a t u r a t i o n Vector are i n Opposite Directions. J 6 Fig.. t h e y a r e l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of accelera­ t i o n s when t h e a i r c r a f t i s y a w i n g . i s a r e d u c e d a c c u r a c y of t r a n s m i s s i o n . t h e y d o n o t h a v e t h e a b i l i t y t o move i n /157 t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e ( i n t h e a z i m u t h ) . However.23.UA -f . t h i s t r a n s m i t t e r is unstable i n oper­ a t i o n and f r e q u e n t l y goes o u t of o r d e r . i n a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g an i n c r e a s e d t h r e s h o l d o f s e n s i t i v i t y . For e x a m p l e . Hence. new t y p e s o f i n d u c t i o n m a g n e t i c t r a n s m i t t e r s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d . To o v e r c o m e t h i s s h o r t c o m i n g .

b . t h e v e c t o r s of i t s c h a n g e w i t h p a s s a g e o f a n a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t t h r o u g h t h e w i n d i n g w i l l b e t h e same i n b o t h Cores. The p r i m a r y w i n d i n g o f t h i s t r a n s m i t t e r i s mo u n t ed i n a n i n t e r ­ mediate element between t h e t r a n s m i t t e r and t h e gyro assembly i n a c o r r e c t i o n mechanism which h a s a d e v i c e f o r mechan c o m p e n s a t i o n of r e s i d u a l d e v i a t i o n a n d i s u s e d as a c o r r e c t i o n mechanism f o r t h e following system.24. Fig. If t h e c o r e s h a v e a c o n s t a n t c o m p o n e n t o f m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n . a n d a common s e c o n ­ dary winding around both cores (Fig. a ) . 2. and t h e r e w i l l b e no a l t e r n a t i n g current i n t h e secondary winding. e a c h o f which i s made as f o l l o w s : Two p a r a l l e l m a g n e t i c c o r e s ' m a d e o f p e r m a l l o y ( a m a t e r i a l w i t h a h i g h m a g n e t i c permea­ b i l i t y a n d a v e r y low v a l u e o f m a g n e t i c h y s t e r e s i s ) h a v e s e p a r a t e p r i m a r y w i n d i n g s . The s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t s i n t h e t r a n s m i t t e r a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h e form of a t r i a n g l e and t h e i r secondary windings form a s o r t of master selsyn (Fig. O b v i o u s l y . 2.24. when t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n i s b r o u g h t up t o f u l l s a t u r a t i o n . ( b ) Graph o f C u r r e n t . t h e change i n i n d u c t i o n i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n w i l l b e e q u a l t o t h e sum o f t h e v e c t o r s O A + OB.25).t i o n i n t h i s case i s e x p r e s s e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e v e c t o r s OB-OA. 2 3 . b . T h e r o t a t i n g w i n d i n g ot t h e s l a v e s e l s y n i s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e a m p l i f i e r and mounted i n a p o s i t i o n p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e r e s u l t a n t v e c t o r of t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e s l a v e s e l s y n b y means o f a n a c t i v a t i n g m o t o r w i t h r e d u c t i o n g e a r i n g . A l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t /158 flows through t h e primary windings of t h e cores. The t r a n s m i t t e r o f a n i n d u c t i o n compass h a s t h r e e s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t s . c o n n e c t e d i n o p p o s i t e p h a s e . b u t i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . i f t h e c o n s t a n t component of t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c ­ t i o n o f t h e c o r e s f r o m t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e E a r t h ' s mag­ n e t i c f i e l d i s z e r o . ( a ) Wind­ 159 . T h e mag­ n i t u d e of t h e c u r r e n t p u l s e s w i l l b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t w i c e t h e v a l u e of t h e c o n s t a n t component o f t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n o f t h e c o r e s . 2. t h i s w i l l p r o d u c e p u l s e s o f a l t e r ­ n a t i n g c u r r e n t as shown i n t h e g r a p h i n F i g u r e 2 . S e n s i t i v e Element of Induction Transmitter: ing. 2 4 . A s w e s e e f r o m F i g u r e 2 . t h e v e c t o r of t h e change i n magnetic i n d u c t i o n w i l l be g r e a t e r i n one and s m a l l e r i n t h e o t h e r .

t h e b a n k i n g e r r o r s i n t h e i n d u c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r c a n t a k e on very s i g n i f i c a n t values. 0 i s t h e a n g l e between t h e plane of t h e magnetic meridian and t h e banking plane of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . e a c h H banking r a d i u s of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r w i l l produce a n e r r o r of approx­ i m a t e l y 3O i n t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e compass.1 t o t h e l a t i t u d e o f Moscow /159 and i n c r e a s e s r a p i d l y w i t h an approach t o t h e p o l a r r e g i o n s . There­ f o r e . The i n d u c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r .= 3 a n d t h e a n g l e 0 = 90°. a d e v i a t i o n mechanism i s mounted on i t t o r e c o r d t h e semi­ Fig. For e x a m p l e .H are t h e v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l components of t h e E a r t h ’ s f i e l d . t h e v e r t i c a l component o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f t h e E a r t h . t h e banking deviation w i l l then be determined by t h e f o r m u l a (2. i f t h e t i l t i n g o f t h e t r a n s m i t t e r t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e plane perpendicular t o t h e magnetic meridian. 2. The Cardan s u s p e n s i o n e n s u r e s t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n of t h e s e n s i t i v e element during banking and p i t c h i n g t o w i t h i n 17O.25. i s mounted a b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t i n a p o s i t i o n such t h a t it i s exposed t o t h e smallest magnetic f i e l d of t h e air­ c r a f t a n d one w h i c h i s as c o n s t a n t as p o s s i b l e . f l o a t mounted i n a Cardan is f i l l e d with f l u i d t o reduce of t h e Cardan suspension ( a mixture of l i g r o i n and methylvinylpyridine o i l ) . forms a magnetic induction normal t o t h e magnetic meridian. and Z. p r o j e c t e d on t h e p l a n e of t h e s e n s i t i v e element. r e s p e c t i v e l y . D i a g r a m S h o w i n g Conn e c t i o n o f E l e m e n t s i n S e n s o r of G y r o i n d u c t i o n Compass.25) where i i s t h e b a n k i n g of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . 16 0 .= 3 c o r r e s p o n d s L Z H (e. In order t o reduce t h e e r r o r s i n i t s s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t i s mounted on a support. b u t t h e i r a c c u r a c y o f o p e r a t i o n d r o p s when the transmitter is t i l t e d t o a sufficiently greater degree than i s t h e case f o r m a g n e t i c t r a n s m i t t e r s .The i n d u c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r s f o r t h e c o u r s e a r e r e l i a b l e a n d s t a b l e i n o p e r a t i o n .g. The body of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r t h e p r e s s u r e on t h e a x i s o f t h e frame the induction transmitter. w i t h t h e r a t i o . The r a t i o . A t t h e same t i m e . l i k e t h e magnetic one.

i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e accelera­ t i o n p r o d u c e d by C o r i o l i s f o r c e s . t h e r e i s a l s o a power s u p p l y . t h e d e v i a t i o n from which i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e main i n d i c a t o r a n d i t s r e p e a t e r s . a m p l i f i e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r i n c i p a l u n i t s . The c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n d u c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r a n d t h e c o r r e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m i s made w i t h a s e l s y n . However. t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y w i t h t h e main i n d i c a t o r . a n d r e p e a t e r s from t h e main c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r . In order t o ensure t h a t t h e gyroscope c o r r e c t i o n w i l l n o t be disconnected i n a t u r b u l e n t a t m o s p h e r e when t h e a i r c r a f t i s b u mp i n g a n d y a w i n g . Disconnecting t h e induction t r a n s m i t t e r during t u r n s g e t s r i d o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e errors w h i c h a r i s e d u e t o t h e i n f l u e l i c e o f t h e v e r t i c a l component of t h e E a r t h ' s m a g n e t i c f i e l a 2 . w h i c h u n d e r g o e s d e v i a t i o n e q u a l t o lo t h e n o r t h e r l y and s o u t h e r l y ' d i r e c t i o n s . For e x a m p l e . a b u t t o n w i t h a mechanism for r a p i d c o o r d i n a t i o n . The c o r r e c t i o n s w i t c h i s a t w o . t h e gyro assembly and t h e course i n d i c a t o r . a c o n n e c t i n g chamber. T h e m a i n i n d i c a t o r a l s o h a s a c u r v e d d e v i c e for g e t t i n g r i d of e r r o r s i n t h e d i s t a n c e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e c o u r s e i n d i c a t i o n s from t h e g y r o assembly t o t h e i n d i c a t o r a t t h e f a c t o r y . a c o r r e c t i o n s w i t c h . p r o d u c e s a c o n s t a n t t i l t i n g o f t h e s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . 16 1 .s t a g e g y r o s c o p e w h i c h s e r v e s f o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s c o n n e c t i n g t h e gyro assembly from t h e c o r r e c t i o n mechanism. c o r r e c t i o n mechanism w i t h a c u r v e d d e v i c e f o r g e t t i n g /160 r i d of r e s i d u a l d e v i a t i o n . The c o r r e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m i s t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l i n k b e t w e e n t h e i n d u c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r and t h e gyro assembly. t h e t i l t i n g of t h e s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t o f t h e t o t h e acceleration of t h e Coriolis forces w i l l be i m a t e l y 2 0 ' . t h i s d i s c o n n e c t s t h e c i r c u i t f o r a z i m u t h c o r r e c t i o n from t h e i n d u c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r and d i s c o n n e c t s t h e c o r r e c t i o n of t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e a x i s o f t h e g y r o s c o p e r o t o r when t h e a i r c r a f t i s m a k i n g t u r n s w i t h a n a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y g r e a t e r t h a n 36 deg/min. a t t h e l a t i t u d e o f Moscow a n d a n km/hr.circular deviation of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . w h i l e t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c o r r e c t i o n mechanism a n d t h e g y r o a s s e m b l y . Its p r i n c i p a l components a r e t h e i n d u c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r . t h e c u r v i l i n e a r t r a j e c t o r y o f f l i g h t ( a l t h o u g h t h e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e i s v e r y g r e a t ) . a i r s p e e d o f 800 t r a n s m i t t e r due e q u a l t o approx­ in a flight in T h e g y r o s c o p i c i n d u c t i o n c o m p a s s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e i n d u c t i o n t r a n s m i t t e r ) i s b u i l t i n a m a n n e r s i m i l a r t o t h a t of t h e d i s t a n c e magnetic compass. and t h e main i n d i c a t o r w i t h t h e r e p e a t e r s i s made b y p o t e n t i o m ­ eters.

as w e l l as t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . (d) R e g a r d l e s s of a l l t h e m e a s u r e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n t a k e n t o g e t r i d of a n d c o r r e c t f o r d e v i a t i o n s . t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e measurements o f t h e magnetic course s t i l l remain low(within t h e l i m i t s of 2 . of m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n s . t h e d e v i a t i o n d e v i c e s must b e removed from t h e t r a n s ­ m i t t e r s a n d a l l f o r m s o f d e v i a t i o n a r e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by a mechan­ i c a l c o m p e n s a t o r o n t h e m a i n c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r or on t h e c o r r e c t i o n mechanism. The d i f f i c u l t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n o r t h o d r o m i c d i r e c t i o n of f l i g h t .3 O ) . I n s e v e r a l types of a i r c r a f t . w i t h c e r t a i n c h a n g e s n e c e s s i t a t e d by f e a t u r e s o f t h e d e s i g n a n d m o u n t i n g o f t h e s e compasses. 162 I I . s i n c e i t . t h e y d o n o t com­ p l e t e l y s a t i s f y t h e requirements of a i r c r a f t navigation. p a r t i c ­ u l a r l y with regard t o automation of i t s processes. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s c a n b e o v e r c o m e b y u s i n g g y r o s c o p i c s e m i c o m p a s s e s w i t h h i g h a c c u r a c y . D e s p i t e t h e numerous a d v a n t a g e s of d i s t a n c e g y r o m a g n e t i c and g r y o i n d u c t i o n c o m p a s s e s o v e r i n t e g r a t e d c o m p a s s e s . / l 6 1 a l o n g which t h e f l i g h t a n g l e c a n b e assumed c o n s t a n t .l i n e f l i g h t s e g m e n t s . t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n a t t h e p o i n t where t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s a r e mounted can b e v e r y low. since the follow­ i n g s h o r t c o m i n g s of c o m p a s s e s s t i l l p e r s i s t : (a) The d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h t h e c o u r s e i s m e a s u r e d upon t h e m a g n e t i c l a t i t u d e a n d t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g the instrument a t high magnetic l a t i t u d e s . (c) The m a g n e t i c l o x o d r o m e a l o n g w h i c h a f l i g h t c a n b e c a r ­ r i e d o u t w i t h a c o n s t a n t m a g n e t i c f l i g h t a n g l e i s a complex c u r v e . In t h e s e cases. or c o u r s e s y s t e m s w h i c h make i t p o s s i b l e t o f l y i n a r e g i m e u s i n g h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e g y r o ­ semicompasses ( t h e GSC r e g i m e ) .d e p e n d s on t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f m e r i d i a n s a n d m a g n e t i c d e c l i n ­ a t i o n s . ( b ) . The c o u r s e r e p e a t e r s a r e s i m p l e i n d e s i g n a n d c o n s i s t o f t h r e e p h a s e m a g n e t o e l e c t r i c l a g o m e t e r s whose a c c u r a c y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o u r s e i s l o w e r t h a n t h a t of t h e main i n d i c a t o r . s i n c e t h e magnetic f l i g h t a n g l e s which a r e t h e n o b t a i n e d vary. Details of D e v i a t i o n O p e r a t i o n s on D i s t a n c e G y r o m a g n e t i c and G y r o i n d u c t i o n Compasses D e v i a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s on d i s t a n c e c o m p a s s e s a r e c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g t h e same m e t h o d a s f o r i n t e g r a t e d c o m p a s s e s . which l i m i t t h e l e n g t h of t h e s t r a i g h t .1 5 s e c h a v e e l a p s e d f o l l o w i n g t h e moment when t h e a i r c r a f t r e a c h e s a n a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y o f 3 6 ' d e g / m i n .t h e c o r r e c t i o n s w i t c h h a s a d e l a y mechanism which d i s c o n n e c t s t h e c o r r e c t i o n o n l y a f t e r 5 .

.The c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e r e s i d u a l d e v i a t i o n . i t i s n e c e s ­ s a r y t o mark t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e c o m p a s s t r a n s m i t t e r on t h e s c a l e o f t h e c o m p a s s c o u r s e on t h e m a i n i n d i c a t o r ( f o r i n d u c t i o n t r a n s ­ m i t t e r s . a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t p a n e l a l o n g w i t h t h e main c o u r s e i n d i ­ cator. 1 3 5 . as w e l l a s a l l i t s o t h e r 1 63 . i f d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g s b e t w e e n t h e main i n d i c a t o r a n d i t s r e p e a t e r s are n o t i c e d .. - /162 cos sin MC 8 sin MC MC 8cos MC 90 135 180 225 270 315 0 0 . 345O. However. u s i n g a mechan­ i c a l c o m p e n s a t o r . on t h e s c a l e o f t h e c o r r e c t i o n m e c h a n i s m ) . a n d u s e t h i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n B a n d C. 07 07 . 4 . i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o show t h e p l a c e w h e r e t h e d e v i a t i o n s w e r e c o r r e c t e d or t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of t h e E a r t h a t t h e p o i n t where t h e c o r r e c t i o n w a s c a r r i e d o u t . Since the semicircular deviation. 0 -. i s c a r r i e d o u t on 24 c o u r s e s : 0 . 07 -1 -. 9 0 . it i s necessary t o p l o t a graph of t h e c o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h e r e a d i n g s on t h e r e p e a t e r s . . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s on t h e t a b l e . 225. 07 -1 -. 15. 30. 1 8 0 . The c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m u l a s : where 8 i i s t h e c o m p a s s d e v i a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l c o u r s e s . 0 ' -. a n d a screw i s t u r n e d ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t ) i n order t o bring the remaining deviation t o zero. 4 i s r e c o m m e n d e d for c o n v e n i e n c e i n d e t e r ­ mining these c o e f f i c i e n t s . . i n w h i c h t h e a i r c r a f t i s s e t t o t h e d e s i r e d c o u r s e s . The f o r m shown i n T a b l e 2 . 270 a n d 315O). 07 0 07 . MC 0 45 a0 I TABLE 2 . The c a l c u l a t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s m u s t b e i n t h e f o r m o f t a b l e s . The g r a p h o f t h e r e m a i n i n g d e v i a t i o n on t h e main c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r i s n o t p l o t t e d . 4 5 . A f t e r e a c h two i n t e r m e d i a t e s e t t i n g s o f t h e a i r c r a f t on c o u r s e ( a t t h e p o i n t s 0 . 7 1 1 07 .

G y r o s c o p i c (GSC r e g i m e ) .26 shows t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l a n d t h e i n d i c a t o r o f t h e course system. or GSC). The p r i m a r y f e a t u r e of t h e d e s i g n o f t h e g y r o s c o p i c p o r t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e s y s t e m i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t h i r d f r a m e �or t h e g y r o ­ scope with a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . m o u n t e d on a i r c r a f t f o r p i l o t a g e p u r p o s e s . The c o u r s e s y s t e m o p e r a t e s on t h e main i n d i c a t o r i n a r e g i m e i n w h i c h t h e s w i t c h for t h e o p e r a t i n g r e g i m e i s s e t a t t h e t o p p a r t o f t h e p a n e l ( M C . whose o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c h a p t e r d e v o t e d t o a s t r o n o m i c a l means o f a i r ­ craft navigation. a main one a n d a s t a n d b y ./ 1 6 3 craft is turning. w i t h t h e i r r e a d i n g s d i s p l a y e d on g e n e r a l i n d i c a t o r s .f o r m s . A C . The u s e o f t h i s t h i r d f r a m e c o m p l e t e l y e x c l u d e s C a r d a n e r r o r s from t h e t r a n s v e r s e r o l l i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t . A s t r o n o m i c a l (AC r e g i m e ) . s i n c e t h e s e c o n d f r a m e of t h e gyroscope ( w i t h a master s e l s y n ) w i l l always be i n a v e r t ­ ical position. 1 64 . I n p r i n c i p l e . C a r d a n e r r o r s i n t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e g y r o s e m i c o m p a s s when t h e a i r . gyrosemicompass and a s t r o n o m i c a l c o u r s e t r a n s m i t t e r .26) Course Systems The m o s t c o m p l e t e d e v i c e s f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a n a i r craft are t h e course systems. t h e course system c o n s i s t s of a combination of t h e d e s i g n f e a t u r e s of a g y r o i n d u c t i o n compass. which improve t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e s y s t e m a n d e n s u r e r e c i p r o c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e readings. C o u r s e s y s t e m s a r e c o m b i n a t i o n s or c o m p l e x e s o f v a r i o u s c o u r s e t r a n s m i t t e r s m o u n t e d on t h e a i r c r a f t .c a l l e d gyrov e r t i c a l . The s e c o n d f e a t u r e of c o u r s e s y s t e m s i s t h e u s e ( a s a r u l e ) o f two g y r o a s s e m b l i e s . coinciding with t h e longitudinal a x i s The p u r p o s e o f t h e t h i r d frame i s t o s e l e c t t h e of t h e aircraft. Such t r a n s ­ mitters include the following: M a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n (MC r e g i m e ) . 1 6 ) for c a l c u l a t i n g t h e d e v i a t i o n f o r o t h e r m a g n e t i c l a t i t u d e s a s s u m e s t h e form (2. The s e t t i n g o f t h e s e c o n d f r a m e o f t h e g y r o s c o p e i n a v e r t ­ i c a l p o s i t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by means o f a n e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t and a mechanical device f o r matching it w i t h t h e s o . c a n b e made b y a m e c h a n i c a l c o m p e n s a t o r a t t h e m a g n e t i c l a t i t u d e o f t h e p o i n t where t h e c o r r e c t i o n w a s made. F i g u r e 2. Formula ( 2 .

a n d a l s o on t h e d i s t a n c e . When s w i t c h i n g t h e c o u r s e s y s t e m f r o m t h e G S C r e g i m e t o t h e i n order t o c o r r e c t t h e readings. t h e p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r equipment f o r purposes of a i r c r a f t navi­ g a t i o n . The p u s h b u t t o n c o u r s e c o n t r o l s e r v e s f o r manual s e t t i n g o f t h e v a l u e s f o r t h e course system only i n t h e GSC regime. The s w i t c h on t h e l e f t . 2. m a r k e d "N-S". the switch is again r e t u r n e d t o t h e GSC p o s i t i o n . While t h e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l f l i g h t conditions along a given route (path) change i n t h e c o u r s e of t i m e a n d . t h e remaining c o n d i t i o n s f o r a g i v e n t y p e of a i r c r a f t and a given r o u t e ( a i r r o u t e ) remain c o n s t a n t . c o v e r a d j u s t m e n t s f o r t h e balancing potentiometers of t h e main and s t a n d b y g y r o a s s e m b l i e s .c a n v a r y d e p e n d i n g on a l t i t u d e a n d d i s t a n c e of f l i g h t . A f t e r correlation. 16 5 P . Methods o f U s i n g C o u r s e D e v i c e s f o r Purposes o f A i r c r a f t Navi­ gation /164 The m e t h o d s of u s i n g c o u r s e e q u i p m e n t d e p e n d upon t h e r e s o l v i n g p o w e r s o f t h e c o m p l e x of c o u r s e d e v i c e s m o u n t e d on t h e a i r c r a f t . marked "main" a n d " s t a n d b y " . Control P a n e l of Course System. I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e methods of u s i n g c o u r s e d e v i c e s i n f l i g h t . (1) The a i r c r a f t i s e q u i p p e d w i t h a n i n t e g r a t e d or d i s t a n c e gyromagnetic ( i n d u c t i o n ) compass. it is neces­ sary t o press the button f o r rapid correlation i n order t o adjust t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e gyro assembly t o t h e readings of these t r a n s m i t t e r s . a n d a u t o m a t i c c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e p a t h a r e l a c k i n g on the aircraft.r MC or A C r e g i m e s . i s u s e d t o switch t h e p o l a r i t y of t h e l a t i t u d i n a l p o t e n t i o m e t e r i n o r d e r t o compensate f o r t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e Earth i n t h e N o r t h e r n or S o u t h e r n H e m i s p h e r e . Flights are c a r r i e d out over l o n g or medium d i s t a n c e s w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n m a g n e t i c latitude. The c o v e r s a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e p a n e l . t h e c o n s t a n t c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d above can b e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups.h a n d s i d e o f t h e p a n e l . The e q u i p m e n t f o r c o n s t a n t m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e a i r s p e e d . Fig. g e o g r a p h ­ i c and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of flight.26. d r i f t a n g l e .

as w e l l as d e v i c e s f o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y m e a s u r i n g t h e d r i f t a n g l e . F l i g h t s a r e made o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s w i t h c o n s i d ­ e r a b l e changes i n magnetic l a t i t u d e .A. and c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p a t h . T h i s i s u s u a l l y n o t done by s i m p l e d i v i s i o n of a s t r a i g h t l i n e i n t o e q u a l p a r t s . i n order t o avoid overly high deflections i n t h e loxodrome from t h e given l i n e o f f l i g h t . S i n c e t h e m a g n e t i c compass i s a l o x o d r o m i c c o u r s e . . when f l i g h t s a r e b e i n g made o v e r s h o r t d i s t a n c e s i n a i r c r a f t w h i c h h a v e s i m p l e n a v i g a t i o n equipment. b u t by s e l e c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n p o i n t s a l o n g t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e r o u t e . t h e l e n g t h o f t h e f l i g h t segments with a c o n s t a n t f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e are s e l e c t e d s o t h a t t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e s under c o n d i t i o n s of f o l l o w i n g a n o r t h o d r o m e do n o t d i f f e r by more t h a n 2 . I n p r e p a r i n g f o r a f l i g h t . (3) The a i r c r a f t i s f i t t e d w i t h a c o u r s e s y s t e m o f h i g h a c c u r ­ a c y . t h r e e or m o r e p a r t s a n d t h e f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e i s d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h . t h e r o u t e o f t h e f l i g h t t o b e made i s e n t e r e d on a f l i g h t c h a r t . t h e s t r a i g h t . . If t h e i n d i c a t e d c o r r e c t i o n i s m o r e t h a n 3 O i n t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e p o r t i o n o f t h e f l i g h t . If t h e f l i g h t c h a r t i s one which i s i n a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l or d i a g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . o r c a l c u l a t ­ i n g t h e f l i g h t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t .l i n e p o r t i o n s of a f l i g h t which/l65 i s v e r y l o n g a r e p l o t t e d a s a c u r v e d l i n e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i n t e r ­ mediate p o i n t s a l o n g t h e orthodrome. t h e s t r a i g h t . . . ? . e . e . t h i s segment i s d i v i d e d i n t o two. F l i g h t s a r e made a t a n y g e o g r a p h i c a l l a t i t u d e and f o r any d i s t a n c e . s o t h a t t h e t o t a l c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e m a g n e t i c compass a t t h e end of t h e segment r e l a t i v e t o i t s r e a d i n g s a t t h e begin­ n i n g of t h e s e g m e n t i s n o more t h a n 3 O : A = (1.) sin tm 4-(AMr -)A < 3". a n d t h e p a r t s of t h e r o u t e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n p l o t t e d a r e very nearly orthodromic. c a l c u l a t e d by a n a l y t i c a l means.3 O .(2) T h e a i r c r a f t i s f i t t e d w i t h a d i s t a n c e g y r o m a g n e t i c or g y r o i n d u c t i o n c o m p a s s a n d a g y r o s e m i c o m p a s s or c o u r s e s y s t e m o f average accuracy. t h e f l i g h t between which can be made a t t h e c o n s t a n t f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e . t h e a i r s p e e d . If w e c o n s i d e r t h e low a c c u r a c y o f t h e i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e 166 .l i n e p o r t i o n s of t h e f l i g h t b e t w e e n t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s a l o n g t h e r o u t e a r e p l o t t e d as s t r a i g h t l i n e s b y means o f a r u l e r . When u s i n g c h a r t s w h i c h a r e p l o t t e d w i t h a n i s o g o n a l c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n (Mercator). There is no equipment f o r a u t o m a t i c m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e d r i f t a n g l e or a i r s p e e d . t h e f o l l o w i n g methods a r e used t o p r e p a r e t h e c a l c u l a t e d d a t a and use t h e course d e v i c e s i n f l i g h t . Methods of U s i n g C o u r s e D e v i c e s Under C o n d i t i o n s IncZu­ ded i n t h e F i r s t Group Under t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t g r o u p .m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e . . .

M e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e l o x o d r o m i c f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e c a n b e made r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n which i n t e r s e c t s t h e segment a t a p o i n t which i s c l o s e s t t o i t s c e n t e r . An a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s e c o n d m e t h o d i s t h e d o u b l e m e a s u r e m e n t of t h e angles and t h e averaging of t h e d e c l i n a t i o n s .A b M __ - ‘ e M Y 2 w h e r e a b . a v a l u e i s a s s i g n e d t o i t as s h o w n on t h e g r a p h . t h e course of t h e a i r c r a f t i s checked s o t h a t i t s value t o g e t h e r with t h e d r i f t angle of t h e aircraft w i l l b e e q u a l t o a g i v e n m a g n e t i c f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e o f t h e f l i g h t seg­ ment. In considering the r e s i d u a l d e v i a t i o n . O b v i o u s l y . considering t h e average d e c l i n ­ a t i o n of t h e s e p o i n t s . and end. b u t by s i m p l e measurement o f t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e s e g m e n t on t h e c h a r t b y means o f a p r o t r a c t o r . a. H o w e v e r . t h e l a t t e r are deter­ mined n o t by a n a l y t i c a l means. On t h e o t h e r h a n d . i t i s assumed t o b e z e r o d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t . s i n c e t h e m a g n e t i c c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s e q u a l t o t h e compass c o u r s e . i t i s recommended t h a t i t b e done a t two p o i n t s . a t t h e beginning and end of t h e segment. MFA. S i n c e t h e f l i g h t s a r e made w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l o w measurements of magnetic l a t i t u d e . s i n c e t h e accur­ a c y o f t w o m e a s u r e m e n t s a n d t h e a v e r a g i n g o f t h e i r r e s u l t i s a l w a y s 1166 h i g h e r t h a n t h e a c c u r a c y of a s i n g l e measurement. t h e middle.m a g n e t i c compasses i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t l e n g t h of f l i g h t segment f o r a f l i g h t with a given f l i g h t path angle. c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n ­ a t i o n of t h i s p o i n t . i t i s p o s s i b l e t o h a v e some s i m p l i f i e d p r e p a r a t i o n for t h e c o u r s e e q u i p m e n t o f t h e a i r c r a f t for the flight. During t h e f l i g h t . t h e r e i s no need t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n B a n d C or t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r changes during t h e f l i g h t . Ctm. F o r t h e f i r s t g r o u p o f c o n d i t i o n s . a r e t h e a z i m u t h s o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e a t t h e b e g i n ­ ning. = M C t US = MFAg. I f t h e d e v i a t i o n i s c o m p e n s a t e d by a m e c h a n i c a l c o m p e n s a t o r . i n t h e f i r s t case t h e m a g n e t i c f l i g h t a n g l e o f t h e segment w i l l be w h i l e i n t h e s e c o n d case MFA = ab ~ f Ce t . r e s p e c t i v e l y . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a d d t h e compass deviation: 16 7 . t o i n c r e a s e t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e meas­ u r e m e n t s .

Determine t h e r e q u i r e d compass c o u r s e f o r following the f l i g h t lines. t h e magnetic d e c l i n a t i o n i n t h e middle o f t h e segment is t 7 O . Determine t h e g i v e n magnetic f l i g h t p a t h angle of t h e segment. t h e Determine t h e compass d e v i a t i o n i s t 3 O .000 on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t i o n . Methods of U s i n g Course D e v i c e s Under C o n d i t i o n s o f t h e S e c o n d Group When f l i g h t s a r e b e i n g made o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s u s i n g d i s t a n c e g y r o m a g n e t i c a n d g y r o s e m i c o m p a s s e s or c o u r s e s y s t e m s . Answer: MFAg = 4 1 O . = C C t A. w i t h p e r i o d i c c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e c o u r s e by means o f a m a g n e t i c or a s t r o n o m i c t r a n s m i t t e r . i n f l i g h t s over long distances.. t h e u s e of c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t s i n f l i g h t a n d p r e p a r a t i o n of c h a r t s f o r a f l i g h t i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by d e v i c e s which a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e which a r e recom­ m e n d e d f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e f i r s t g r o u p . Answer: CC = 86O. w i t h d i s t a n c e s q t o 1 2 0 0 .1:2. 3.000. t h e n when t w o o r m o r e s h e e t s a r e c o m b i n e d 1 68 .l i n e segments of t h e f l i g h t w i t h a g y r o s e m i c o m p a s s or a c o u r s e s y s t e m i n t h e I r G S C " r e g i m e . 132O a t t h e f i n a l m e r i d i a n . I . 2. t U S = MFAg.1 5 0 0 km. s.I I l l 1 MFA. = 63O. w i t h a n i n i t i a l m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n o f t 7 O a n d a f i n a l one o f t 5 O . Deter­ m i n e t h e MFAg. Answer: MFA.6 O . t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e mag­ n e t i c compass i s t 4 O . A s a r u l e . actual f l i g h t path angle. The g i v e n m a g n e t i c p a t h f l i g h t a n g l e o f a s e g m e n t i s e q u a l t o 84O. The d i r e c t i o n o f a f l i g h t s e g m e n t m e a s u r e d a l o n g t h e i n ­ i t i a l m e r i d i a n i s e q u a l t o 1 3 6 O . The c o m p a s s c o u r s e o f a n a i r c r a f t i s e q u a l t o 5 4 O . If a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f o n e s h e e t o f t h i s m a p . 4. Answer: MFAg = 128O. t h e d r i f t a n g l e w a s e q u a l t o . t h e d r i f t a n g l e i s + 6 O . b u t w i t h o u t a n y a u t o m a t i c c o u r s e c a l c u l a t i o n . t h e f l i g h t chart /167 i s one w i t h a s c a l e of . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e d e v i c e s i s t h e p l o t t i n g o f t h e orthodromic course along t h e s t r a i g h t . Prob Zems 1. c a n b e a s s u m e d w i t h i n s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r t o b e a n o r t h o d r o m e . T h e d i r e c t i o n o f a f l i g h t s e g m e n t m e a s u r e d a l o n g t h e a v e r ­ age meridian is e q u a l t o 4 8 O .

T h e r e f o r e . i n g e t t i n g r i d of t h e d e v i a t i o n . t h e g r a p h o f t h e d e v i a t i o n f o r them i s not plotted. On t h e c h a r t s o f a l l o t h e r p r o j e c t i o n s . t h e f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e i n i t i a l m e r i d i a n s of t h e segments can be a p p l i e d t o t h e system r e l a t i v e t o t h e s e l e c t e d r e f e r e n c e meridian (Fig. t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s m u s t b e made w i t h a c o n s i d ­ e r a t i o n of d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i ­ ation during the f l i g h t . 16 9 4 . when t h e l i n e o f t h e t a n g e n t ( c r o s s . i t i s n e c e s ­ s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e a n d w r i t e down t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f d e v i a t i o n B a n d C: I t i s t h e n n e c e s s a r y t o w r i t e down t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e h o r i z o n /168 t a l component o f t h e E a r t h ' s m a g n e t i c f i e l d a t t h e p o i n t where t h e d e v i a t i o n s were c o r r e c t e d . l i n e segments of t h e f l i g h t have a very s h o r t l e n g t h . e x c e p t t h e c e n t r a l p o l a r a n d s p e c i a l r o u t e maps i n a d i a g o n a l . c y l i n d r i c a l p r o j e c t i o n . t h e orthodrome must be l o c a t e d a l o n g p o i n t s which are determined by c a l c u l a t i o n .a n d t h e r o u t e d o e s n o t r u n a l o n g a m e r i d i a n or w h e n s h e e t s o f t h i s c h a r t are used s e p a r a t e l y a t g r e a t d i s t a n c e s . t h e o r t h o d r o m e h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t b r e a k i n i t . t h e o r t h o d r o m e i s c a l c u ­ l a t e d a n a l y t i c a l l y a n d p l o t t e d on t h e c h a r t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c a l c u ­ lated intermediate points. C o u r s e d e v i c e s i n t e n d e d for f l i g h t s u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e second group have d e v i c e s f o r mechanical compensation of t h e r e s i d ­ ual deviation. When s p l i c i n g two a d j a c e n t s h e e t s a l o n g t h e m e r i d i a n . and i n t h i s case (when i t c r o s s e s t h e a d j a c e n t s h e e t s ) a s t r a i g h t l i n e cannot be t a k e n as t h e o r t h o ­ drome. The o r t h o d r o m i c f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e s o f t h e r o u t e s e g m e n t s u n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e m e a s u r e d or c a l c u l a t e d a n a l y t i c a l l y r e l a t i v e If t h e s t r a i g h t t o t h e i n i t i a l meridian of each f l i g h t segment. and i n i t i a l Since t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e second group assumes f l i g h t s over long d i s t a n c e s with c o n s i d e r a b l e changes i n t h e magnetic l a t i t u d e s .s e c t i o n a l s t r i p ) o f t h e c y l i n ­ d e r c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e a x i s of t h e r o u t e .27) according t o t h e following formula: where 6 i s t h e a n g l e of convergence between t h e r e f e r e n c e meridians of t h e segment. 2. However. The d i s t a n c e s f o r t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h e orthodrome a r e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d by a n a l y t i c a l means.

t h e s y s t e m s a r e c o r r e c t e d for t h e a s t r o n o m ­ ical transmitter. 2. t h e gyrosemi­ c o m p a s s o r t h e c o u r s e s y s t e m i s corr e c t e d f o r t h e m a g n e t i c or a s t r o n o m i c a l Fig. T h i s means t h a t a t and t h e n s w i t c h e d back t o t h e "GSC" regime. After correction. t h e f l i g h t i s c a r r i e d out with an orthodromic 170 . e x c e p t t h a t t h e c o u r s e i s s e t on t h e g y r o s e m i c o m p a s s n o t by com­ p a r i n g t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s . I n t h i s m a n n e r . n o c o r r e c t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d on t h e s c a l e of t h e d e c l i n a t i o n s .2 min i n t h e s l o w c o o r d i n a t i o n r e g i m e and i s t h e n s w i t c h e d t o t h e llGSC" r e g i m e . t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s o f t h e r o u t e . o p e r a t e s f o r a p e r i o d o f 1 . t i o n i s made on t h e b a s i s o f t h e mag­ n e t i c t r a n s m i t t e r . For c o r r e c t i o n .To c a l c u l a t e t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n d u r i n g f l i g h t . They a r e d e t e r m i n e d f o r a number o f p o i n t s a l o n g t h e f l i g h t p a t h . The c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e g y r o c o m p a s s i s made i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r . t h e corrections f o r t h e magnetic course a t d i f f e r e n t seg­ m e n t s o� t h e r o u t e m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d w h e n p r e p a r i n g f o r a f l i g h t . Calculation t r a n s m i t t e r when f l y i n g a l o n g t h e r e f e r of F l i g h t P a t h A n g l e s e n c e m e r i d i a n s or t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s from Reference Meridian. #/\ 'ref A init I I I n f a c t . t h e e r r o r s which arise i n t h i s p r o c e s s w i l l be small and can be disregarded. t h e n t h e main i n d i c a t o r w i l l h a v e t h e r e q u i r e d This correction is equal t o the c o r r e c t i o n e n t e r e d on i t s d i a l . t h e course system i s switched t o t h e IIMC" r e ­ The s y s t e m gime and t h e b u t t o n i s p u s h e d t o match t h e r e a d i n g s . sum o f t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n a n d t h e c h a n g e i n t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r deviation along the magnetic l a t i t u d e . However. b u t by m a n u a l s e t t i n g on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e m a g n e t i c or a s t r o n o m i c a l t r a n s ­ mitters. t h e changes i n t h e s e m i ­ circular deviation a t correspond­ ing points along the route w i l l d i f f e r only s l i g h t l y from t h e c a l c u l a t e d cor­ r e c t i o n s . s i n c e t h e c o u r s e which i s followed w i l l b e prepared with a consid­ e r a t i o n of t h e d r i f t a n g l e o f t h e a i r ­ craft. During t h e f l i g h t . o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e m a g n e t i c f l i g h t a n g l e s of t h e r o u t e a t t h e s e p o i n t s w i t h a f r e q u e n c y s u c h t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e Fetween two a d j a ­ c e n t c o r r e c t i o n s a l o n g a s t r a i g h t l i n e p a t h d o e s n o t e x c e e d lo a n d a f t e r e a c h t u r n i n g p o i n t on t h e r o u t e .27. t h e s y s t e m i s s w i t c h e d t o t h e "AC" r e g i m e . If t h e c o r r e c ­ o f t h e r o u t e (TPR). t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t . H a v i n g d e t e r m i n e d t h e l a t t e r on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of a s t a r a n d t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t .

The i n t e n s i t y o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e E a r t h ' s magnetic f i e l d a t t h e p o i n t where t h e d e v i a t i o n s are c o r r e c t e d i s 0. The e a s t l o n g i t u d e o f t h e r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n i s e q u a l t o The a i r ­ 70°. c o e f f i c i e n t B = t 1 . the The c o o r d i n a t e s o f n o r t h l a t i t u d e o f t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t i s 52O. The t r u e f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e o f t h e s e g m e n t a t t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s 67O. w h i l e t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e c h a n g e i n t h e s e m i c i r c u l a r d e v i a t i o n ABC = t 2 O . t h e c o r r e c t i o n i s s e t on t h e main i n d i c a t o r a n d i s e q u a l t o : f o r t h e magnetic transmitter. w h i l e a t a c e r t a i n p o i n t a l o n g t h e f l i g h t r o u t e i t is 0. Determine t h e c o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h e magnetic c o u r s e of t h e aircraft a t t h i s p o i n t . t h e s e t t i n g p o i n t of t h e r o u t e are: l o n g i t u d e 43O. Prob I ems 1. A = A /16g M t sin +m y for t h e a s t r o n o m i c a l t r a n s m i t t e r Then t h e r e a d i n g s a r e m a t c h e d i n t h e man n er d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . The e a s t l o n g i t u d e o f t h e r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n i s 40°.9. l a t i t u d e 54O. c r a f t i s l o c a t e d a t t h e p o i n t A = 76O. When i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make a c o r r e c t i o n for t h e o r t h o d r o m i c c o u r s e between two r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n s . 5 . Answer: 64. t h e n o r t h l a t i t u d e of t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t i s 5 8 O . 171 .c o u r s e u p t o t h e n e x t t u r n i n g p o i n t o f t h e r o u t e or r e f e r e n c e m e r i d ­ ian. 3. Determine t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e m a g n e t i c compass f o r correction of t h e orthodromic course.08 oersteds. Answer: t3.50. a n d coefficient C = tO. Determine t h e orthodromic f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e c a l c u l a t e d from t h e r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n .5O.24 o e r s t e d s . i f t h e magnetic f l i g h t path angle o f t h e f l i g h t s e g m e n t i s e q u a l t o 60°. = 60°. 2. t h e magnetic declin­ a t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s e q u a l t o tilo. + Answer: A = t8O.

ctg Ah. a p p a r a t u s f o r a u t o m a t i c measurement o f t h e a i r s p e e d of t h e a i r c r a f t . and automatic c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e f l i g h t path of t h e aircraft. A f t e r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e change i n t h e l o n g i t u d e . t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l o n g i t u d e c a l c u l a t e d from t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e g i v e n o r t h o d r o m e i n t e r s e c t s t h e E q u a t o r (1.Methods of U s i n g Course D e v i c e s Under t h e C o n d i t i o n s o f t h e T h i r d Group The t h i r d g r o u p o f c o n d i t i o n s f o r u s i n g c o u r s e d e v i c e s r e f e r s t o f l i g h t s i n a i r c r a f t which are f i t t e d w i t h p r e c i s e c o u r s e s y s ­ t e m s . t h e d r i f t a n g l e .) and t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l o n g i t u d e ( A ) : of As = A0 - A. This places particularly strict r e q u i r e m e n t s on t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e p l o t t i n g o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e o n t h e c h a r t s . and t h e r e t e n t i o n of systems f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e aircraft course. . t h u s making it p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y a l l o f t h e r e q u i r e d e l e m e n t s o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e for t h e s e p o i n t s : (a) The a z i m u t h o f t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e with t h e Equator (ao) (b) The c o o r d i n a t e s o f i n t e r t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s f o r p l o t t i n g t h e o r t h o d r o m e o n t h e map: 172 . From t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t . t h e orthodromic longitude A0 i s d e t e r m i n e d for t h e s t a r t ­ 1 i n g p o i n t o f e a c h s e g m e n t by t h e f o r m u l a ctg A. t h e l o n g i t u d e of any p o i n t a l o n g t h e r o u t e can b e c o n v e r t e d e a s i l y t o t h e o r t h o ­ d r o m i c s y s t e m . w i t h c o r r e c t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s o n l y a t i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s located significant distances apart. e .). The c o n d i t i o n s of t h e t h i r d g r o u p a s s u m e a p r o l o n g e d a u t o n o m i c a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n w i t h no v i s i b i l i t y of t h e ground o r o v e r water. Here. a m o r e p r e c i s e a n d c o n v e n /170 i e n t form f o r using t h e course devices under c o n d i t i o n s of t h e t h i r d group i s t h e following: I n preparing t h e f l i g h t c h a r t s f o r each orthodrome s e c t i o n t h e f l i g h t b e t w e e n t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s on t h e r o u t e . . w e d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n a l s h i f t i n t h e l o n g i t u d e (A. = tgy2 ctg+l cosec AA . s i n c e t h e c o u r s e i s a b a s i s f o r t h e a u t o m a t i c c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e f l i g h t i n t e r m s of d i r e c t i o n . r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r l e n g t h . i . t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e s .

i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e c o n d i ­ t i o n s i n t h e t h i r d group t o r e t a i n a s i n g l e system f o r c a l c u l a t ­ i n g t h e c o u r s e s o v e r t h e e n t i r e l e n g t h of t h e f l i g h t f r o m t a k e o f f t o landing. t h e p a t h a n g l e of t h e f i r s t orthodromic f l i g h t segment i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e e q u a l t o t h e azimuth of t h i s segment r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n of t h e a i r p o r t from which t h e a i r c r a f t took o f f . i n t e r m e d i a t e . i n t e r s e c t i n g a t t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s of t h e r o u t e . determined a c c o r d i n g t o t h e formula O b v i o u s l y .28): T h e t u r n a n g l e s a l o n g t h e l i n e of f l i g h t a r e f o u n d a s t h e d i f ­ ferences of t h e azimuths of t h e orthodrome. f o r one i t w i l l b e f . 2.(c) drome The i n i t i a l . /171 I n t h i s c a s e . t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s w i l l b e common f o r t h e two o r t h o d r o m e s . The p a t h a n g l e s o f a l l s u b s e q u e n t s e g m e n t s a r e o b t a i n e d by c o m b i n i n g t h e o r t h o d r o m i c f l i g h t a n g l e ( O F A ) o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n with t h e t u r n angle (TA) of t h e l i n e of f l i g h t a t t h e turning points along the route (Fig. for t h e o t h e r 1 73 . and t h e d i f f i c u l t y of an e x a c t s e t t i n g of t h e c o u r s e i n f l i g h t rela­ t i v e t o t h e new r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n s . and f i n a l azimuths of t h e o r t h o ­ tg tgq=-'. sin vi ' (d) The d i s t a n c e t o a n y p o i n t a l o n g t h e o r t h o d r o m e (Si) f r o m t h e p o i n t of i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e Equator cos si = c o s A0 i cos 0i' ­ (e) The d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n a n y t w o p o i n t s a l o n g t h e o r t h o d r o m e as a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e Equator Considering t h e necessity of precisely calculating t h e course f o r a u t o m a t i c computation of t h e p a t h i n t e r m s of t h e d i r e c t i o n . n a l .

i t i s d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l o n g i t u d e o f t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t o f t h e r o u t e . T h i s means t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e orthodromic and t r u e c o u r s e s a t any p o i n t w i l l b e e q u a l t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e orthodromic p a t h a n g l e of t h e segment and t h e running azimuth of t h e orthodrome a t a given p o i n t : If t h e p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e of t h e c o u r s e s t u r n s o u t t o be g r e a t e r (or i f i t i s n e g a t i v e . I n f l i g h t s o v e r w a t e r . 174 . The s i g n o f t h e c o r r e c t i o n t o t h e c o m p a s s r e a d i n g c o i n c i d e s with t h e sign of A z ..28. ( a s h i f t f r o m t h e l i n e o f t h e de­ s i r e d f l i g h t t o t h e r i g h t ) . then ob v i ous l y tg AT = AZ - S ’ w h e r e Ay e q u a l s t h e e r r o r i n t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e o r t h o d r o m i c c o u r s e ..it w i l l be i n i t i a l ... . t h e r e a d i n g f o r t h e orthodromic course w i l l be i n c r e a s e d and it w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o r e d u c e it manually by t h e c o u r s e d e t e c t o r . t u r n s o u t t o b e s m a l l e r ) t h a n t h e d i f f e r ­ ence between t h e p a t h a n g l e s . A s f a r as t h e l o n g i t u d e i s c o n c e r n e d . Fig. c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s h i f t i n l o n g i t u d e of t h e p r e v ­ i o u s and subsequent segments. . II I .. b u t has undergone a l a t e r a l devia t i o n AZ during t h e f l i g h t . i f t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e c a l c u l a t i n g d e v i c e s on board t h e aircraft at both t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o i n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s on t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t . t h e c o r r e c t i o n m u s t b e made w i t h a m i n u s s i g n . When t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e o r t h o d r o m i c c o u r s e are low. r .. t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e g y r o s c o p e c o u r s e m u s t b e made by a s t r o n o m i c a l methods. t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e compass w i l l b e r e d u c e d and t h e c o r r e c t i o n must be p o s i t i v e .. a n d S i s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c o n t r o l s e c t i o n of t h e f l i g h t . it must b e i n c r e a s e d .. . when d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e c t n e s s /172 o f t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t p a t h i n t e r m s of d i r e c t i o n i s m o r e d i f f i c u l t .- ... -.-_. System f o r Calcul a t i n g P a t h A n g l e s b y Combining t h e Turn Angles along the Flight Path. When f l y i n g a b . 2. i n t h e c a s e o f d e v i ­ a t i o n t o t h e l e f t . t h e b e s t method of c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e orthodromic course under conditions of t h e t h i r d group is t o introduce corrections i n t o t h e c o u r s e as a r e s u l t of calcu­ l a t i o n s of t h e a i r c r a f t p a t h . With p o s i t i v e v a l u e s o f A Z . o v e a c o n t i n e n t . For e x a m p l e .

s u c h a s a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y or a e r i a l g e o d e s i c s t u d i e s . The c o n d i t i o n s o f (a) kg/cm2. For t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e t h i r d g r o u p . course can be c o r r e c t e d magnetically: OC t h e orthodromic - (MC+ M ) = OFA - ~ 1 . 0 3 3 3 (b) T h e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t s e a l e v e l i s +15O C w i t h a l i n ­ e a r d e c r e a s e for f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s u p t o 1 1 . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e of t h e b a r o m e t r i c a l ­ t i m e t e r .5O. 3. or 1 . t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e magnetic compasses must b e c a r r i e d o u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s g i v e n above f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e second group. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e b a r o m e t r i c m e t h o d o f m e a s u r i n g a l t i ­ t u d e . However. e l e c t r o n i c devices f o r measuring a l t i ­ t u d e a r e u s e d . c a l l for c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n o f a l l c o u r s e e q u i p m e n t on t h e p l a n e . I t i s b a s e d o n t h e meas­ urement of t h e atmospheric p r e s s u r e a t t h e f l i g h t l e v e l of t h e a i r ­ craft . s i n c e i t may b e c o m e n e c e s s a r y t o u s e d e v i c e s f o r measuring t h e c o u r s e s which b e l o n g t o a l l t h r e e groups of condi­ tions. it is t h e l a w of change of atmospheric p r e s s u r e with i n c r e a s e i n h e i g h t which means t h a t t h e c a l i b r a t i o n o f t h e a l t i m e t e r d i a l m u s t b e made o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l /173 standard atmosphere.5O for e a c h 1000 m of a l t i t u d e . t h e s t a n d a r d atmosphere are as f o l l o w s : The p r e s s u r e a t s e a l e v e l i s e q u a l t o 7 6 0 mm Hg.000 m y t h e a i r temperature i s c o n s i d e r e d c o n s t a n t a n d e q u a l t o -56. 0 0 0 m o f 6. The m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f a p l a n n e d f l i g h t . However. Barometric Altimeters The p r i n c i p a l m e t h o d o f m e a s u r i n g f l i g h t a l t i t u d e f o r n a v i g a ­ t i o n a l purposes i s t h e b a r o m e t r i c method. which a r e more a c c u r a t e i n p r i n c i p l e t h a n t h e b a r o ­ metric method. t h e u s e of m a g n e t i c t r a n s m i t t e r s f o r c o r r e c t i o n o f o r t h o d r o m i c c o u r s e d u r i n g f l i g h t i s l i m i t e d t o cases when t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e o r t h o d r o m i c c o u r s e c a n n o t b e c h e c k e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e r e s u l t s o f c a l c u l a ­ t i o n s of t h e p a t h or b y m e a n s of a s t r o n o m i c a l c o u r s e t r a n s m i t t e r s . l e t us r e c a l l t h e f a m i l i a r e q u a t i o n s from p h y s i c s which 175 . e s p e c i a l l y o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s . t h e y a r e n o t w i d e l y employed f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l purposes because they a r e used only f o r measuring t h e t r u e f l i g h t altitude. Beginning a t 11. as w e l l as f o r s i g n a l i n g dangerous a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e l o c a l r e l i e f when c o m i n g i n f o r a l a n d i n g u n d e r d i f f i c u l t meteorological c o n d i t i o n s . b u t w i t h reduced accuracv.I n t h i s manner. For s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s .

I and Gay-Lussac laws . 4 1 l i t e r s ) a t z e r o t e m p e r ­ a t u r e and a p r e s s u r e of 1 a t m . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e B o y l e . e . g a s i n t h i s case as­ T h e C l a p e y r o n e q u a t i o n for o n e m o l e o f sumes t h e f o r m ~~ - ~ 1 T h i s v a l u e i s u s u a l l y a s s u m e d t o b a a p p r o x i m a t e l y 273O i n c a l ­ culations.+ 273. . By c o m b i n i n g t h e B o y l e . 1 O C)l. c a l c u l a t e d r e l a t i v e t o a b s o l u t e z e r o ( .1 t s w h e r e 0 0 i s t h e v o l u m e a t z e r o t e m p e r a t u r e a n d t h e same p r e s s u r e . T h e g a s c o n s t a n t for o n e m o l e o f g a s i s c a l l e d t h e u n i v e r s a l g a s c o n s t a n t (R): L7'! With P = 1atm.M a r i o t t e t h e state equation of a gas: p v = POVO ( t 273.d e s c r i b e t h i s s t a t e of g a s e s and t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r change. we obtain . l 0 C > i s c a l l e d t h e absolute temperature ( T I . f i x e d t e m p e r a t u r e ) . w h e r e p i s t h e p r e s s u r e of at temperature t . T h i s e q u a t i o n i s known a s t h e C l a p e y r o n e q u a t i o n . v = 22.41 l i t e r s . t h e number o f grams o f a g a s which i s e q u a l t o i t s m o l e c u l a r w e i g h t .2 7 3 .1 i s c a l l e d t h e gas c o n s t a n t . i .11. a n d t h e c o n s t a n t v a l u e of P V 273. 176 . w i t h i s o t h e r m a l c o m p r e s s i o n ( i .M a r i o t t e l a w . t h e p r e s s u r e o f a gas c h a n g e s i n i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o i t s volume S O t h a t t h e p r o d u c t of t h e volume t i m e s t h e pressure remains constant: pv = c o n s t . t h e gas and v i s t h e volume o f t h e g a s A c c o r d i n g t o t h e G a y . h e a t i n g a g a s b y lo C a t c o n ­ s t a n t p r e s s u r e c a u s e s t h e g a s t o e x p a n d t o 1 / 2 7 3 . e . Thus . o r s i m p l y m o l e ) . A gram m o l e c u l e o f a n y g a s ( g r a m mole . i . . .L u s s a c l a w . The t e m p e r ­ a t u r e ( t t 2 7 3 . a l w a y s o c c u p i e s e x a c t l y t h e same v o l u m e ( 2 2 . 1 o f t h e volume which it occupied a t z e r o t e m p e r a t u r e : v-vo=­ V O 273. e .

pv The n u m e r i c a l v a l u e of = RT. / l 7 5 w e obtain t h e so-called barometric formula (2. By u s i n g t h e g a s c o n s t a n t .27) By u s i n g E q u a t i o n ( 2 .28) w h e r e T O i s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e on t h e g r o u n d u n d e r s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s e q u a l t o 281O K . 2 9 ) . a n d t g r i s t h e v e r t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t .1 I n t e c h n i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s . Then or i t s m o l e c u l a r pt. a n d e r e c t a v e r t i c a l c o l u m n on i t w h i c h e x t e n d s u p w a r d t o t h e l i m i t s of t h e E a r t h ' s atmosphere (Fig. we c a n f i n d t h e w e i g h t d e n s i t y o f a i r ( y ) a t a given p r e s s u r e p and absolute temperature T . 2 . gas constant b u t r a t h e r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c gas constant where M i s t h e number o f grams o f g a s p e r m o l e . weight. = BT. 2 7 ) a n d t h e a l t i t u d e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t . Obviously. 273.8k g / c m ( d e g r e e s / m o l e ) . t h e universal gas constant is R = 1*033*n410=84. w e do n o t u s e t h e u n i v e r s a l expressed i n kilograms. The c o n s t a n t B f o r a i r i s 2 9 . t h e drop i n pressure with increased a l t i t u d e t o t h e d i s t a n c e AH a t a c e r t a i n h e i g h t w i l l b e e q u a l t o : Ap = rAH= BT AH or Ap - = AH -4 BT (2. 1 77 . 2 7 m / d e g r e e . L e t u s d e f i n e a n a r e a on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e m e a s u r i n g 1 c m 2 . t h e w e i g h t of t h e g a s i s u s u a l l y T h e r e f o r e .

29) t g ra n d B . 2 9 ) obtain: t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s of TO.31) W o b t a i n Formula ( 2 .27a) Integrating (2. 3 0 ) t o c a l c u l a t e t h e hypsometric t a b l e s e w h i c h r e l a t e t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e up t o 1 1 . w e S u b s t i t u t i n g i n t o Formula ( 2 .29. (2. Solving Equation ( 2 . t h e s e t a b l e s a r e used t o a d j u s t and c o r r e c t altimeters. 2 8 ) i s o b t a i n e d from Formula ( 2 . w e o b t a i n t h e s t a n d a r d hypso­ metric formula f o r t h e troposphere: (2.I1 I I1 I Formula ( 2 . 0 0 0 m a n d c o n s i d e r T H e q u a l t o Til: (2. 0 0 0 m t o t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . Column o f A i r o n t h e Earth's Surface.g r H . 3 1 ) by i n t e g r a t i n g Equation e 1 1 .27) f o r /176 178 . 2 7 ) . s o t h a t t h e b a r o m e t r i c f o r m u l a for t h e s e a l t i t u d e s c a n b e w r i t t e n as f o l l o w s : (2.30) W can use Formula ( 2 . Under t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a s t a n d a r d a t m o s p h e r e . 2.27a) a n d k e e p i ng i n mind t h a t TH = T O . 2 8 ) f o r H . we obtain: PH H P O 0 or Fig. i n f i n i t e l y s m a l l values: switching t o 2 =d­ H p BT' (2. t h e a i r t e m ­ perature at a l t i t u d e s g r e a t e r than 11.000 m i s considered t o be c o n s t a n t .

3 343 1. 250 9.Ol 4.0 216. 305 2.0 247 8. 250 9. t h i s f o r m u l a assumes t h e form: 179 I.0 265 1.0 265 1.5 215 8. 250 9."K 219. 432 9. w e o b t a i n t h e s t a n d a r d s t a t e f o r m u l a o f t h e h y p s o m e t r i c t a b l e ( T a b l e 2 .0 265 1.0 265 1. 250 9. 5 ) �or a l t i t u d e s g r e a t e r t h a n 11. 365 2. a n d s h i f t i n g S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e value of B and T t o t h e l o g t e n ( I n N = 2.or Solving Equation (2. 344 3. 250 9. 760 1. 422 6.0 227 3.30259 I g N ) . 281 4.2 58 5.0 321 4.6 Note: T h e t a b l e for a d j u s t i n g a n d c o r r e c t i n g t h e b a r o m e t r i c a l t i m e t e r s is given i n abbreviated form. 250 9.50 m_ ­ /sec 272 9. 380 0. 269 6.0 250 9.0 265 1. 250 9.24 7.4 55 2. 337 0. 558 2.0 265 1. 238 1.0 265 1. -500 0 500 1000 I 500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6 500 70 0 0 7500 8000 8500 90 0 0 9500 I0000 806. 338 5. 501 6. 316 0.5 295 2.2 50 29.1 62 48.5 250 7. Z 702 6.3 86 1. a.5 305 3.90 2. 250 9. 378 0.5 285 6.5 230 2.32) H.0 265 1. 250 9.0 265 1.7 137 2. 212 9. 182 9.1 18 1. g i v e n i n t h e f o u r t h column o f t h e t a b l e . 250 9. 250 9.7 70 6.0 265 1. 250 9.0 265 1.5 220 6. 295.5 255 5. 384 1. 301 1.0 222 5. 294 9.0 265 1. 10500 11 OOO 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 2 000 1 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 134 8. 385 2. 45l 0.7 90.0 282 7. 325 2.0 292 3. 205 3. 64j 7.1 59 13. 302 3.5O.25 265 1. 302 4. 250 9. 295. ~­ TABLE 2 .0 265 1.0 196 6.2 562 9.0 148 4.' .0 265 1.0 265 1.5 225 4. 322 1. The v a l u e a r e p r e s e n t s t h e speed of sound a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s .0 287 5.0 250 9. 387 7.0 262 2. 250 9.5 280 2. 429 3. 359 0.1 84 .000 m.0 265 1.2 156 0. 268 8.0 16 99 .31) f o r H.59 1. 383 3.5 290 4. M PHI uN Hg ~~ Hg uM PHI TH. 034. H = 11 OOO + BTI1In PI1 PH -a ~ ~~ (2.0 10 3.0 217 7. 250 9. 316. 5 .5 260 3.0 257 4. 250 9.0 252 6. 345 2. = 216. 332. 364 3.0 265 1.0 265 1.

3 0 ) a n d ( 2 .F o r m u l a s ( 2 . 3 4 ) assumes t h e form : T h i s f o r m u l a i s known a s t h e L a p l a c e f o r m u l a . w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s movable. Formula ( 2 . made o f b r a s s . by u s i n g t h e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t r a n s i t i o n from n a t u r a l l o g a r i t h m s t o t h e l o g 1 0 .27. . This formula has t h e form: H-BT in--o P av PH (2.. 3 4 ) i s o b t a i n e d by i n t e g r a t i n g E q u a t i o n ( 2 . 2 . 180 -_ --I1111 I I 1111I 1 1 1 1 I1111II I I 1. b u t t o t h e average temper­ a t u r e o f t h e column o f a i r which w e h a v e s e l e c t e d . ( z. and t o u s e t h i s t o c a l c u l a t e a hypsometric t a b l e f o r a d j u s t i n g and c o r r e c t i n g baro­ metric altimeters. r e l a t e d t o a f a i l u r e o f t h e a c t u a l a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t h e i g h t s from z e r o t o t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e of t h e a i r c r a f t t o a g r e e w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e standard atmosphere. s u i t a b l e for c o m p i l i n g h y p s o m e t . 2 7 a ) a t a constant average temperature: whence If w e c o n s i d e r t h a t GV=273 + LV=273 1 + . are n o t completely s u i t a b l e f or c a l c u l a t i n g t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e r r o r s i n t h e a l t i m e t e r . 3 0 1 . The box h a s two r i g i d p o i n t s ( o n t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m c o r r u g a t e d s u r f a c e s ) .11 I 111 1 1 . S i n c e t h e accur. o n e o f w h i c h i s f i x e d or t i g h t l y f a s t e n e d t o t h e c a s i n g o f t h e a p p a r ­ a t u s .acy o f a l t i t u d e measurement i s a f f e c t e d by t h e air temperature not only at the f l i g h t a l t i t u d e but a t a l l inter­ m e d i a t e l a y e r s f r o m t h e o n e on t h e g r o u n d up t o t h a t a t t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .34) Formula ( 2 . 3 3 1 . it i s b e t t e r t o u s e t h e formula which r e l a t e s t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e n o t t o t h e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t .) and t h e v a l u e B = 29. D e s c r i p t i o n of a B a r o m e t r i c A l t i m e t e r T h e s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t i n t h e b a r o m e t r i c a l t i m e t e r i s a cor­ r u g a t e d m a n o m e t r i c ( a n e r o i d ) b o x 1 ( F i g .11111111 I I 111./177 ri c t a b l e s and c a l i b r a t i n g a l t i m e t e r s .

30. Barometric When t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d a t s e a l e v e l . t h e k i n e m a t i c p o r t i o n of t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n c l u d e s elements i n t e n d e d f o r r e g u l a t i n g t h e 181 . t h e a n e r o i d b o x i s c o m p r e s s e d t o t h e maximum d e g r e e . s i n c e t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s ­ s u r e a c t i n g on i t h a s a maximum v a l u e .In principle.. 2. A s it moves. t h e a n e r o i d b o x c a n b e e i t h e r e v a c u a t e d or f i l l e d / 1 7 8 U s u a l l y . Fig. W i t h a g a i n i n a l t i t u d e . S c h e m a t i c Diagram of Altimeter. t h e s p a c e w i t h i n t h e box i s f i l l e d w i t h a gas t o a p r e s s u r e s u c h t h a t when t h e b o x i s h e a t e d . t h e motion of t h e c e n t e r of t h e box i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e on t h e s c a l e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . Thus. The c a s i n g o f t h e a l t i m e t e r i s h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d a n d c o n ­ n e c t e d by a n i p p l e t o a s e n s o r o f t h e a t m o s p h e r i c ( s t a t i c ) p r e s ­ sure. t h e c e n t e r d i s p l a c e s r o d 3 .. with a gas. t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i n t h e cham­ b e r d e c r e a s e s and t h e a n e r o i d box expands due t o i t s e l a s t i c prop­ e r t i e s . s h i f t i n g i t s m o v a b l e c e n t e r ( w i t h b i m e t a l l i c s h a f t 2 ) up­ ward. t h e t h e r m a l l o s s e s o f i t s e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s w i l l b e r o u g h l y compensated by a n i n c r e a s e i n g a s p r e s s u r e w i t h i n t h e b o x when i t i s h e a t e d . Shaft 5 carries a toothed s e c t o r 6 with a counterweight. which i n t u r n a c t s through a l e v e r 4 t o convey a r o t a r y motion t o s h a f t 5 . w h i c h t r a n s m i t s t h e movement t o t h e p o i n t e r through another gear. f i t t e d w i t h a c o g w h e e l 7 . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p a r t s l i s t e d above.

i t y of r o t a t i o n of t h e s h a f t . For c o m p e n s a t i o n o f t h i s e r r o r . I t is important not t o confuse t h e instrumental temperature e r r o r s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . This consists T u r n i n g t h e s c r e w p u s h e s t h e s t r i p away f r o m r o d 5 . H i g h t e m p e r a t u r e c o m p e n s a t o r .i n s t r u m e n t a n d a d j u s t i n g t h e b a c k l a s h i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n mechan­ ism. but i n t h e opposite direc­ tion. T h e r e g u l a t i n g mechanism o f of s t r i p 4 and a n adjustment screw. 1. ~ . The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e r r o r s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e changes i n p r e s s u r e with f l i g h t a l t i t u d e can only b e c o r r e c t e d by s p e c i a l f o r m u l a s . The t r a n s m i s s i o n r a t i o o f t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e s h a f t i s s e t s o t h a t t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e n e e d l e c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e atmo­ s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i n t h e casing of t h e a p p a r a t u . c a s i n g of t h e instrument i s s e t t o z e r o a l t i t u d e . t h e device. causing t h e i n d i c a t o r n e e d l e t o s h i f t from t h e z e r o a l t i t u d e r e a d i n g . When t h e e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e box change due t o t h e e f f e c t o f t e m p e r a t u r e . due t o d i f f e r e n t c o e f f i c i e n t s o f l i n e a r e x p a n s i o n f o r t h e two m a t e r i a l s o f which i t i s made. a n d t h e t r a v e l o f t h e c e n t e r o f t h e b o x i n c r e a s e s . i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e t it i n a p o s i t i o n such t h a t t h e d e f l e c t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e s h i f t of t h e c e n t e r of t h e box w i l l e x a c t l y correspond t o the additional t r a v e l of t h i s center. t h e loss o f e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e material i n t h e box creates a d d i t i o n a l compression. a n d c a n b e overcome by c o m p e n s a t o r s . 3 . a c t i n g on t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e mater­ i a l from which t h e s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t i s made. Then r o d 3 r e m a i n s i n p l a c e a n d t h e i n d i c a t o r n e e d l e w i l l n o t move f r o m t h e z e r o p o s i t i o n . which a r e compensated by t h e z e r o a n d a l t i t u d e b i m e t a l l i c compensators. with t h e methodological temper­ ature errors i n the altimeter. By r o t a t i n g t h e s t r i p i n i t s s o c k e t . t h i s n o t o n l y causes an a d d i t i o n a l compression a t z e r o a l t i t u d e b u t a l s o changes t h e amount b y w h i c h i t s c e n t e r moves w i t h a c h a n g e i n a l t i t u d e . The i n s t r u m e n t a l e r r o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e c a s i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . When t h e i n s t r u m e n t is h e a t e d . This device is intended/l79 f o r compensating t h e temperature changes i n t h e elastic p r o p e r t i e s If t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i n t h e of t h e box f o r z e r o a l t i t u d e . The b i ­ m e t a l l i c s t r i p b e n d s as t h e t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e s . 2. Zero-point b i m e t a l l i c compensator. The b u i l d i n g o f a c o m p e n s a t o r f o r methodo­ 182 . . b u t t h e temper­ a t u r e o f t h e b o x i n c r e a s e s . e . i . t h e e n d of t h e s t r i p b e n d s away f r o m t h e s h a f t . t h e transmission r a t i o of t h e apparatus. t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n r a t i o f o r r o t a t i n g s h a f t 5 a n d compen­ s a t i n g f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n s e n s i t i v i t y of t h e box. c h a n g i n g This i s used t o r e g u l a t e t h e angular veloc­ t h e a r m of t h e l e v e r . s t r i p 4 i s o f b i m e t a l l i c c o n s t r u c ­ tion.

T h u s . Errors i n Measuring A l t i t u d e w i t h a Barometric Altimeter The e r r o r s i n m e a s u r i n g t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e w i t h b a r o m e t r i c altimeters can be divided i n t o instrumental and methodological e r r o r s : These are r e l a t e d t o i n c o r r e c t adjustment . However. w h i l e t h e m o v a b l e i n d e x c a n b e s e t t o a n y a i r p o r t a l t i t u d e . t h e pressure a t t h e l e v e l of t h e air­ p o r t is n o t measured aboard t h e aircraft. by means o f d r i v i n g g e a r 1 0 . f r i c t i o n ( w e a r ) i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n mechanism. i s r o t a t e d w i t h i n t h e h o u s i n g by means o f a r a c k a n d p i n i o n 9 . The e r r o r s f r o m s o . I n c a s e s when p r e s s u r e s c a l e s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r a i r p o r t s located a t high a l t i t u d e s . I t i s u s e d f o r s h i f t i n g a movable i n d e x a l o n g t h e c i r c u l a r s c a l e of t h e i n s t r u m e n t .l o g i c a l e r r o r s i s i m p o s s i b l e . t h e p r e s s u r e s c a l e which can b e u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e main s c a l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r e s s u r e a t t h e l e v e l a t which t h e f l i g h t altitude is calculated. t h e r e is a pressure scale 8 f o r s e t t i n g t h e al­ timeter readings re l a t i v e t o a desired level. /180 a l t i m e t e r s a r e made w i t h t w o p o i n t e r s . t h e r e are a d d i t i o n a l g e a r s which i n c r e a s e t h e t r a n s ­ m i s s i o n r a t i o o f t h e mechanism s e v e r a l t i m e s .c a l l e d h y s t e r e s i s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y 183 I . a l o n g w i t h t h e a x i s o f t h e main p o i n t e r . s i n c e i n t h e g e n e r a l case t h e temper­ a t u r e of t h e casing is not equal t o t h e average a i r temperature f r o m z e r o a l t i t u d e up t o t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e o f t h e a i r c r a f t . and can b e s e t t o t h e b a r o m e t r i c a l t i t u d e o f t h e a i r p o r t where t h e l a n d i n g i s t o b e made. i t i s r o t a t e d by means of a r a c k and p i n i o n and d r i v i n g g e a r 10 a t an angular v e l o c i t y e q u a l t o t h e r a t e of t u r n o f t h e mechanism. t h e number o f r e v o l u ­ t i o n s of t h e p o i n t e r i s e q u a l t o t h e change i n a l t i t u d e i n thou­ sands of meters. T h i s means t h a t t h e a n e r o i d b o x i s made d o u b l e . The main p o i n t e r o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t makes s e v e r a l r e v o l u t i o n s . I r ~ s t r u m e n t a le r r o r s . c o n s i s t ­ i n g o f a d r i v i n g g e a r 1 0 a n d a d r i v e n g e a r 11. i n c r e a s i n g t h e t r a v e l o f t h e m o v a b l e c e n t e r by a f a c t o r o f two. Between t h e t o o t h e d s e c t o r and t h e a x i s o f t h e p o i n t e r . as w e l l as t e m p e r a t u r e e f f e c t s on t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e s e n s i t i v e element. 8 is s e t i n motion. The a l t i m e t e r mechanism. I n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e a l t i t u d e r e a d i n g s . t h e l a t t e r can o n l y be used o v e r a r a n g e o f p r e s s u r e s from 6 7 0 t o 790 m m Hg. a m o v a b l e r i n g i s m o u n t e d a r o u n d t h e main s c a l e . o f t h e a l t i m e t e r . I n t h e VD-10 a n d VD-20 a l t i m e t e r s . b u t r a t h e r t h e baromet­ r i c a l t i t u d e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s u s e d f o r s e t t i n g t h e movable i n d e x of t h e a l t i m e t e r . I n addition. t h e m a i n p o i n t e r o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t c a n b e s e t t o any d i v i s i o n on t h e s c a l e . T h i s s e r v e s t h e same p u r p o s e as t h e p r e s s u r e s c a l e . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y .

and d e s i g n ­ ing the static pressure sensor. i .g. /181 Methodological e r r o r s . i f t h e p r e s s u r e m e a s u r e d a t s e a l e v e l a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e a l t i t u d e i s m e a s u r e d d i f f e r s f r o m 7 6 0 mm Hg t o 1 5 m m . it i s rela­ t i v e l y easy t o compensate f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l e r r o r s i n t h e a p p a r a t u s . i . s o t h a t a l l measures a r e u s u a l l y t a k e n t o r e d u c e t h e m t o a minimum b y c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r ­ i n g t h e a p p a r a t u s . . as w e l l as i n making s p e c i a l f l i g h t s ( f o r p u r ­ poses of aerial photography. e. r e l a t e d t o dynamic f l i g h t of t h e a i r c r a f t . However. I n t h e b a r o m e t r i c method o f measur­ i n g a l t i t u d e . I n p r a c t i c e . a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s of 20. M e t h o d o l o g i c a l e r r o r s i n a l t i m e t e r s a r e e s t i m a t e d by d e t e r ­ mining t h e t r u e a l t i t u d e of t h e a i r c r a f t above t h e r e l i e f f o r s p e c i a l purposes and i n c a l c u l a t i n g safe f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s above t h e r e l i e f . t h e p r e s s u r e a l o n g t h e f l i g h t r o u t e . method­ o l o g i c a l e r r o r s i n measuring a l t i t u d e i n approaching a i r c r a f t are e x t r e m e l y r a r e . t h e s e include e r r o r s i n correspondence of t h e i n i t i a l a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . c o m p l i c a t e a p r e c i s e measurement of t h e b a r o m e t r i c a l t i t u d e a t great a l t i t u d e s and high speeds. t h e b a r i c s t a g e a t low f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s ( t h e d i f ­ f e r e n c e i n a l t i t u d e which corresponds t o a drop i n p r e s s u r e of 1 m m Hg) i s c o n s i d e r e d r o u g h l y e q u a l t o 11 m . However. e .i m p o r t a n t . 184 . In a f l i g h t according t o a t a b l e of c o r r e c t i o n s . t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e r r o r i n measuring t h e a l t i t u d e from t h e l e v e l of 7 6 0 mm w i l l b e 1 5 . . t h e r e s i d u a l deformation o f t h e s e n s i t i v e box w i t h changes i n f l i g h t a l t i t u d e of t h e aircraft over wide l i m i t s . and t h e average air temperature with t h e calculated data. r e l a t i v e t o sea l e v e l . s o t h a t t h e s e e r r o r s do n o t d i s t u r b t h e m u t u a l p o s i ­ t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t a n d a r e n o t t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . Under f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d i n c i v i l a i r c r a f t . s o t h a t t h e lowest f l i g h t a l t i t u d e o s c i l l a t e s as f o l l o w s : For e x a m p l e . Changes i n a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e a l o n g t h e f l i g h t r o u t e . T h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e b a r i c s t a g e w i t h f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . r e l a t e d only t o i t s r e g u l a t i o n . 1 4 t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n on t h e g r o u n d . instrumental errors include errors i n sensing t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e . are c a l c u l a t e d i n b a r i c s t a g e s . Consideration of a l l o t h e r i n s t r u ­ mental e r r o r s p r e s e n t s g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y .000 m y t h e b a r i c s t a g e i s e q u a l t o 1 5 5 m .1. as w e l l as t h e e r r o r s i n m e a s u r i n g s t a t i c p r e s s u r e due t o a e r o d y n a m i c p r o c ­ esses. s e l e c t i n g t h e p o i n t o f c a l i b r a t i o n . In addition. e . t h e y do have s i g n i f i c a n t value i n determining t h e safe f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a b o v e t h e r e l i e f .1 1 = 1 6 5 m .

11. (2. 1n-j-Q . a n d TH . i s t h e average a c t u a l temperature. a.35) w h e r e To a n d TH a r e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s on t h e g r o u n d a n d a t f l i g h t altitude . C are t h e a c t u a l and c a l c u l a t e d temperatures a t the altitude. For a l t i t u d e s a b o v e 1 2 . while i f t h e corrected pressure is lower than t h e c a l c u l a t e d p r e s s u r e . i f t h e c o r r e c t e d p r e s s u r e i s g r e a t e r t h a n 7 6 0 mm H g .‘Hinst TH C H . w e c a n c a l c u l a t e t h e s c a l e s o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e NL-10 f o r making c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e r e a d i n g s of a l t i m e t e r s f o r a i r t e m p e r a t u r e u p t o a l t i t u d e s o f 1 2 . Theref o r e . .H e n c e . 0 0 0 m . which a r i s e due t o a f a i l u r e o f t h e a c t u a l mean a i r t e m p e r a t u r e t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e c a l c u l a t e d t e m p e r a t u r e . Whence H c o rr . /182 Methodological e r r o r s i n t h e a l t i m e t e r . a n d t h e c o r r e c t e d a l t i t u d e m u s t b e d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e a c t u a l a l t i t u d e . e q u a l t o 7 7 5 mm i n our e x a m p l e .OOO>.-H i n s t T av. a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r by means o f a n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e . . e . P Hcorr = BT av. By u s i n g F o r m u l a ( 2 .c. it w i l l have a minus s i g n . Po p where T a v a c i s t h e a v e r a g e c a l c u l a t e d t e m p e r a t u r e and TaVsa. t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e a l t i m e t e r w i l l b e reduced and t h e c o r r e c t i o n w i l l have t o c a r r y a p l u s s i g n .000 = a . 185 . t h e e q u a t i o n r e a d s as f o l l o w s : Hinst = BT av. a d e s c r i p t i o n of which i s g i v e n below. 0 0 0 m y t h e c o r r e c t e d a l t i t u d e i s f o u n d by t h e f o r m u l a m corr w h e r e TH. 1’ h v .a. In. respectively. Proceeding from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n d i c a t e s a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c a l c u l a t e d mean t e m p e r a t u p e o f t h e a i r . 3 5 ) . c. i .ll.

A t the present t i m e . t h e speed of t h e flow must b e g r e a t e r t h a n i n a wide s e c t i o n . t h e prod­ u c t o f t h e s p e e d of a n a i r c u r r e n t ( V ) m u l t i p l i e d b y t h e c r a s s s e c ­ t i o n a l area of a t u b e ( S ) must b e uniform everywhere w i t h i n i t s cross section.5O /183 4. 2 . i f t h e t u b e i s n o t h o r i z o n t a l . In a d d i t i o n . but i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e even The f a c t i s t h a t t h e s t a b i l i t y a n d m a n e u v e r a b i l i t y o f a n a i r ­ c r a f t depen. Consequently. The o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e of a i r s p e e d i n d i c a t o r s i s b a s e d on a m e a s u r e m e n t of t h e a e r o d y n a m i c p r e s s u r e of t h e i n c i d e n t a i r f l o w . t i a l methods of m e a s u r i n g t h e s p e e d r e l a t i t h e measurement of a i r s p e e d does n o t l o s e i n t h e presence of such equipment. s o t h a t a s i m p l e s t a n d e a s i e s t method f r o m t h e t e c h n i c a l s t a n d p o i n t f o r measuring a i r s p e e d would b e t o measure t h e aerodynamic p r e s ­ s u r e or s o . 3 1 ) . t h e o p e r a t i o n a l regime o f t h e m o t o r s on t h e a i r c r a f t a n d t h e f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n d e p e n d on the airspeed. w o r k i n g w i t h i n c o m p r e s s i b l e l i q u i d s or g a s e s ( F i g . t h e s p e e d of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e s i n c e t h e a i r m a s s p r a c t i c a l l y always has tive t o the latter.c a l l e d v e l o c i t y h e a d o f t h e i n c i d e n t a i r f l o w .36) 216. i n a narrow p a r t of t h e t u b e . According t o t h e p r i n c i p l e of i n s e p a r a b i l i t y of flow. The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e r a t e o f m o t i o n o f a l i q u i d or g a s and i t s dynamic a n d s t a t i c p r e s s u r e w a s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e S t . i t s own m o v e m e n t r e l a ­ t h e r e a r e r a d i a l a n d i n e r­ v e t o t h e ground. a mass o f g a s m e n t e r s t h e t u b e d u r i n g a t i m e At w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s a n e n e r g y c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e components: t h e p o t e n t i a l energy of t h e gas t h e k i n e t i c energy V: --. P e t e r s b u r g A c a d e m i c i a n D a n i e l B e r n o u l l i (1738). I n t h e g e n e r a l c a s e . Airspeed I n d i c a t o r s T h e f l i g h t o f a n a i r c r a f t t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e medium o f a i r . 2 ni ’ a n d t h e work o f i n f l u x i n t o t h e t u b e 18 6 I I 1I 1 .ds on t h e a i r s p e e d .The n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e f o r t h e s e a l t i t u d e s i s a l s o p r o ­ v i d e d w i t h l o g a r i t h m i c scales a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m u l a ( co r r -11. For p u r p o s e s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . i t i s b e t t e r t o measure s u r f a c e of t h e ground.000) = lgTH + a lg Hinst -11.000 (2.

a n d p i s t h e gas p r e s s u r e i n s i d e t h e tube. For a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n . V i s t h e i n t e r n a l (thermal) energy of t h e g a s . i . 2. s i n c e t h e dynamic component i s p r o p o r ­ t i o n a l t o t h e gas d e n s i t y ( f l u i d d e n s i t y ) a n d t h e s q u a r e o f t h e speed of flow. t h e sum o f t h e d y n a m i c a n d s t a t i c p r e s s u r e s a t a n y p o i n t i n t h e t u b e r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t .where g i s t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n due t o t h e E a r t h ' s g r a v i t y . e .31. Flow i n a Tube w i t h V a r y i n g Cross Section. w h e n t h e p r o c e s s t a k e s p l a c e with compression of t h e gas ( a i r ) without exchange of h e a t energy w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g medium. therefore (2. h i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e g a s l e v e l s .37) i . 187 . dividing t h e mass i n t o t h e v o l u m e g i v e s u s t h e d e n s i t y ( p ) . w h i c h i s Fig. These components d e t e r m i n e t h e e n e r g y o f t h e g a s f l o w i n g o u t of t h e tube. t h i s e q u a t i o n t a k e s t h e form: (2. Therefore /184 The p r o d u c t S V A t i s t h e volume of f l u i d f l o w i n g t h r o u g h t h e cross section of t h e tube i n a t i m e A t . e . tal. which a l m o s t a l w a y s c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d f o r h i g h s p e e d e v e n t s . .38) w h e r e y i s t h e u n i t w e i g h t ( w e i g h t d e n s i t y ) of t h e g a s . . If t h e t u b e t h r o u g h which t h e c u r r e n t i s f l o w i n g i s h o r i z o n ­ hl = h2. Therefore. and E is t h e p o t e n t i a l energy of t h e g a s .

2. i f w e m u l t i p l y them by m g . p / y i s t h e e n e r g y o f t h e p r e s s u r e . . and t h e p r e s s u r e p 1 w i l l correspond t o t h e static pressure of t h e a i r at f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .32 tube). t h e v a l u e s y and U are constants. For m e a s u r e m e n t s o f a i r s p e e d . a change i n t h e r a t e of a i r f l o w d u r i n g f l i g h t due t o t h e f l o w b e i n g r e t a r d e d i s u s u a l l y n e g l i g i b l e .39) L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h a t f o r a i r s p e e d s u p t o 4 0 0 k m / h r t h e com­ p r e s s i o n of t h e a i r can b e d i s r e g a r d e d . e . Obviously.T h e r e f o r e . S i n c e y H = p H g ( w h e r e p H i s t h e mass d e n s i t y ) . 3 9 ) assumes t h e form: v2 where y . t h e d i f f e r e n c e 188 . Then E q u a t i o n ( 2 . a n d E q u a t i o n ( 2 . t h e component E c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d c o n s t a n t a n d may b e o m i t t e d f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n .32. a t t h i s p o i n t t h e pressure p 2 w i l l correspond t o t h e t o t a l p r e s s u r e ( t h e v e l o c i t y head p l u s t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e ) . Sensor ( P i l o t Tube). Then e a c h o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t e r m s of t h e e q u a t i o n . a n d U i s t h e thermal energy. F i g u r e 2. Within t h e l i m i t s of t h e opening i n t h e s e n s o r f o r t o t a l pres­ s u r e . /185 shows t h e o p e r a t i o n of a n a i r p r e s s u r e s e n s o r ( P i t o t I n t h e cross s e c t i o n of t h e a i r f l o w . i . t h e r a t e of flow w i l l be equal t o zero ( t h e c r i t i c a l current or c u r r e n t o f c o m p l e t e b r a k i n g ) .40) H is t h e u n i t weight of gas a t a given a l t i t u d e . 3 8 ) a c q u i r e s t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m for t h i s c a s e : (2. (1) S t a t i c P r e s s u r e p s t . ( 2 ) T o t a l P r e s s u r e ptotal. w i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e component e n e r g y i n c l u d e d i n a u n i t mass o f g a s f l o w : V2/2g e q u a l s t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y o f t h e f l o w ( f o r a u n i t mass m V 2 / 2 ) . t h e speed V I w i l l cor­ respond t o t h e a i r s p e e d .PtotalPst YH 29- (2. w e c a n u s e s e n s o r s w h i c h a l l o w us t o s e p a r a t e t h e dynamic a i r p r e s s u r e from t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e . I’ Air-Pressure Fig.

T h i s d r o p c a u s e s movement o f t h e t o p o f t h e b o x . w h i c h i s m e a s u r e d o n l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e v e l o c ­ I n view i t y h e a d .41) The t o t a l p r e s s u r e a l o n g t h e t u b e i s a d m i t t e d t o t h e i n t e r ­ i o r of a f l e x i b l e b o x . The s t a t i c p r e s s u r e r e a c h e s t h e h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d c h a m b e r o f t h e i n d i c a t o r t h r o u g h a n o p e n i n g made i n t h e s i d e of t h e pressure s e n s o r and through a n i p p l e . Under o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . A s a result.41) for l o w s p e e d s . A t high a l t i t u d e s and speeds. w h i c h c a n t r a n s m i t i t s movement by means o f a s y s t e m o f g e a r s s i m i l a r t o t h e mechanism i n a s i n g l e .3 5 0 . o f t h e f a c t t h a t c a l i b r a t i o n o f t h e s p e e d i n d i c a t o r i s made f o r f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s a t sea l e v e l a t s t a n d a r d t e m p e r a t u r e and a i r p r e s ­ s u r e . can be used t o d e s c r i b e a i r s p e e d i n d i c a t o r s I f we i n t r o d u c e t h e w e i g h t d e n s i t y t o t h i s formula i n t h e form Formula (2. e v e n t u a l l y moving a p o i n t e r on a n a x i s t o s h o w t h e a i r s p e e d on a s c a l e w h i c h i s g r a d u a t e d i n kilometers per hr. i s c a l l e d t h e a e r o d y n a m i c or i n d i c a t e d s p e e d . w h i c h w i l l b e e q u a l t o t h e v e l o c i t y head. T h e a i r s p e e d . there w i l l b e a p r e s s u r e d r o p b e t w e e n t h e i n t e r n a l s p a c e o f t h e box and /186 t h e medium s u r r o u n d i n g t h e b o x . b u t a l s o t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e and t h e temper­ ature of the a i r at f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . t h e i n d i c a t e d s p e e d must b e c o n v e r t e d t o t h e t r u e a i r s p e e d .42) I t i s c l e a r from t h i s formula t h a t i n o r d e r t o determine t h e t r u e a i r s p e e d . t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a i r ­ 189 . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know n o t o n l y t h e v a l u e o f t h e v e l o c i t y head. however. s u c h a s t h e U S .between t h e t o t a l and s t a t i c p r e s s u r e s to ( v e l o c i t y head) w i l l be equal whence (2. during f l i g h t under these conditions t h e indicated speed w i l l be equal t o t h e t r u e airspeed. whence v = (2.p o i n t e r a l t i m e t e r .

t h e reg­ o f t h e s y s t e m s i n t h e C S I a r e made b y t a k i n g t h e c o m p r e s ­ t h e a i r i n t o a c c o u n t when t h e f l o w i s r e t a r d e d i n t h e d e t e c ­ t o t a l pressure. f o r a i r s p e e d s above 400 km/hr. t h i s i n d i c a t o r d i f f e r s f r o m t h e u s u a l s p e e d i n d i c a t o r s i n t h a t t h e s p e e d i s measured i n two ways: ( a ) T h e f i r s t m e t h o d c o n s i s t s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s y s t e m for i n d i c a t i n g speed and i s used t o measure t h e i n d i c a t e d a i r s p e e d ( t h e l a r g e p o i n t e r on t h e d i a l ) .s p e e d and t h e i n d i c a t e d s p e e d becomes s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t it becomes d i f f i c u l t t o use t h e l a t t e r f o r navigational purposes. w h i c h c h a n g e s t h e l e n g t h of t h e a r m of a c o n t r o l l e v e r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i n t e r n a l e n e r g y o f t h e g a s . t h e s e n s o r f o r t o t a l p r e s s u r e i s u s u a l l y s e p a r a t e d from t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e i n d i c a t o r . f o r t h e c o m p r e s s i o n o f t h e a i r i n t o a c c o u n t as w e l l . I t s h o u l d b e mentioned t h a t i n t h e case of h i g h s p e e d a i r c r a f t . where K = 3 190 . a combined s p e e d i n d i c a t o r "CSI" h a s been developed. c o m p r e s s i o n o f t h e a i r on b r a k i n g w i l l b e accom­ p a n i e d by h e a t i n g . I n terms o f i t s d e s i g n . p r e s s u r e . w i t h r e t e n t i o n o f c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e and c o n s t a n t volume. which measures both t h e i n d i ­ c a t e d and t r u e a i r s p e e d . and v i c e v e r s a . s o t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t t h e most s u i t ­ T h i s means t h a t a b l e p o s i t i o n f o r m o u n t i n g them on t h e a i r c r a f t . (b) The s e c o n d s y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e s a s p e c i a l c o m p e n s a t o r f o r c h a n g e s i n a i r d e n s i t y w i t h a l t i t u d e b y m e a n s o f a s y s t e m o f g e a r s /187 a n d i s u s e d t o measllre t h e a i r s p e e d . it becomes n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e Therefore. In addi­ t i o n . T h e r e f o r e . a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i n g a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s and s p e e d s . In ulation sion of tor for addition t o t h e d e t a i l s of design described above. increasing t h e l a t t e r ' s mechanical a d v a n t a g e when t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e ( a s w e l l a s t h e d e n s i t y of t h e a i r a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ) i s reduced. and w e i g h t d e n s i t i e s i s e x p r e s s e d by t h e formula: its (2. The c o m p e n s a t o r i s a n a n e r o i d b o x . t h e r o l e o f t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e i n d i c a t o r i s p l a y e d by o p e n i n g s w h i c h a r e made o n t h e l a t e r a l s u r f a c e o f t h e f u s e l a g e o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t and are l i n k e d t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f by t u b i n g .43) i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e s p e c i f i c heats r e t h e g a s when i t bV i s h e a t e d . and t h e r e f o r e by an i n c r e a s e i n i t s i n t e r n a l energy.

s o t h a t P s t / y l equation i n t h e form: = BTH. w e can r e w r i t e t h i s and f i n a l l y o b t a i n t h e f o r m u l a which c a n b e u s e d t o c a l i b r a t e t h e combined s p e e d i n d i c a t o r by t h e a i r s p e e d i n t h e c h a n n e l f o r s u b s o n i c airspeeds: V= K- 1 (2.44) A f t e r m a k i n g some s i m p l e c o n v e r s i o n s . By s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e v a l u e U i n t o F o r m u l a ( 2 . t h e r e i s a n e q u a t i o n w h i c h i s k n o w n / l 8 8 as t h e M e n d e l e y e v .45).46) 19 1 I . t h i s c o e f f i c i e n t i s K = 1. w e w i l l have: (2.45) For t h e a d i a b a t i c p r o c e s s . w e c a n c h a n g e i t t o r e a d as f o l l o w s : or (2. 3 9 1 .4. we o b t a i n Assuming t h a t y 1 = Y H .C l a p e y r o n e q u a t i o n : from which w e o b t a i n f o r o u r c a s e 1 S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e v a l u e y1/y2 i n F o r m u l a (2.For a i r . taking pst/yl out of t h e parentheses.

46) i s s o l v e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e p r e s s u r e s and assumes t h e form: (2.5 6 . w h i l e B = 29. a' If w e r e p l a c e K g B T i n F o r m u l a ( 2 . up t o 1 1 . I n o t h e r words.27 m/degree. = ) / m T = 20. 5 O C).47) or. i f w e i n s e r t t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s o f K . 9. Therefore. t h e flow airspeeds. B. A s w e have already pointed o u t . of t h e p a r t i c l e s d i f f e r s from t h e i r flow a t s u b s o n i c s p e e d .46) i s v a l i d f o r subsonic A t s p e e d s which exceed t h e s p e e d o f sound. i n which t h e r a t e of f l o w d e c r e a s e s s h a r p l y while the pressure increases sharply. i f g = 9 . Therefore. corresponding t o t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h e s e n s o r s of t o t a l and s t a t i c pressure under t h e given f l i g h t conditions. and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t is e q u a l t o 1 . at supersonic speeds. /189 The l o c a l c o m p r e s s i o n p r o d u c e d i n t h e a i r b y t h e a i r c r a f t c a n ­ n o t propagate i t s e l f i n t h e atmosphere faster t h a n t h e speed of sound. . l o c a l interruptions i n d e n s i t y are produced. 0 0 0 m y T H = 288O-6. (2. i . e . sound T h e r a t i o o f t h e a i r s p e e d t o t h e r a t e o f p r o p a g a t i o n of i n a i r i s c a l l e d t h e Mach number: V M = .000 m T H = 216.3 for a i r 1/T m / s e c . (2.5OHY a n d a b o v e 11.48) 19 2 . w e w i l l h a v e t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r M (Mach n u m b e r ) f o r s u b s o n i c a i r s p e e d s : (2. W know t h a t t h e r a t e a t w h i c h s o u n d t r a v e l s ( a ) i n a i r d e ­ e p e n d s o n l y o n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e medium a n d i s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e formula a = JKqBT.5O K ( . 4 . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e p r e s s u r e i n i t s manometric box and i n t h e housing o f t h e appar­ a t u s .The t e m p e r a t u r e a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ( T H ) i s assumed t o b e s t a n ­ d a r d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ( o r p s t ) . 4 6 ) b y a 2 . To c a l i b r a t e t h e a i r s p e e d i n d i c a t o r . 8 1 m/sec2.

instrumental errors also include errors i n sensing dynamic and e s p e c i a l l y s t a t i c p r e s s u r e s w i t h s e n s o r s which depend on t h e m o u n t i n g l o c a t i o n o n t h e a i r c r a f t . I n s t r u m e n t a l e r r o r s i n c l u d e t h o s e which a r e r e l a t e d t o i m p r o p e r a d j u s t m e n t of t h e a p p a r a t u s a n d i n s t a b i l i t y of i t s o p e r ­ a t i o n w i t h c h a n g e s i n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e mechanism i n t h e d e v i c e .4.K- -. w e w i l l o b t a i n t h e f o r m u l a for c a l i b r a t i n g t h e airspeed indicator f o r supersonic airspeeds: Pst (2. t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e errors i n indicating the static pressure f o r a given type of air­ craft.1.The l a t t e r f o r m u l a i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e Mach n u m b e r .49) I n t h i s f o r m u l a . t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e . i f w e r e p l a c e M 2 by i t s v a l u e as o b t a i n e d i n E q u a t i o n ( 2 . 2K 1 ~ 1 - . which a r e c o m p i l e d wh. e q u a l t o i n Equation ( 2 . a n d t h e Mach n u m b e r i s e X r e s s e d P as f o llows : P . w e can c o n v e r t i t t o t h e s i m p l e r form: /190 Errors i n Measuring A i r s p e e d Errors i n measuring airspeed.en t h e a p p a r a t u s i s t e s t e d . t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t o t a l p r e s s u r e . 5 0 ) . I n s t r u m e n t a l e r r o r s are c o r r e c t e d by c o r r e c t i o n c h a r t s . ' (2.total- 'st P st M. If w e s u b s t i t u t e t h e n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s o f K f o r a i r . t o measure a i r t e m p e r a t u r e f o r t h i s purpose. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know o n l y t h e v e l o c i t y h e a d a n d There i s no n e c e s s i t y the static pressure at f l i g h t altitudes. F or s u b s o n i c a i r s p e e d s .50) 1. In addition. 4 8 ) . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l errors i n c l u d e t h o s e i n v o ' l v i n g f a i l u r e o f t h e a c t u a l a i r temperature a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e t o correspond with t h e 193 . l i k e those involved i n measuring f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o i n s t r u m e n t a l a n d me-thodolog­ i c a l ones.

S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g . a s w e l l as i n t h e g r a p h w h i c h i s t h e r e s u l t o f a c c u r a t e f o r m u l a s ."c0mp. s i n c e t h e i n d i c a t e d speed has i t s own i n d e p e n d e n t v a l u e . f r o m t h e n a v i g q t i o n a l s t a n d ­ p o i n t .3 5 0 or US-700). 19 4 . s o t h a t t h e methods of c a l c u l a t i n g t h e methodological e r r o r s can be viewed sepa­ rately. I n aircraft n a v i g a t i o n .a. I t s h o u l d b e m e n t i o n e d f i r s t of a l l t h a t t h e d i a l s o f s p e e d i n d i c a t o r s are c a l i b r a t e d t o t a k e i n t o account t h e compressibil­ i t y of t h e a i r f o r a t r u e a i r s p e e d e q u a l t o t h e i n d i c a t e d speed. However. w h e r e high-speed a i r c r a f t p r a c t i c a l l y n e v e r f l y . t h e methodological c o r r e c t i o n s which must be taken i n t o account i n converting t h e indicated speed t o t h e air+ soeed. However. 2 . w e w i l l l i m i t o u r s e l v e s discussing only t h e simple approximate formula (2 w h e r e Vir?d i s t h e i n d i c a t e d a i r s p e e d a n d A V c o m p f o r t h e indicated speed. i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s i n v o l v e s an e r r o r which i s r e l a t e d t o a f a i l ­ u r e of t h e a c t u a l a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e g i v e n a l t i t u d e t o c o r r e ­ spond t o s t a n d a r d t e m p e r a t u r e . a n d t h e y a r e u s e d t o draw u p a t a b l e of c o r r e c t i o n s ( F i g . a s w e l l as t h e combined i n d i c a t o r (Type CSI-1200) and o t h e r s . t h e t r u e a i r s p e e d i s almost always much g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i n d i c a t e d s p e e d . There are s p e c i a l . it i s p o s s i b l e t o use both t h e s i n g l e p o i n t e r d i a l f o r i n d i c a t e d s p e e d ( T y p e U S .c. t h e s e e r r o r s can be d i s ­ regarded. A f t e r making t h e c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e i n d i c a t e d speed f o r t h e compression of t h e a i r . 3 3 ) . p r e c i s e formulas f o r determining t h e cor­ r e c t i o n s f o r AVcomp f o r u s e w i t h i n d i c a t o r s o f i n s t r u m e n t s p e e d a t s u b s o n i c a n d s u p e r s o n i c a i r s p e e d s . it i s convenient t o c o n s i d e r them methodological e r r o r s . s o t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e i s a n e r r o r i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e com­ p r e s s i o n of t h e a i r a t t h e a c t u a l a n d c a l c u l a t e d a i r s p e e d s : "comp - . if w e r e c a l l t h a t l a r g e v a r i a t i o n s i n t e m p e r a t u r e u s u a l l y o c c u r o n l y a t low a l t i t u d e s . -AV c0mp. are n o t i n s t r u m e n t e r r o r s . is the correction I n t h e a p p r o x i m a t e f o r m u l a g i v e n a b o v e . and w i t h t h e temperature and p r e s s u r e f o r o t h e r speed i n d i c a t o r s . I n f a c t .c a l c u l a t e d t e m p e r a t u r e f o r combined i n d i c a t o r s of s p e e d . a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s . t h e c o r r e c t i o n s f o r com­ It p r e s s i o n a r e d e t e r m i n e d o n l y as a f u n c t i o n o f f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . conversion o f t h e l a t t e r i n t o a i r s p e e d s i s d o n e on a n n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e .

as shown b y a c o m b i n e d s p e e d i n d i c a t o r u n d e r s t a n d a r d t e m p e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s . 2 7 . 5 deg/km. 0 2 2 6 ~ p ~ .628lg(l-O. 5 3 ) we c a n c o n v e r t t h e l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e s of n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e s f o r c o n v e r t i n g t h e i n d i c a t e d airspeed into the true airspeed. we and i f w e l e t t h e v a l u e p H b e s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o Formula ( 2 .53) A c c o r d i n g t o F o r m u l a ( 2 . W w i l l then obtain: e PH =P ( 1 o -0 . C a l i b r a t i o n of t h e combined s p e e d i n d i c a t o r on t h e b a s i s o f t h e t r u e a i r s p e e d i s p e r f o r m e d by t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e compres­ s i b i l i t y of t h e a i r over t h e e n t i r e range of t h e scale. 2 (2. i s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e formula­ 195 . 1192 S i n c e t h e a i r s p e e d .0226H$6628 or 'true- - Ig Vinst+-1g(273+ 1 2 fH)-. 2 8 ) t h e f o l l o w i n g v a l u e s : T o = 288O K . L e t u s s u b s t i t u t e i n t o Formula ( 2 .S i n c e t h e d i a l of t h e i n d i c a t e d a i r s p e e d i s c a l i b r a t e d by t h e formula and t h e a i r s p e e d is t h e n i f w e d i v i d e t h e s e c o n d f o r m u l a by t h e f i r s t w e w i l l o b t a i n : (2. The methodo­ l o g i c a l e r r o r i n t h e reading is r e l a t e d only t o t h e differences between t h e a c t u a l a i r temperature and t h e c a l c u l a t e d temperature at the flight altitude.52) +gr = 6 . w i l l obtain: 1 (1 -0. 5 2 ) .0226H).1 Ig288-2. a n d B = 2 9 .

which a r e r e l a t e d t o e r r o r s i n r e c o r d i n g t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e by the air pressure sensors.54a) Relationship Between Errors i n Speed F1 i g h t A 1 t i t u d e I n d i c a t o r s and I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e e r r o r s i n b a r o m e t r i c a l t i m e t e r s and a i r s p e e d i n d i c a t o r s . T h i s i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t it it immensely e a s i e r t o measure t h e p r e s s u r e of a r e t a r d e d a i r f l o w w i t h a s e n s o r t h a t i s aimed i n t o t h e a i r f l o w . i n s t r u m e n t a l e r r o r s of aerodynamic o r i g i n are found. w e w i l l h a v e : V or corr =V CSI 1/ g1 P (2.1 O M for a c o m b i n e d s p e e d i n d i c a t o r : (2. I n connection w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e from t h e s e n s o r i s t r a n s m i t t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o t h e h e r m e t i c chambers of t h e s p e e d a n d a l t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r s .54) After looking up t h e logarithm of t h e l a t t e r .p r e s s u r e s e n s o r . E x p e r i e n c e h a s shown t h a t a e r o d y n a m i c e r r o r s i n t h e s p e e d i n ­ d i c a t o r s due t o i n c o r r e c t r e c o r d i n g of t h e dynamic p r e s s u r e are n e g l i g i b l y small by comparison w i t h t h e e r r o r s i n i n c o r r e c t re­ cording of s t a t i c p r e s s u r e . s u c h t h a t t h e l a t t e r w i l l n o t b e d i s t o r t e d by t h e a i r f l o w o v e r t h e body o f the aircraft.I1 I a n d t h e c o r r e c t e d v a l u e f o r t h e a i r s p e e d a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i n ac­ cordance with t h e actual temperature i s [(Ptotal-Pst + i fl.1 1 . w e w i l l o b t a i n a f o r m u l a w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o c o n s t r u c t t h e l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e on t h e N L . ) ~ p st if w e d i v i d e t h e s e c o n d f o r m u l a i n t o t h e f i r s t . t h e r e m u s t b e a m u t u a l r e l a ­ 19 6 . t h a n i t i s t o s e l e c t a l o c a t i o n on a n a i r c r a f t f o r a s t a t i c .

6 s h o w s t h e mano­ 19 7 . t h e v e l o c i t y h e a d a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h t h e d i a l of t h e speed i n d i c a t o r i s c a l i b r a t e d i s equal t o (2. 6 . According t o t h e hypsometric t a b l e . Formula ( 2 . 5 6 ) . Sol u t i on: ApP. 8 . 5 = . a t a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e of 5000 m y t h e aerodynamic c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e speed Find t h e aerodynamic e r r o r i n i n d i c a t o r i s 36 k m / h r . r e l a t i v e t o a n a r e a o f 1 m 2 . SO t h a t w e f i n a l l y obtain APst= 735. h e n c e .55) Since t h e e r r o r s i n measuring t h e v e l o c i t y head are e q u a l t o t h e e r r o r s i n measuring t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e . 6 = 7 3 5 m m Hg. c u r y i s 1 3 .6 shows t h e v e l o c i t y head a t v a r i b u s i n d i c a t e d a i r ­ s p e e d s . The a l t i m e t e r error c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d m o r e p r e c i s e l y i f w e know t h e dynamic p r e s s u r e and t a k e i n t o account t h e compression o f t h e a i r at different instrument readings. 0 0 0 t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l u e f o r 1 c m 2 .2100= 10. t h e p r e s s u r e e x p r e s s e d by ( 2 . the altimeter. T a b l e 2. s o t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e of 1 k g / c m 2 w o u l d e q u a l l O . b u t it y i e l d s s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s u p t o a n i n d i c a t e d a i r s p e e d of 4 0 0 k m / h r .8 mm Hg .t=0.56) The s t a t i c Under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s . and can be used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e aerodynamic c o r r e c t i o n s of t h e altimeter. Example: A t a n i n d i c a t e d s p e e d o f 396 k m / h r ( 1 1 0 m / s e c ) . P O = 0 .0048 A ( V z ) . 5 6 ) i s an approximate one. t h e b a r i c s t a g e a t a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e o f 5 0 0 0 m i s e q u a l t o 1 8 . then (2. 1 2 5 k g / s e c 2 / m 4 .0. The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f m e r ­ p r e s s u r e i s u s u a l l y g i v e n i n m m Hg.125 2.200 m. A t t h e same t i m e . T h e t h i r d c o l u m n i n T a b l e 2 . s i n c e t h e p a r a m e t e r p h a s m 4 i n t h e d e n o m i ­ n a t o r . must be d i v i d e d by 1 0 . O O O / 1 3 . On t h e o t h e r h a n d .10000 /193 A ( W) -0.0048.1 0 . 5 mm Hg. 1 8 .IO@) =0.0048(11M. t h e a e r o ­ dynamic component i n t h e a l t i m e t e r e r r o r i s AH = . ( 1 0 m / s e c ) .t i o n s h i p between t h e e r r o r s i n t h e measurement of a l t i t u d e and s p e e d owing t o e r r o r s i n r e c o r d i n g t h e p r e s s u r e .

37 32.92 2.I I I l l 1 I l l I 1 r m e t r i c s t a g e .27 58.36 0.3 22.23 1.6 1525.6 1.162 0*2 0.8 0.89 3.054 0.42 1. it w i l l be easy t o determine t h e aerodynamic c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e altimeter f o r a given f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .04 1.4 inst F i g .089 0. e .46 0.2 947.126 0. . TABLE 2.25 74. i .8 787.8 645.08 2. 2.53 700 800 900 loo0 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 188.7 135.23 2.3 252 322 418 522.2 1125.28 0. t h e change i n p r e s s u r e w i t h change i n a i r s p e e d If w e m u l t i p l y t h e a e r o d y n a m i c c o r r e c t i o n o f t h e s p e e d by 1 km/hr. 'inst I / 19 4 _.23 92.41 0.7 1748.4 1317. 19 8 .57 8 14.5 0.24 0. 1 km/hr 06 .78 1. G r a p h of C o r r e c t i o n s for A i r C o m p r e s sion.96 1.32 0.33.4 44.35 112.s 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 0.6. i n d i c a t o r by t h e manometric s t a g e and t h e n u s e t h e h y p s o m e t r i c t a b l e .7 0.

a t h i g h a i r s p e e d s . t h e same r e s i s t a n c e w h e n c o n n e c t e d i n p a i r s . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . i n d i ­ c a t e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h a n a c c u r a c y o f 2-3O. .34.5. t h u s a f f e c t i n g t h e amount o f c u r r e n t which p a s s e s through b r i d g e A B with t h e temperature indicator connected t o it. For an e x a c t determination of t h e methodological e r r o r s of t h i s thermometer. e l e c t r i c t h e r m o m e t e r s a r e u s e d f o r meas­ u r i n g t h e o u t s i d e a i r temperature.44) can b e changed t o 19 9 . /195 The t h e r m o m e t e r f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e o u t s i d e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i s a r e m o t e . a s w e l l a s 2 a n d 2 1 . due t o d r a g a n d a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n o f t h e a i r f l o w on t h e f o r w a r d s e c t i o n o f t h e s e n s o r . a n d i s m o u n t e d on t h e s u r f a c e of t h e a i r c r a f t t o be exposed t o airflow. h a v e . and t h e i r o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e i s b a s e d on t h e c h a n g e s i n e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y of m a t e r i a l s d e p e n d i n g on t h e i r temp e r a t u r e . i .c o n t r o l l e d i n s t r u m e n t . i t s r e s i s t a n c e c h a n g e s .34 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f s u c h a t h e r m o m e t e r i s shown i n F i g u r e a n d c o n s i s t s o f a n e l e c t r i c a l b r i d g e made o f r e s i s t o r s . as i s t h e c a s e i n s e n s o r s u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e t o t a l pressure i n airspeed indicators. (2. However. i t s s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t i s mounted o u t s i d e t h e c a b i n o f t h e a i r c r a f t a n d i:s e x p o s e d t o t h e a i r f l o w . S c h e m a t i c Diagram of E l e c t r i c Thermometer. D e p e n d i n g on t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of a r m 2 1 . n o s u p p l y v o l t a g e w i l l flow t h r o u g h b r i d g e AB and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h t h e t e m p e r a t u r e indicator. when u s e d a t low a i r s p e e d s . w h i l e t h e i n d i c a t o r i s mounted on t h e i n s t r u m e n t p a n e l i n t h e c o c k p i t . If w e k e e p i n mind t h a t y = p / B T . I f t h e arms o f t h e b r i d g e 1 a n d 1 1 . Thermometers of t h i s k i n d . One a r m o f t h e b r i d g e ( 2 1 ) i s made o f a m a t e r i a l w h i c h h a s a high thermoelectric coefficient. e . t h e l a t t e r i s s u b j e c t e d t o l o c a l h e a t i n g t h a t c r e a t e s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l errors i n m e a s u r i n g t e m p e r ­ ature. 2. 2. Measurement o f t h e Temperature o f t h e Outside Air Measurement o f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e o u t s i d e a i r d u r i n g f l i g h t is necessary first of a l l f o r determining t h e t r u e values of t h e a i r s p e e d and f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . w e w i l l r e q u i r e a s e n s o r with complete braking of t h e a i r f l o w . Fig.

we AT= A t = 2000 ’ where V i s t h e v e l o c i t y . l o c a t e d on t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e . The TUE a n d T N V t h e r ­ mometers i n u s e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e h a v e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f d r a g which a r e n e a r l y t h e same ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 2.27. 7 ) . S i n c e t h e c o n v e r s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r c h a n g i n g from m / s e c t o i s 3 . The s c a l e of c o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h e thermometer f o r measuring o u t s i d e a i r temperature (TUE).r e a d as f o l l o w s : w h e r e TT i s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e retarded flow. ( a ) TUE. S e n s o r s for E l e c t r i c T h e r m o m e t e r f o r Measuring Outside A i r Temperature. t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of d r a g i s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f 0 . The s e n s o r o f t h e TUE t h e r m o m e t e r i s in t h e s h a p e of a r o d 200 . ( b ) TNV. which c o u l d t a k e p l a c e a t h i g h f l i g h t s p e e d s . s i n c e i n t h i s case t h e s e n s o r w i l l n o t b e exposed t o t h e flow and t h i s w i l l r e s u l t i n a high thermal i n e r t i a of t h e thermometer.57) /196 If w e s u b s t i t u t e i n ( 2 . i t i s h i g h l y u n s u i t a b l e t o u s e thermom­ e t e r s f o r measuring o u t s i d e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e which have complete r e t a r d a t i o n o f a i r f l o w . Fig. r a p i d changes i n temperature during f l i g h t . e x p r e s s e d i n m/sec. ?. 6 . Therefore (2.57a) P r a c t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g . . km/hr For s e n s o r s w h i c h a r e e x p o s e d t o t h e a i r f l o w .35. 8 5 . 4 and B = 29. would n o t be d e t e c t e d by t h e t h e r m o m e t e r . f o r a s p e e d e x p r e s s e d i n km/hr (2.e. 5 7 ) w i l l obtain the values v2 K = 1 . 5 t o 0 . c a n b e u s e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t a c c u r a c y f o r t h e TNV thermometers as w e l l .

I n t h i s c a s e .. a n d when t h e s p r i n g h a s r u n down t h e c l o c k r u n s s l o w e r . and e s p e c i a l l y i n a s t r o n o m i c a l c a l c u ­ l a t i o n s . T h i s means t h a t a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e a i r s p e e d p l a c e s i n c r e a s e d demands on t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e measurement o f t i m e . A v i a t i o n Clocks The m e a s u r e m e n t o f t i m e p l a y s a n e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n aircraft navigation. i t e x e r t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e a c c u r a c y o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c l o c k . t h e coincidence of t h e f l i g h t p l a n s of i n d i v i d u a l a i r c r a f t . 2. When a f l o w o f a i r p a s s e s t h r o u g h s u c h a s e n s o r . . It i s e s p e c i a l l y important t o have an exact d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e moments o f p a s s a g e o v e r c o n t r o l c h e c k p o i n t s . W know t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f o s c i l l a t i o n o f a b o d y a r o u n d i t s e a x i s ( t o r s i o n a l o s c i l l a t i o n ) is r e l a t e d t o t h e deformation of t h e body as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a 201 . s i n c e t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e path of t h e air­ c r a f t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e component a i r s p e e d a n d t i m e i s i n v o l v e d i n almost a l l navigational equations. w h e r e a n e r r o r i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e e l a p s e d t i m e o f 1 min could produce an e r r o r i n determining t h e a i r c r a f t coordinates of 2 7 km. A l l o f t h e r e m a i n i n g mecLdnism of t h e c l o c k a c t s m a i n l y as a m e c h a n i c a l c o u n t e r o f t h e number o f o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e pendu­ lum. i t i s h e a t e d on one s i d e . a ) . t h e s t a n d a r d e v e n t is t h e p e r i o d of o s c i l l a t i o n o f t h e b a l a n c e w h e e l o f a c l o c k ( a c i r c u l a r pendu­ lum). t h i s s e n s o r has less thermal i n e r t i a and gives more a c c u r a t e r e a d i n g s i n d i f f e r e n t f l i g h t r e g i m e s . T h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e o f a l l e x i s t i n g d e v i c e s for m e a s u r i n g t i m e i s t h e i r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d for some s t a n d a r d event t o occur. The most i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n m e a s u r i n g t i m e i s p l a y e d by t h e a c c u r a c y o f a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e a c t u a l p e r i o d o f o s c i l l a t i o n o f t h e pendulum. i n t h i s c a s e . t h e exact measurement n o t of e l a p s e d t i m e b u t o f t i m e s e g m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e m o m e n t s when t h e a i r c r a f t i s p a s s i n g over landmarks. communication w i t h t h e tower . w h e n t h e m a i n s p r i n g o f a c l o c k i s wound c o m p l e t e l y . t h e c l o c k r u n s s o m e w h a t f a s t e r . b ) and t h e a i r flows symmetrically over it. T h e r e a r e a l s o f a c t o r s w h i c h demand h i g h a c c u r a c y i n d e t e r ­ For mining t h e time and t h e e x a c t o p e r a t i o n of a v i a t i o n c l o c k s . Therefore.35. c o v e r e d b y a c y l i n d r i c a l h o u s i n g (Fig.e..w i t h a w i n d i n g on t h e s u r f a c e . 2.35. 6. example. /19 7 T h e s e n 5 o r o f t h e T N V t h e r m o m e t e r i s made i n t h e f o r m o f a de Lava1 nozzle. The s e n s i t i v e e l e m e n t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e n a r r o w e s t p o r t i o n of t h e nozzle (Fig. H o w e v e r .

T h i s m e a n s t h a t a p o r t i o n o f t h e mass i s b r o u g h t c l o s e r t o or moved f u r t h e r away f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f r o t a t i o n o f t h e b a l a n c e . The p r o d u c t of t h e modulus of t o r s i o n t i m e s t h e a n g l e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e b o d y r o t a t e s ( 4 ) i s t h e t o r s i o n a l moment: M = D4. b u t t h e most i m p o r t a n t ones are temperature and magnetic eff6cts. or b y c h a n g i n g t h e mod­ u l u s of t o r s i o n . T h e b a l a n c e w h e e l o f a n a c c u r a t e c l o c k i s u s u a l l y made o f b i ­ metallic m a t e r i a l and d i v i d e d a l o n g t h e p l a n e of t h e d i a m e t e r . s o t h a t t h e clocks on a n a i r c r a f t m u s t b e m o u n t e d i n s p e c i a l s h o c k m o u n t i n g s . T h e r e f o r e . h a i r s p r i n g a n d e s c a p e m e n t . J i s t h e moment of i n e r t i a o f t h e b o d y . Special Requirements f o r Aviation Clocks I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s for c l o c k m e c h a n i s m s ( h i g h a c c u r a c y . f o r w h i c h p u r p o s e a movable s t o p . The h a r m f u l e f f e c t of m a g n e t i c f i e l d s on t h e a c c u r a c y o f c l o c k s c a n u s u a l l y b e overcome by u s i n g d i a m a g n e t i c p a r t s i n t h e b a l a n c e w h e e l . When t h e t e m p e r a t u r e f a l l s a n d t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e h a i r ­ s p r i n g i n c r e a s e s ( t h e m o d u l u s D i n c r e a s e s ) . 202 . t h e b a l a n c e w h e e l i s a d j u s t e d by c h a n g i n g t h e f r e e l e n g t h o f t h e h a i r s p r i n g . I t s h o u l d b e m e n t i o n e d t h a t many f a c t o r s a f f e c t t h e p r e c i s ­ i o n w i t h which a clock o p e r a t e s . compensation f o r t e m p e r a t u r e and magnetic e f f e c t s ) . a number o f m e a s u r e s are taken t o exclude t h e s e f a c t o r s .h a l f of t h e b a l a n c e e x p a n d s a n d i t s e n d s move f u r t h e r away f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f r o t a t i o n . o n e . is' m o u n t e d n e a r t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e h a i r s p r i n g i s f a s t e n e d . t h u s compensating f o r t h e temperature e r r o r i n t h e clock. i n o r d e r n o t t o d i s t u r b t h e b a l a n c e of t h e pendulum. The p e r i o d o f o s c i l l a t i o n o f a b a l a n c e c a n b e a d j u s t e d b o t h /198 by c h a n g i n g i t s moment o f i n e r t i a ( f o r w h i c h p u r p o s e a d j u s t i n g s c r e w s a r e l o c a t e d a l o n g i t s o u t e r c i r c u m f e r e n c e ) . T h e moment o f i n e r t i a o f t h e b a l a n c e w h e e l i s c h a n g e d b y s c r e w ­ i n g t h e a d j u s t i n g s c r e w s s y m m e t r i c a l l y i n or o u t a l o n g t h e e n t i r e c i r c u m f e r e n c e . or e l s e t h e e n t i r e c l o c k m e c h a n ­ i s m i s p l a c e d w i t h i n a s h i e l d e d h o u s i n g made o f i r o n a l l o y . The m o d u l u s o f t o r s i o n i s a d j u s t e d by means o f a h a i r s p r i n g .w h e r e T i s t h e p e r i o d of o s c i l l a t i o n o f t h e b o d y a r o u n d t h e a x i s . a n d D i s t h e m o d u l u s o f torsion. a v i a t i o n c l o c k s h a v e a d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s p l a c e d upon t h e m : (a) P r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t v i b r a t i o n and shock. w h i c h a c t s as a r e g u ­ l a t o r .

a n d p r i n c i p a l s c a l e d i v i s i o n s a r e made l a r g e r a n d c o v e r e d w i t h a l u m i n o u s m a t e r i a l t o p e r m i t t h e i r use during night f l i g h t s . i s operated by remote c o n t r o l and c o n s i s t s of t h r e e main i n d i c a t o r s : (a) An e l a p s e d . T h i s same b u t t o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e A C C H . t h e r e is an a d d i t i o n a l scale i n t h e upper p a r t of t h e clock. t h e r e i s a p i l o t l i g h t w h i c h i s u s e d t o s i g n a l t h e f o l l o w i n g by means o f a s p e c i a l s h u t t e r : (a) (b) (c) S t a r t o f mechanism: /199 red light. The e l a p s e d t i m e i s i n d i c a t e d on t h e s e c l o c k s b y a main d i a l T o c a l c u l a t e t h e t o t a l f l i g h t t i m e or t h e with a central pointer. The sweep h a n d i s s t a r t e d . T h i s means t h a t s e v e r a l d i a l s a r e u s u a l l y d r i v e n b y t h e mechanism.t i m e i n d i c a t o r w h o s e r e a d i n g s a r e a l w a y s l i n k e d t o t h e chronometer a t t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . Below t h e " f l i g h t t i m e " s c a l e . (c) R e l i a b i l i t y a n d a c c u r a c y o f o p e r a t i o n u n d e r v a r i o u s con­ ditions. f l i g h t time over i n d i v i d u a l s t a g e s . S t o p mechanism: Pause: t h e l i g h t i s h a l f r e d and h a l f w h i t e . The h a n d s . t h e c l o c k i s f i t t e d w i t h a sweep hand ( t h i n c e n t r a l p o i n t e r ) and an a d d i t i o n a l s c a l e a t t h e bottom of t h e a p p a r a t u s where t h e m i n u t e s a r e c o u n t e d . f o r t h i s purpose.(b) Ensuring r e l i a b l e o p e r a t i o n u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s of l o w t e m ­ p e r a t u r e . white l i g h t . I t employs a p o t e n t i o m e t r i c c i r c u i t . a v i a t i o n clocks are usually f i t t e d with electric heaters. T o measure s h o r t t i m e e v e n t s . n u m e r a l s . (d) The p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e a s u r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s e v e r a l t i m e parameters. w h i l e t h e t i m e when t h e y s t o p a s w e l l a s t h e r e s e t t i n g t o z e r o a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y p u s h i n g a b u t t o n on t h e l e f t hand s i d e of t h e c l o c k h o u s i n g . t h e i r readings are a l s o connected t o t h e chronometer a t t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . b u t a t t h e moment o f m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e a l t i t u d e o f 20 3 . when p u l l e d o u t . s t o p p e d a n d h e l d by p r e s s i n g a b u t t o n on t h e r i g h t hand s i d e of t h e h o u s i n g . t h e v e r s i o n f i t t e d w i t h i n d i c a t o r s i s t h e 2 0 ChP. This chronometer. The s t a r t o f t h e c l o c k h a n d s i s m a r k e d on t h i s s c a l e . (b) Two t i m e i n d i c a t o r s f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e a l t i t u d e o f l u m i n ­ aries. i s u s e d t o wind t h e main s p r i n g o f t h e c l o c k .c h r o n o m e t e r w i t h h e a t e r ) a r e made t o s a t i s f y a l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s l i s t e d a b o v e . e s p e c i a l l y intended f o r purposes of astronomical o r i e n t a t i o n . A v i a t i o n c l o c k s o f t h e ACCH t y p e ( a v i a t i o n c l o c k . t h e a v i a t i o n c h r o n o m e t e r 1 3 ChP i s currently i n use.

T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l t y p e s of n a v i g a t i o n a l s i g h t s . D e t e r m i n i n g t h e V a l u e ( a ) o f A i r c r a f t Bera­ ( b ) o f t h e D i s t a n c e f r o m a Landmark t o t h e A i r c r a f t Vertical. n a v y g a t i o n a l s i g h t s a r e 11. They a r e n o t u s e d i n passenger aircraft. 2. Navigational Sights A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .36. a ) T B A = T C t C A L 2 180°. In t h i s c s e . a l l a r e i n t e n d e d f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s o f l a n d m a r k s ( C A L I a n d t h e i r v e r t i c a l a n g l e s (VA). 3 6 ) . The c o u r s e a n g l e g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e The v e r t i c a l a n g l e i s where t h e a i r c r a f t i s of a Zandmark i s t h e a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e l o n ­ a i r c r a f t and t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e landmark.36. A f t e r t h e r e a d i n g i s made. 7. w h i c h d i f f e r /200 i n t h e i r design. These d i a l s do n o t have any hour hands. ing. The s w e e p s e c o n d h a n d l i n e s u p w i t h t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e t r a n s m i t t e r immediately a f t e r t h e i n d i c a t o r i s switched on. a s t o p s i g n a l i s s e n t t o o n e of them a n d t h e t i m e o f m e a s u r e m e n t i s n o t e d .t h e l u m i n a r y by means of a s e x t a n t . t h e h a n d moves f o r w a r d one minute.sed o n l y f o r s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s s u c h as a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y . t h e m i n u t e h a n d i s s e t t o t h e e l a p s e d t i m e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e f i r s t d i a l by p u s h i n g t h e button. However. 204 . The t i m e i n h o u r s i s d e t e r m i n e d by r e a d i n g s f r o m a Type ACCH c l o c k . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e locus of t h e a i r c r a f t i n terms o f t h e c o u r s e and v e r t i c a l a n g l e s o f t h e landmark ( F i g . 2. Fig. t h e t r u e b e a r i n g from t h e landmark t o t h e a i r c r a f t i s ( F i g . Each t i m e t h e b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d . 2 . t h e angle between t h e v e r t i c a l a t t h e p o i n t l o c a t e d and t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e landmark. T h e s i g h t c a n b e u s e d t o s o l v e a g r e a t many n a v i g a t i o n a l p r o b ­ l e m s r e l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e parameters of i t s motion. 1.

the readings o f t h e a l t i m e t e r must b e s u b j e c t e d t o c o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h e i n s t r u ­ mental and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l e r r o r s and t h e ele. However. .vation of t h e landmark above s e a l e v e l must a l s o b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t if measurements a r e n o t b e i n g made i n a l e v e l l o c a t i o n . e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p o l a r r e g i o n s . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f an a i r c r a f t i n terms of t h e b e a r i n g s f r o m two l a n d m a r k s ( F i g . since e r r o r s i n determining t h e distance w i l l be proportional t o t h e e r r o r s i n measuring t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . i n o r d e r t o s o l v e t h i s problem w e must a l s o add t o t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e compass t h e c o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e compass o f t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n of t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . IPS1 = TC IPS2 = TC + + CALI f 180O.? g l e o f t h e s e c o n d l a n d m a r k . 8' T h e p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e i n t e r s e c ­ t i o n o f b e a r i n g s I P S 1 a n d I P S 2 on t h e map.while t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e landmark t o t h e v e r t i c a l of t h e a i r ­ craft (Fig. a t d i s t a n c e s w h i ch d o n o t e x c e e d / 2 0 1 three t o four times the f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . i f t h e a i r c r a f t course i s determined by a magnetic compass. a n d VA i s t h e v e r t i c a l a n g l e of t h e landmark. s i n c e t h e a i r c r a f t may move c o n s i d ­ e r a b l y away f r o m t h e l i n e o f t h e f i r s t b e a r i n g d u r i n g a p r o l o n g e d measurement. CAL i s t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e l a n d m a r k .7 5 O .36. In this case. H i s t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . s i n c e t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e v e r t i c a l a n g l e s c a n b e made s a t i s f a c t o r i l y up t o 7 0 . e . i . of t h e n a t u r e of t h e l o c a l r e l i e f . i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o know t h e t r u e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a b o v e t h e l e v e l of t h e v i s i b l e l a n d m a r k . 2. CAL2 f 10. I n s o l v i n g t h i s p r o b l e m . TC = CC + A C + AM. TC i s t h e t r u e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t . where TBA i s t h e t r u e b e a r i n g f r o m t h e landmark t o t h e a i r c r a f t . and c o n s e q u e n t l y . Obviously. t h e measurements o f t h e b e a r i n g s must i n c l u d e a c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e d i s ­ placement of t h e meridians. 3 7 ) . b ) is S = H t g VA. 2 . 20 5 . T h e c o r r e ' c t i o n for t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e m e r i d i a n s b e t w e e n l a n d ­ m a r k s a n d t h e l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h i s c a s e i s n o t t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . 2. If t h e d i r e c t i o n f i n d i n g i s made o v e r g r e a t d i s t a n c e s . An a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s m e t h o d i s i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e o f f l i g h t a l ­ t i t u d e . Therefore. t h i s method r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l measurement o f t h e c o u r s e .

as i n m e a s u r i n g t h e d r i f t a n g l e i n t e r m s o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f v i s u a l p o i n t s (CAL = 180°. i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l i n e a r l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n as f o l l o w s : 206 . by t h e p i l o t . o b s e r v i n g . h e matches t h e v i s u a l p o i n t with t h e course marking and c a l c u l a t e s t h e d r i f t angle.37. Then. w i t h VA = 45O. Determination of the d r i f t a n g l e of an a i r c r a f t b y using a backsight. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e d r i f t a n g l e o f an a i r c r a f t by s i g h t ­ ing forward. T h e n . 5 O . with r a p i d l y changing v i s u a l l'andmarks. A f t e r s e t t i n g t h e s i g h t . With a n e x a c t m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e course. T h i s method i s u s e d f o r low f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s . the s i g h t i s s e t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n i n which The t h e a i r c r a f t i s moving. t h e p i l o t w a i t s u n t i l t h e landmark l e a v e s t h e c r o s s h a i r s i n t h e v e r t i c a l p l a n e a t a n a n g l e o f 4 0 . k e e p i n g t h e a i r c r a f t s t r i c t l y on c o u r s e . t h e d i r e c t i o n s of v i s u a l p o i n t s and t u r n i n g t h e s i g h t t o keep it p a r a l l e l t o t h e course c h a r t . 4. T h e e s s e n c e o f t h i s m e t h o d l i e s i n t h e meas/202 urement o f t h e c o u r s e a n g l e a t which v i s u a l p o i n t s r e c e d e from t h e a i r c r a f t .a t a c o u r s e a n g l e o f 180° a n d a z e r o v e r t i c a l a n g l e . I n t h i s c a s e . V A = 0 ) .5O it w i l l equal half the altitude: S = H t g VA.5 0 ° a t a v e r a g e a l t i t u d e s or 1 5 ­ 20° a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s . 5. I n m e a s u r i n g t h e d r i f t a n g l e by s i g h t i n g f o r w a r d . Fig. . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t a c c o r d ­ ing t o visual points. e . k e e p i n g t h e a i r c r a f t s t r i c t l y on c o u r s e . Noting t h e l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n of t h e landmark i n d e g r e e s . . t h e s i g h t i s s e t .3. T o d e t e r m i n e t h e d r i f t a n g l e by t h i s means. wh i ch p r e f e r a b l y l i e s a t a v e r t i c a l a n g l e o f 4 5 or 2 6 . Then. D e t e r m i n i n g t h e POs i t i o n L i n e o f a n A i r c r a f t by Two o f i t s B e a r i n g s . t h e s i g h t i s s e t t o z e r o on t h e s c a l e o f v e r t i c a l a n g l e s a n d t h e p i l o t w a i t s u n t i l t h e v i s u a l p o i n t c r o s s e s t h e t r a n s v e r s e l i n e on t h e c r o s s h a i r s on t h e s i g h t ( t r a v e r s e of t h e l a n d m a r k ) . i . d r i f t angle of t h e aircraft i s t h e n c a l c u l a t e d on a s p e c i a l scale. t h e s i g h t is s e t t o t h e zero course angle and a v i s u a l p o i n t i s s e l e c t e d on t h e c o u r s e c h a r t . w h i l e a t V A = 26. by t u r n i n g t h e s i g h t . 2. t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e l a n d m a r k w i l l b e e q u a l t o t h e a l t i t u d e . t h e p i l o t waits u n t i l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i s u a l p o i n t appears i n t h e cross h a i r s of t h e s i g h t a t t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e bubble l e v e l i n these cross hairs.

a n d t o z e r o o n t h e v e r t i cal angle scale. p a t h t r a v e l e d by t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l be e q u a l t o t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . Having s e l e c t e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o i n t as i t p a s s e s t h r o u g h / 2 0 3 t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e s i g h t . w i t h a n i n i t i a l v a l u e o f V A 1 = 4 5 O . r h e s i g h t i s s e t o n t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s c a l e t o 180°. 5 O Y US = 2 L D . t h e t a n g e n t US c a n b e r e p l a c e d by i t s v a l u e . US = L D . V A 1 = 2 6 . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e g r o u n d s p e e d o f t h e a i r c r a f t b y means a backsight. t h e sweep second hand i s s t o p p e d . T h e n t h e c o u r s e m a r k i n g o f t h e s i g h t i s made t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e v i s u a l p o i n t a n d t h e s i g h t i s s e t t o V A = 45O. 20 7 . T h e moment w h e n t h e v i s u a l p o i n t a g a i n c r o s s e s t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e c r o s s h a i r s I n t h i s case. of 6 . t h e i n t h e s i g h t . C o n s e q u e n t l y . To d e t e r m i n e t h e g r o u n d s p e e d b y t h i s m e t h o d . i . e . of The d r i f t a n g l e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d a s t h e r a t i o its i n i t i a l distance t o its f i n a l distance: A t d r i f t a n g l e s o n t h e o r d e r o f l o o . The b u b b l e i n t h e l e v e l i s s e t a t t h e i n t e r ­ s e c t i o n of t h e c r o s s h a i r s . t h e ground s p e e d c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s i m p l e form­ ula w h e r e H i s t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a n d t i s t h e t i m e m e a s u r e d by t h e sweep s e c o n d hand. T h i s method i s u s e d i n t h e c a s e when i t i s d e s i r e d t o m e a s u r e t h e d r i f t a n g l e a n d t h e ground speed and t h e p i l o t h a s o n l y one landmark a t h i s d i s p o s a l . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e d r i f t a n g l e and t h e ground s p e e d of t h e a i r c r a f t from a landmark l o c a t e d t o t h e s i d e .Sg = H t g V A . w h i l e t h e t a n g e n t VU2 can be r e p l a c e d by t h e v a l u e o f t h e l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n (LD): or. 7. . with an i n i t i a l A l l t h r e e o f t h e s e m e t h o d s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e for d e t e r m i n i n g t h e ' d r i f t a n g l e a r e u s e d i n l o c a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e many l a n d m a r k s . t h e s w e e p s e c o n d h a n d i s s t a r t e d a n d t h e p i l o t w a i t s u n t i l t h i s p o i n t h a s moved t o a v e r t i c a l a n g l e O f 35-40°. where i t i s e a s y t o p i c k o u t a v i s u a l landmark a t t h e d e s i r e d visual angle.

CAL = 90° + U S ) . = CAL2-135O.which i s n o t l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e l i n e c a r e f u l t o keep t h e aircraft s t r i c t l t h e s i g h t a t t h e landmark and waits t o 4 5 or 315O. Being y on c o u r s e . A t t h e moment when t h e l a n d ­ mark i s a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e c r o s s h a i r s .2 25O 2 . b u t C3n­ then w i l l increase again. -\ ---/-- F i g . 3 8 . t h e landmark w i l l a t f i r s t move away t o o n e s i d e f r o m t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e cross h a i r s a n d w i l l t h e n a g a i n b e g i n t. the sight is rotated t o follow t h e motion of t h e landmark. n o t i n g i t s f i x e d p o s i t i o n on t h e c o u r s e A t t h e beginning (up t o chart. t h e sweep s e c o n d hand i s stopped and t h e course a n g l e o f t h e landmark i s calculated.38) If C A L I = 4 5 O . t h e b i s e c t r i x o f t h e t r i a n g l e OAB ( F i g . Determining t h e D r i f t A n g l e a n d Ground Speed b y a Landmark L o c a t e d t o t h e Side. h e l o o k s t h r o u g h u n t i l its course angle is equal i t i s t o t h e l e f t or r i g h t o f A t a c o u r s e a n g l e f o r t h e l a n d m a r k o f 4 5 or 3 1 5 O . 2. w i l l be l o c a t e d a t t h e c o u r s e a n g l e . so that /204 us I f C A L I = 315O. 2 CALbis .0 a p p r o a c h i t . t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e landmark w i l l d e c r e a s e . d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r t h e f l i g h t path of t h e aircraft. 2. s e q u e n t l y . which i s e q u a l t o : - CALbis - 45O+CAL2 2 Y w h i l e t h e d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l b e e q u a l t o CALbis-900. t h e v e r t ­ i c a l a n g l e of t h e landmark i s measured and t h e sweep second hand is started.315O bis + 2 CALz US = C A L -270° or us 208 = CAL7 . Leaving t h e s e t t i n g of t h e v e r t i c a l a n g l e i n t h e same p o s i ­ tion. of f l i g h t o f t h e a i r c r a f t .

t h e ground speed i s The m a j o r i t y o f n a v i g a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i ch w e h a v e d i s c u s s e d .A t p o i n t s 1 and 2 t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e land­ mark i s e q u a l t o Consequently. t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e change i n t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of t h e landmark from C A L I t o C A L 2 . w h i c h a r e s o l v e d b y m e a n s o f m e c h a n i c a l or o p t i c a l s i g h t s . w a s t h e s h i f t of t h e a i r c r a f t from p o i n t 0 t o p o i n t 01. s o t h a t Consequently. t h e d i s t a n c e between p o i n t s 1 and 2 i s d e t e r ­ mined by t h e f o r m u l a 51-2 = 2H t g V A s i n C A L 1+CALL 2 C l e a r l y . c a n b e s o l v e d u s i n g t h e r a d i o d e v i c e s which a r e i n s t a l l e d nowadays a b o a r d modern t u r b o p r o p a n d j e t a i r c r a f t . which w i l l b e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e next chapter. 20 9 I- .

c o n t r o l u n i t . W i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o t h e d e t a i l s of t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . and d e v i c e f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s (Fig. i s widely used. C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e p a t h of t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h t h e u s e of t h e N I . 2. average wind. A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . ) .39). W s h a l l now d i s c u s s i t s d e s i g n a n d t h e m e t h o d o f i t s e application.S O B . p u r p o s e . l e t us examine i t s s c h e m a t i c diagram. with t h e exception of t h e extreme p o i n t s of d e v i a t i o n from a given trajectory. autoThe n a v i g a t i o n i n d i c a t o r c o n s i s t s of t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r t s : matic speed i n d i c a t o r . ­ 210 . as w e l l as i n a r e c t a n g u l a r s y s t e m of c o o r d i n a t e s w i t h a n y o r i e n t a t i o n o f i t s a x e s . i t w o u l d s o o n h a v e a n e f f e c t on t h e p r e c i s i o n of aircraft navigation. t h e n a v i g a t i o n i n d i c a t o r Type N I . average speed.8. which h a s been d e v i s e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . as w e l l as t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e s y s t e m as a w h o l e c a n b e e m p l o y e d . t h e i n d i c a t o r can b e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e wind p a r a m e t e r s a t t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . t h e p i l o t of an a i r c r a f t must s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c a r r y o u t o b s e r v a t i o n s u s i n g a l l t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s . a v e r a g e them f o r t i m e i n t e r v a l s c o v e r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t i m e . Automatic Navigation Instruments I n S e c t i o n 2 of C h a p t e r I . Without u s i n g automatic n a v i g a t i o n d e v i c e s . i f t h e p i l o t work i n t o t h e t a s k o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . a l l t h e e l e m e n t s of a f l i g h t r e g i m e a r e n o t s t r i c t l y f i x e d .S O B c a n b e p e r f o r m e d b o t h on t h e b a s i s o f o r t h o d r o m i c s y s t e m s of c o o r d i n a t e s f o r s t r a i g h t . automatic course-setting device. and r e c o r d t h e t i m e of change i n average v a l u e s of t h e measured parameters. t h e crew o f a n a i r c r a f t m u s t c o n ­ s t a n t l y d e a l with average values of measured n a v i g a t i o n a l elements (average course. t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e measured wind s p e e d d u r i n g f l i g h t . T h e r e f o r e . I n a d d i t i o n . t h e p r a c t i c a l problems of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n could b e s o l v e d q u i t e simply and t h e q u e s t i o n o f automating t h e p r o c e s s e s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n would b e s u p e r f l u o u s . and o p e r a t i n g p r i n ­ c i p l e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s .l i n e f l i g h t s e g m e n t s . If a l l t h e e l e m e n t s which h a v e b e e n m e n t i o n e d h a d a c o n s t a n t /205 given v a l u e . wind i n d i c a t o r . The NI-50B n a v i g a t i o n i n d i c a t o r i s a n a u t o m a t i c n a v i g a t i o n d e v i c e w h i c h c a l c u l a t e s t h e p a t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e b a s i s o f s i g n a l s f r o m s e n s o r s for t h e c o u r s e a n d a i r s p e e d . This introduces considerable tedious However. d i d n o t d e v o t e s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o c h a n g e s i n t h e e l e m e n t s of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . e t c . T h e s i m p l e s t d e v i c e u s e d for a u t o m a t i n g t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t p a t h i n terms o f t h e c h a n g i n g v a l u e s of n a v i g a t i o n a l param­ e t e r s and times i s t h e a u t o m a t i c n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e . i t w a s m e n t i o n e d t h a t i n t h e g e n e r a l c a s e .

I t i s c l e a r f r o m F o r m u l a ( 2 . t h e t u r n a n g l e of t h e a x i s o f t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r of t h e a n a l y z i n g mechanism becomes p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the airspeed. a c c o r d i n g t o Formula ( 2 . One o f t h e m ( a n e r o i d 1) i s u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e . a c t i v a t i n g motor 5 . T h i s mechanism c o n s i s t s o f a m a g n e t i c s i g n a l a m p l i f i e r 4 . and a p o t e n t i o m e t e r 6 w i t h a s p e c i a l pro­ f i l e . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a t i o o f t h e dynamic p r e s s u r e t o t h e s t a t i c pressure. 4 7 . coming from t h e a u t o m a t i c s p e e d con­ t r o l . 4 7 a ) 2060 T The a u t o m a t i c s p e e d c o n t r o l h a s t wo h o r i z o n t a l m a n o m e t r i c b o x e s . which r e g u l a t e t h e c u r r e n t r a t i o i n t h e b a l a n c i n g c i r c u i t . 211 . which l e v e l s o u t t h e n o n l i n e a r i t y of t h e s i g n a l s from t h e a u t o ­ m a t i c airspeed control. In order t o develop e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l s which a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a i r s p e e d . w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s u s e d t o measure t h e a e r o d y n a m i c p r e s s u r e 2 as t h e d i f f e r ­ ence between p t o t a l and pst. a ) t h a t t h e r a t i o o f t h e dy­ namic p r e s s u r e t o t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e i s n o t l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d t o the airspeed of t h e aircraft.The a u t o m a t i c s p e e d c o n t r o l c o n s i s t s o f a d e v i c e w h i c h c o n v e r t s t h e p r e s s u r e from t h e s e n s o r s of t o t a l and s t a t i c p r e s s u r e i n t o elec­ trical s i g n a l s . S c h e m a t i c Diagram o f N a v i g a t i o n a l I n d i c a t o r . 2. T h u s .39. t h e c o n t r o l u n i t c o n t a i n s an a u t o m a t i c s p e e d c o n t r o l mechanism. corresponding i n value t o t h e airspeed of t h e air­ c r a f t . S amp l i f i e r coor automatic course control Fig. /206 Both b o x e s a r e c o n n e c t e d by means o f l i n k i n g mechanisms t o po­ t e n t i o m e t e r s 3.

Vz = V sin (1 -+). Fig. The a u t o m a t i c c o u r s e c o n t r o l i s i n t e n d e d t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e s i g ­ n a l s which are p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a i r s p e e d . T h e d i v i s i o n of t h e c o u r s e s i g n a l s b y t h e a x e s o f t h e c o o r d ­ i n a t e s i n t h e a u t o m a t i c c o u r s e c o n t r o l i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by m e a n s o f a sine-cosine potentiometer (Fig. t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s of t h e a i r s p e e d m u s t b e m u l t i p l i e d b y t h e f l i g h t t i m e t o g i v e us t h e change i n t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s d u r i n g t h i s time: A$ = V&. D i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e Airspeed Vector a l o n g t h e Coordi­ n a t e Axes. s e n d s o u t e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l s which are p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a i r s p e e d . I f t h e a i r c r a f t i s now t o f l y w i t h a n o r t h o d r o m i c c o u r s e y . 2. Sine-Cosine Distributor.41). Fig. t h e a i r s p e e d must b e d i v i d e d i n t o two c o m p o n e n t s : /207 V. 212 . 2.41.40.40). I t i s clear t h a t i f t h e r e i s no wind a t t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . 2. 2.By m e a n s of a s e c o n d p o t e n t i o m e t e r . A2 = V&.40. Fig. L e t us assume t h a t w e must make a f l i g h t o v e r a p a t h segment with t h e orthodromic f l i g h t angle $ (Fig. T h e s i n e .c o s i n e p o t e n t i o m e t e r c o n s i s t s of a c i r c u l a r w i n d i n g w i t h power s u p p l i e d t o it a t two d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e p o i n t s . a l o n g t h e axes of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s for c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p a t h .Jy).41. 2. = V cos (7. i n t h e form o f a DC v o l t ­ age. c o n n e c t e d b y i t s a x i s o f r o t a t i o n t o t h e a c t i v a t i n g mechanism. Fig. 2.

The w i n d sensor h a s a s c h e m a t i c s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d i n t h e a u t o m a t i c c o u r s e c o n t r o l . by a p p l y i n g t o t h e w i n d i n g of t h e s i n e . w e o b t a i n s i g n a l s a t t h e o u t p u t s of t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r w h i c h a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e component o f t h e a i r s p e e d a l o n g t h e a x e s of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s Vx a n d vz * For a p r e c i s e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r a s a w h o l e . t h e w i n d i n g o f t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r i s g i v e n a p r o f i l e or i s /208 f i t t e d with special regulating shunt r e s i s t o r s . t h e c u r r e n t i n t h e c o s i n e p i c k u p s w i l l d r o p f r o m maximum t o z e r o a n d t h a t i n t h e s i n e p i c k u p s w i l l i n c r e a s e f r o m z e r o t o t h e maximum. By t u r n i n g t h e pickups from z e r o t o 90°. 2. w e h a v e t h r e e s e t p a r a m e t e r s on t h e w i n d s e n s o r : the 213 .c o s i n e p o t e n t i o m e t e r a g r e e s w i t h t h e wind d i r e c t i o n . 3 9 .c o s i n e p o t e n t i o m ­ e t e r a v o l t a g e which i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a i r s p e e d . w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e v o l t a g e which i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e windspeed i s analyzed d i r e c t l y a t t h e s e n s o r by means o f a p o t e n t i o m e t e r ( s e e F i g . P o s i t i o n 81. 2 . t h e c h a n g e i n t h e c u r r e n t i n t h e pickups w i l l n o t t a k e p l a c e according t o t h e s i n e and cosine l a w s . i f w e say t h a t t h e zero p o s i t i o n of t h e pickups is t h e one i n which one p a i r ( c o s i n e ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e s u p p l y l e a d s a n d t h e s e c o n d ( s i n e ) w i l l b e l o c a t e d a t a n a n g l e of 90° t o t h e m . T h u s . P o s i t i o n 9 ) and i s s e t by m a n u a l l y t u r n i n g knob "u" s o t h a t t h e s e t t i n g of t h e p i c k .Two p a i r s o f p i c k u p s s l i d e a l o n g t h e c o i l s . t h e y a r e l o c a t e d a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o one a n o t h e r . t h e s e s i g n a l s a r e c a l i b r a t e d m a n u a l l y by means o f a p o t e n ­ t i o m e t e r ( s e e Fig. However. I n o r d e r t o a p p l y t h e components of t h e a i r s p e e d t o t h e r e c e i v ­ i n g system f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e a i r c r a f t coordinates. t h e c i r c u l a r w i n d i n g o f t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r i s made m o v a b l e a n d c a n b e m o u n t e d i n any p o s i t i o n by means o f a r a c k a n d p i n i o n . and a s p e c i a l scale f o r c a l c u l a t i n g i t s p o s i t i o n . Hence. l o c a t e d i n t h e c o n t r o l u n i t . b u t p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t o t h e a n g l e of r o t a t i o n of t h e p i c k u p s . t h e c h a r t a n g l e i s made e q u a l t o t h e o r t h o d r o m i c p a t h a n g l e o f t h e path segment.39. T h e a n g l e for s t u d y i n g t h e s y s t e m o f c o o r d i n a t e s f o r c a l c u l a t ­ i n g t h e p a t h r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n from which t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e is measured i s c a l l e d t h e chart angle.u p s h o e s on t h e s i n e . l o c a t e d i n t h e a u t o m a t i c c o u r s e c o n t r o l . Rotation of t h e pick-up shoes of t h e potentiometer i s involved i n f i g u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t which i s a r r i v i n g from a c o u r s e s y s t e m or o t h e r c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t . I n o r d e r f o r t h e l a w of change of c u r r e n t s t o approach t h e s i n e c o s i n e . t h e n t h e maximum c u r r e n t w i l l f l o w t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t p a i r o f p i c k u p s while t h a t through t h e second p a i r w i l l be zero. Obviously. I n t h e majority of cases.

+ ) + u j o s A W V z + u z = V s i n ( y . 2 . The revolutions of t h e m o t o r s a r e summed b y t w o c o u n t e r s . P r a c t i c a l Methods o f A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n Using Geotechni c a l Devices F l i g h t e x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o a knowledge o f t h e devices f o r determining each of t h e elements of aircraft navigation. or t h e l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e d e s i r e d l i n e of f l i g h t . t h e wind ' d i r e c t i o n (61. . s i g n a l s which m a k e i t p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p a t h of t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h t i m e . . .+ ) + u s i n AW + i . 3 9 . The c o o r d i n a t e caZcuZator c o n s i s t s o f t w o i n t e g r a t i n g m o t o r s /209 t h a t w o r k on d i r e c t c u r r e n t ( s e e F i g . s o t h a t w e o b t a i n s i g n a l s a t t h e i r common o u t p u t s w h i c h a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l as f o l l l o w s V . To s e t t h e p o i n t e r s o f t h e c o u n t e r t o z e r o ( a t t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f a r o u t e ) or t o t h e a c t u a l c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t w h e n c o r r e c t i n g i t s c o o r d i n a t e s .a x i s . It i s c l e a r t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a n g l e s 6 and gives A s a result. c o n s i d e r i n g t h e manual s e t t i n g o f t h e wind v a l u e for the flight altitude. e . o u t p u t of t h e s i n e .wind s p e e d (u). w h o s e s p e e d of r o t a t i o n s t r i c t l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e s i g n a l s coming f r o m t h e a u t o m a t i c c o u r s e c o n t r o l a n d t h e wind s e n s o r . w h i l e a p o i n t e r m a r k e d "E" s h o w s t h e t r a v e l a l o n g t h e Z . The o u t p u t s of t h e s i n e . t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l r a c k and p i n i o n which i s u s e d t o t u r n t h e "N" p o i n t e r w h e n i t i s p u s h e d i n w a r d a n d t o t u r n t h e ''E" p o i n t e r w h e n i t i s p u l l e d o u t . a l o n g t h e o r t h o d r o m e . . and t h e c h a r t angle (+). means t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o 214 . 9 . P o s i t i o n lo). we obtain signals at the t h e p a t h a n g l e of t h e wind. s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f a f l i g h t . e . t h e p o i n t e r "N" w i l l s h o w t h e p a t h t r a v e l e d b y t h e a i r c r a f t i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n from t h e s t a r t ­ i n g p o i n t w h i l e t h e p o i n t e r "E" shows t r a v e l i n a n e a s t e r l y d i r e c ­ tion. w h o s e r e a d i n g s a r e shown on a s c a l e which i s g r a d u a t e d i n k i l o m e t e r s o f p a t h cov­ e r e d by t h e a i r c r a f t a l o n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a x e s . + U ~ =V C o s ( ~ .c o s i n e p o t e n t i o m e t e r which a r e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e component o f t h e wind s p e e d a l o n g t h e a x e s o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s f o r calculating the path. T h e n a m e s o f t h e p o i n t e r s ("N" a n d " E " ) w e r e g i v e n b e c a u s e a t a c h a r t a n g l e e q u a l t o z e r o .c o s i n e p o t e n t i o m e t e r s o f t h e a u t o m a t i c c o u r s e c o n t r o l and t h e wind s e n s o r a r e c o n n e c t e d i n s e r i e s .a x i s . A p o i n t e r m a r k e d "N" s h o w s t h e p a t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t a l o n g t h e X .

I n a d d i t i o n . e t c . Takeoff of t h e A i r c r a f t a t t h e S t a r t i n g Point of t h e Route /210 T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of t h e r o u t e ( S P R ) i s t h e f i r s t c o n t r o l l a n d ­ mark a l o n g t h e f l i g h t p a t h f r o m w h i c h t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l t r a v e l a l o n g t h e r o u t e a t a given path angle $. w i n d s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n . i n many c a s e s . T h e s e d e v i c e s d o n o t d e p e n d on s y s t e m s o f m e a s u r i n g f l i g h t a n g l e s and a i r c r a f t c o u r s e s . i t i s necessary t o r e c a l l t h a t t h e readings of navigational devices contain a l l necessary corrections. H o w e v e r .I . i n t h e formulas which have been found t o b e n e c e s s a r y . i n d e s c r i b i n g them. a n e x a c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of a t u r n i s u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t . Regardless of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p a t h a n g l e of t h e f l i g h t i s u s u a l l y r e c k o n e d from t h e a i r p o r t from which t h e a i r c r a f t t o o k o f f u p t o t h e S P R Y a s w e l l a s f r o m t h e FPR t o t h e a i r p o r t w h e r e i t i s t o l a n d . s i n c e t h e y have l i m i t e d f i e l d s of a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e . Approximate m e n t a l e x t i m a t e s c a n b e u s e d t o a d v a n t a g e i n a l l c a s e s when t h e p r o b l e m c a n b e s o l v e d more p r e c i s e l y b y means o f c a l c u l a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d any chance g r o s s e r r o r s . t o master t h e d e v i c e s used f o r aircraft navigation p r i o r t o automation. t h e s e values have s i g n i f i c a n c e only f o r g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e a i r p o r t s . e . T h e f i n a l p o i n t on t h e r o u t e ( F P R ) i s t h e l a s t c o n t r o l l a n d ­ m a r k a l o n g t h e r o u t e . t h e p a t h a n g l e and t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e f i r s t t u r n t o t h e SPR h a s a v a r i a b l e n a t u r e and cannot be determined e x a c t l y . Methods of a p p r o x i m a t e ( y e t s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s ) e s t i m a t i o n of n a v i g a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s i n f l i g h t w i t h o u t t h e use of c a l c u l a t i n g and measuring i n s t r u m e n t s a r e c a l l e d p i l o t s ' vis­ ual estimates. approximate c a l c u l a t i o n s are performed m e n t a l l y . Methods o f b r i n g i n g t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e i n i t i a l p o i n t on t h e r o u t e d i f f e r somewhat f r o m t h e g e n e r a l methods o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n along t h e f l i g h t route. 215 I . I n connection with t h e fact t h a t t h e f i r s t t u r n of t h e aircraft a f t e r t a k e o f f i s made a f t e r t h e a i r c r a f t r e a c h e s a c e r t a i n a l t i t u d e ( 2 0 0 m y e . w e h a v e u s e d t h e common d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s . ) . Therefore.o b t a i n and use t h e measured v a l u e s . f l y i n g w e i g h t o f t h e a i r c r a f t . i n s t e a d o f u s i n g t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s . The r u l e s f o r p i l o t s ' v i s u a l e s t i m a t e s w i l l b e g i v e n l a t e r on i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u i t a b l e m e t h o d s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a ­ tion. g . . from which t h e maneuver t o l a n d t h e a i r c r a f t begins. U n d e r p r a c t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . ? . a n i m p o r ­ t a n t r o l e i s p l a y e d by t h e p i l o t s ' c a l c u l a t i n g a n d m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u ­ ments. 1 a n d t h a t many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t a k e o f f c o n d i t i o n s ( s u c h as a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e .

42. I n Figure 2. b ) . i s t h a t i n t h e f i r s t case w e do n o t h a v e a s t r i c t l y determined p a t h a n g l e f o r t h e f l i g h t and can r e a c h t h e g i v e n p o i n t from a n y d i r e c t i o n . a n d t h e a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e along a s t r a i g h t . CAL = c o n s t ( F i g . I n t h e second case. t h e S P R m u s t r e m a i n a t t h e same a n g l e t o t h e l e f t o f t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . a . . S i n c e t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t i s n o t c o n s t a n t when t h e a i r c r a f t r e a c h e s t h e SPR.1 0 ° . I n t h e case of a l e f t . 4 3 . . e . 2. and t h e a i r c r a f t t h a t its course angle is . e . t h e landmark w i l l be observed a t a c o n s t a n t a n g l e t o t h e axis o f t h e a i r c r a f t . If t h e d r i f t a n g l e t u r n s o u t t o b e l e s s t h a n t h e l e a d w h i c h has been t a k e n ( F i g . If t h e c o u r s e l e a d i n g f r o m t h e a i r p o r t t o t h e SPR d i f f e r s f r o m t h e t a k e o f f c o u r s e by l e s s t h a n 90°. i . w e h a v e a g i v e n l i n e of f l i g h t .42. o r ( i n o t h e r w o r d s ) along the shortest path. t h e a i r c r a f t makes a r i g h t a n g l e t u r n t o t h e s t a r t ­ i n g p o i n t o f t h e r o u t e . when t h e l e a d angle (LA) i s e q u a l i n v a l u e t o t h e d r i f t angle of t h e a i r ­ c r a f t . c ) . I n t h i s case. t h e problem i n v o l v e s b r i n g i n g t h e a i r c r a f t t o a g i v e n p o i n t w i t h t h e minimum n u m b e r o f c h a n g e s i n t h e c o u r s e . W i t h t h e p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e t o t h e S P R Y . 216 d i r e c t i o n of t h e l o n g i t u d ­ indicates that the lead i f t a n g l e . d e p e n d i n g on t h e d i r e c t i o n a n d s p e e d o f /211 t h e wind. . i n t h e g i v e n case t h e n a v i ­ g a t i o n i s made i n a p o l a r s y s t e m o f c o o r d i n a t e s .l i n e orthodromic system of c o o r d i n a t e s . I n t h i s case. v i s u a l c o n t r o l of an a i r c r a f t t o b r i n g i t t o t h e SPR i s d o n e a s f o l l o w s . it i s necessary t o c o n t i n u e t h e f l i g h t along t h e p r e v i o u s c o u r s e u n t i l t h e SPR i s p a s s e d or ( i n h i g h . w e see t h a t t h e f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e from t h e c e n t e r o f a n a i r p o r t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n a l o n g t h e SPR a n d t h e s h o r t ­ e s t l i n e f o r t h e a i r c r a f t ' s p a t h t o t h e SPR a f t e r t a k e o f f a n d g a i n ­ i n g a l t i t u d e u n t i l t h e first t u r n are a t r i g h t angles. 2 . The s l i p p i n g of t h e l a n d m a r k i n t h e i n a l a x i s o f t h e a i r c r a f t (Fig'.s p e e d a i r c r a f t ) u n t i l t h e r e i s a l i n e a r l e a d on t h e t u r n . d ) which has been t a k e n is l e s s t h a n t h e d r m u s t b e t u r n e d away f r o m t h e l a n d m a r k s o g r e a t e r than t h e i n i t i a l one. s o t h a t when t h e w i n d i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e a i r p o r t c a u s e s d r i f t i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e r i g h t . P r a c t i c a l l y speaking. a f t e r t a k e o f f a n d g a i n i n g t h e d e s i r e d a l t i t u d e . i t s c o u r s e a n g l e t u r n s o u t t o b e l e s s t h a n t h e i n i t i a l one. t h e l a n d ­ mark w h i c h i s d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e SPR m u s t r e m a i n t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e b y 5 . 2. a s l i p p i n g o f t h e landmark w i l l be observed from t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t .The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m e t h o d s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g an a i r c r a f t t o t h e SPRY and t h e a i r c r a f t navi­ g a t i o n a l o n g t h e r o u t e .42. t h e a i r c r a f t must b e s h i f t e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e landmark s o t h a t .h a n d d r i f t .

. ( c ) A i r c r a f t Course must b e I n c r e a s e d . R e v e r s e c o r r e c t i o n i s made b y o n e . t o s o l v e t h i s p r o b ­ lem. (d) A i r c r a f t C o u r s e Must b e D e c r e a s e d . 2. i t t h e n c h a n g e s i n t h e r e q u i r e d d i r e c ­ If t h i s t u r n s t i o n by h a l f of t h e i n i t i a l l e a d which w a s t a k e n . a c o r r e c t i o n i s made w h i c h i s e q u a l t o o n e . t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d by t h e a i r c r a f t i s s e t v i s u a l l y This problem i s when t h e S P R i s l o c a t e d a l o n g a s t r a i g h t l i n e . T h i s method i n v o l v e s t h e f o l ­ i f t h e l e a d which h a s b e e n t a k e n t u r n s o u t t o b e g r e a t e r lowing: or l e s s t h a n t h e r e q u i r e d o n e .T h u s .42. ( b ) Aircraft Course Chosen C o r r e c t l y . a n d i f t h i s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t or t o o m u c h . L i n i n g Up a n A i r c r a f t w i t h t h e SPR: ( a ) P a t h Angle ( $ 1 and S h o r t e s t D i s t a n c e ( S I . I n t h e absence of a s i g h t aboard t h e a i r c r a f t .e i g h t h of t h e i n i t i a l l e a d . w h i c h i s no l o n g e r of p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r v i s u a l a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n .c a l l e d method of h a l f c o r r e c t i o n s . I t is not usually neces­ s a r y t o b r e a k down t h e c o r r e c t i o n s m o r e t h a n e i g h t t i m e s .1 2 /2 s o . o u t t o b e i n s u f f i c i e n t . t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s for t h e SPR a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n . t h e p i l o t r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n d e g r e e of e x p e r i e n c e which i s gained i n t h e course of t h e t r a i n i n g of f l i g h t c r u i s e i n a c t u a l f l i g h t or i n s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g d e v i c e s . a s w e l l a s i n p r a c t i c e f l i g h t s . Fig. s i n c e t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o r r e c t i o n w i l l t h e n b e n o more t h a n 1-1.f o u r t h o f t h e i n i t i a l l e a d . 217 l i- . i t i s c h a n g e d a g a i n by h a l f of t h e i n i t i a l v a l u e u n t i l t h e c o u r s e a n g l e b e c o m e s s t a b l e or t h e s i g n o f t h e c o r ­ r e c t i o n must be changed t o t h e o p p o s i t e .5O . b y u s i n g t h e . b e s t s o l v e d when t h e r e i s a n a v i g a t i o n l e v e l on b o a r d .

/213 where LLD i s t h e l i n e a r l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n and Sc i s t h e d i s t a n c e covered. (b) A t a landmark a l o n g t h e l i n e . I f .S e l e c t i n g the C o u r s e to be F o l l o w e d f o r the F l i g h t Route The c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d b y t h e a i r c r a f t a l o n g t h e f l i g h t r o u t e n o t o n l y must b e s e t s o t h e air'craft p a s s e s o v e r c e r t a i n c o n t r o l landmarks i n t h e p r o p e r o r d e r . There are t h r e e p r i n c i p a l methods o f s e l e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e t o be followed: (a) When d e v i a t i o n s o c c u r f r o m t h e l i n e o f a g i v e n p a t h during the f l i g h t . b u t must a l s o e n s u r e t h a t t h e f l i g h t t a k e s p l a c e e x a c t l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g i v e n l i n e of f l i g h t . Determine t h e r e q u i r e d c o r r e c t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e ( F i g . t h e a i r ­ c r a f t t u r n s o u t t o b e on t h e g i v e n l i n e o f f l i g h t . E x a m p l e : An a i r c r a f t h a s f l o w n f r o m a c o n t r o l l a n d m a r k f o r a d i s t a n c e o f 36 km a n d h a s d e v i a t e d 3 km t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e d e s i r e d path. a t t h e moment t h a t i t i s f l y i n g o v e r t h i s p o i n t . 4 3 ) : S o l u t i on. 2 . 218 . a f t e r f l y i n g over a c e r t a i n T h i s method i n v o l v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g : control point. I n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e landmark p o i n t s . t h e l i n e a r l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n from t h e d e s i r e d l i n e of f l i g h t i s determined and t h e r e q u i r e d c o r r e c t i o n i s f o u n d for t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t : t g Ay = LLD ­ sc . (LGP) (c) The m o s t u n i v e r s a l a n d w i d e l y u s e d m e t h o d i s t h e f i r s t o n e . I f t h e a i r c r a f t h a s u n d e r g o n e some s h i f t t o t h e r i g h t w h e n it p a s s e s o v e r t h i s p o i n t . the calculated course t o be followed along the given l i n e of f l i g h t i s d e t e r m i n e d as f o l l o w s y = $ a calc' which t h e a i r c r a f t f o l l o w s u n t i l t h e f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o i n t along the f l i g h t path. t h e c o u r s e i s then considered t o be sufficiently correct.

i t i s u s u a l l y p e c e s s a r y f i r s t o f a l l t o make a d o u b l e c o u r s e c o r r e c t i o n ( i n o u r c a s e . Determination of C o r r e c t i o n s i n C o u r s e to b e Followed. S i n c e t h e c o r r e c t i o n for t h e distance covered w a s equal t o So.6". loo). 2. or i s t r a v e l i n g a l o n g t h e l i n e o f t h e d e s i r e d p a t h ) t h e l e a d i n t h e c o u r s e i s r e d u c e d by a f a c t o r o f two.To r e a c h t h e d e s i r e d l i n e of f l i g h t . L e t us s a y t h a t i n o u r example t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e n e x t land­ m a r k i s s t i l l 3 0 km. /214 2 19 . i n o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e d e s i r e d p a t h a t t h e moment w h e n t h e n e x t c o n t r o l l a n d m a r k i s b e i n g passed. the t o t a l correction for the course i n order t o get the air­ c r a f t t o t h e CTR must b e e q u a l t o -110. The f i r s t m e t h o d o f p i l o t ' s v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n i n t h i s c a s e w i l l be t h e v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n of t h e l a t e r a l d r i f t from t h e l i n e of f l i g h t . we p r e f e r a b l y u s e m e t h o d s i n v o l v i n g v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n by t h e p i l o t w i t h o u t t h e u s e of a n y c a l c u l a t ­ i n g i n s t r u m e n t s or t a b l e s . a n d t h e n (when t h e a i r c r a f t h a s c o v e r e d a d i s t a n c e e q u a l t o t h e b a s e o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t . t h u s c o m p l i c a t i n g t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e d e s i r e d s o l u tions. c o r r e c t i o n m u s t b e made i n t h e c o u r s e for t h e d i s t a n c e covered f o r t h e t r a v e l p a r a l l e l t o t h e l i n e of t h e d e s i r e d p a t h and o v e r t h e d i s t a n c e covered. t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l cover a considerable d i s t a n c e . In the opposite case. Fig. l e a v ­ i n g a c o r r e c t i o n i n t h e course which i s e q u a l t o t h e s e t a n g l e of drift.43. I n s o l v i n g problems i n determining t h e d e s i r e d c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d . The p r o b l e m i s s o l v e d s i m i l a r l y when t h e a i r c r a f t h a s w a n d e r e d t o t h e l e f t of t h e desired path. while the p i l o t i s solving t h e problems. t h e n i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n i t . but with the difference that the correction i n the course t o be followed i s p o s i t i v e i n t h i s case. If t h e c l o s e s t t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e r o u t e ( C T R ) i s l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e which i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h e b a s e of m e a s u r e m e n t . t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g d i s t a n c e w i l l be equal t o : l Ayremtg AI == 3 30 == 1 10 .

when t h e l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n i s t a k e n p e r u n i t of measurement. For c o n v e n i e n c e i n m e t a l c a l c u l a t i o n . i f t h i s method f o r c o u r s e c o r r e c t i o n i s employed and t h e a i r c r a f t does n o t reach t h e d e s i r e d p o i n t along t h e l i n e 220 . t h e n t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e p o i n t is approximately equal t o 1 . O b v i o u s l y . t h e d i s t a n c e i s e q u a l t o t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . with s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g . When t h e v e r t i c a l a n g l e o f t h e p o i n t i s c l o s e t o 26. Intermediate values of v e r t i c a l angles and distances are determined For e x a m p l e . This method.5O. w h i l e a t a. t h e e r r o r s i n d i s t a n c e w i l l b e g r e a t e r a n d t h i s method c a n n o t b e u s e d . 1/10 118 1/7 5 6 7 8 1I6 1/5 114 113 10 12 15 20 T h e s e r a t i o s a r e e a s y t o r e m e m b e r i f w e know t h a t i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e i r r e q u i r e d c o r r e c t i o n it i s adequate t o divide t h e number 60 i n t o t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d . w i t h a v e r t i c a l a l t i t u d e o f 45O.5 2 /a 3 4 1/12. and consequently. o n e r a d i a n i s a s s u m e d t o b e 60' r a t h e r t h a n 5 7 .n a n g l e o f 63. with r e s p e c t t o t h e l i n e of f l i g h t (on t h e o r d e r of 0 . g i v e s a very high accuracy f o r determining t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e aircraft r e l a t i v e t o a given p o i n t along t h e r o u t e . T h i s a l l o w s t h e r e q u i r e d c o r r e c t i o n t o b e made i n t h e c o u r s e i n terms of t h e approximate r a t i o of t h e l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n t o t h e d i s t a n c e covered: 1/60 1/40 1/30 1 1/15 1 1. A t v e r y l a r g e a n g l e s ( g r a t e r t h a n 65O) f r o m t h e v e r t ­ i c a l of t h e a i r c r a f t . i c a l a n g l e i s r o u g h l y e q u a l t o 55O. b u t t h i s d o e s n o t i n t r o d u c e a n y c o n s i d ­ e r a b l e e r r o r s ( t h e maximum e r r o r i n a n g l e s u p t o 20° d o e s n o t e x c e e d 10 ) . The s e c o n d method o f v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n by t h e p i l o t w h i c h i s used i n s o l v i n g t h i s problem i s t h e mental c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e required course corrections following l i n e a r l a t e r a l deviation (LLD).5O i t i s t w i c e t h e f l i g h t a l t i ­ tude. 3 . 1 H ) a t v e r t i c a l angles u p t o 65O. t h e d i s t a n c e from it by f l i g h t along t h e tra­ v e r s e i s determined by t h e v e r t i c a l a n g l e . t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d a t a d i s ­ t a n c e f r o m t h e p o i n t which i s e q u a l t o h a l f t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .If a n a r r c r a f t i s t r a v e l i n g t o t h e s i d e o f t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o i n t . These a n g l e s are u s u a l l y determined by v i s u a l observation. 5 f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s . i f t h e v e r t ­ by v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n a n d i n t e r p o l a t i o n .

s o t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l some l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n . A f t e r c h a n g i n g t h e c o u r s e by a n a d d i t i o n a l t u r n i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t . Selection of t h e course t o be followed according t o a land­ mark a l o n g t h e r o u t e c a n b e u s e d i n t h e c a s e when t h e f l i g h t t a k e s p l a c e a l o n g a s t r a i g h t . e . with i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o r r e c t i o n s f o r i n s t r u ­ mental and methodological e r r o r s . t h e crew r e t u r n s t o t h e d e s i r e d c o u r s e and t r a v e l s i n t h e d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n once a g a i n . l o c a t e d beyond t h e second one. a l t i t u d e . make it p o s s i b l e t o make measurements d i r e c t l y ( d u r i n g f l i g h t ) of s u c h e l e m e n t s as t h e d r i f t a n g l e and t h e ground s p e e d . b u t h a s t h e oppo­ site sign 221 . t h e a i r c r a f t f o l l o w s t h e d e s i r e d c o u r s e or c h o s e s t h e n e x t l a n d ­ m a r k . t h e d r i f t angle of t h e aircraft can b e d e t e r m i n e d as f o l l o w s . A f t e r 15­ 20 min o f f l y i n g t i m e . i t means t h a t t h e aircraft course has been properly s e t . . L e t us suppose t h a t w e are t r a v e l i n g along a given r o u t e and t h a t a c o n t r o l landmark on t h i s r o u t e h a s b e e n p a s s e d . s o t h a t i n o r d e r t o de­ t e r m i n e them i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u s e v a r i o u s p i l o t a g e t e c h n i q u e s . O t h e r methods o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n do n o t p e r m i t d i r e c t measurement o f t h e l a t t e r two e l e m e n t s . t h e d r i f t a n g l e i s e q u a l i n v a l u e t o t h e p r e v i o u s c o u r s e . and c o n t i n u e s i t s f l i g h t a l o n g this line. In t h e absence of s i g h t s . Change i n Navigational Elements During F l i g h t The m a j o r i t y o f n a v i g a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s ( c o u r s e . b a s e d o n t h e D o p p l e r p r i n c i p l e . s p e e d ) a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n f l i g h t on t h e b a s i s of i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e c o r r e ­ sponding instruments. A u t o m a t i c r a d i o d e v i c e s . t h e l a t e r a l /215 d e vi a t i o n a n d t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e c o u r s e w a s l a st changed can b e used t o c o r r e c t t h e c o u r s e . t h e course i s s e l e c t e d s o t h a t t h e c l o s e r of two s e l e c t e d l a n d m a r k s a l o n g t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t c o n s t a n t l y ( u p t o t h e moment t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t f l i e s o v e r i t ) r e m a i n s i n a l i n e with t h e f u r t h e r landmark. T h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d on t h e b a s i s o f o r i e n t a t i o n landmarks i s a v a r i e t y o f t h e l a t t e r method. w e s e l e c t a n o t h e r l a n d m a r k by w h i c h w e t e s t t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e c o u r s e which h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d . A f t e r p a s s i n g by t h e c l o s e r l a n d m a r k .o f f l i g h t . i .l i n e p o r t i o n o f a r a i l w a y or h i g h w a y a n d means t h a t t h e c r e w m u s t c h a n g e t h e c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t s o t h a t it follows t h i s l i n e a r landmark. I n t h i s case. If no l a t ­ e r a l d e v i a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t o c c u r s on t h i s s e g m e n t .

a n d S i s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e g m e n t o v e r w h i c h t h e d r i f t a n g l e w a s meas­ ured. In t h e s e c a s e s . 1 0 . 5 5 a n d 1 . 222 . a f t e r which t h e ground speed i s determined by t h e formula where S i s t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e landmarks and t i s t h e f l y i n g t i m e between t h e landmarks. 6 S . however. l a t t e r c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d as t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a c t u a l f l i g h t angle and t h e course being followed: I t i s much e a s i e r i n f l i g h t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e g r o u n d s p e e d of an aircraft: t h e same l a n d m a r k s a r e u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e as those used f o r determining t h e d r i f t angle of t h e aircraft. 1 2 . a n d i s e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d men­ t a l l y by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e l a n d m a r k s by one o f t h e numbers g i v e n a b o v e .44). 1 . and $ i s t h e g i v e n f l i g h t p a t h angle. t h i s a n g l e i s d e t e r m i n e d by methods o f v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n by t h e p i l o t . 5 5 . t h e . It i s n o t always p o s s i b l e . 2. T h e a n g l e o f d e v i a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t f r o m t h e l i n e o f t h e d e s i r e d f l i g h t p a t h a r c t g AZ/S i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e n e g a t i v e i f t h e a i r c r a f t d e v i a t e s from it t o t h e l e f t . c a s e s when t h e f l y i n g t i m e i s l e s s t h a n 6 0 m i n . t h e course t o be f o l ­ lowed w i l l b e i n c o r r e c t and t h e a c t u a l f l i g h t a n g l e w i l l b e +Q = q3 -Iarctg /216 AZ S w h e r e A Z e q u a l s t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t f r o m t h e L G F . w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h o s e For example. 2 5 . and p o s i t i v e i f it devi­ ates t o t h e r i g h t . 4 5 . A s i n t h e method o f s e l e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e . y is the aircraft course. 6 . i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t i m e s when t h e a i r c r a f t f l i e s o v e r t h e f i r s t and second landmarks. 2 0 a n d 3 0 . t o c o r r e c t l y set t h e course If a l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t f r o m t p e l i n e o f t h e d e s i r e d path arises i n our f l i g h t segment. or e v e n 4 0 a n d 4 8 m i n a r e p o s s i b l e . t h e g r o u n d s p e e d w i l l b e e q u a l t o l O S . 2 5 S .w h e r e a i s t h e d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t . I n t h e c a s e of i m p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l ­ lowed. 1 5 . t o be followed. To d o t h i s . T h e d i v i s i o n S/t i s d o n e a s a r u l e o n s c a l e s 1 a n d 2 o f a n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e ( F i g . 3S. r e s p e c t i v e l y .

S c a l e s on N a v i g a t i o n a l S l i d e Rule N L . h ) h ) W .44.1 O M .Fig. 2.

2 . and t h e d r i f t a n g l e f o r a given course. T h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e p a t h a n g l e o f t h e w i n d (AW) i s c a r ­ r i e d o u t on t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e b y means o f a k e y ( F i g . b). t h e d a t a on t h e wind which a r e o b t a i n e d a r e o b s o l e t e t o a c e r t a i n degree and a r e not completely s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h e needs of calculating. When t h e a i r c r a f t h a s o n b o a r d o n l y t h e m o s t g e n e r a l d e v i c e s f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n .7 0 km a p a r t . With a v a i l a b i l ­ i t y of exact d a t a r e g a r d i n g i t s d i r e c t i o n and s p e e d . i n o r d e r t o a v o i d g r o s s e r r o r s . Measuring the Wind at Flight Altitude and Calculating Navigational Elements a t Successive Stages The p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r w h i c h c o m p l i c a t e s t h e p r o c e s s e s o f a i r ­ c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s t h e wind. a ) . 2. Determine t h e wind a n g l e . a ) . a l l problems o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n c a n b e s o l v e d by a c o m b i n a t i o n of g e n e r a l m e t h o d s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e v i s i b i l i t y of t e r r e s t r i a l landmarks. 2. Over s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . Solution: (Fig. 224 . V = 320 k m / h r . /218 Example: W = 360 k m / h r . Answer: AW = 48O. 4 6 . ground speed ( W ) . t h e problem of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e wind a t t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a s w e l l as t h e d r i f t a n g l e and t h e ground s p e e d can b e s o l v e d i f t e r r e s t r i a l landmarks a r e v i s i b l e . t h e r e are t h r e e n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s which b a s i c a l l y determine t h e s p e e d and d i r e c t i o n of t h e wind a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e : t h e a i r s p e e d ( V ) . In order t o be able t o prepare t h e navigational data f o r t h e next s t a g e of f l i g h t . U n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s when a n a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g a l o n g a n a i r r o u t e . d r i f t a n g l e = +8O. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e wind a t t h e v e r y e n d o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a g e a n d e v e n i n t h i s c a s e .45. The w i n d a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e d o e s n o t r e m a i n c o n s t a n t b u t i s c o n s t a n t l y changing w i t h t i m e and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h d i s t a n c e . i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o s e l e c t d i s t a n c e s between landmarks which are no l e s s t h a n 5 0 .45. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e a n d m a r k down v e r y e x a c t l y t h e t i m e t h a t t h e aircraft passes over t h e c o n t r o l landmarks. i t i s e a s y t o d e t e r m i n e i t s s p e e d b y For our means o f a k e y w h i c h i s m a r k e d on t h e r u l e ( F i g . I f w e know t h e w i n d .To m e a s u r e t h e g r o u n d s p e e d a s w e l l a s t h e d r i f t a n g l e . T h e w i n d c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s w i l l n o t b e r e c k o n e d f r o m t h e m e r i d i a n o f t h e l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t ( L A ) b u t from t h e l i n e of f l i g h t of t h e a i r c r a f t .

2 . I f t h e f l i g h t i s made w i t h m a g n e t i c f l i g h t a n g l e s . i n t h e n e x t s t a g e w i t h a n M F A = 5 6 O . u = 6 0 k m / h r . b. a ) . mination of t h e Speed.e x a m p l e . i s t h e f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e o f t h e n e x t s t a g e of t h e f l i g h t . L e t u s a s s u m e t h a t t h e f l i g h t i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a g e w a s made w i t h a MFA = 38O. C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e P a t h A n g l e o f t h e Wind o n t h e ( a ) Key for D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Wind Navigational S l i d e Rule: Angle. C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e Wind S p e e d o n t h e N a v i g a t . The d a t a o b t a i n e d on t h e w i n d a t t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a g e a r e AW = 48O. (b) D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Wind A n g l e . 4 7 . .46. 2. t h e w i n d d i r e c t i o n i s o b t a i n e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e magnetic meridian of t h e LA. T h e a n g l e o f t h e w i n d �or t h e n e x t s t a g e o f AW = 6 the flight is /219 - +. T h e v a l u e s for t h e g r o u n d s p e e d a n d d r i f t a n g l e o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t for t h e n e x t s t a g e o f t h e f l i g h t a r e c a l c u l a t e d o n t h e n a v i ­ g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e by m e a n s o f a k e y ( F i g . w h e r e 6 i s t h e w i n d d i r e c t i o n a n d J.45. The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e w i n d r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n o f t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t ( L A ) i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a 6 = AW t I ) . This d i r e c t i o n is a l s o used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e navigational elements i n t h e next s t a g e of t h e f l i g h t . and i s used f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e f l i g h t of t h e aircraft. Answer: u = 60 k m / h r . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s p e e d o f t h e w i n d a n d i t s d i r e c t i o n i s t r a n s ­ m i t t e d from t h e a i r c r a f t t o ground s t a t i o n s . a n d w i t h a n a i r s p e e d o f 320 k m / h r . 225 . see F i g u r e 2 . a l s o r e l a t i v e t o t h e magnetic m e r i d i a n of t h e L A .o n a l (b) D e t e r ­ S l i d e Rule: ( a ) Key f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e S p e e d . a) b) 1 0 s1n us @ w-" Y 0 @ 8' 40 48' 0 20 Fig. 4 6 . Fig.

3 8 = 1 8 O . w h i l e t h e a n g l e o f t h e w i n d f o r t h e n e x t s t a g e o f t.he f l i g h t i s AW = 8 6 5 6 = 30'. I f t h e f l i g h t i s made w i t h o r t h o d r o m i c f l i g h t a n g l e s .. b ) .. t h e n i n order t o c a l c u l a t e t h e navigational elements f o r t h e next stage o f t h e f l i g h t it i s u n n e c e s s a r y t o c o n v e r t t h e wind a n g l e t o i t s d i r e c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n of t h e LA.II I I I 11111 . O b v i o u s l y . t h e t r u e w i n d d i r e c t i o n a t t h e p o i n t LA i s 226 . I n our case. Fig. 5 = 52. i n o r d e r t o t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e wind t o ground s t a t i o n s . = 48O. a n d A W 2 = 4 8 ­ However. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e wind d i r e c ­ t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n of t h e LA. . US = + 5 ..5O. The v a l u e o f t h e g r o u n d s p e e d a n d t h e d r i f t a n g l e f o r t h e n e x t s t a g e o f t h e f l i g h t a r e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d by means o f t h e n a v i g a ­ t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e (Fig. 2. 2.e. The v a l u e s o f t h e d r i f t a n g l e c a n b e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c a l c u l a t e d c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d i n t h e n e x t s t a g e of t h e f l i g h t . ?. y /220 = 58 - 5 . W = 370 k m / h r . .TA.47. . C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e D r i f t Angle a n d Ground Speed on t h e N a v i g a t i o n a l A l i d e R u l e : ( a ) Key for D e t e r m i n i n g t h e D r i f t Angle a n d Ground S p e e d . T A = 5 6 .47. The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e wind r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n o f t h e LA i s 6 = 48 + - 38 = 86O.48): AW2 = AW1 .. In t h i s case.. the wind a n g l e f o r t h e n e x t s t a g e of t h e f l i g h t i s d e t e r m i n e d as t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e w i n d a n g l e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a g e of t h e f l i g h t and t h e angle of t u r n i n t h e r o u t e ( F i g . . AW1 1 8 = 30°. a) b) 0us: 0" -A$ V 'US+AW W @ @ $' 5 60 30' 320 3JS' 370. I n o u r e x a m p l e . ___ . 5 O . (b) Determination of t h e D r i f t Angle a n d Ground S p e e d . 2..

Fig. v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s o n l y p o s s i b l e o v e r i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s of t h e r o u t e . when i t b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y t o c h e c k t h e a i r c r a f t p a t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n . . Aor=700 . v e r y o f t e n i t may n o t b e p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t c o n t i n u o u s l y r e l a t i v e t o a g i v e n p a t h . we h a v e d i s c u s s e d t h e m e t h o d s o f p l a c i n g t h e a i r c r a f t on c o u r s e . For example.w h e r e ct i s t h e a z i m u t h o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e a t t h e p o i n t L A . e t c ) . t a i g a . C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e P a t h o f t h e A i r c r a f t and M o n i t o r i n g A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n i n Terms o f D i s t a n c e and D i r e c t i o n I n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s .8 + 5 = 1030.~ ~1=3ao o . and t h e m a g n e t i c wind d i r e c t i o n i s 8~ = 48 + 3 8 + 15. ALA=850 . 227 . i t becomes n e c e s s a r y t o u s e c o n t i n u o u s c a l c u l a ­ t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t path i n t e r m s of t i m e a t c e r t a i n p e r i o d s . n e t i c d i r e c t i o n of t h e wind i s t h e mag­ Consequently.48. d e s e r t . Under c o n d i t i o n s o f c o n t i n u o u s v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e c o n d i t i o n s o f m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v i s i b i l i t y may n o t allow u s e of landmarks which h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d a l o n g t h e r o u t e . SOlutiOn: The t r u e wind d i r e c t i o n i s ‘true = 48 + 38 + 15-0.X r e f ) s i n $ a v . t h e s e s methods c o m p l e t e l y e n s u r e r e l i a b l e a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s .AW + ( A L A . Determination o f t h e Wind A n g l e i n a Successive Flight Stage. i f t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e orthodromic path angles i s made f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n . t h e n 6 M . - ExampZs: A ~ = . H o w e v e r . and no a d d i t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d . i n l o c a t i o n s where t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s (steppe.8 = 980. @ a v = 5 2 0 . d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s d u r i n g f l i g h t . 2./221 t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e .0. bodies of w a t e r . C a l c u l a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t p a t h i s a l w a y s done w i t h p r e v ­ i o u s l y c a l c u l a t e d p a r a m e t e r s ( t h e c a l c u l a t e d c o u r s e and g r o u n d s p e e d . A W = ~ ~ O .A M . and c a l c u l a t i n g them f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s of t h e f l i g h t .

a s w e l l as i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e o b s o l e s c e n c e o f t h e d a t a o n t h e w i n d . fixing t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t ( i n t e r m s o f d i s t a n c e a t t h e moment t h a t it f l i e s o v e r t h e 1andmark)and t h e d i r e c t i o n . d e p e n d i n g on t h e f l y i n g t i m e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y c a l c u l a t e d d a t a and t h e s p e e d of t h e a i r c r a f t . a l l t h e v a l u e s a n d m o m e n t s o f c h a n g e i n t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e a r e d e t e r m i n e d . Having determined t h e p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e landmark. /222 When f l y i n g o v e r a c o n t r o l l a n d m a r k . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o k e e p i n mind t h a t the accuracy of aircraft navigation then decreases contin­ u o u s l y due t o t h e accummulation o f e r r o r s w i t h t i m e . l i n e a r landmarks a r e u s u a l l y employed. which i n t e r s e c t t h e r o u t e of t h e f l i g h t a t an angle c l o s e t o 90°. f o r e s t outlines. and t h e a i r c r a f t i s s e t t o t h e n e x t p h a s e o f c a l c u l a t e d f l i g h t on t h e b a s i s of t h e p r e v i o u s v a l u e s f o r d i r e c t i o n and v e l o c i t y of t h e wind. T h u s . When t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n i m p r o v e . t h e c r e w t a k e s measures t o check t h e p a t h of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t e r m s o f d i s ­ t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n . t h e p i l o t a l s o t r i e s t o determine t h e l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e d e s i r e d p a t h on t h e b a s i s o f a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of t h e landmark ( c u r v e s i n r i v e r s . T o check t h e p a t h i n terms of d i s t a n c e . etc. a t t h e moment t h a t h e f l i e s o v e r i t . l o o k i n g f o r t h e l a n d m a r k .). the p i l o t projects it along t h e l i n e of the desired path. t h e c a l c u ­ l a t e d t i m e f o r f l y i n g o v e r t h i s landmark i s determined. meas­ ured p r i o r t o t h e l a s t r e l i a b l y s i g h t e d landmark. t h e p i l o t c a r e f u l l y b e g i n s t o examine t h e l a n d s c a p e . populated areas . t h e crew aims t h e a i r c r a f t toward t h e n e x t landmark d u r i n g a c e r t a i n p e r i o d o f t i m e which i s used t o f i x a l l t h e v a l u e s of t h e a c t u a l c o u r s e of t h e aircraft. w h i c h make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c a l c u l a t e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t by p l o t t i n g and t h u s t o determine t h e a d d i t i o n a l e r r o r s i n a i r c r a f t navigation. A t t h e same t i m e . However. t r i b u t a r i e s . due t o m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . I f t h e p r o p e r l a n d m a r k h a s n o t b e e n s i g h t e d when t h e s c h e d ­ u l e d t i m e h a s e l a p s e d . C a l c u l a t i o n of t h e p a t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t means t h a t a f t e r t h e l a s t i d e n t i f i e d l a n d m a r k h a s b e e n l e f t b e h i n d . Five t o t e n minutes before t h e c a l c u l a t e d time f o r f l y i n g o v e r t h e s e l a n d m a r k s . r o a d j u n c t i o n s . t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s determined r e l a t i v e t o d i s t a n c e and time .calculated t i m e ) . c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e p a t h ( f l i g h t on t h e b a s i s o f p r e v ­ i o u s l y determined d a t a ) can continue u n t i l t h e conditions f o r v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n improve. 228 I I .

t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s must b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h c o n s t a n t c h a n g e o f t h e c a l m p o i n t . a f t e r which t h e p i l o t compares t h e c h a r t w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: (a) I n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e e n d o f t h e wind v e c t o r ( t h e most probable p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t ) . f i x e d c o u r s e . t h e air­ than t h e calculated time f o r f l y i n g p a s t it. a f t e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n have i m p r o v e d . (c) I n terms o f t h e wind v e c t o r d i r e c t i o n from i t s b e g i n ­ n i n g t o e n d . L i g h t p l a n e s ( w h i c h f l y a t low a l t i t u d e s ) a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y r e q u i r e d t o make l o n g d i s t a n c e f l i g h t s when the conditions f o r visual o r i e n t a t i o n are poor. 5 t o 2 t i m e s and t u r n i n g i t t o t h e l e f t and r i g h t a t a n g l e s up t o 90° f r o m t h e calculated direction. c r a f t c a n b e aimed a t a c o n t r o l l a n d m a r k w h i c h l i n e s up w i t h t h e l i n e a r landmark. I n i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s . 2. Never­ t h e l e s s .A t t h e present t i m e .49).49. 2. (b) I n t h e v i c i n i t y of a calm p o i n t . f i e l d o f view somewhat e a r l i e r After t h i s . when s u c h c a s e s d o o c c u r . 5 t o 2 t i m e s ) i n t h e remaining semicircle. t h e f l i g h t c a n b e made on t h e b a s i s o f a s l i g h t l e a d i n t h e course and t h e d i r e c ­ t i o n of an acute angle of intersection with the route Fig. aircraft used f o r long distance f l i g h t s when t h e g r o u n d i s n o t v i s i b l e a r e f i t t e d w i t h s p e c i a l r a d i o n a v i g a ­ t i o n a l equipment. a n d t h e p i l o t m a k e s a n e s t i m a t e on t h e c h a r t o f t h e a i r c r a f t f l i g h t i n t e r m s of a i r s p e e d . d e p e n d i n g o n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e move­ ment o f t h e a i r c r a f t . s u c h as /223 229 . w i t h a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e wind v e c t o r 1 . (d) T u r n i n g t h e wind v e c t o r ( e x t e n d e d 1 . and f l y i n g t i m e w i t h t h e s e c o u r s e s from t h e l a s t recognized landmark. o t h e r m e a s u r e s m u s t b e t a k e n t o f i n d l a n d m a r k s . Lead Toward t h e A c u t e by a l i n e a r landmark ( F i g . In t h i s case. If t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t c a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s m a n n e r . The p o i n t o b t a i n e d h a s a c a l c u l a t e d wi n d v e c t o r d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t t i m e . t h e crew s e t s t h e a i r c r a f t on c o u r s e t o f l y t o w a r d t h e n e x t c o n t r o l l a n d m a r k . when t h e p i l o t d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e t e r r a i n o v e r which t h e a i r c r a f t must f l y . N a t u r a l l y . t h e Angle of t h e T r a v e r s e o f a Landlandmark must a p p e a r i n t h e mark.

I n p r e p a r i n g t o l a n d and maneuvering i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e a i r p o r t . e . T h e s e d e v i c e s a r e mounted on h i g h . For t h i s p u r p o s e .r a n g e o p e r a t i o n . and a l s o by making i n q u i r i e s from t h e g r o u n d . a u t o m a t i c n a v i g a t 5 o n a l d e v i c e s s i m ­ p l i f y t h e work o f t h e p i l o t i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p a t h o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t and i n m e a s u r i n g t h e wind p a r a m e t e r s a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . e .a r e a l a n d m a r k ( l a k e . w h i l e o n t h o s e w i t h a s c a l e of 1 : 2 . a s p e c i a l s t e n c i l is included i n t h e set of navigational instru­ m e n t s f o r t h e NI-50B i n d i c a t o r . t h e apparatus i s connected t o a source o f d i r e c t c u r r e n t . t h u s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r use. i . I n a l l c a s e s when a n a u t o m a t i c n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e i s b e i n g u s e d . g . t h e a x i s OX c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e a x i s o f t h e l a n d i n g s t r i p at the airport.l i n e s e g m e n t s of t h e f l i g h t . . For e x a m p l e . t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p a t h i n an orthodromic system of c o o r d i n a t e s i n s t a g e s . P a r a l l e l l i n e s a r e d r a w n a t 2 0 mm i n t e r v a l s . etc. w h i c h a r e b a s e d on t h e g e n e r a l m e t h o d s o f a i r ­ craft n a v i g a t i o n . 0 0 0 i t i s 40 km. a n d t h e c h a r t a n g l e on t h e a u t o m a t i c c o u r s e c o n t r o l i s s e t 230 . To c a r r y o u t s p e c i a l o p e r a t i o n s i n t h i s r e g i o n . a t t e s t s i t e s f o r r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s t e m s for s h o r t .t h e l o c a t i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i n e a r or l a r g e . f o r f l y i n g a l o n g a r o u t e . . e t c . d e p e n d i n g o n w h i c h s y s t e m for c a l c u l a t i n g t h e f l i g h t a n g l e s i s b e i n g u s e d t o make t h e f l i g h t . e t c . p a r a l l e l t o t h e axes of t h e s y s t e m OX a n d O Z . 0 0 0 . a r e c t a n g u l a r system of c o o r d i n a t e s s h o u l d b e a p p l i e d t o t h e f l i g h t c h a r t i n t h e given r e g i o n . i t i s m o s t a d v a n ­ t a g e o u s t o c o m b i n e t h e a x i s o f t h e s y s t e m OX w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e s t r a i g h t . t h e a x i s OX i s combined w i t h t h e a v e r a g e m e r i d i a n o f t h e f l i g h t a r e a ( m a g n e t i c or t r u e ) . The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a x e s of t h e c o o r d i n a t e s i s s e l e c t e d by t h e p i l o t d e p e n d i n g o n t h e c o n d i t i o n s for w h i c h t h e s y s t e m i s b e i n g used.s p e e d p a s s e n g e r a i r c r a f t which have complete r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l equipment. During f l i g h t . no a d d i t i o n a l d e v i c e s a r e needed o t h e r t h a n t h e general navigational d i v i s i o n s of t h e c h a r t . can b e used i n s t r a i g h t . Such d e v i c e s .000 t h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o 2 0 k m . In using an automatic navigational device with orthodromic c o o r d i n a t e s i n s t a g e s . s e a ) .l i n e systems of coord­ i n a t e s a t any o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e i r a x e s . Use o f A u t o m a t i c N a v i g a t i o n a l D e v i c e s f o r C a l c u l a t i n g t h e A i r c r a f t P a t h and M e a s u r i n g t h e Wind P a r a m e t e r s To a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e . s o t h a t on c h a r t s w i t h a s c a l e o f 1:1.000.

51. due t o i n a c c u r a t e m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e c o u r s e .l i n e segment. A t t h e moment when t h e a i r c r a f t e m e r g e s f r o m t h e t u r n o n ' t h e new course (Fig. if p o s s i b l e .i n accordance with t h e s e l e c t e d system f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e air­ craft t o coordinates. t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s are recorded with t h e computer ( P o i n t B i n Figure 2.l i n e s e g m e n t o f f l i g h t . T h e w i n d s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n a r e s e t on t h e wind s e n s o r on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t s d u r i n g t h e preceding f l i g h t segment. On t h e c o o r d i n a t e c a l c u l a t o r i n t h i s c a s e . g . t h e p o i n t e r s o f i n d i c a t o r s "N" a n d " E " w i l l a l w a y s s h o w t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d by t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e l a s t landmark a l o n g t h e l i n e o f t h e g i v e n p a t h and t h e l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n from t h e l a t t e r i f i t t a k e s p l a c e . dinates i n a Successive a n d t h e mechanism s w i t c h e d on Flight Stage. i t i s n e c e s ­ s a r y t o m a r k t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e computer as t h e a i r c r a f t p a s s e s o v e r a g i v e n landmark. t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e c h a r t a n g l e a n d w i n d i s made a t t h e e n d o f t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a g e o f t h e f l i g h t b e f o r e f l y i n g o v e r a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e r o u t e (TPR). In this Fig. A t t h e beginning o f t h e s t r a i g h t . t h e t w o p o i n t e r s on t h e O r t h o d r o m i c System o f Coorindicator should be s e t t o zero. or i n c a s e o f d a n g e r o u s m e t e o r o ­ l o g i c a l phenomena.50). a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s o b t a i n e d on t h e b a s i s of a c o m p u t e r w i l l n o t a l w a y s c o r r e s p o n d p r e c i s e l y with t h e a c t u a l c o o r d i n a t e s . However. /224 During f l i g h t along t h e s t r a i g h t .50. 2. T h i s i s done as f o l l o w s : A t t h e end of a s t a g e i n t h e f l i g h t . The n a v i g a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r a l s o makes i t e a s i e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e wind p a r a m e t e r s a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . Transition t o an c a s e . e . If t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r i s u s e d w i t h an o r t h o d r o m i c s y s t e m of c o o r d i n a t e s i n s e c t i o n s . 2. s i n c e t h e speed and d i r e c ­ t i o n o f t h e wind d u r i n g f l i g h t change o v e r t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d . C o n s t a n t knowledge of t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s f a c i l i t a t e s b o t h v i s u a l and r a d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n . A t s m a l l turn angles i n the l i n e of f l i g h t (up t o 3 0 ° ) . t h e a l t e r n a t i n g current i s connected t o t h e i n s t r u ­ ment and t h e i n d i c a t o r b e g i n s t o calculate the f l i g h t path. t h e t u r n t r a j e c t o r y of t h e a i r c r a f t i s very c l o s e t o TPR. . when t h e T P R i s p a s s e d a s t h e a i r ­ craft is turning. a ) and t h e 231 . i m p r o p e r s t u d y ­ i n g o f t h e d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e w i n d . t h e p o i n t e r IIN" i s s e t t o a v a l u e e q u a l t o t h e l i n e a r l e a d f o r t h e t u r n (LLT) a n d p o i n t e r r f E T f is set t o zero.

i t i s s u f ­ f i c i e n t t o d i v i d e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e v e c t o r O B 1 by t h e f l y i n g t ' i m e between P o i n t s A and B y e x p r e s s e d i n h o u r s .C h a n g e V e c t o r . i . b ) . the c h e c k i n g o f t h e p a t h for d i s t a n c e a n d d i r e c t i o n . i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o s e t a new c h a r t a n g l e f o r e a c h 232 . 2. e . To d o t h i s . i n t h e case o f f l i g h t s by a c o o r d ­ i n a t e s y s t e m . p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h i s c a s e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d o n l y i n t e r m s o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e n e t w o r k s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e c h a r t . The p r o b l e m o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e w i n d v e c t o r i n t h i s case c a n /225 b e s o l v e d e a s i l y on a f l i g h t c h a r t . These P o i n t s BB1 d e t e r ­ mine t h e v e c t o r o f t h e c h a n g e i n t h e w i n d a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e f o r t h e f l i g h t t i m e of a given s t a g e of f l i g h t . vector sent the actual coordinates (Fig. The u s e o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r i n r e c t i l i n e a r c o o r d ­ inates f o r f l i g h t s i n a given region is not different i n principle However. .51. ( b ) Wind V e c t o r .e.. M e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e Wind b y Means o f a N a v i ­ Fig. Then P o i n t B w i l l b e t h e i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t a t t h e end o f t h e f l i g h t s t a g e . from u s i n g i t i n orthodromic c o o r d i n a t e s and s t a g e s . The r e c t a n g u l a r s y s t e m o f c o o r d i n a t e s c a n b e e x t e n d e d o v e r a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a (on t h e o r d e r o f 400 x 400 k m ) . 2. I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e v a l u e of t h e wind i n km/hr. w e i n t r o d u c e t h e v a l u e o f AW = 0 . u = 0 i n t o t h e w i n d s e n s o r . . gational Indicator: ( a ) W i n d . t h e a c t u a l wind) a t f l i g h t a l t i ­ tude.a c t u a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d v i s u a l l y or b y m e a n s of r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s ( P o i n t B1). s i n c e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s p h e r i c i t y of t h e E a r t h b e g i n s t o show up i n l a r g e areas. T h e n t h e v e c t o r o f O B w i l l c o n s t i t u t e t h e v e c t o r of t h e c a l c u l a t e d wind (and O B I . The p r o b l e m o f m e a s u r i n g t h e w i n d c a n b e s i m p l i f i e d i f w e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e w i n d a t t h e s e n s o r i s z e r o for t h e f l i g h t s t a g e . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s .51.. B B 1 w i l l be t h e wind v e c t o r f o r t h e f l y i n g t i m e i n t h i s s t a g e . w h i l e P o i n t B 1 w i l l r e p r e ­ Consequently. t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e coordinates t o t h e Therefore. a r e v e r s e l i n e must b e drawn from P o i n t B and t h e l e n g t h o f t h e wind v e c t o r i s s e t on t h e s e n s o r ( u p a t ) d u r i n g t h e f l y i n g t i m e f r o m P o i n t A t o P o i n t B ( P o i n t 0). t h e i m p o r t a n t a d v a n t a g e of t h e o r t h o d r o m i c s y s t e m o f c o o r d i n a t e s is then l o s t .

etc. populated areas are t h e p r i n c i p a l landmarks a t n i g h t . a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n b o t h summer a n d w i n t e r c a n b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a h o r i z o n t a l v i s i b i l i t y on t h e o r d e r of 1 . The v i s i b i l i t y o f a l l l a n d m a r k s . L a k e s . as w e l l as low a l t i t u d e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e m a g n e t i c a n o m a l i e s . l a r g e and s m a l l populated areas. An i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s for a i r ­ c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i s t h e s t a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n o f m a g n e t i c com­ passes. i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s . . 5 km. e t c . churches. e s p e c i a l l y when t h e Moon i s n o t o u t . r a i l w a y s and highways. r i v e r v a l l e y s . char­ a c t e r i s t i c m o u n t a i n p e a k s . g . w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f il­ luminated populated areas .c h a n g e i n t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t a n d -to d e s c r i b e t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n a new s y s t e m f o r c a l c u l a t i o n . w h i l e grain elevators. Such p o i n t s a r e n o t l a n d m a r k s . optimum c o n d i t i o n s 233 I- . i s c o n s i d e r a b l y decreased a t n i g h t . With good c o n t r a s t . . e t c . b u t t h e y c a n b e u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e d r i f t a n g l e a n d t h e g r o u n d s p e e d when t h e r e i s a s i g h t o n b o a r d a n d a l s o make i t p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e a c c u r ­ a c y of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n d u r i n g f l i g h t b e t w e e n c o n t r o l l a n d m a r k s . Therefore. For a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n a n a r e a w h i c h i s p o o r i n l a n d m a r k s . water tanks. l o c a t e d i n f o r e s t e d t e r r a i n . i n which t h e v i s u a l f l i g h t s m u s t b e made. . w e c a n u s e s e p a r a t e s i g h t i n g p o i n t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e i n t h e form of s p o t s . The b e s t l a n d m a r k s f o r v i s u a l a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a r e l i n ­ ear ones ( l a r g e r i v e r s . I n c l e a r w e a t h e r . i n d u s t r i a l enterprises. w h i c h t o a c o n s i d ­ e r a b l e degree compensates f o r t h e l o s s o f t h o s e advantages which w e have i n t h e orthodromic system of coordinates i n s t a g e s . s i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r l o c a t i o n on a f l i g h t c h a r t . c a n b e u s e d f o r f l i g h t s a t low a l t i t u d e s . a r e a l s o good l a n d m a r k s . t h e shores of l a r g e bodies of water). foam on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e w a t e r . a v i s i ­ b i l i t y o n t h e o r d e r o f 1 0 km i s r e q u i r e d f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n winter. The c o n t r a s t o f l a n d m a r k s i s d e t e r m i n e d by w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . C o n d i t i o n s of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n w i t h o u t t h e u s e of gyro­ s c o p i c compasses are u n f a v o r a b l e i n t h e p o l a r r e g i o n s . i n t h e presence of l a r g e populated a r e a s . e . The f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a l s o h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on t h e aircraft navigation conditions. Details o f A i r c r a f t Navigation Using Geotechnical i n Various F l i g h t Conditions Methods /226 The c o n d i t i o n s f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n u s i n g g e o t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s are d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e p r e s e n c e and n a t u r e o f l a n d m a r k s . A t p l a c e s where t h e r e i s l i t t l e v e g e t a t i o n . t h e i r appearance a t n i g h t can d i f f e r from t h e i r appearance i n t h e day. as w e l l as b y t h e i r c o n t r a s t r e l a t i v e t o t h e s u r r o u n d ­ ing terrain.

a s l o w a s t h e r e l i e f o f t h e t e r r a i n w i l l allow. b u t a t g r e a t h e i g h t s t h e v i s u a l v i s i b i l i t y of landmarks ( d e p e n d i n g on w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s ) i s much w o r s e t h a n a t l o w a n d medium a l t i t u d e s . H o w e v e r . w h i c h is important i n comparing t h e c h a r t s with t h e landscape. a l l of t h e i r d e t a i l s c a n b e s e e n c l e a r l y .000. C a l c u l a t i n g and Measuring P i l o t a g e Instruments C a l c u l a t i n g and M e a s u r i n g P i l o t a g e Instruments Purpose of P i l o t a g e c a l c u l a t i n g and measuring instruments are intended f o r t h e following: (a) Measuring d i s t a n c e s a n d d i r e c t i o n s on f l i g h t c h a r t s . A t h i g h a l t i t u d e s a n d h i g h s p e e d s .for v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n e x i s t a t h e i g h t s o n t h e o r d e r o f 1000-1500 m . .000. e . A t l o w a l t i t u d e s . and o u t s i d e a i r thermometer). t h e c o n d i t i o n s for v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n a r e w o r s e . (b) Calculating navigational elements both i n preparing f o r f l i g h t a n d when c o m p l e t i n g i t . f l i g h t s a r e made a t l o w e r a l t i t u d e s . a l t i m e t e r . s i n c e a t t h i s a l t i t u d e t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y a t which t h e land­ marks g o by i s s m a l l . c h a r t s w i t h t a n g e n t s t e r e o graphic projection a r e used. The s e l e c t i o n o f s c a l e s a n d c h a r t p r o j e c t i o n s f o r mak i n g a f l i g h t d e p e n d p r i m a r i l y on t h e a l t i t u d e a n d s p e e d of t h e f l i g h t . (c) Calculating methodological e r r o r s i n t h e readings of navigational instruments ( t h e readings of t h e airspeed. i t i s b e s t t o u s e c h a r t s w i t h a l a r g e s c a l e o f 1:500. 5 km) i n c l e a r w e a t h e r h a v e a s m a l l i n f l u e n c e on t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f v i s u a l o r i e n ­ t a t i o n . 10. A t low a l t i t u d e s .000 a n d 1:4.000. i t i s b e s t t o u s e c h a r t s w i t h scales of 1:2. i . c h a r t s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l or t r a n s v e r s e c y l i n d r i c a l projection.000. s i n c e t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y w i t h which t h e landmarks go by i n c r e a s e s a n d t h e a r e a w h i c h t h e c r e w of t h e a i r c r a f t c a n s c a n i s reduced. For t h e p o l a r r e g i o n s .000. a n d t h e f i e l d o f v i e w of t h e crew c o v e r s a v e r y l a r g e a r e a . 234 I . t h e s e a l t i t u d e s c a n o n l y b e u s e d whGen t h e r e i s a s m a l l amount o f c l o u d s a l o n g t h e f l i g h t r o u t e . I n cloudy weather. (d) C a l c u l a t i n g t h e elements of a i r c r a f t maneuvering. An i n c r e a s e i n t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ( a b o v e 1 . /227 For f l i g h t s a l o n g r o u t e s w h i c h a r e v e r y l o n g . c h a r t s a r e u s e d w h i c h a r e made u p o f p r o j e c t i o n s s h o w i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f o r t h o ­ d r o m i c i t y ( t h e o r t h o d r o m e on t h e c h a r t h a s a s h a p e c l o s e t o a s t r a i g h t l i n e ) .000 or 1:1.

c o r r e c t i o n s t o nav­ i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s . which s i m p l i f i e s c a l c u l a t i o n t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e . while t h e o t h e r s i d e i s used f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c o r r e c t i o n s for t h e r e a d i n g s o f n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s . p a r a l l e l s h i f t of l i n e s . The s c a l e s on t h e r u l e r 1 a n d 2 a r e i n t e n d e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e g r o u n d s p e e d f r o m a known d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d i n a g i v e n t i m e . w e c a n u s e s p e c i a l d e v i c e s f o r s e t t i n g up t h e s p e e d t r i a n g l e (windspeed i n d i c a t o r s ) . Navigational Slide Rule NL-1OM T h e p r i n c i p l e of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e s i s t h e p r o p e r t y o f l o g a r i t h m s t o make i t p o s s i b l e . C a l c u l a t i o n s o f n a v i g a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s . e t c .M e a s u r e m e n t o f d i s t a n c e s o n f l i g h t c h a r t s i s made b y m e a n s of a s p e c i a l navigational s l i d e r u l e . by o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e a d d i t i o n and subtraction of t h e logarithms of these values. However. t o calculate c e r t a i n navigational elements. d i v i s i o n . The p r o t r a c t o r s a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y u s e d as t r i a n g l e s . made o f t r a n s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . 2. Thus. A f e a t u r e which d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s s l i d e r u l e from conventional s l i d e r u l e s i s t h e presence of s e v e r a l s c a l e s f o r m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e s on c h a r t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t /228 scales. In addition. r a i s i n g t o a p o w e r . t h e b e s t m o d i f i c a t i o n of which i s t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i n g s l i d e r u l e NL-1OM. as w e l l as m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n o f t r i g o n o m e t r i c f u n c t i o n s .1 O M ( s e e F i g .44) are grouped s o t h a t one s i d e i s used f o r s o l v i n g problems i n d e t e r m i n i n g n a v i g a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s o f f l i g h t a s w e l l a s maneu­ vering elements. or f r o m a g i v e n d i s t a n c e a t a known g r o u n d s p e e d a n d t i m e . I n a d d i t i o n . t o r e p l a c e t h e p r o c e s s e s of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n . e x t r a c t ­ i n g t h e s q u a r e r o o t . t h e upper beveled edge of t h e r u l e r ( P o s i t i o n 1 7 ) c a r r i e s a scale d i v i d e d i n t o m i l l i m e t e r s . The s c a l e s o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e N L . which can b e used t o m e a s u r e d i s t a n c e s on t h e map. 235 . w h i c h make i t p o s s i b l e t o m a k e c e r t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n s o n f l i g h t c h a r t s and diagrams ( l a y i n g o u t t h e t r a v e r s e s of landmarks. and e l e m e n t s o f maneuvering are p r e s e n t l y car­ r i e d o u t w i t h t h e a i d of n a v i g a t i o n a l l o g a r i t h m i c s l i d e r u l e s . t h e o p e r a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above i n v o l v i n g numbers c a n b e a p p l i e d t o t h e summing o f t h e s e g m e n t s o f a s c a l e on t h e r u l e r . due t o t h e improvements i n n a v i g a t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i n g s l i d e r u l e s . ) . M e a s u r e m e n t o f d i r e c t i o n s o n f l i g h t c h a r t s i s made b y m e a n s o f n a v i g a t i o n a l p r o t r a c t o r s . they have a very l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n .

equal t o s i n c e 1 h r i s 60 m i n . w e s e t d i v i s i o n W can then read e 1 2 on i t o p p o s i t e t h e m a r k i n g on t h e s l i d e r . a ) . by moving t h e a d j u s t a b l e s c a l e 2 .l g 1 2 = l g 1 3 . w e o b t a i n 1gW = l g 1 6 5 - lg 12 + l g 60.52. it i s s u f f i c i e n t t o set t h e n u m b e r 1 2 o n s c a l e 2 o p p o s i t e t h e n u m b e r 1 6 5 on s c a l e 1 a n d o p p o ­ s i t e n u m b e r 60 o n s c a l e 2 . 236 .l g 7 2 0 t l g 3 6 0 0 = l g 8 2 5 . By c o m b i n i n g t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d e f f e c t s . W = 825 km/h. 8 t l g 60 = l g 825 W = 825 km/h. I n o u r e x a m p l e .Therefore w = so t h a t t and S = Wt. i n order t o s o l v e t h e problem. i t w i l l b e 720 s e e : 1gW = l g 1 6 5 . or f l i g h t s p e e d s i n k m / h r .l g t and 1gS = 1gW t lgt. i n h r s or m i n . t h e s p e e d i n km/hr would b e 1gW km/h or = l g 1 3 . e . w h i c h i s m a r k e d w i t h a t r i a n g u l a r m a r k ­ i n g . S c a l e 1 i s t h e s. and t h e n t o c a l c u l a t e t h e ground speed from scale 1 ( F i g . 2. 8 . W s e t t h e m a r k i n g on t h e s l i d e r t o t h e 1 6 5 p o s i t i o n on t h e e d i s t a n c e s c a l e . o f f t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d b y t h e a i r c r a f t i n m i n u t e s o f f l i g h t oppo­ s i t e t h e number 1 a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s c a l e : 1gW k m / m i n = l g 1 6 5 .cale o f l o g a r i t h m s o f d i s t a n c e s i n k i l o m e t e r s /229 s c a l e 2 i s a s c a l e o f l o g a r i t h m s of f l y i n g t i m e i n m i n or s e c u p t o t h e r e c t a n g u l a r i n d e x m a r k e d 1 0 0 a n d b e y o n d . T h e p r o b l e m i s s o l v e d a n a l o g o u s l y i f t h e f l i g h t t i m e i s meas­ u r e d i n sec. 1gW = 1 g S . However. . The p r i n c i p l e o f s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a i r s p e e d o v e r a g i v e n d i s t a n c e a t a g i v e n t i m e i s as f o l l o w s : L e t u s s a y t h a t a n a i r c r a f t h a s c o v e r e d a d i s t a n c e of 1 6 5 km i n 1 2 m i n a n d t h a t w e m u s t d e t e r m i n e t h e g r o u n d s p e e d i n k m / h r . i .

a f t e r which t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n d i c a t o r on s c a l e 1 shows t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d i n t h i s t i m e . t h e l o g a r i t h m s o f t h e s e numbers a r e a d d e d : 1 g S = 1gW + lgt. a ) . g S = 1 2 0 0 km. t = 1 h r a n d 36 m i n .T h e g r o u n d s p e e d i n t h i s c a s e is c a l c u l a t e d f r o m s c a l e 1 o p p o ­ s i t e t h e number 3600 on s c a l e 2 ( t h e number o f s e c o n d s i n 1 h r ) . marked w i t h a c i r c u l a r i n d e x . (b) and t i m e To d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d f r o m t h e g r o u n d s p e e d ( F i g . Find t h e dis­ Answer. b). 2 . t h e NL-lOM. W = 750 k m / h r . 5 4 . 5 3 .52. 237 . 2. L e t u s a p p l y t h e k e y s t o N L . a) iss I2 825 0 b? “ 0 0-36 1 h @ 750 IZUU min Fig. To d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s t a n c e a t a g i v e n g r o u n d s p e e d a n d f l y i n g t i m e ( S = Wt). 5 4 .52. 5 3 . t h e t r i a n g u l a r or c i r c u l a r i n d e x on t h e m o v a b l e s c a l e 2 i s s e t o p p o s i t e t h e known g r o u n d s p e e d o n s c a l e 1. (b) o f t h e D i s t a n c e C o v e r e d o n t h e B a s i s o f G r o u n d Speed and Time. SOlUtiOn. b . tance covered. 2. /230 Example. Keys f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Ground S p e e d o n on t h e Basis of t h e D i s t a n c e Covered and the Time. T h e i n d e x m a r k i n g on t h e s l i d e r i s s e t o p p o s i t e t h e g i v e n f l y i n g t i m e on s c a l e 2 . a or 2 . C a l c u l a t i o n on t h e N L . I s = Ig 750 + Ig 1h 36 m i l l = 1200.1 0 for s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s i n d e t e r ­ m i n i n g t h e g r o u n d s p e e d a n d d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d on s c a l e s 1 a n d 2 : (a) To d e t e r m i n e t h e g r o u n d s p e e d f o r a d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d i n a known t i m e ( f i g . Fig. See Figure 2.53.1 O M : ( a ) o f t h e Ground S p e e d . b or 2 . On t h e r u l e . 2 .

a l o n g w i t h t h e f i x e d scale o f d i s t a n c e s or a l t i t u d e s 5 . 2 .57). sup­ t h e problems are s o l v e d by u s i n g scales 3 and 5 . are a l l i n t e n d e d f o r working w i t h t r i g o n o m e t r i c f u n c t i o n s . The m a j o r i t y o f p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e s o l v e d on t h e s e s c a l e s a r e b a s e d on t h e p r o p e r t i e s of a r i g h t t r i a n g l e . t h e d i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n o f which have been d e t e r m i n e d by means o f a r a d a r l o c a t e d on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t ( F i g . Z a > o n t h e b a s i s o f known c o o r d i n a t e s o f a l a n d m a r k ( X l y Z.54. U s i n g t h e N L . b ) . where R i s t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e landmark and 8 i s t h e p a t h b e a r ­ i n g of t h e landmark ( t h e a n g l e between t h e g i v e n l i n e of f l i g h t and t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e landmark).R s i n 8. r e s p e c t i v e l y . I f t h e p r o b l e m i s s o l v e d f r o m a known l e g . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of are r e p r e s e n t e d by X and 2 .or Ig tg A7 9 lg 2 -. l o g a r i t h m i c r u l e (Fj-g. a .lg X. w e u s e s c a l e s 4 and 5 on t h e r u l e .1 O M . w h i c h i s t h e same ( u p t o 5O) a s s c a l e 4 f o r t h e l o g a r i t h m s o f t h e t a n g e n t s and i s a l s o d i v i d e d i n t o scales 3 and 4. g . d e t e r m i n ­ i n g t h e e r r o r i n t h e c o u r s e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d and t h e l i n e a r l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n ( F i g .R = COS 8 . Z tg A7 = . Keys f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e D i s t a n c e C o v e r e d on t h e B a s i s of t h e Ground S p e e d a n d T i m e . 5 5 1 . 2. 5 8 . s o t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h e s i n e o f 9 0 ° a n d t a n g e n t 45O ( s c a l e s 3 a n d 4 ) . w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y r e p e a t s s c a l e 1. e . . 5 6 . F o r example. X The key t o s o l v i n g t h i s p r o b l e m i s shown i n F i g u r e 2 . pose w e wish t o determine t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t i n orthod r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s ( X a . 2. w h o s e l o g a ­ r i t h m s a r e e q u a l t o z e r o . Fig.Movable s c a l e 3 w i t h t h e s i g n s o f t h e l o g a r i t h m s . I n t h e c a s e when t h e h y p o t e n u s e of t h e t r i a n g l e i s k n o w n .). 238 t h e landmark i n a i r c r a f t a n d a r e f o u n d on t h e . a r e marked on t h e r u l e by a t r i a n g u l a r index. I t i s clear from t h e f i g u r e t h a t t h e orthodromic c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l be equal t o /231 Xa = Xi . 2 . Za Z1 .

Fig.s i n AW . The e s s e n c e o f t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e s e problems is obvious from t h e examples given. t h e solving of speed t r i a n g l e s . ) .l g u = IgsinAW-lgV l g s i n ( A W + U S ) .d t o s o l v e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s o f oblique-angled t r i a n g l e s . Fig. s o t h a t s i n 180-a = s i n a . = which i s e x p r e s s e d by t h e key on t h e navigational r u l e (see Fig.IgW..59). S c a l e s 3 . Determination o f t h e O r t h o d r o m i c Coord i n a t e s of t h e Aircraft. F i g . 2.55. t h i s theorem has t h e form: s i n US . Fig. 2. 2. 2. for D e t e r m i n i n g t h e A i r c r a f t C o u r s e For c a s e s w h e n t h e a n g l e s m e a s u r e d a r e g r e a t e r t h a n r i g h t a n g l e s .1 O M Error. 2.s i n ( A W + U S ) U V W (2. i s used ( F i g .60. T h e k e y f o r s o l v i n g t h i s k i n d o f p r o b l e m i s g i v e n on t h e r i g h t h a n d s i d e of t h e s c a l e 3 . Fig. d e t e r ­ mines t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a n g l e s a n d l e n g t h s o f t h e s i d e s I n t h e c a s e where t h e speed t r i a n g l e of oblique-angled t r i a n g l e s . determination of t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t by u s i n g methods o f v i s u a l a n d r a d a r m e a s u r e m e n t s . f o r example: l g s i n 135O = l g s i n 45O. e.56.57. a). 2 . a number of p r o b l e m s are s o l v e d which are connected w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e s and d i r e c t i o n s ( e . Key o n t h e N L . T h e t h e o r e m o f s i g n s . . 5 8 ) i s e q u i v a ­ l e n t t o the following: 1gsinUS .56. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e C o u r s e Error f r o m t h e C h a n g e i n the Lateral Coordinate. t h e s i n e s c a l e 3 i s numbered b a c k w a r d s . a n d many o t h e r s . 2. 239 . g .I n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . 4 a n d 5 c a n b e use. 5 5 . w e l l known f r o m t r i g o n o m e t r y .g. t h e check­ i n g of a course i n t e r m s of t h e d i s t a n c e covered.58) /232 It is obvious t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p of E q u a t i o n ( 2 .

However. i t i s n o t s u i t a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g wind param­ e t e r s ‘ i n m e a s u r i n g t h e d r i f t a n g l e .58. SOlUtiOn. V t s u e = 4 0 0 k m / h r .1 O M . MFA = 35O. u = 6 0 k m / h r . 6 = 85O.59) w h i l e t h e l a t e r a l component i s u z = V s i n US = ( W . 6 0 ) can b e w r i t t e n a s f o l l o w s : t g AN = However./. a n d t h e c o s i n e of t h e a n g l e o f d r i f t i s p r a c t i c a l l y always c l o s e t o u n i t y . I n o u r example.v cos us. T h i s p r o b l e m c a n b e s o l v e d as f o l l o w s . (2.R Fig. Formula ( 2 . T h i s k e y for s o l v i n g s p e e d t r i a n g l e s i s s u i t a b l e for d e t e r ­ m i n i n g s p e e d a n d d r i f t a n g l e o f a n a i r c r a f t a t known w i n d p a r a m ­ eters.5O . w e know t h e a i r s p e e d of an a i r c r a f t . b ) . . t h e wind a n g l e i s AW = . I t i s c l e a r from t h e diagram t h a t t h e r u n n i n g component o f t h e wind a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s ux = w . 2. 6 0 . Having s e t t h e s l i d e r i n d i c a t o r t o t h e d i v i s i o n r e p r e s e n t ­ i n g 4 0 0 k m / h r on s c a l e 5 . a n d a l s o h a v i n g l i n e d u p t h e 50° d i v i ­ s i o n o n t h e l o g a r i t h m s i n e s c a l e 3 w i t h t h e same s l i d e r i n d i c a t o r .MFAg = 8 5 . (2. Keys f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e A i r c r a f t C o o r d i n a t e s on t h e N L .and t h e g r o u n d s p e e d . L e t u s s a y t h a t o n t h e b a s i s o f m e a s u r e m e n t s . ( b ) Z-coordinates. t h e ground speed and t h e d r i f t a n g l e . F i n d t h e d r i f t a n g f e of t h e a i r c r a f t a n d t h e g r o u n d s p e e d . Exampbe. ( a ) X-coordinates.2 3 3 and w e want t o f i n d t h e s p e e d and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e wind ( u ) a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e (see Fig. 2 . 2.v * 240 . w e o b t a i n t h e d r i f t a n g l e e q u a l t o 6.59). a n d a g r o u n d s p e e d o f 440 km/hr ( F i g . since V s i n US w .V cos US) t g AW.3 5 = 5 0 ° .60) If w e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t r a r e l y e x c e e d s 15O.

t h i s m a r k e r s h o w s h a l f t h e l o g o f 4 0 0 on t h e s i x t h s c a l e . i s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m F o r m u l a ( 1 .v - v * which c a n be u s e d as a k e y on t h e s l i d e r u l e ( F i g . tween t h e ground speed and a i r s p e e d ( W . 2. f i v e s c a l e s t o t h e f i x e d s c a l e .61. Answer. /234 R = - V g tgB ­ 241 . SOlUtiOtl. w e w i l l f i speed i s found with theorem (Fig. w e o f t e n u s e a key which i s shown i n F i g u r e 2 .V ) If w e s e t t h i s 2.59. w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s q u a r e r o o t o f 4 0 0 or 2 0 . l i k e s c a l e 5 . E x a m p l e .V s i n U S = ( W . The d i f f e r e n c e b e ­ i s e q u a l t o 70 km/hr. t h e scales 3 and 4 on t h e r u l e c o i n c i d e ( t h e s i n e e q u a l s t h e t a n g e n t ) . c ) . t h u s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h a t number r a i s e d t o a power o f t w o .61. 6 1 . 2. The f i x e d s c a l e on t h e r u l e r 6 . F i n d t h e w i n d angle. u = 105 km/hr.. Fig. W = 5 2 0 k m / h r . w e w i l l o b t a i n num­ b e r s on s c a l e s 5 and 1 whose l o g a r i t h m s a r e e q u a l t o t w i c e t h e l o g a ­ r i t h m o f t h e g i v e n number. Navigational Speed T r i a n g l e . 6 ) . b u t t h e s c a l e i s t w i c e t h a t u s e d on T h e r e f o r e .e d r i f t a n g l e s which a r e encoun­ t e r e d i n f l i g h t . V = 450 k m / h r . i s a s c a l e o f l o g a r i t h m s o f l i n e a r v a l u e s . a n d s o t h a t we w i l l n o t have t o d e a l with t h r e e b u t with two s c a l e s . v a l u e on s c a l e 5 o p p o s i t e l o o on s c a l e 4 ( F i g . b . a). I n s e t t i n g t h e m a r k e r o f t h e s l i d e r t o t h e number 4 0 0 o n s c a l e 5 or 1. then w e have t h e r a t i o s i n US . The w i n d t h e a i d of a k ey wh i ch i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s i n e d). within the l i m i t s o f th. when c o m p a r i n g a n y o f t h e f i r s t t h e first f i v e scales. The t u r n r a d i u s of t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h a g i v e n b a n k i n g a n g l e a s w e know. I f t h e d e s i r e d n u m b e r i s s e t o n s c a l e 6 . 0 In practice. a n u m b e r i s o b t a i n e d on t h e l a t t e r whose l o g a r i t h m i s e q u a l t o h a l f t h e l o g a r i t h m of t h e numbers o f t h e first five scales. US = + l o o . Example. n d t h e wind angle t o be e q u a l t o 48O.61. 2.V ) t g AW.t g AW w . (p).

UT p- v 360 (2. If w e c o n s i d e r t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t u r n i n g r a d i u s . C a l c u l a t i o n on t h e N L .81 = 0. The l a s t s c a l e on t h e s l i d e r u l e N L .60.e.1 O M : ( a ) Key f o r S o l v ­ i n g t h e N a v i g a t i o n a l Speed T r i a n g l e . a n d wh i ch i s f o u n d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t h i r d scale of s i n e s . Therefore. a n d a l s o t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y g . i n s o l v i n g t h i s problem. it i s necessary t o have t h e l o g a r i t h m of t h e s q u a r e o f t h e s p e e d a n d t o s e t i t o n s c a l e 6.T h e r e f o r e . ( b ) S o l u t i o n of N a v i g a t i o n a l Speed T r i a n g l e . 2. i. as w e d i d on s c a l e 6 . 6 ) assumes t h e form: 0. Fig. The l o g a r i t h m of t h e t a n g e n t o f t h e b a n k i n g a n g l e i s c a l c u l a t e d with t h e a i d of scale 4.00787 V2 R= tg P w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e k e y for t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e w h i c h w a s shown i n F i g u r e 2 .00787. 6 2 . t h e t u r n i n g t i m e o f t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e g i v e n a n g l e /235 w i l l be 2xR t -_ -* . 9. wh i ch i s i n t e n d e d t o determine t h e t u r n i n g t i m e (t of t h e a i r c r a f t a t P a g i v e n a n g l e ( U T ) a t a known t u r n i n g r a d i u s ( R ) a n d f l i g h t s p e e d ( V ) .. T h i s s c a l e i s a s c a l e o f l o g a r i t h m s for t h e a r c o f t h e c i r c u m ­ f e r e n c e .@. w e have a marking R on s c a l e 4 w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e l o g a r i t h m o f t h e number 1 3.1 O M i s t h e s c a l e l a . Formula ( 1 .61) 242 . t h e problem of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t u r n r a d i u s i s s o l v e d by means o f s c a l e s 4 .l g tg8. Obviously. t h e a i r s p e e d o f t h e a i r c r a f t must b e e x p r e s s e d i n m/sec and n o t i n k m / h r . r e l a t i v e t o t h e r a d i u s of t u r n of t h e a i r c r a f t . 5 a n d 6 : 1 g R = 21gV - lgg .

d ) : Determining t h e A n g l e a n d S p e e d o f t h e Wind. C a l c u l a t i o n on t h e N L . scale l a i s set t o t h e value of t h e logarithm of t h i s m u l t i p l i e r at t h e left-hand side. b . After dropping t h i s m u l t i p l i e r . See F i g .c. w i t h a movable diamond-shaped i n d e x a n d t h e a d j a c e n t s c a l e s ( f i x e d s c a l e 8 a n d movable s c a l e 9 ) a r e i n t e n d e d f o r making c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e r e a d i n g s of b a r o m e t r i c a l t i m e t e r s i n c a s e t h e a c t u a l mean a i r t e m p e r a t u r e d o e s n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e c a l c u l a t e d t e m p e r a t u r e o b a t i n e d when a d j u s t i n g t h e a p p a r a t u s . V = 400 km/hr. Example. UT = 90°. 243 . b ) : Keys f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Wind A n g l e .61) a s s u m e s t h e 0 c) I O ' 44' % IO' 48' Fig.62. w h i c h c a n b e e x p r e s s e d on t h e r u l e s c a l e s b y a k e y shown i n F i g . airspeed indicators. I n order not t o have t o c a l c u l a t e it each t i m e .61. 2. Answer. form : Formula (2. R = 4. On t h e b a c k o f t h e r u l e a r e s c a l e s for m a k i n g m e t h o d o l o g i c a l corrections i n t h e readings of navigational instruments ( a l t i m e t e r s . tp = 64 sec. 2.5 km. c. ing time of t h e aircraft. outside-air thermometers). These c o r r e c t i o n s c a n b e made w i t h t h e f o r m u l a = l 'gH c orr TO+TH g 2 + lg Hinst r.1 O M : ( a . Solution. ( c .I n t h i s formula. t h e value 21~/360 is a c o n s t a n t m u l t i p l i e r . Find t h e turn­ 2.62. A d j u s t a b l e s c a l e 7 . av.

To i n t r o d u c e c o r r e c t i o n s i n f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s a b o v e 1 2 km. and f i x e d 244 . w e w i l l o b t a i n H C O r r = 5 . Find t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e corrected f o r t h e methodological e r r o r .6 = +4O.According t o t h i s formula..# ­ v 4 a @- 0. t H = -35O. t h e a d j u s t a b l e scale 7 i s a scale of l o g a r i t h m s To+TH/2. o c o n v e r t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s from t h e c e n t i g r a d e scale t o t h e a b s o l u t e scale and t h e i r d i v i s i o n i n h a l f are t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s c a l e s i n s u c h a way t h a t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o make t h e m e a c h t i m e d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t . 6 3 .1 O M : ( a ) Key for D e t e r m i n ­ (c) i n g Turn Radius. B . @ @ c). - /236 a) b) .3 5 + 6. e .5. 7 4 km. ( b ) Key f o r D e t e r m i n i n g T u r n T i m e . i . 2. ExampZe. t h e logarithms The a r i t h m e t i c e f f e c t s o f T o + T H / ~ n t h e r u l e are marked t o + t . w e c e n t f i x e d diamond-shaped i n d e x . T h e a c t u a l t e m p e r a t u r e for a z e r o a l t i t u t d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t e q u a l t o 6 .63. b). . d i v i d e d b y t h e a v e r ­ age c a l c u l a t e d temperature o b t a i n e d f o r each a l t i t u d e . The f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s H i n s t = 6000 m . Fixed s c a l e 8 ( c o r r e c t e d a l t i t u d e ) i s simply a scale of log­ a r i t h m s o f a l t i t u d e . Solution.62. For convenience i n use. . f i x e d scale 14 f o r t h e corrected t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e altimeter a t u s e movable s c a l e 1 0 w i t h t h e a d j a ­ as w e l l as t h e a d j a c e n t s c a l e s : a l t i t u d e and s p e e d . 3 ViIp UT @ (P R' @ @ 40 4. a. C a l c u l a t i o n on N L . 2. I f w e s e t t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e v a l u e on t h e s l i d e r u l e ( F i g .5 90 . The key f o r s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s by i n t r o d u c i n g m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o r r e c ­ t i o n s t o t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e a l t i m e t e r a r e shown i n F i g u r e 2 . 5 deg/km: i s de­ t o = tH + S O 6.@ 64 Fig. t h a t t o + t H = -31O. Determination of Turn T i m e .Skm = . w h i l e t h e movable s c a l e 9 ( i n s t r u m e n t a l a l t i ­ t u d e ) i s a s c a l e of l o g a r i t h m s o f a l t i t u d e .

t h i s f o r m u l a c a n b e w r i t t e n as f o l l o w s : /237 lg(Hcorr -11) = l g T H . b . Note.l g 216. u n i q u e l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e s -on w h i c h w e c a n c a r r y o u t m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n o f numbers. Solution. 2. 245 . S e e F i g u r e 2. Answer: Hcorr = 14. Since t h e a l t i t u d e of t h e tropopause a t middle l a t i t u d e s i s n o t e x a c t l y a t a n a l t i t u d e o f 1 km. ( b ) Determ i n a t i o n o f C o r r e c t i o n f o r Measured F l i g h t A l t i t u d e .62) Adjustable scale 1 0 i s a scale of logarithms (lgTHav-lg216.1 1 k m ) .000 m.63.64 a .s c a l e 1 5 for t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l a l t i t u d e a n d s p e e d .5 t l g ( H i n s t -11). tH = -5OO. I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h F o r m u l a (2.62). C o r r e c t i o n s t o t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e a l t i m e t e r a t f l i g h t a l t i ­ t u d e s a b o v e 12 km a r e made b y F o r m u l a (2. Find Hcorr. s o t h a t t h e y a r e s i m p l e .000 m . H i n s t = 1 4 km. t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e m u s t b e c o r r e c t e d f o r t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o r r e c t i o n AH = 9 O O t 2 0 ( t O + t H ) w h i c h i s s h o w n o n t h e r u l e a t t h e r i g h t . F i g .1 O M : ( a ) Key f o r I n t r o ­ d u c i n g C o r r e c t i o n i n F l i g h t A l t i t u d e s a b o v e 12. ( b ) Determination of Correction f o r F l i g h t A l t i t u d e above 12. av (2. a f t e r s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m b y m e a n s o f t h e k e y s h o w n i n F i g u r e 2. S c a l e s 14 a n d 1 5 a r e s c a l e s o f l o g a r i t h m s ( H . b . C a l c u l a t i o n on N L .64. b u t w i t h a d d i t i o n a l numbers 1 w h i c h a r e s h i f t e d b y 1 km t o c a l c u l a t e a l t i t u d e . F i g .36). C a l c u l a t i o n o n NL-1OM: ( a ) Key f o r I n t r o d u c i n g Methodological Correction i n A l t i m e t e r Reading. b u t c a n change w i t h i n l i m i t s 1 o f 9-13 k m . E x p r e s s i n g t h e a l t i t u d e i n km. t h e k e y f o r i n t r o d u c i n g corrections i n t h e readings of t h e altimeter a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s a b o v e 12 km i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 2. ExampZe. 2.h a n d s i d e b e l o w s c a l e 14.400 m .63.64.5).

D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f C o r r e c t i o n f o r R e a d i n g o f T y p e "US" S p e e d Indicator. 0 2 2 6 H ) . a .0 . 6 5 . C a l c u l a t i o n on N L . 6 5 . t h e c o r r e c t i o n s g i v e n above a r e found by Formula ( 2 .which i s a s c a l e o f l o g a r i t h m s 1 . b. 2. The k e y f o r i n t r o d u c i n g c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e s p e e d i n d i c a t o r "US" i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 2 .53). 246 . 638 km/hr.The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o r r e c t i o n s d u e t o t h e f a i l u r e o f a g r e e ­ m e n t o f t h e a c t u a l a i r t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h a c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e a r e made ) t o c a l i b r a t e t h e s p e e d i n d i c a t o r ( t y p e l l U S 1 lw i t h t h e a i d o f F o r m u l a (2. the airspeed. 6 6 . For speed i n d i c a t o r s of t y p e llCSI1l. The k e y f o r i n t r o d u c i n g c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s i s shown i n F i g u r e 2 . t h e s c a l e 1 4 on t h e r u l e r f o r logVtrue a n d s c a l e 1 5 f o r l o g V i n s t a r e p u r e l y l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e s of l i n e a r v a l u e s . Answer: ( a ) Key f o r I n t r o d u c i n g Fig. 0 0 6 5 H i n s t 2 1.65. t H = -30°. w e c a n s c a l e 1 3 on s p e e d i n d i c a t o r s o f t y p e rlCSI1l.6281g(1 + 0 .1 O M : (b) C o r r e c t i o n i n R e a d i n g s o f T y p e "LIS" S p e e d I n d i c a t o r . I t i s c l e a r from t h i s formula t h a t f i x e d s c a l e 1 and movable 1 s c a l e 1 5 (for V i n s t ) a n d 1 4 (for V c o r r ) w i l l b e t h e s a m e f o r t h e speed i n d i c a t o r s o f t y p e s rlUSfl and "CSI". 5 4 a ) . Example. a . Adjustable scale 1 (temperature f o r speed) i s 1 a scale of logarithms 1 Ig (273" t ~ ) s 2 - + while a d j a c e n t t o it i s f i x e d scale 1 2 (instrument a l t i t u d e a l t i t u d e i n km) w i t h a s c a l e o f l o g a r i t h m s -lg288+ 2 1 /238 2. I n s t e a d o f f i x e d s c a l e 1 2 . Find Solution: See F i g u r e 2 . vinst = 450 k m / h r .lg(288 . Hinst = 7 km. I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s f o r m u l a .

m o v a b l e s c a l e s 1 4 a n d 1 5 a r e t h e o n e s m o s t s u i t a b l e for m u l t i p l i c a t i o n a n d d i v i s i o n o f n u m b e r s . 26 000 and is used f o r i n t r o d u c i n g c o r r e c t i o n s i n t o t h e readings of t h e t h e r m o m e t e r f o r t h e o u t s i d e a i r . Find t h e Solution: See Figure 2. and t h e e r r o r w i l l n o t be g r e a t e r t h a n 1 . t h i s p r o b l e m c a n b e s o l v e d on a r u l e r by means o f a key shown i n F i g u r e 2 . t h e k e y s f o r w h o s e s o l u t i o n a r e d i r e c t l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b ­ lem. d e v i a t i o n of t h e m e r i d i a n s c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d by /239 O b v i o u s l y . t y p e "TUE". VCSI = 800 k m / h r . 8 2 ) . 808 km/hr. One e x a m p l e o f s u c h a p r o b l e m i s t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e d e v i a t i o n a n g l e of t h e m e r i d i a n s b e t w e e n t w o p o i n t s o n t h e E a r t h ' s surface. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f C o r r e c t i o n f o r R e a d i n g of Type "CSI" Speed Indicator. The s c a l e s o n t h e b a c k o f t h e r u l e r c a n b e u s e d t o s o l v e some o t h e r problems. S c a l e 1 4 i s marked o f f w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g v a l u e s : AM ( A m e r i ­ c a n s t a t u t e m i l e . C a l c u l a t i o n on N L . e q u a l t o 1 .ExampZe. 8 5 2 km). 247 . a . Answer: R u l e s c a l e 1 6 i s s e t up a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m u l a At=K- 112.66. 6 3 k m ) .66.2 O f o r t h e t y p e I'TNV". 6 7 . 8 cm). corrected airspeed. e q u a l t o 1 . T h i s same s c a l e c a n be used a t subsonic a i r s p e e d s . 2. For e x a m p l e . Fig. a n d f o o t ( e q u a l s 3 2 . NM ( n a u t i c a l m i l e . The a n g l e of Formula ( 1 . T h e s e m a r k i n g s a r e u s e d for r a p i d c o n v e r s i o n o f measurements from one s y s t e m t o a n o t h e r . tH = -45O. I n p r a c t i c e .1 O M : ( a ) Key for I n t r o d u c i n g (b) C o r r e c t i o n i n R e a d i n g o f Type "CSI" Speed I n d i c a t o r . t h e f r o n t s i d e of t h e navigational s l i d e r u l e NL-1OM c a n b e u s e d t o s o l v e a number of o t h e r p r o b l e m s . H = 1 0 km. b.

which i s movable r e l a t i v e t o s c a l e 1 t o t h e v a l u e 1/21og288. b y 1 2 . Fig.67. 6 7 .0226H). or d e t e r m i n e number a n d a i r t e m p e r a t u r e . 2. ( b ) Conver­ s i o n o f t h e Len. 2. C o n v e r t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e a r c o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e 5O16' Solution. f i x e d scale 1 i s t h e 1 s c a l e o f 1 / 2 l o g ( 2 7 3 O + t ~ ) . C a l c u l a t i o n on N 1 . t h e s p e e d o f s o u n d i n a i r i s f o u n d by t h e f o r m u l a M=-. Example. u s i n g t h e s e t t i n g s of s c a l e s 1 and 1 d e t e r m i n i n g t h e Mach n u m b e r a t a known a t a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . On s c a l e s 1 4 a n d 1 5 .t r u e - Vtrue 20. 2 .gth of t h e A r c o f t h e O r t h o d r o m e i n t o Kilometers.Fig.68. w e o b t a i n t h e a n s w e r ( 5 8 5 km). D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Mach Number o n N L . w e can s o l v e problems i n a i r s p e e d and a i r temperature t h e a i r s p e e d a t a g i v e n Mach Therefore.a n d f i x e d s c a l e 1 2 i s a s c a l e o f 2 .V. Having s e t d i v i s i o n 1 0 0 on s c a l e 1 4 on t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e o p p o s i t e 316 on s c a l e 1 5 ( F i g . 6 2 8 1 l o g (1-0. t o kilometers. 248 .3 1/273" a + tH or Scales 1 4 and 15 a r e s c a l e s of l o g V .1 O M : ( a ) Key f o r D e t e r ­ m i n i n g Angle of D e v i a t i o n o f M e r i d i a n s .1 O M . 5O16' = 3 1 6 NM ( n a u t i c a l m i l e s ) . b ) .

2 . 5 1 ( w i t h a s h i f t t o t h e r i g h t ) a n d 3. 6 3 ) i s n o t t h e n v a l i d . it i s necessary t o s h i f t it t o t h e r i g h t t o t h e v a l u e 2. Therefore. The f a c t t h a t t h e numbers 2 . Note. t o make z e r o t e m p e r a t u r e m a t c h d i v i s i o n H = 3 .I n o r d e r t o g e t log20.51 km. However. 249 . 2 5 km. 2 5 km.0226H). 2 7 7 5 w i l l c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e number 277. t h e n d i v i s i o n 0 .628 l o g (1-0. 6 3 ) w i l l b e v a l i d .25 ( w i t h a s h i f t t o t h e l e f t ) are n o t e q u a l is e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t z e r o a l t i t u d e under s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s does not corre­ s p o n d t o z e r o t e m p e r a t u r e b u t t o +15O. T h e r e f o r e . 2 7 7 5 (1/36) on s c a l e 1 5 .3. and t o s h i f t t h e a l t i t u d e t o t h e l e f t . 2 5 km a n d s e t i t o n f i x e d s c a l e 1 2 . To d e t e r m i n e t h e s p e e d o f s o u n d i n m / s e c . 2 . i t w a s f o u n d t o b e more c o n v e n i e n t f o r s o l v i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o t h a t Mach n u m b e r t o i n t e r c h a n g e t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e v a l u e s on s c a l e s 1 4 a n d 1 5 . 5 1 km. w e w i l l o b t a i n t h e key f o r s o l v i n g t h e problem with a c e r t a i n M number ( F i g . i f w e f i n d a n a l t i t u d e o f 3 . t o t h e value of log20. t o t h e d i v i s i o n e q u i v a l e n t t o 3 . Obviously.3 from t h e v a l u e 2. 6 8 ) . If w e u s e t h e r e c t a n g ­ u l a r i n d e x w i t h t h e m a r k i n g o f 1 0 0 0 f o r ' M = 1. T h e r e f o r e . 2 5 . I n general.5. i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e p l a c e H b y a v a l u e o f 3 . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e t t h e v a l u e o f 0 . a l t h o u g h t h e o r e t i c a l l y F o r m u l a ( 2 . correspond­ i n g t o 1 / 2 log288. t h i s w i l l c a l l f o r u s i n g f i x e d s c a l e 1 ( t e m p e r a t u r e 1 for s p e e d ) i n r e v e r s e o r d e r . t h e value M = 1 corresponds t o t h e airspeed ( i n km/hr) which is e q u a l t o t h e s p e e d o f s o u n d . Then Formula ( 2 . f o r converting zero a l t i t u d e . t h e s c a l e m u s t b e moved b y a n a m o u n t s u c h t h a t i t l i n e s u p w i t h t h e m a r k i n g H = . and t h e f u n c t i o n s of s c a l e s 1 4 a n d 1 5 i n t h e key shown i n F i g u r e 2.100 w i l l change p l a c e s .

a l t h o u g h t h e y f o r m t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o m p l e x o f n a v i g a t i o n a l e q u i p m e n t on a n a i r ­ c r a f t .ained f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d of t i m e w i t h o u t checking t h e d i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n of t h e path being followed. a r e n o t always h e l p f u l i n d e t e r ­ mining t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e e a t l e a s t two l u m i n a r ­ i e s i n t h e sky s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e w i n d a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . w i t h o u t d e p e n d e n c e u p o n m e t e o r ­ o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . /241 All r a d i o . and has l e d t o t h e development of radio-engin­ eering devices f o r aircraft navigation. Astronomical means. i n order t o determine t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t . s i n c e t h e heavenly bodies are j u s t as i n v i s i b l e as t e r r e s t r i a l l a n d m a r k s when f l y i n g i n c l o u d s or b e t w e e n c l o u d l a y e r s . I n a d d i t i o n . T h i s h a s made i t n e c e s s a r y t o s e e k new m e t h o d s o f r e l i a b l y c a r r y i n g o u t a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n under any p h y s i c a l and geograph­ i c a l c o n d i t i o n s e i t h e r d a y or n i g h t . however.s . which means t h a t t h e f l i g h t c a n n o t b e maint.e n g i n e e r i n g d e v i c e s f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n u s e t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves i n t h e E a r t h I s atmosphere t o v a r y i n g degree. W know t h a t t h e p h a s e v e l o c i t y o f t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f w a v e e energy i n d i e l e c t r i c media i s c1 = C VF' ' 250 . Pri nci p l e s o f t h e T h e o r y of Radi onavi g a t i o n a l Instruments G e o t e c h n i c a l methods o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . which i s n o t always p o s s i b l e under normal f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . do n o t p e r m i t a c o m p l e t e s o l u t i o n o f t h e problems o f a i r ­ c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n w h e n t h e r e a r e n o t e r r e s t r i a l l a n d m a r k s or w h e n the latter are invisible.IIIIII I I l l 1 I I I CHAPTER THREE AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION USING RADIO-ENGINEERING DEVICES 1.

1 is a graphic representation of a propagating elec­ t r o m a g n e t i c wave i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l open c i r c u i t . I t i s c l e a r from t h e f o r m u l a t h a t w i t h p o s i t i v e d i s p e r s i o n . a n d ( t o a much s m a l l e r d e g r e e ) g a s e s . t h e i r p h a s e r a t e may n o t b e t h e s a m e .1 i s t h e m a g n e t i c p e r m e a b i l i t y . The d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e p h a s e p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e upon t h e o s c i l ­ If t h e waves p r o p a g a t e i n l a t i o n frequency i s c a l l e d dispersion. e . t h e d i e l e c t r i c perme­ a b i l i t y o f t h e medium d e p e n d s o n t h e o s c i l l a t i o n f r e q u e n c y . This is explained by t h e i n e r t i a o f t h e d i e l e c t r i c medium. t h e average phase rate of t h e spectrum. t h e r e i s a l s o a g r o u p p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c energy. l i q u i d s . t h e t o t a l energy of t h e w a v e s w i l l b e maximum a t t h o s e p o i n t s i n s p a c e w h e r e t h e p h a s e s of t h e waves a r e c l o s e s t t o c o i n c i d e n c e . U = E = 1. . where t h e p o s i t i v e p h a s e s o f t h e waves w i l l b e b a l ­ a n c e d by t h e n e g a t i v e o n e s . . t h e p h a s e p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e d e p e n d s on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e o s c i l l a t o r y p r o c e s s . 251 . The g r o u p r a t e o f p r o p a g a t i o n is c : /242 o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves i n s p a c e ' r g ' c*-w--J- dc do ' where e and el !E ? i s t h e group r a t e . a n e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c medium w i t h d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s . I n a vacuum. T h e r a t e a t w h i c h t h e c e n t e r s o f w a v e e n e r g y move i n space i s t h e group r a t e of t h e waves.w h e r e c1 i s t h e r a t e o f p r o p a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s i n t h e m e d i u m . e . t h e g r o u p r a t e of t h e waves e x c e e d s t h e p h a s e r a t e o f t h e i r p r o p ­ agation. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p h a s e p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s . a n d E i s t h e d i e l e c t r i c constant. T h e p o i n t s w i t h maximum t o t a l e n e r g y a r e c a l l e d c e n t e r s o f wave e n e r g y . t h e p h a s e a n d g r o u p p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e s f o r e l e c ­ t r o m a g n e t i c waves a r e t h e same i n a l l c a s e s . In addition. e s p e c i a l l y i n s o l i d s . 'In d i e l e c t r i c m e d i a . c i s t h e r a t e of p r o p a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s i n a v a c u u m . I n t h i s case. w i s t h e average s p e c t r a l frequency. F o r a v a c u u m . Wave P o l a r i z a t i o n Figure 3. ? . there w i l l b e p o i n t s where t h e t o t a l e n e r g y of a l l t h e waves w i l l b e e q u a l t o z e r o . i . 1.

O b v i o u s l y . 252 . 1 j o i n p o i n t s i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e which have i d e n t i c a l phases f o r t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves. I n t h i s case. . and both of t h e s e f a c t o r s w i l l b r i n g t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c f o r c e ( a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e conduc­ t i v i t y currents) t o the receiving antenna. I n r e c e i v i n g electromagnetic waves. w i l l coincide with t h e direction of t h e d i p o l e of t h e c i r c u i t ( d i p o l e open a n t e n n a ) . t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c wave i s a t r a n s v e r s e wave . it i s important t o b e s u r e t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e dipole of t h e receiving c i r c u i t coincides w i t h t h e v e c t o r o f wave p o l a r i z a t i o n . With t h e d i p o l e i n a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n . t h e i s o p h a s a l c i r c l e s (and t h e isophasal spheres i n t h e propagation area) are t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e wave f r o n t . I n o u r s k e t c h . The p l a n e o f t h e vector of t h e magnetic f i e l d coincides with t h e h o r i z o n t a l plane. t h e v e c t o r o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l f i e l d .1. t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e Verticle Dipole. / 2 4 3 t h e a m p l i t u d e s of t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e e l e c t r i c and magnetic f i e l d s a r e l o c a t e d a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f wave p r o p a ­ gation. The c i r c l e s i n F i g u r e 3 . These circles are c a l l e d isophasal. w e have e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves w i t h a v e r t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n v e c t o r . i s o p h a s a l circles If t h e waves a r e v e r t i c a l l y p o l a r i z e d and t h e r e c e i v i n g antenna is located i n a horizontal position. The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p l a n e o f o s c i l l a t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r i c f i e l d i s c a l l e d t h e v e c t o r o f wave p o l a r i z a t i o n . no e m f w i l l be produced i n t h e dipole. From t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e r e c e i v i n g a n t e n n a . t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f t h e e l e c t r i c f i e l d a n d t h e a x i s of r o t a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d coincide with t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e d i p o l e . I n t h i s case. i . . 3.I n t h i s case. and t h e r e ­ f o r e t h e displacement currents . i n g a n t e n n a must be h o r i z o n t a l . t h e r e c e i v ­ Propagation of an Fig. E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Wave f r o m a i n a d d i t i o n . e . i t must c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e p o l a r ­ i z a t i o n v e c t o r of t h e waves. e . antenna i n the horizontal plane must b e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e l i n e t o t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g a n t e n n a . i . t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves reaching t h e antenna w i l l have a h o r i z o n t a l v e c t o r of polarization.

In i d e a l conductors. t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves c a r r y a l t e r ­ nating conductivity currents. The m i n i m a l o p t i c a l d e n s i t y ( e q u a l t o o n e ) i s p o s s e s s e d b y a vacuum ( w h e r e t h e p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e of t h e waves i s e q u a l t o e ) . b e c a u s e wave e n e r g y i s p r o p ­ agated practically without losses i n a l l directions. S i g n i f i c a n t l o s s e s i n wave e n e r g y c a n o c c u r i n s o l i d d i e l e c ­ trics with polar molecules. t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f wave e n e r g y i n m e d i a .Propagation o f lectromagnetic Oscillations E Homogeneous Media in I n o r d e r t o make u s e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n o f v a r i o u s t r a n s m i t t i n g and r e c e i v i n g r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s . which c a u s e s a c o n v e r s i o n o f wave e n e r g y i n t o h e a t . t h e shallower t h e depths t o which t h e o s c i l Z a t i o n s w i Z Z propagate. A decrease i n t h e o s c i l l a t i o n power w i t h d i s t a n c e t a k e s p l a c e due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e wave e n e r g y f i l l s a n i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e v o l u m e . a n d t h e e l e c t r o n i c or i o n i c c o n d u c t i v i t y o f m e d i a c a n b e a s s u m e d t o b e a very high (approaching i n f i n i t y ) d i e l e c t r i c permeability. p o l a r i z a t i o n i s n o t r e l a t e d t o a b s o r p t i o n o f wave e n e r g y . t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n i s n o t r e l a t e d t o e l a s t i c d e f o r m a t i o n b u t t o t h e motion o f m o l e c u l e s . T h u s . i s p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o a s l i g h t d e p t h w h i c h d e p e n d s o n t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e medium a n d t h e frequency of t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o p ­ a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s i n inhomogeneous c o n d u c t ­ i n g and nonconducting media. e l e c t r o ­ 253 5 . I n c o n d u c t i n g m e d i a . T h i s means t h a t c o n d u c t o r s a l w a y s u n d e r g o a b s o r p t i o n o f wave e n e r g y a n d i t s c o n v e r s i o n t o h e a t . The h i g h e r t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e medium and t h e g r e a t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y of o s c i l l a t i o n . The o p t i c a l d e n s i t y o f a l l o t h e r d i e l e c t r i c s i s g r e a t e r t h a n u n i t y . t h e o p t i c a l density is equal t o i n f i n i t y ( t h e p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves i s e q u a l t o z e r o ) . I n t h i s case. For t h e m a j o r i t y o f d i e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l s . I n p o r t i o n s o f a medium w i t h v a r y i n g o p t i c a l d e n s i t y . /24& E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c wave p r o c e s s e s i n d i e l e c t r i c s c o n s t i t u t e t h e c o n v e r s i o n of t h e p o t e n t i a l energy o f ' t h e e l e c t r i c a l l y deformed medium t o t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y o f d i s p l a c e m e n t c u r r e n t s a n d v i c e v e r s a ( t h e k i n e t i c energy of t h e f i e l d i n t o t h e p o t e n t i a l deformation o f t h e medium). S i n c e t h e p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves d e p e n d s on t h e d i e l e c t r i c a n d m a g n e t i c p e r m e a b i l i t y of t h e medium. w h i c h ( a s we k n o w ) i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e c u b e o f t h e r a d i u s o f t h e s p h e r e which i t f i l l s . e x h i b i t i n g b o t h e l e c t r o n i c and i o n i c c o n d u c t i v i t y . t h e concept of o p t i c a l d e n s i t y of media has been introduced.

' wave. w i t h a c e r t a i n a n g l e o f i n c i ­ d e n c e t o t h e s u r f a c e . c a l l e d radiorefraction. t h e n a t a n y f i x e d p o i n t t h e o s c i l l a t i o n process w i l l s a t i s f y the expression: E = E. under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . T h e c h a n g e i n d i r e c t i o n of p r o p a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s o n t h e s u r f a c e s o f p a r t i c l e s o f t h e medium w i t h d i f f e r e n t o p t i c a l d e n s i t y i s c a l l e d r e f r a c t i o n of r a y s . w h i c h i s e q u a l t o cl/w 254 I . /245 When t h e p a t h o f a w a v e ( p r o p a g a t i o n d i r e c t i o n ) r u n s f r o m a l e s s d e n s e medium t o a m o r e d e n s e o n e . i r r e v e r s i b l e a b s o r p t i o n o f w a v e e n e r g y may t a k e p l a c e i n i t ( c o n v e r s i o n o f wave e n e r g y i n t o h e a t ) . I n a d d i t i o n . t h e r e i s r e f l e c t i o n o f waves f r o m t h e s u r f a c e s o f t h e sections. t h e r e may b e n o s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e r e f l e c t e d . a r e c a l l e d t h e w a v e l e n g t h ( A ) . i n w h i c h t h e wave p h a s e i s i d e n t i c a l . Such a n a n g l e i s c a l l e d t h e a n g l e o f t o t a l i n t e r n a l r e f l e c ­ t i o n o f t h e d e n s e r medium. t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u o u s r e f r a c t i o n ( b e n d i n g ) of t h e l i n e o f p r o p a g a ­ t i o n . I f w e s a y t h a t t h e a m p l i t u d e o s c i l l a t i o n i s t h e maximum v a l u e o f t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e e l e c t r i c a l f i e l d .m a g n e t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s change t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r p r o p a g a t i o n . The o p t i c a l i n h o m o g e n e i t y o f a medium c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e p r o p ­ a g a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of waves o f d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e Earth's atmosphere. With t h e g r a d u a l c h a n g e i n t h e o p t i c a l d e n s i t y o f t h e medium. The c o e f f i c i e n t of r e f l e c t i o n d e p e n d s on t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e o p t i c a l d e n s i t i e s of t h e m e d i a . t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s . i s t h e i n i t i a l phase of o s c i l l a t i o n . a n d t h e a n g l e of i n c i d e n c e o f t h e wave. A l l h a r m o n i c o s c i l l a t i o n s i n a medium a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y an o s c i l l a t i o n frequency ( w ) and an amplitude o s c i l l a t i o n ( E ) . The d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e f i e l d i n t e n s i t y w i t h t i m e w i l l c h a r a c ­ t e r i z e t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t c u r r e n t E- Idis dt dE = while t h e second d e r i v a t i v e w i l l express t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e displacement current The d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o c l o s e s t p o i n t s i n s p a c e w h i c h l i e a l o n g t h e l i n e of p r o p a g a t i o n of t h e wave f r o n t . I f t h e medium w i t h t h e g r e a t e r o p t i c a l d e n s i t y i s a c o n d u c t o r . where sin(wtt$).

t h e t y p e o f p r o p a g a t i o n i s s u p e r f i c i a l a s i n t h e c a s e o f l o n g w a v e s . 4 MHz ( 7 5 0 m). Above t h i s i s t h e E l a y e r . Medium Waves. From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y a n d r e l i e f . Conducting media such as t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a n d t h e u p p e r i o n i z e d l a y e r s o f t h e atmo­ s p h e r e h a v e a d e f l e c t i n g e f f e c t upon them. l e s s t h a n 1 0 m . a t n i g h t i t d r o p s t h i s l a y e r h a s a maximum e f f e c t o n t h e p r o p a g a t i o n t o 0 . T h i s l a y e r i s t h e most s t a b l e one and r e t a i n s i t s e f f e c t b o t h day and n i g h t . kHz) h a v e a /246 4. from 2 0 0 t o 1 0 m (1500-30. 1. T h i s l a y e r h a s a n e f f e c t on t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f l o n g a n d medium w a v e s . 5 MHz. UZtra-short waves. s i n c e i t r e v e r s e s t h e v e c t o r o f t h e wave p o l a r i z a t i o n a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e d i r e c t i o n o f p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e wave f r o n t i n the horizontal plane. a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l l a t i t u d e . 0 0 0 t o 3 0 0 0 m ( 1 0 . T h e r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e s e w a v e s on t h e E a r t h ' s surface is insignificant. o f medium a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e w a v e s ( t h e s h o r t w a v e s a t t h e s p e c t r a l b o u n d a r y w i t h t h e medium w a v e s ) . i s o n l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e d a y t i m e a n d d e p e n d s on t h e t i m e o f y e a r . These waves h a v e a s u r f a c e t y p e o f p r o p a g a t i o n . During t h e e v e n i n g and morning h o u r s . h a v e a r a d i a l t y p e o f propagation. The c r i t i c a l f r e q u e n c y o f t h i s l a y e r w i t h m a x i m u m i l l u m i n a t i o n i s 4 .E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s c a n b e s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p r o p a g a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e E a r t h ' s atmo­ sphere. L o n g w a v e s . f r o m 3 0 . This leads t o e r r o r s i n radionavigation m e a s u r e m e n t s . w h o s e i o n i z a t i o n maximum i s r e a c h e d a t a h e i g h t o f 120-130 km. The i o n i z e d l a y e r s o f t h e a t m o ­ s p h e r e also h a v e a v a r y i n g n a t u r e . but only under c e r t a i n conditions can they be re­ f l e c t e d from t h e i o n i z e d l a y e r s of t h e atmosphere. 2. Therefore. t i m e o f d a y .1 0 0 k H z ) . i t may a p p e a r a t h e i g h t s from 60-90 km. S h o r t waves. it i s t h e s e waves which a r e u s e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f g e o m e t r i c v i s i ­ b i l i t y of o b j e c t s . Waves w i t h f r e q u e n c i e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e c r i t i c a l a r e n o t r e f l e c t e d from t h e l a y e r . f r o m 3 0 0 0 t o 2 0 0 m ( 1 0 0 .1 5 0 0 k H z ) h a v e a complex t y p e of p r o p a g a t i o n . They c a n b e r e f l e c t e d f r o m c o n d u c t i n g l a y e r s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e h a s a c o m p l e x n a t u r e w h i c h d e p e n d s on t h e t i m e of y e a r and weather conditions. which i s c l o s e s t t o t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . t h e l a y e r c h a n g e s i t s p a r a m e t e r s s o t h a t t h e s u r f a c e of maxi­ mum i o n i z a t i o n d e c r e a s e s . The i o n i z e d D l a y e r .000 s p a t i a l type of propagation. I n t h e d a y . 3. t h e medium w a v e s h a v e b o t h a s u r f a c e and s p a t i a l t y p e of propagation. 9 MHz. 255 . a t n i g h t . when t h e i o n i z e d l a y e r s of t h e a t m o s p h e r e a r e l o w e r . T h e c r i t i c a l f r e q u e n c y o f t h e l a y e r i s 0 .

3 . w h i c h m a k e i t d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t t h e propagation c o n d i t i o n s f o r e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves. t h e F l a y e r shows d i v i d e s i n t o two p a r t s ( F I a n d F2). g . 3. s i n c e t h e r e a c t i o n of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d w i t h i n t h e c o n d u c t o r i s g r e a t e r t h a n on i t s s u r f a c e ( t h e s k i n e f f e c t ) . This causes a l l high frequency conductors t o b e c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h an eye toward i n c r e a s ­ i n g t h e s u r f a c e . a n d i n t h e p r o p a Fig. t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r waves i n t h e cen­ I t i s much b e t t e r t o u s e h o l l o w c o n d u c t o r s f o r t h e s e timeter range. which must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l measurements. The F l a y e r h a s a n i n f l u e n c e on t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f s h o r t w a v e s . t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e s u r f a c e s o f which i s measured i n whole numbers o f h a l f waves.The t h i r d i o n i z e d l a y e r ( F ) i s t h e m o s t u n s t a b l e o n e b o t h i n t e r m s o f t i m e o f d a y as w e l l as s e a s o n of t h e y e a r .2. Propagation of E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Waves g a t i o n d i r e c t i o n o f t h e wave f r o n t a r e t h e same. w a v e s . If t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e w a l l s i s e q u a l t o a w h o l e . The p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f p r o p a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s i n a conducting f e e d e r channel i n r e c e i v e r s and t r a n s m i t t e r s include/247 the following. t h e b o x . t y p e wave g u i d e . T h e r e f o r e . t u b u l a r and multiple-filament (stranded w i r e ) . t h i s l a y e r h e i g h t i s 2 7 0 .q u a r t e r of t h e w a v e l e n g t h . i n a boxA l o n g a Wave G u i d e . . high frequency c u r r e n t s propagate mainly along t h e s u r f a c e of a conductor. t h e n ( a s i s e a s i l y pma 256 . i n t h e plane o f t h e wave f r o n t .3 0 0 km. I n a homogeneous medium. c a l l e d wave g u i d e s ( F i g . e . Its average D u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e i n summer. odd number w h i c h i s o n e . 4% i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e perpendicular vector of p o l a r i z a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n . some s h i f t i n g i n h o m o g e n e i t i e s . s o t h a t t h e y may u n d e r g o m u l t i p l e r e f l e c ­ tion. Consequently. 2 ) . r e f l e c t i o n of t h e waves w i l l t a k e p l a c e i n r e s o n a n c e w i t h i t s o s c i l ­ lations. Unlike c o n s t a n t and low-frequency a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t s . t h e v e r t i c a l l y p o l a r i z e d wave ( s t r i k i n g t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m i n t e r n a l w a l l s of t h e box a n d b e i n g r e f l e c t e d f r o m t h e m ) w i l l s t r i k e t h e o p p o s i t e w a l l a l s o w i t h a whole number o f h a l f w a v e s . A l l of t h i s combines t o g i v e u s t h e complex p i c t u r e of t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s i n t h e E a r t h Is a t m o s p h e r e . I t s h o u l d b e m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e medium a n d s h o r t w a v e s a r e r e f l e c t e d b o t h from t h e i o n i z e d l a y e r s o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e as w e l l a s f r o m t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . However. I n t h i s c a s e .t y p e wave g u i d e w i l l a c t as a c h a n n e l a l o n g which t h e waves w i l l p r o p a g a t e t h e m s e l v e s p r a c t i c a l l y w i t h o u t any r e s i s t a n c e . t h e propagation r a t e of t h e f i e l d along t h e v e c t o r of t h e wave p o l a r i z a t i o n .

The c a s e i n w h i c h t h e r e s u l t o f summing of t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s is e q u a l t o zero i s c a l l e d t o t a l interference. t h e f r e q u e n c i e s of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r and heterodyne 257 . the t o t a l a m p l i t u d e o f t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s w i l l b e e q u a l t o z e r o and no method w i l l s u f f i c e t o d e t e c t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e wave p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d . . In special mixing t u b e s . e . the vector o f w a v e p o l a r i z a t i o n m u s t b e t u r n e d 90° t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s . In the majority of receivers. c a s e t h e w a v e g u i d e w i l l h a v e i n f i n i t e r e s i s t a n c e . w e w i l l d i s c u s s them u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f " P r i n c i p l e s o f O p e r a t i o n o f C o n c r e t e Naviga­ t i o n a l Instruments". e s p e c i a l l y i n measuring t h e d i r e c t i o n of an o b j e c t . A s f a r as t h e a n t e n n a a r r a y s a r e c o n c e r n e d . of t h e system. i f the oscillations are i n opposite phase. whose c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f e r s f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r d i f ­ ference i n frequency with respect t o t h e received s i g n a l . t h e r e s u l t s of d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s c a n b e summed b y m e a n s o f a s i m p l e s u p e r p o s i t i o n o f o s c i l l a t i o n v e c t o r s . A t t h e same t i m e . w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for r a d i a t i o n o f s i g n a l s . t h e Under t h e s e t o t a l amplitude of t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s w i l l be doubled.s e e n ) t h e r e f l e c t i o n s f r o m t h e w a l l s o f t h e wave g u i d e w i l l t a k e In this place each t i m e i n opposite phase with t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s . If t h e v e c t o r s o f two c o h e r e n t ( c o i n c i d i n g i n f r e q u e n c y ) p r o c e s s e s s u c h a s t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f a f i e l d or d i s p l a c e ment c u r r e n t s . special generators (hetero­ d y n e s ) a r e u s e d . e a c h o f t h e wave p r o c e s s e s a c t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f o t h e r p r o c e s s e s w h i c h a r e t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e medium or c i r c u i t s . P r i n c i p l e C h a r a c t e r i s t i cs o f Rad i o n a v i g a t i o n a 1 I n s t rumen t s The p r i n c i p l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f instruments are the following: transmitting radionavigational (1) The r a d i a t e d p o w e r . a n d t h e wave energy w i l l not be propagated i n it. conditions. The p r o p e r t i e s o f i n t e r f e r e n c e o f r a d i o w a v e s a r e w i d e l y em­ ployed and r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s b o t h i n r e c e i v e r s and t r a n s ­ m i t t e r s . a r e e q u a l i n a m p l i t u d e a n d c o i n c i d e i n p h a s e . a s w e l l as s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f s p e c i a l n a v i g a t i o n a l s i g n a l s . i . In Figure 3. /248 Summing o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r o c e s s e s i n o p p o s i t e p h a s e i s c a l l e d wave i n t e r f e r e n c e . Receiving navigational instruments are a l s o combinations of t u n i n g c i r c u i t s a n d a m p l i f i e r s w h i c h u s e v a c u u m t u b e s or s e m i c o n ­ ductors. characterizing t h e operating range (2) A c c u r a c y a n d s t a b i l i t y of t h e f r e q u e n c y s t r u c t u r e . P r i n c i p l e s o f S u p e r p o s i t i o n and I n t e r f e r e n c e o f R a d i o Waves The p r i n c i p l e of s u p e r p o s i t i o n i s a p p l i e d t o wave p r o c e s s e s .2.

I n a d d i t i o n . by means o f g o n i o m e t r i c s y s ­ The d i s t a n c e t o a n o b j e c t . i t i s p o s s i b l e i n p r i n c i p l e t o measure t h e f o l l o w ­ i n g parameters o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves: amplitude. w i t h a mutual exchange of r a d i o s i g n a l s between o b j e c t s which have r e l a t i v e motion t o one a n o t h e r . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e of t e c h n i c a l o p e r a t i o n . t h i s p a r a m e t e r i s u s u a l l y o b t a i n e d by n a r r o w i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y b a n d w h i c h t h e r e c e i v e r w i l l p a s s . /249 are Operating P r i n c i p l e s of Radionavigational Instruments I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a w s of p r o p a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves i n s p a c e . f u r t h e r amplification of t h e s i g n a l is c a r r i e d out w i t h a c o n s t a n t . p h a s e . as w e l l a s t o e n s u r e a h i g h s e l e c t i v i t y o f t h e r e c e i v e r . The d i r e c t i o n of t h e o b j e c t . b y m e a n s o f r a n g e f i n d i n g s y s ­ 258 . r a d i o n a v ­ i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o a m p l i t u d e . frequency and t i m e devices. (3) The a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s s e l e c t e d and r e c o r d e d . (b) tems . l o w e r f r e q u e n c y . w h i c h makes i t p o s s i b l e t o u s e amplifier devices with very high c o e f f i c i e n t s of amplification. r e c e i v i n g r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s f u l f i l l two functions: (a) r e c e p t i o n and a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s i g n a l s from a t r a n s m i t t e r ( b ) s e p a r a t i o n and i n d i c a t i o n o f measured n a v i g a t i o n a l parameters. a n d t r a n s m i s s i o n t i m e of t h e s i g n a l . (2) S e l e c t i v i t y of t h e r e c e p t i o n . The b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e c e i v e r n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s are t h e following: (1) S e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e r e c e i v e r w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e p o s ­ s i b l e r e c e i v i n g r a n g e f o r s i g n a l s from a t r a n s m i t t e r . phase . which u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e freedom from n o i s e of t h e receiver. I n such devices. changes i n t h e f r e q u e n c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i g n a l s o c c u r w h i c h a r e known a s t h e Doppler e f f e c t . which i s used t o b u i l d a u t o m a t i c a i r s p e e d i n d i ­ c a t o r s and d e v i c e s f o r measuring t h e d r i f t a n g l e of an a i r c r a f t . Measurements of t h e parameters l i s t e d above f o r electromag­ n e t i c waves f r o m t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t m a k e i t p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e following navigational elements: (a) tems. U s u a l l y .s i g n a l s are combined and an i n t e r m e d i a t e f r e q u e n c y i s produced which is e q u a l t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e f r e q u e n c i e s g i v e n a b o v e . fre­ q u e n c y .

2:: 259 I . A u t o m a t i c d e v i c e s a r e c a l l e d auto­ m a t i c n a v i g a t i o n a z s y s t e m s when t h e o p e r a t i o n o f s e v e r a l t y p e s o f n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s i s combined o r g a n i c a l l y on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . For example. If t h e frame a n t e n n a i s l o c a t e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s o t h a t t h e directiqn. This principle s e r v e s as t h e b a s i s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f ground and aircraft-mounted r a d i o d i r e c ­ t i o n f i n d e r s . . when t h e y c o n s i s t of systems of ground c o n t r o l and apparatus aboard t h e a i r c r a f t . L e t us imagine a frame-type r e c e i v i n g antenna. f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l w i l l b e made on t h e b a s i s o f these principles. 3 ) . t h e r e a r e t h e g o n i o m e t r i c . 3." ­ . 2. course d e v i c e s . i n many c a s e s t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s t e m s a r e c o m p e n s a t e d for m e a s u r i n g t w o n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s simultaneously. i t i s a good i d e a t o c l a s s i f y them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s by Therefore. I n t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s e s y s t e m s .--. which a r e a l s o c a l l e d r a d i o compasses. GONIOMETRIC A N D GONIOMETRIC-RANGEFINDING SYSTEMS The g o n i o m e t r i c r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s t e m s a r e t h e s i m p l e s t o n e s f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t of t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e p a n o r a m i c r a d a r l o c a t e d o n t h e g r o u n d a n d on t h e a i r c r a f t are goniometric-range f i n d i n g devices with a s i n g l e u n i t of navi­ g a t i o n a l equipment. I n s t u d y i n g methods o f a p p l y i n g r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . l o c a t e d i n a f i e l d of outwardly d i r e c t e d r a d i o waves ( F i g .%' . +'.r a n g e f i n d i n g systems. 2 . difference-rangefinding instruments. 3 . /250 which c o n s i s t s o f a Doppler meter f o r t h e d r i f t a n g l e and t h e ground speed. N o n .of t h e .3. a n d a r e t h e r e ­ f o r e t h o s e which a r e most w i d e l y employed a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . . t h e a m p l i t u d e method o f measurement i s e m p l o y e d .-"' . For e x a m p l e . etc. a r e c a l l e d navigational systems. the which t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r s a r e measured. (d) S p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n o f movement o f t h e a i r c r a f t : a u t o ­ m a t i c Doppler meters f o r ground speed and d r i f t a n g l e .(c) The d i f f e r e n c e o r sum o f t h e d i s t a n c e s t o t h e o b j e c t : h y p e r b o l i c or e l i p t i c a l s y s t e m s . b a s e d on t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves.a u t o m a t i c d e v i c e s . and t h e automatic n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u ­ ments. For c o n v e n i e n c e o f a p p l i c a t i o n . Radionavigational devices can a l s o be subdivided i n t o auto­ matic and non-automatic. Fig. t h e automatic Doppler system f o r aircraft navigation. Reception of Electromagnetic Waves b y a F r a m e Antenna.

Edcock-Type Antenna. m a x i m a l l y d i s t a n t for t h e g i v e n device. and t h e r e w i l l no r e c e p t i o n of s i g n a l s from t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t i o n . If t h e frame i s t u r n e d a r o u n d t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s t h r o u g h 90°.4. t h e l e f t a n d r i g h t v e r t i c a l s i d e s o f t h e f r a m e w i l l b e o n t h e same isophasal circle. s o t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p l a n e o f t h e frame c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t i o n . Diagram o f R e c e p t i o n o f a Frame Antenna. I n t h i s case. Then t h e c u r r e n t s i n t h e v e r t ­ i c a l s i d e s o f t h e frame w i l l b e i n o p p o s i t e p h a s e a n d t h e i r a m p l i ­ However. o f c a s e s ) c a n n o t b e f u l f i l l e d . r a n g e f i n d i n g b y means o f a frame i s a l w a y s d o n e w i t h minimum r e c e p t i o n or a u d i b i l i t y o f t h e s i g n a l . t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t ( i n t h e m a j o r i t y tudes w i l l be added. T h e maximum e f f e c t o f t h e f r a m e w i l l b e o b s e r v e d i n t h e c a s e when t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n i t s s i d e s i s equal t o h a l f t h e wavelength. Thus.4. s i n c e t h e a n t e n n a d e v i c e becomes t o o u n w i e l d y . 3. t h e r e f o r e .p r o p a g a t i n g waves w i l l b e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e frame. I n t h e s e c a s e s . 4 ) .5. T h e r e f o r e . t h e r e c e i v i n g f r a m e i s s u p p l i e d w i t h many t u r n s and a r a d i o r e c e i v e r w i t h v e r y h i g h s e n s i t i v i t y i s employed. t h e high-fi-equency c u r r e n t s which a r e c o n d u c t e d i n t h e s i d e s of t h e frame w i l l a g r e e i n p h a s e a n d w i l l c o n s e q u e n t l y b e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d one a n o t h e r . w e u s e t h a t p a r t of t h e e f f e c t which i s obtained with a phase shi-ft through a s m a l l (frequently very small) /251 angle. w h i l e a t t h e maximum t h e c h a n g e i n a m p l i t u d e o f t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l i s o b t a i n e d b y t u r n i n g t h e frame a t a s l i g h t angle. This gives complete i n t e r f e r e n c e of t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e c u r r e n t s i n t h e frame. t h e s i d e s o f t h e frame w i l l b e a t d i f f e r e n t i s o p h a s a l c i r c l e s . Fig. 3. Fig. The g r e a t e s t a c c u r a c y i n r a n g e f i n d i n g i s o b t a i n e d w i t h min­ imum r e c e p t i o n . 3. t h e c u r r e n t s i n t h e v e r t i c a l s i d e s of t h e frame w i l l u n d e r g o a c e r t a i n p h a s e s h i f t w h i c h w i l l g i v e maximum r e c e p t i o n of t h e s i g n a l s from t h e s t a t i o n . Fig.5. 260 . Fig. 3. 3 . The v e c t o r d i a g r a m o f t h e r e c e p t i o n d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e frame w i l l h a v e t h e f o r m of a f i g u r e e i g h t ( F i g .

The h i g h . Therefore. c o n n e c t e d t o t h e i n p u t c i r c u i t of t h e r e c e i v e r . i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e two f i x e d d i p o l e c o i l s mounted a t a n a n g l e of 90°. T h e r e f o r e .f r e q u e n c y c u r r e n t i n t h e g o n i o m e t e r c o i l s w i l l d e p e n d / 2 5 2 on t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e c r o s s e d dipoles. thus considerably reducing t h e r a n g e f i n d i n g e r r o r f o r waves i n space. 3. w h e n a c o i l i s p l a c e d a t a n a n g l e o f 9 0 ° t o t h e r e s u l t a n t f i e l d . i t p i c k s up n o t o n l y t h e v e r t i c a l l y p o l a r i z e d w a v e b u t a l s o t h e h o r i z o n t a l compo­ n e n t of t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n v e c t o r i n t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m s i d e s of t h e frame. t h e r e i s a movable s e a r c h i n g c o i l . 3 . groundb a s e d r a d i o r a n g e f i n d i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n s u s e s p e c i a l a n t e n n a s which a r e e q u i v a l e n t t o a frame t y p e i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e c e p t i o n f o r v e r t i c a l l y p o l a r i z e d waves. t h e r e c e p t i o n w i l l b e maximum. 261 I . If t h e s e a r c h i n g c o i l i s p l a c e d i n t h e r e s u l t a n t f i e l d o f t h e f i x e d c o i l s . A s i m i l a r p a i r o f d i p o l e s i s mounted i n t h e p l a n e p e r p e n d i c ­ ular t o the first pair. I n a d d i t i o n . t h e n t h e p h a s e s h i f t w i l l d i s t u r b t h e p o t e n t i a l e q u i l i b r i u m a t t h e ends of t h e c o i l and a high-fre­ quency c u r r e n t w i l l p a s s through i t . However. If t h e d i p o l e s a r e l o c a t e d on d i f f e r e n t i s o p h a s a l c i r c l e s .6. r e c e p t i o n w i l l b e min­ imal. The h o r i z o n t a l w i r e s c o n n e c t i n g t h e a n t e n n a d i p o l e s a r e l o c a t e d as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o one a n o t h e r . Fig. no i n t e r ­ of a g o n i o m e t e r b e t w e e n t h e m . t h e frame a n t e n n a w i t h i t s l a r g e d i m e n s i o n s and mechanical r o t a t i o n i s inconvenient t o use. 5 ) . b u t are f r e e of t h e shortcomings m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . and t h e i r t o t a l interference w i l l appear a t t h e inputs i n t h e goniometer c o i l s . t h e y a r e c a l l e d Edcock a n t e n n a s ( F i g . i n open d i p o l e s . f e r e n c e w i l l b e o b s e r v e d when t h e y a r e l o c a t e d on o n e i s o p h a s a l circle. I n a g o n i o m e t r i c i n s t r u m e n t .The r e c e i v i n g frame a n t e n n a h a s t h e s h o r t c o m i n g t h a t when e l e c ­ t r o m a g n e t i c waves a r e b e i n g p r o p a g a t e d t h r o u g h s p a c e . s o t h a t t h e e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e con­ d u c t e d i n them f r o m t h e h o r i z o n t a l component v e c t o r o f p o l a r i z a t i o n w i l l be i n t h e s a m e phase. Inclusion of an Open A n t e n n a f o r S o l v i n g Ambiguity of Reception. The p i c t u r e s h o w s o n e p a i r o f E d c o c k d i p o l e s w i t h t h e c o i l O b v i o u s l y . since they are connected t o s y m m e t r i c a l p o i n t s on t h e d i p o l e . t h e antenna does not pick up component waves w i t h h o r i z o n t a l polarization . t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p o t e n t i a l a t t h e e n d s o f t h e goniometric c o i l w i l l b e equal t o zero.

w e h a v e t w o maxima a n d two minima of a u d i b i l i t y . L e t u s s u p p o s e t h a t w e h a v e d e f i n e d a l i n e ( b e a r i n g ) on which t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g p o i n t s a r e l o c a t e d a t minimum a u d ­ ibility. e . To s o l v e t h e a m b i g u i t y o f r e c e p t i o n w i t h r a d i o r a n g e f i n d i n g i n s t r u m e n t s .The r e c e p t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e frame a n t e n n a ( i n c l u d ­ i n g t h e E d c o c k t y p e ) h a v e t w o s i g n s . t h e maximum r e c e p t i o n s h o w n i n F i g u r e 3 .6).7. 26 2 . s o t h a t i t c a n b e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n l i n e on which t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g o b j e c t s a r e l o c a t e d . i . The p h a s e o f t h e h i g h .7. w e can determine t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e t r a n s ­ mitter. . 3.h a l f o f t h e f i g u r e e i g h t of t h e frame a n t e n n a a n d w i l l i n t e r ­ f e r e with t h e o t h e r h a l f of t h e f i g u r e e i g h t (Fig. If w e c o n n e c t t h e open a n t e n n a a n d t u r n t h e f r a m e a n t e n n a t h r o u g h 9 0 ° c l o c k w i s e . a r e s u l t .4). c ) . 7 . w e o b t a i n a t o t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which h a s t h e form o f a c a r d i o i d . 3. T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o one s i d e o f t h e minimum o f t h e f r a m e r e c e i v e r b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e maximum. t h e If i t t r a n s m i t t e r is located i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e upper p a r t . 7 . 3. r e m a i n s a s b e f o r e or c h a n g e s s l i g h t l y . A f t e r c o n n e c t i n g t h e open a n t e n n a and t u r n i n g t h e g o n i ­ ometer c o i l through 90°. D i a g r a m o f D i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f a Frame A n t e n n a C o m b i n e d w i t h a n Open A n t e n n a . t h e c u r r e n t amplitudes of an open antenna w i l l be added t o o n e . / 2 5 3 a n d t h e s e c o n d r e m a i n i n g minimum. If t h e a u d i b i l i t y o f t h e s i g n a l s i n c r e a s e s s h a r p l y . 3 . a ) . b u t does n o t s o l v e t h e problem of t h e s i d e s of t h e mutual p o s i t i o n of t h e o b j e c t s (see Fig. an open antenna with an e x t e r n a l l y d i r e c t e d ( c i r c u l a r ) r e c e p t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s u s e d i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e frame a n t e n n a (Fig.f r e q u e n c y c u r r e n t i n t h e o p e n a n t e n n a . I n combining t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e frame and open a n t e n n a s . Fig. t h e t r a n s m i t t e r i s l o c a t e d at the opposite side. w i l l c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e p h a s e o f o n e of t h e s i d e s of t h e frame r e c e i v e r a n d w i l l b e i n o p p o s i t e As phase with t h e c u r r e n t s i n t h e second s i d e of t h e receiver. d e p e n d i n g on t h e r e c e p t i o n d i r e c t i o n . 3. b w i l l s h i f t t o t h e u p p e r p a r t of t h e p i c t u r e w h i l e t h e minimum w i l l s t i i f t t o t h e lower p a r t (Fig.

s u c h as c a t h o d e .f i n d e r c a n o n l y o p e r a t e w i t h o n e a i r c r a f t . v i s u a l ’ i n d i c a t o r s a r e m o u n t e d o n t h e u l t r a s h o r t w a v e (USW) r a n g e f i n d e r s . The most w i d e l y u s e d r a d i o r a n g e f i n d e r s o p e r a t e on s h o r t a n d u l t r a . The a m p l i t u d e o f t h e s c a n i s r e l a t e d i n magnitude t o t h e amplitude of t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l s i n s u c h a way t h a t a t minimum r e c e p t i o n t h e maximum a m p l i t u d e o f t h e scan is observed.s h o r t w a v e s .f i n d i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n s . we c a n d e t e r m i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n t e r m s o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e maximum d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s c a n .f i n d e r s i n p r i n c i p l e c a n o p e r a t e a t a l l wavelengths. which h a v e l e d t o a s e a r c h t o f i n d new w a y s o f r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o f f l i g h t . h o w e v e r .f i n d e r or t h e g o n ­ i o m e t e r c o i l i s s e t t o r o t a t i n g r a p i d l y .b a s e d r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . on a s c a l e which i s marked a l o n g t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e t u b e f a c e . t h e u s e o f g r o u n d r a d i o d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r s h a s a number o f s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s . Then. T h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y m e a n s of t h e g r o u n d r a d i o r a n g e f i n d e r i n t e r m s o f t h e minimum a u d i b i l i t y o f t h e s i g n a l f r o m t h e t r a n s m i t t e r l o c a t e d on b o a r d . t h e r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e . a t t h e same t i m e . t h e g r o u n d r a d i o r a n g e f i n d e r s a r e a s u f f i c i e n t l y e f f e c t i v e and p r e c i s e method o f aircraft navigation. The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s a r e : L a c k o f a v i s u a l i n d i c a t o r on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t t o show (a) i t s p o s i t i o n .r a y t u b e s . A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n U s i n g Ground-Based Radio D i r e c t i o n . and t h e i r use f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l purposes i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y a n d w e i g h t o f t h e e q u i p m e n t on b o a r d . In addition. w h i c h i s c l e a r l y i n a d e q u a t e w h e n t h e r e a r e a g r e a t many flights.F i n d e r s can be used The u s e o f g r o u n d . (b) A small capacity f o r t h e ground i n s t a l l a t i o n s . The r a d i o r a n g e f i n d e r s a n d r e c e i v e r s w h i c h a r e u s e d f o r /254 r e c e i v i n g s i g n a l s from ground d i r e c t i o n . With a r e l a t i v e l y low d e n s i t y o f a i r m o t i o n . I n t h i s c a s e . t h e f r a m e o f t h e d i r e c t i o n .f i n d e r s t o solve t h e following n a v i g a t i o n a l problems: (a> S e l e c t i o n of t h e course t o be followed and f l i g h t along 26 3 .The p r i n c i p l e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e f o r f i n d i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a t r a n s m i t t e r are used i n ground r a d i o d i r e c t i o n .f i n d i n g p o i n t s mainly have o t h e r purposes. I n t h i s c a s e . Ground r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . t h e t r a n s m i t t e r i s t h e r a d i o on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . and t h e s c a n o f t h e cathoderay tube is synchronized with it. thus reducing t h e ease of a i r c r a f t navigation. An a d v a n t a g e o f g r o u n d r a d i o r a n g e f i n d e r s i s t h e l a c k o f a n e e d t o m o u n t s p e c i a l r a d i o e q u i p m e n t on t h e a i r ­ craft.

and p r e s s e s t h e t e l e g r a p h key o f t h e t r a n s m i t t e r of 20 sec. I f t h e crew o f t h e a i r c r a f t r e q u e s t s t h e f o r w a r d t r u e b e a r i n g .f i n d e r t o the aircraft. c r a f t r e p o r t s i t s p o s i t i o n . The o p e r a t o r o f t h e g r o u n d r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . w i t h v i s u a l i n d i c a t o r s . The c o d e e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t h e b e a r i n g s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l Shch code h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g meanings ( F i g . t h e c o d e e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e b e a r i n g a s r e q u e s t e d b y t h e a i r c r a f t or u s e d f o r UW c o m m u n i c a t i o n . or r e v e r s e b e a r i n g . t h e a i r c r a f t p a t h i n terms o f d i s t a n c e . 264 .f i n d e r t o t h e a i r c r a f t . (c) D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t l o c a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f b e a r i n g s o b t a i n e d from two ground-based r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . 3 . gives t h e c a l l l e t t e r s of t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l ltShchll-code i s used f o The crew i n g t h e b e a r i n g s f r o m on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e UW d i r e c ­ S tion-finder (supervisor) c a l c u l a t e s t h e magnetic declination of t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e d i s t a n c e f i n d e r and r e p o r t s t h e forward t r u e bearing t o the aircraft.f i n d e r .f i n d e r . g i v e s t h e r e q u i r e d code f o t i o n . (d) D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e g r o u n d s p e e d o f t h e a i r c r a f t . r e p o r t ­ i n g on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t t h e " f o r w a r d " ( a w a y ) a n d " b a c k " ( r e t u r n ) m a g n e t i c b e a r i n g s of t h e a i r c r a f t . both s t a t e and l o c a l c i v i l a i r l i n e s have adopted UW d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r s . r determin­ of t h e air­ r i t s posi­ for a p e r i o d I n r e c e n t y e a r s .f i n d e r s . ShchTE: t r u e b e a r i n g from t h e d i s t a n c e . ShchDM: magnetic b e a r i n g from t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e d i s t a n c e f i n d e r (measured r e l a t i v e t o t h e l o c a l meridian of t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e d i s t a n c e . Usually.2 0 0 km a s a f o r m o f t r a c e d i r e c t i o n .f i n d e r ) . as w e l l as t h e d r i f t a n g l e .f i n d e r s (b) C o n t r o l of a r o u t e . a n d ( d e p e n d i n g on t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ) a r e u s e d i n a r a d i u s o f 1 0 0 . a f t e r t h e required measurements. 8 ) : ShchDR: magnetic b e a r i n g from d i s t a n c e . d i r e c t i o n a n d s p e e d o f t h e wind a t f l i g h t altitude. D i s t a n c e f i n d i n g by means o f UW d i s t a n c e f i n d e r s w i t h a v i s S i b l e i n d i c a t o r i s used i n t h e c o u r s e of communication w i t h an a i r ­ c r a f t . a n d g i v e s t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e b e a r i n g S i n degrees. . or t h e f o r w a r d t r u e b e a r i n g . i . w i t h a d e p r e s s e d t a n g e n t o f t h e c o n n e c t e d UW t r a n s ­ S m i t t e r on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . e .t h e s r r a i g h t . S They a r e o r i e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e UW d i r e c ­ S t i o n .f i n d e r .l i n e s e g m e n t s of which r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . /255 or f o r w a r d b e a r i n g . a t t h e b e g i n n i n g or e n d o f are l o c a t e d .

I f t h e ShchDR d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e g i v e n f l i g h t p a t h /256 a n g l e f o r t h e p a t h s e g m e n t .l i n e p a t h segment are a c c o m p l i s h e d by means o f p e r i o d i c i n q u i r i e s a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f t h e f o r w a r d or r e v e r s e b e a r i n g s o f t h e a i r c r a f t (ShchDR or S h c h D M ) . d i s t a n c e . so that b e a r i n g w i l l b e e q u a l t o MFA.f i n d e r i s l o c a t e d a t t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of a f l i g h t segment ( f l i g h t from t h e d i s t a n c e .f i n d e r ) . and i s t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e meridians between 265 . If t h e r a d i o d i s t a n c e . they are n o t grouped i n c o d i s ­ tance-finding n e t s l i k e long O D medium-wave s t a t i o n s .A ~ l 6avy where AMav i s t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n a t t h e m i d p o i n t o f t h e s e g ­ is t h e magnetic declination a t t h e location of t h e r a d i o ment.f i n d e r . b u t o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y .M C . ShchTF: location of t h e a i r c r a f t ( c o o r d i n a t e s or l i n k ) . US = ShchDR . s i n c e t h e f o r m e r i s t h e o r t h o d r o m i c b e a r i n g meas­ u r e d a t t h e s t a r f i n g p o i n t o f t h e s e g m e n t a n d t h e MFA i s t h e l o x o d r o m i c p a t h a n g l e m e a s u r e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e mean m a g n e t i c m e r i d i a n : ShchDR - MFA = A av ­ . t h e f i r s t b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t a f t e r passing over t h e distance-finder can be used t o deter­ U s u a l l y i n t h i s c a s e t h e ShchDR mine t h e d r i f t a n g l e ( F i g . S e Z e c t i o n o f t h e Course t o b e FoZZowed and ControZ o f F Z i g h t D i r e e t i on The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d and f l i g h t a l o n g a s t r a i g h t .8. t h e n t h e When t h e a i r c r a f t i s p a s s i n g p r e ­ ShchDR b e a r i n g s a r e r e q u e s t e d . I t s h o u l d b e k e p t i n m i n d t h a t i n t h e g e n e r a l c a s e ShchDR i s n o t e q u a l t o MFA . and do not give t h e location of t h e aircraft. c i s e l y over t h e ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e d e t e c t o r and follows a c o n s t a n t c o u r s e f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d of t i m e . 3 . 3. Due t o t h e s m a l l effective r a d i u s o f t h e USW r a n g e f i n d e r s .ShchGE: a z i m u t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t a t a d i s t a n c e from t h e con­ t r o l distance-finding station. t h e n t h e a i r c r a f t i s p u t on t h e d e s i r e d l i n e of f l i g h t a f t e r determining t h e d r i f t angle and t h e course t o be followed i s s e t s o t h a t t h e t o t a l of t h e course and t h e d r i f t angle of t h e aircraft w i l l equal t h e given path angle.. Fig. Code E x p r e s s i o n s f o r Bearings i n t h e Shch-code. 9 ) .

w h i l e t h e a v e r a g e l a t i t u d e o f t h e s e g m e n t i s 52O. T h e m a g n e t i c f l i g h t a n g l e o f t h e s e g m e n t i s 9 5 or 2 7 5 O .10. For a f l i g h t i n an e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n . /257 -AM1-6av = 95-4+1-4 = 88O. D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e D r i f t A n g l e A f t e r F l y i n g O v er a Radio Distance-Finding S t a t i o n .10. L e t u s e x p l a i n t h i s by a c o n c r e t e e x a m p l e . f o r f l i g h t i n an e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n from t h e d i s ­ tance-finder. 3.f i n d e r m u s t b e e q u a l t o 268O. W w i l l a s s u m e t h a t we m u s t make a f l i g h t f r o m a p o i n t A(A = e 1 0 5 O . Fig. A M = -1") t o a p o i n t B(A = 1 1 5 O . t h e ShchDM f r o m t h i s d i s ­ t a n c e . Fig. Fig. I n p r i n c i p l e .F i n d i n g Stations. because i n p r a c t i c e t h e course t o be f o l ­ lowed i n a l o x o d r o m i c s y s t e m of p a t h a n g l e s i s s e l e c t e d s o t h a t f l i g h t t a k e s place along t h e orthodrome. b u t f r o m I n t h e o p p o s i t e case. 3. i t i s necessary t o n o t e t h a t a t e a c h b e a r i n g (ShchDR or ShchDM) t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l b e l o c a t e d o n an orthodromic l i n e of t h e given p a t h and w i l l t h e r e f o r e maintain t h i s bearing. P a t h S e g m e n t B e t w e e n Two R a d i o D i s t a n c e . In order t o maintain t h e given f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n over t h e path segment with s u f f i c i e n t accuracy.7 O ) a n d r e t u r n ( F i g . 9 . 3. t h e a i r c r a f t slowly begins ShchDR = 8 8 O . Fig. 3 .t h e i n i t i a l a n d m i d d l e p o i n t s on t h e p a t h s e g m e n t . located a t point A ShchDR = M F A + A M av F o r f l i g h t i n a w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n .10). 266 . orthodromic c o n t r o l of t h e path f o r a loxodromic f l i g h t is i n c o n s i s t e n t . t o d e v i a t e f r o m t h e l i n e o f t h e d e s i r e d b e a r i n g a t a n a n g l e o f 7O. t h e i n i t i a l course of t h e a i r c r a f t m u s t b e s e t n o t o n t h e b a s i s o f MFA = 9 5 O . 3. A M = . Obviously.9.

A f t e r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d o f t i m e . on t h e b a s i s o f t h e b e a r i n g o b t a i n e d from t h e d i s t a n c e f i n d e r . t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e O F A a n d b e a r i n g s ShchDR a n d ShchDM f r o m o n e of t h e d i s t a n c e f i n d e r s w i l l b e c o n s t a n t i n v a l u e a n d w i l l depend o n i y on t h e m e r i d i a n s e l e c t e d f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p a t h a n g l e s . t h e method of h a l f c o r r e c t i o n s i s u s e d . ShchDM = 1 0 2 O ) . Therefore. OFA w i l l d i f f e r from ShchDR o n l y i n t h e m a g n i t u d e o f m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n f o r t h e l o c a ­ t i o n of t h e distance f i n d e r : O F A = ShchDR + AM. I t would b e more a c c u r a t e t o d i v i d e t h i s segment i n t o f o u r p a r t s 1 5 0 km l o n g w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g f l i g h t a n g l e s : MFAl = 90°.A n a l o g o u s l y . w h i l e f o r t h e l a t t e r w e m u s t u s e t h e d i s t a n c e f i n d e r ' a t P o i n t B (ShchDM = 102O). which c o n s i s t s of t h e f o l l o w i n g : L e t u s s a y t h a t a t a p o i n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e l i n e o f a g i v e n p a t h . f o r t h e p o i n t B ( S h c h D R = 2 8 2 O . and t h e p r e v i o u s l y employed l e a d i n t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d i s doubled. i n an o r t h o d r o m i c s y s t e m o f c a l c u l a t i n g f l i g h t a n g l e s . I n t h e f i r s t two s e g m e n t s . In t h e s p e c i a l c a s e when t h e r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e m e r i d i a n where t h e r a n g e f i n d e r i s l o c a t e d .f i n d e r s . t h e l a t t e r i s on c o u r s e w i t h a c e r t a i n a n t i ­ c i p a t i o n of d r i f t . it i s found t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t i s s h i f t i n g from t h e l i n e of f l i g h t toward t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e wind v e c t o r . For s e l e c t i n g a course and maintaining t h e f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n o f a n a i r c r a f t i n t e r m s o f g r o u n d r a d i o d i s t a n c e . t h e i n i t i a l c o u r s e must b e s e t 7 O g r e a t e r t h a n one would c o n c l u d e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e MEA. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o r r e c t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e which has been taken is i n s u f f i c i e n t . MFA2 = 9 3 O . w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s a p p r o a c h i n g t h e ShchDM o f t h e r a n g e f i n d e r l o c a t e d a t t h e terminus of t h e f l i g h t . i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o make f l i g h t s w i t h a c o n s t a n t MFA a t d i s t a n c e s a t w h i c h t h e m a g n e t i c d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f l i g h t c h a n g e s b y 14O. In t h e orthodromic system of c a l c u l a t i n g f l i g h t angles. 267 . a r e d e t e r m i n e d more a c c u r a t e l y . O f c o u r s e . T h e r e f o r e . b u t a l l e l e m e n t s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . w e must u s e a d i s t a n c e f i n d e r which i s l o c a t e d a t P o i n t A (ShchDR = 8 8 O ) . a n d MFA4 = l o o o . T h i s d i v i s i o n of t h e f l i g h t segment i n t o p a r t s f o r t h e case of a f l i g h t a c c o r d i n g t o a g r o u n d d i s t a n c e f i n d e r i s an approxima­ t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a l MFA t o t h e ShchDR o f t h e i n i t i a l d i s t a n c e f i n d e r . i n c l u d i n g t h e s p e e d and wind d i r e c t i o n . it is necessary t o r e t u r n t h e a i r c r a f t a t a n a n g l e o f 10-15O t o t h e g i v e n l i n e o f f l i g h t . MFA3 = 9 7 O . t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d by t h e a i r c r a f t c h a n g e s more r a r e l y a n d t o a much l e s s e r d e g r e e t h a n i n a l o x o d r o m i c s y s t e m . T h i s example i s g i v e n o n l y t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e g e o m e t r y of the process.

With s m a l l d e v i a t i o n s ( b y d i s t a n c e s f r o m t h e r a d i o d i s t a n c e . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o make a c o r r e c t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e w h i c h i s h a l f w a y If t h e d e v i a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e between t h e l a t t e r and t h e former. while i n a f l i g h t toward t h e distance-finder it can be determined only a f t e r s e l e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d w i t h a s t a b l e ShchDM. t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l a t t e r and t h e former c o r r e c t i o n s i s d i v i d e d and added t o t h e course with a p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e s i g n . t h e a i r c r a f t m u s t f o l l o w t h e l i n e o f t h e d e s i r e d p a t h o n l y i n t h e c a s e when i t i s g o i n g b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d t r a c e . f l i g h t t o w a r d t h e r a d i o d i s t a n c e . T h e p l a c i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e d e s i r e d l i n e o f f l i g h t b y s e l e c t i n g t h e course with a l l t h e d e v i a t i o n s mentioned is oblig­ a t o r y o n l y i n a f l i g h t from t h e d i s t a n c e . and v i c e v e r s a . I n a f l i g h t toward a r a d i o distancef i n d e r . I n a d d i t i o n . i f t h e d e v i a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e l i n e of d e s i r e d f l i g h t t a k e s p l a c e . a n d t h e c o u r s e m u s t a l s o decrease.f i n d e r .f i n d e r a n d away f r o m i t . t h e change i n t h e c o u r s e must t a k e p l a c e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e change i n b e a r i n g : ShchDM i n c r e a s e s . w i t h o u t g o i n g t o t h e d e s i r e d l i n e of f l i g h t e a c h t i m e . a l o n g t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e wind v e c t o r . I n a f l i g h t toward a r a d i o distance-finder along a r e v e r s e b e a r i n g (ShchDM). t h e c o r r e c t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e must be i n c r e a s e d . and vice versa. i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s e l e c t t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d by t h e same m e t h o d o f h a l f c o r r e c t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o t h e l a s t ShchDM ( r e v e r s e b e a r i n g ) . while i certain limits) lowed a c c o r d i n g have already pointed o u t .If i n t h i s c a s e t h e a i r c r a f t b e g i n s t o s h i f t f r o m t h e l i n e of f l i g h t toward t h e s i d e opposite t h e wind v e c t o r . f l i g h t away f r o m a r a d i o r i c t l y along the given distance-finder (within t h e f l i g h t t o be f o l ­ 268 . t h e n a f t e r t h e second aiming of t h e aircraft along t h e given l i n e of f l i g h t . i n p r a c t i c a l use. /258 (3) A s we distance-finder bearing.f i n d e r o f u p t o 2 0 0 km w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f 1­ 2 O ) .f i n d e r a l o n g a f o r w a r d b e a r i n g (ShchDR). d e p e n d i n g o n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a i r ­ craft deviation. The m e t h o d o f h a l f c o r r e c t i o n s i s t h e g e n e r a l o n e u s e d f o r However.f i n d e r a n d away f r o m i t : (1) I n a f l i g h t f r o m t h e r a d i o d i s t a n c e . t h e c o u r s e m u s t b e i n c r e a s e d . (2) I n a f l i g h t from a r a d i o d i s t a n c e . t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d by t h e a i r c r a f t must change i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e t h e change of t h e b e a r i n g : ShchDR i n c r e a s e s .f i n d e r . t h e r e are c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between f l i g h t t o w a r d t h e d i s t a n c e . a i n a l l c a s e s m u s t b e made s t n t h e f l i g h t toward a r a d i o it is permissible t o select t o the last stable bearing. t h e d r i f t angle can be measured a t t h e beginning of t h e segment.

having measured t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e a i r c r a f t ( t h e p o i n t s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e b e a r i n g s ) .f i n d i n g s t a t i o n ) .f i n d e r t o t h e a i r ­ c r a f t ( SchTE ) .w a v e r a d i o d i r e c t i o n .11. t h e a i r c r a f t m e a s u r e s i t s d i s t a n c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from two ( t h r e e ) d i s t a n c e measuring s t a t i o n s . 269 .11). w e u s u a l l y s e l e c t t h e c o n t r o l landmarks along t h e f l i g h t r o u t e and determine t h e i r p r e c a l c u l a t e d b e a r i n g s from t h e r a d i o d i s t a n c e . t h e y m u s t a s k f o r t h e S h c h T F b e a r i n g f r o m t h e command r a d i o d i s t a n c e . . If t h e c r e w of t h e a i r c r a f t d e s i r e s t o o b t a i n d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t i n d i f f e r e n t forms ( e . Upon r e q u e s t f r o m t h e c r e w of an a i r c r a f t .f i n d e r l o c a t e d t o t h e s i d e of t h e aircraft route (Fig. a s e r i e s of " f o r w a r d t r u e " b e a r i n g s a r e r e q u e s t e d ( S h c h T E ) . 3. one o f which i s t h e command s t a t i o n . with regard t o t h e azimuth and d i s t a n c e from t h e command d i s t a n c e .f i n d i n g s t a t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d .f i n d e r s .P a t h C o n t r o Z i n Terms o f D i s t a n c e and D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e A i r c r a f t ' s Location For t h e purposes o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e p a t h i n terms of d i s t a n c e . t h e passage of t h e c o n t r o l landmark i s n o t e d .f i n d i n g s t a ­ tion. 1 Fig. while auxiliary distance f i n d e r s r e p o r t t h e measured b e a r ­ i n g t o t h e command d i s t a n c e s t a t i o n . Previously Calcu­ l a t e d B e a r i n g of a Landmark. F o r c h e c k i n g a f l i g h t i n t e r m s of d i s t a n c e . When t h e b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t b e c o m e s e q u a l t o t h e c a l c u l a t e d /259 one. geograph­ i c a l c o o r d i n a t e s or r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o m e l a n d m a r k ) .a n d m e d i u m . as w e l l as d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t . w e c a n u s e t h e t r u e b e a r i n g s from t h e ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e . t h e o p e r a t o r t r a n s m i t s t o t h e crew o f t h e a i r c r a f t i t s p o s i t i o n ( t h e t r u e d i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e command r a d i o d i s t a n c e . T h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e command radio distance-finding station uses a s p e c i a l p l o t t i n g board t o determine t h e t r u e bearings o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h t h e a i d o f movable r u l e r s w i t h t h e i r c e n t e r s of r o t a t i o n a t t h e p o i n t s where t h e r a d i o d i s t a n c e . 3. g .f i n d e r s .f i n d i n g s t a ­ t i o n ( ShchGE) . By u s i n g l o n g . t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m b e a r i n g s o f t w o or t h r e e m u t u a l l y r e l a t e d g r o u n d r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . Three t o f i v e minutes before t h e aircraft reaches t h e c o n t r o l l a n d m a r k .

and y i s t h e course of t h e a i r c r a f t . I n t h e o r t h o d r o m i c system of c a l c u l a t i n g p a t h a n g l e s and c o u r s e s .MC. The d r i f t a n g l e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d i n t h r e e ways w i t h t h e a i d of ground r a d i o distance-finders: (1) The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e " f o r w a r d " b e a r i n g (ShchDR) and t h e course of t h e a i r c r a f t a f t e r passing over t h e r a d i o d i s ­ tance-finding station: US = ShchDR /260 .f i n d e r s u p o n r e q u e s t o f b e a r i n g s ShchGE or S h c h T F .D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e Ground S p e e d . . r e l a t i v e A t t h e begin­ t o which t h e p a t h a n g l e o f t h e segment i s measured.f i n d e r s as w t i o n a l devices during f l i g h by t h e a i r c r a f t b e t w e e n two (LA): a i r c r a f t c a n b e f o u n d by u s i n g g r o u n d e l l as o t h e r n o n . The s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n o f t h e w i n d a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s \ 270 . of e s t i m a t i n g path a n g l e s . and Wind The g r o u n d s p e e d of a n r a d i o d i s t a n c e . (2) By t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p a t h a n g l e o f t h e f l i g h t and t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t a f t e r s e l e c t i n g a s t a b l e "forward1' b e a r i n g ( S h c h D R ) o r " r e v e r s e " ShchDM: where a i s t h e d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e accuracy of determining t h e d r i f t angle is approximately t h e same f o r a l l t h r e e m e t h o d s . i .a u t o m a t i c r a d i o n a v i g a ­ t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d s u c c e s s i v e i n d i c a t i o n s of i t s p o s i t i o n The s u c c e s s i v e l a n d m a r k s f o r t h e LA a r e t h e p o i n t s a t w h i c h t h e aircraft passes over previously calculated bearings along the route or l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e a i r c r a f t m a r k e d o n a map w h i c h w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e command d i s t a n c e . e . D r i f t A n g l e . second and t h i r d methods g i v e e x a c t r e s u l t s o n l y i n t h e middle p a r t o f t h e p a t h s e g m e n t . is the path angle of t h e f l i g h t . when c r o s s i n g t h e m e r i d i a n . n i n g a n d e n d o f t h e s e g m e n t . (3) On t h e b a s i s o f t h e p a t h a n g l e a n d t h e mean c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t b e t w e e n s u c c e s s i v e i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e PA ( A a n d B ) : + a = av I n t h e magnetic loxodromic system. The t h e b e s t way for d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d r i f t a n g l e i s t h e f i r s t . t h e e r r o r s a r e maximum.

Fig. 1 2 . t h e calm p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e Wind b y t h e D i f f e r e n c e i n t h e C o o r ­ d i n a t e s of t h e C a l m Point and t h e Location of t h e Aircraft. 4 ) . 3. t h e c a l m p a t h calcu­ l a t i o n i s made ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a v e r a g e c o u r s e . t h e calm p o i n t a n d t h e s e c o n d p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e a i r ­ s p e e d . d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e ShchGE b e a r i n g . (2) By t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a c t u a l a n d c a l m c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e f l i g h t c h a r t .determined with t h e a i d of ground r a d i o distance-finders ways: i n two (1) According t o t h e ground speea of t h e a i r c r a f t .S O ) . by means of wh i ch a u t o ­ matic q u i e t c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t path can be c a r r i e d o u t . When t h i s i s t h e s e c o n d method i s t h e most s u i t a b l e a n d p r e c i s e . b ) . 271 . K e y s f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e ( a ) Wind A n g l e a n d ( b ) Wind Speed on t h e N L . a i r s p e e d a n d t i m e ) . t h e w i n d v e c t o r i s e q u a l t o 140° i n d i r e c t i o n a n d 30 km i n m a g n i t u d e . Fig. w e w i l l g e t t h e wind s p e e d u = 30:0. a n d a l s o e n t e r e d on t h e c h a r t w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s r e q u e s t o f t h e s e c o n d p o s i t i o n o f The v e c t o r b e t w e e n t h e a i r c r a f t i n t e r m s o f t h e ShchGE or S h c h T F . w e can use a key c t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e wind a n g l e n ( F i g .13. 3. 3 .13. 1 2 . I Fig. . If w e d i v i d e t h e modulus o f t h e wind v e c t o r by t h e f l i g h t t i m e / 2 6 1 i n h o u r s ( 0 . N I . L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g ex­ ample: A f t e r 24 min o f f l i g h t b e t w e e n t w o s u c c e s s i v e l o c a t i o n s .4 = 75 k m / h .12.12. Fig. T o solve t h i s problem. However . 3. i t i s n o l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y t o p l o t t h e w i n d v e c t o r on t h e f l i g h t chart. 3. d o n e . g .1 O M . and t h e d r i f t a n g l e . 3 . a ) and f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e wind s p e e d ( F i g . During t h e t i m e t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t is f l y i n g from t h e f i r s t l o c a t i o n . i s t h e w i n d v e c t o r f o r t h e f l i g h t time over a given path segment. The f i r s t m e t h o d o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e w i n d i s t h e o n e m o s t w i d e l y employed. on l a r g e p a s s e n g e r a i r c r a f t w i t h a u t o m a t i c n a v i ­ g a t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s on b o a r d ( e . T h i s method means t h a t t h e f i r s t l q c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e ShchGE or S h c h T F b e a r i n g i s marked on t h e f l i g h t c h a r t .

7 O . t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e g i v e n p a t h a n g l e o f f l i g h t s h o u l d b e a p p l i e d t o t h a t m e r i d i a n .14. I f w e know t h e d i s t a n c e o f t h e o r t h o d r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t a n d t h e calm p o i n t . T o d e t e r m i n e t h e wind d i r e c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n of t h e a i r c r a f t ' s l o c a t i o n . /262 Fig. 3. a n d for d e t e r m i n i n g ut ( F i g . A Z = 2 0 km.X 'P P' * LA . AX = 4 0 k m . b) Fig. t = Find t h e d i r e c t i o n and wind s p e e d a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .Z .I t i s clear from Figure 3. 3. Solution: AW = 2 6 O (Fig. b ) . 3 . I n a f l i g h t with magnetic p a t h a n g l e s . tgAW = where AZ -' AX that ut = AZ -' sinAW A Z = Z A X = X LA . 3. (Fig. a) ut = 45 km ( F i g .13. MFA = 110O. and t h e n t h e wind angle should be added.14. 1 5 .14.15. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f ( a ) Wind A n g l e a n d ( b ) Wind S p e e d o n t h e N L . A M = . 1 5 . w e w i l l have approx­ i m a t e ly 272 . t h i s problem i s e a s i l y s o l v e d on t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g k e y : F o r d e t e r m i n g AW 3. a ) . 3 . ( a ) Wind A n g l e a n d ( b ) Wind S p e e d ExampZe: 1 5 min.1 O M . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of on t h e N L .1 O M .

t y p e a n t e n n a s b u t a r e f r e e o f t h e e f f e c t r e l a t e d t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l s i d e s o f t h e f r a m e . i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o i n s t a l l s u c h a n t e n n a s due t o t h e i r unwieldiness. (2) The b e a r i n g o f a n a i r c r a f t i s measured w i t h t h e a i d o f ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e .f i n d e r a t a f i x e d s e t t i n g of t h e antenna system r e l a t i v e t o t h e v e r t i c a l .f i n d i n g f o r g r o u n d w i t h t h e a i d o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s i s somewhat l o w e r acy of d i s t a n c e f i n d i n g f o r a i r c r a f t with ground f i n d e r s . /263 i n d i s t a n c e .f i n d i n g w i t h g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s by r a d i o c o m p a s s e s l o c a t e d on b o a r d a i r c r a f t . L a r g e p a s s e n g e r a i r c r a f t w i t h j e t e n g i n e s .f i n d e r s d i r e c t l y from t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e m a g n e t i c or t r u e m e r i d i a n . However. r a d i o c o m p a s s e s a r e more o p e r a t i v e a n d s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . (Radiocompasses) Automatic A i r c r a f t Radio D i s t a n c e . = 129O = 6 +A = 136-7 M M . p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e r a d i o d i s t a n c e . A i r c r a f t w i t h p i s t o n e n g i n e s u s e them as a r e l i a b l e . t h e accur­ a c y o f d i s t a n c e measurement i s r e d u c e d due t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l and transverse banking of t h e aircraft. a n d h i g h l y p r e c i s e method o f a i r c r a f t navigation. s i n c e t h e y a l l o w t h e crew of t h e a i r c r a f t t o have a c o n s t a n t v i s u a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o s i ­ t i o n of t h e aircraft.F i n d e r s Automatic a i r c r a f t r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . which c a n b e e x p l a i n e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g radio stations than t h e accur­ radio distancethree reasons: (1) S t a t i o n a r y r a d i o d i s t a n c e . c a n n o t make s u c h e f f e c t i v e u s e o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s . T h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s i s i n n o way d i f ­ f e r e n t from t h e p r i n c i p l e of o p e r a t i o n of ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e finders. o p e r a t i v e . The a c c u r a c y o f d i s t a n c e .f i n d e r s (radiocompasses) are v e r y widely employed. b u t t h e y c o n t i n u e t o u s e t h e m s u c c e s s f u l l y a l o n g w i t h o t h e r more p r e ­ c i s e means o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . (3) Errors i n d i s t a n c e . i n a d d i t i o n .fiM = MEA + AW or i n o u r c a s e 6M = 110 6 + 26 = 1 3 6 O .f i n d e r s c a n h a v e s p e c i a l a n ­ t e n n a s which a r e e q u i v a l e n t t o f r a m e . f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . t h e e r r o r i n t h e b e a r i n g i n c l u d e s t h e e r r o r s i n measuring t h e a i r c r a f t course.f i n d i n g d u e t o t h e e f f e c t on t h e p r o p ­ a g a t i o n of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves o v e r t h e r e l i e f o f t h e s u r r o u n d ­ i n g medium t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n m e a s u r i n g t h e d i s t a n c e o f a i r c r a f t w i t h t h e a i d of g r o u n d r a d i o d i s t a n c e . on a i r ­ c r a f t .f i n d e r s ( b y means o f p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t f l i g h t s a n d t h e r e c o r d i n g o f a c u r v e of radio deviation). 273 .

t h e p r a c t i c a l o p e r a t i n g r a n g e of a ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e . T h e s i z e o f t h e a n t e n n a f o r t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s l o c a t e d on b o a r d a n a i r c r a f t i s many t i m e s s m a l l e r t h a n h a l f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e r e c e i v e d w a v e . a s w e l l a s f o r m i n g a r e s e r v e and e n s u r i n g r e l i a b l e o p e r a t i o n o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s . I n a d d i t i o n . For p u r p o s e s o f i n c r e a s i n g o p e r a t i v e n e s s . w h e r e t h e o p e r a t i n g r a n g e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t r a i g h t . radiocompasses have found increasingly broad a p p l i c a t i o n f o r purposes of aircraft navigation. On t h e a v e r a g e ( w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y o f 95%). A s h i e l d for t h e r e m o t e c o n t r o l o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s . t h e i n t e r n a l s p a c e between t h e c o i l s i s f i l l e d w i t h a m a t e r i a l w i t h a v e r y h i g h magnetic and d i e l e c ­ tric permeability (ferro-dielectric). T h i s p r o d u c e s a s h a r p de/264 c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s i d e s o f t h e frame. a n d c a n r e a c h 10-15O i n m o u n t a i n o u s a r e a s . T h e e r r o r s i n meas­ u r i n g t h e d i s t a n c e s w i t h t h e a i d o f radiocompasses i n f l a t areas i s 3-5O.f i n d e r s i n f l a t c o u n t r y i s 1 . (b) Open a n t e n n a . Accordingly. A s a t i s f a c t o r y accuracy i n determining t h e bearings of r a d i o s t a t i o n s w i t h t h e a i d of on-board radiocompasses i s o b t a i n e d a t d i s t a n c e s up t o 1 8 0 . a n d 3-5O i n t h e m o u n t a i n s . s o t h a t c1 = c VF ’ 274 . (d) (e> I n d i c a t o r of c o u r s e a n g l e s o f r a d i o s t a t i o n s . two s e t s o f them a r e u s e d i n m o s t a i r c r a f t .f i n d e r w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s o f t r a c k i n g i s 300-400 km ( e x c e p t f o r t h o s e w h i c h w o r k o n U S W .2 0 0 km.f i n d e r s d u e t o t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomousness and t h e ease w i t h which t h e y can be employed. e s p e c i a l l y a t low flight altitudes.l i n e g e o m e t r i c v i s i b i l i t y ) .b o a r d sists of the following: r a d i o compass con­ ( a ) Frame a n t e n n a w i t h mechanical d e v i c e f o r r o t a t i n g i t and a mechanism f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g r a d i o d e v i a t i o n .The c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n f l i g h t conditions does not permit u s t o s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m f o r r a d i o c o m p a s s e s l o c a t e d on b o a r d a n aircraft. (c) S u p e r h e t e r o d y n e r e c e i v e r w i t h a d e v i c e for c o m m u t a t i o n o f t h e p h a s e o f t h e frame a n t e n n a a n d a n e l e c t r i c a l d e v i c e f o r t u r n i n g t h e frame a n t e n n a ( t r a c k i n g s y s t e m ) . t h e e r r o r s i n l o c a t i n g aircraft w i t h ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e . The b a s i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m f o r a n o n . a n d a r e more p o p u l a r t h a n t h e g r o u n d r a d i o d i s t a n c e .2 O . a n d t h e r e f o r e many t u r n s a r e made i n t h e f r a m e t o i n c r e a s e the effectiveness.

1 6 . When t h e l o w . The c o n t r o l g r i d s o f L 1 a n d L 2 r e c e i v e a n e g a t i v e v o l t a g e u g 0 . /265 275 . a n d when t h e s e a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e s i g n a l s f r o m t h e o p e n a n t e n n a . t h e e f f e c t of t h e frame w i l l i n c r e a s e . t h e s e t u b e s w i l l be c l o s e d and t h e s i g n a l s from t h e frame a n t e n n a w i l l n o t b e passed. they undergo amplitude modulation.w a v e a m p l i t u d e ) . To increase t h e magnetic and d i e l e c t r i c per­ m e a b i l i t y o f t h e medium. t h e Radiocompass R e c e i v e r . r a d i o c o m p a s s e s p r e s e n t l y u s e t h e method of amplitude modulation of t h e received s i g n a l s (direction-finder t y p e "M" ) .f r e q u e n c y g e n e r a t o r i s t u r n e d o f f .r e c e p t i o n o f t h e s i g n a l s t a k e s p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h an open and a frame a n t e n n a . A s i m p l i f i e d d i a g r a m of t h e a m p l i t u d e m o d u l a t o r a t t h e i n p u t o f t h e r e c e i v e r i s shown i n F i g u r e 3 . f r e q u e n c yg e n e r a t o r Diagram o f A m p l i t u d e M o d u l a t o r a t t h e O u t p u t o f Fig.f r e q u e n c y g e n e r a t o r i s t u r n e d o n . s o t h a t when t h e l o w . t u b e s L 1 a n d L 2 open a l t e r n a t e l y .w h i c h i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a d r o p i n t h e w a v e l e n g t h of t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l and t h e r e f o r e an i n c r e a s e i n t h e phase s h i f t between t h e s i d e s o f t h e frame.16. The e s s e n c e o f t h e m e t h o d i s t h a t . w i t h t h e phase o f t h e frame a n t e n n a b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y s w i t c h e d by t h e low-frequency g e n e r a t o r .m o d u l a t e d s i g n a l i s obtained a t t h e input of t h e r e c e i v e r . 3.f i n d e r s which w e h a v e d i s c u s s e d t h u s f a r and which b e l o n g t o t h e llE1t t y p e ( c a r r i e r . T h i s means t h a t a n a m p l i t u d e . a n d t h e s i g n a l from t h e frame a n t e n n a r e a c h e s t h e i n p u t o f t h e r e c e i v e r i n p h a s e s w h i c h a r e s e p a r a t e d b y 180°. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e amplitude ground r a d i o d i r e c t i o n .

A r e f e r e n c e v o l t a g e on t h e a n o d e s o f t u b e s L 1 a n d L2. t h e readings from t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s a r e a l l g i v e n t h e same s i g n . d e p e n d i n g on t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n ( F i g . I n t h e case when t h e frame a n t e n n a i s t u r n e d t o w a r d t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n i n t h e o p p o s i t e p l a n e . 276 . This produces a disturband Negative Modulation. but i n i t i a l l y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of increase of modulation. T h e t r a c k i n g s y s t e m a t t h e o u t p u t of t h e r e c e i v e r i s d e s i g n e d s o t h a t t h e frame of t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s r o t a t e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n w h i c h w i l l produce a zero modulation of t h e s i g n a l . t h e radiocompass has t h r e e operating regimes ( b e s i d e s t h e " o f f " p o s i t i o n ) . 3. I n t h i s manner. I n t h i s case. a n d n e g a ­ tive (Position 3). f r o m a l o w . A diagram of t h e output s e c t i o n o f t h e r e c e i v e r i s shown i n F i g ­ u r e 3. The c o n t r o l s f o r t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s a r e mo u n t ed on a s p e c i a l control panel.O b v i o u s l y . Usually.f r e q u e n c y g e n e r a t o r wh'ich s u p p l i e s t h e bridge circuit. z e r o ( P o s i t i o n 2 1 . i n t h e presence of modulation.18. 1 7 ) . 1 9 . 3 . a n d a c u r r e n t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e r o t o r The s t a t o r w i n d i n g o f t h e m o t o r i s con­ winding of a s m a l l motor. f o r m e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e p o s i t i v e half-periods of the rectangular pulse. t h e a v e r a g e anode c u r r e n t o f one o f t h e tubes w i l l be g r e a t e r than t h a t F i g . and t h e m o d u l a t i o n o f t h e s i g n a l o f t h e open a n t e n n a by t h e frame becomes z e r o . made o f p e r m a l l o y c o r e s . w i t h a f i x e d r a d i o c o m p a s s f r a m e . s t a n t l y s u p p l i e d w i t h a v o l t a g e which i s s h i f t e d 90° i n p h a s e by c a p a c i i t o r C . t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e frame w i l l t a k e p l a c e n o t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f r e d u c t i o n . Zero. s o t h a t a s e l e c t o r s w i t c h i s mounted on t h e p a n e l . A b l o c k d i a g r a m o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s i s shown i n F i g u r e 3 . is supplied t o t h e switching c i r c u i t of t h e frame a n t e n n a a t t h e i n p u t o f t h e If t h e i n p u t s i g n a l i s receiver. P o s i t i v e .17. thus causing t h e f r a m e t o t u r n t h r o u g h 180°. t h e a m p l i t u d e modu­ l a t i o n c a n b e p o s i t i v e ( P o s i t i o n l). The m o t o r w i l l c o n t i n u e t o r o t a t e u n t i l t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n i s no l o n g e r p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e frame of t h e r a d i o compass. of t h e o t h e r . ance of t h e b a l a n c e of t h e b r i d g e c i r c u i t i n t h e magnetic a m p l i f i e r . t h e p h a s e of t h e frame c h a n g e s by 180O. m o d u l a t e d by t h e frame s i g n a l .

i . I I . b o t h t h e open and frame antennas of t h e radiocompass are connected.18. -~ t h e c a l l l e t t e r s o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n are a l s o h e a r d . t h e s e c o n d h e t e r o d y n e o f t h e r e c e i v e r i s t u r n e d on t o c o n v e r t t h e i n t e r ­ mediate frequency of t h e r e c e i v e r t o sound. Tuning. A s p e c i a l v e r n i e r on t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l i s used t o tune t h e device t o t h e frequency of t h e ground r a d i o sta­ t i o n . b u t t h e y h a v e s e v e r a l d e s i g n f e a t u r e s and advantages : /267 27 7 I . I l l . I n t h i s r e g i m e . Frame r e g i m e . o n l y t h e frame a n t e n n a o f t h e radiocompass i s connected.1 1 a u t o m a t i c r a d i o c o m p a s s d o n o t differ--i n t h e i r p r i n c i p l e of o p e r a t i o n from t h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e f o r t h e ARK-5 r a d i o c o m p a s s . 3. e . t h e track­ i n g s y s t e m o f t h e r e c e i v e r t u r n s t h e f r a m e a n t e n n a d e p e n d i n g on t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n i s s h o w n o n a n i n d i c a t o r ( c o u r s e a n g l e or b e a r i n g ) . o n l y t h e open a n t e n n a o f t h e r a d i o / 2 6 6 compass i s c o n n e c t e d . R e c e n t models o f t h e A R K . D i a g r a m o f O u t p u t S e c t i o n o f R a d i ocompas s Receiver. In t h e telegraph regime. e i t h e r b y e a r or b y a v i s u a l t u n i n g i n d i c a t o r . The r e a d i n g of t h e b e a r i n g i n t h i s c a s e h a s two s i g n s . The r o t a t i o n o f t h e frame i s c a r r i e d o u t b y means o f a s p e c i a l p u s h b u t t o n s w i t c h on t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l w i t h the label "left-right". Compass r e g i m e . When t u n i n g by e a r . I n t h i s r e g i m e . Fig. I n t h i s r e g i m e .m o d u l a t e d f r e q u e n c y . . and t h e b e a r i n g of t h e r a d i o s t a ­ t i o n c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d w i t h minimum a u d i b i l i t y o f i t s s i g n a l s i n t h e telegraph regime. i f t h e s t a t i o n i s t r a n s m i t t i n g on a n o n .I . r e c e p t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e " t e l e g r a p h " r e g i m e . I n t h i s case.

T h e f i r s t t h r e e r e g i m e s a r e t h e same a s d e s c r i b e d above. (d) P o s s i b i l i t y of o p e r a t i o n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a n o n -co n ­ t r o l l e d a n t e n n a o f o p e n t y p e w i t h a low a e r o d y n a m i c r e s i s t a n c e and a low c p e r a t i n g a l t i t u d e ( o n t h e o r d e r o f 2 0 cm). f 7 Fig. t h e a d d i t i o n a l frame a n t e n n a which h a s t h e same p r o p e r t i e s as t h e main a n t e n n a . F u n c t i o n a l Diagram o f Radiocompass. a s e c o n d f r a m e a n t e n n a i s u s e d . m o u n t e d o n a common f r a m e . s o t h a t b o t h p o s i t i o n s o f zero r e c e p t i o n o f t h e main frame a n t e n n a w i l l b e p o s i t i o n s o f s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m . i n s t e a d o f t h e o p e n a n t e n n a . (b) Possibility of setting the apparatus t o nine previously s e l e c t e d c h a n n e l s ( f r e q u e n c i e s ) i n t h e r a n g e f r o m 1 2 0 t o 1 3 4 0 kHz a n d s w i t c h i n g f r o m one r e c e i v e r c h a n n e l t o a n o t h e r by means o f a n a u t o m a t i c p u s h b u t t o n s w i t c h .19. l o c a t e d on t h e c o n t r o l l p a n e l .(a) Complete e l e c t r i c a l remote c o n t r o l . The r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l i n t h i s c a s e r e a c h e s t h e i n p u t o f t h e r e c e i v e r n o t from t h e open b u t from t h e a d d i t i o n a l frame a n t e n n a . I n t h e " C o m p a s s 11" r e g i m e . The c o n t r o l p a n e l o f t h e ARK-11 d i f f e r s i n d e s i g n f r o m t h a t of t h e ARK-5.a n t e n n a b l o c k . (c) I n c r e a s e d n o i s e s t a b i l i t y of t h e r e c e i v e r . However. and consequently it i s p o s s i b l e t o have an e r r o r i n determining t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n o f 180O. 3. p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e b a s i c frame a n d f o r m i n g a u n i t w i t h t h e b a s i c frame. There i s a l s o a p r o v i s i o n f o r . t h e r e a r e f o u r operating regimes. c h a n g e s t h e p h a s e o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l b y a f u r t h e r 180° when i t i s t u r n e d t h r o u g h 180°. T h e f o u r t h r e g i m e " C o m p a s s 11" i s a s p a r e a n d i s u s e d i n t h e c a s e o f i n t e n s e e l e c t r o s t a t i c n o i s e s when t h e u s u a l d i s t a n c e f i n d i n g m e t h o d s b e come u n s t a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e Itoff" p o s i t i o n . w h i c h i s less s e n s i t i v e t o n o i s e . s m o o t h manual s e t t i n g o v e r t h e e n t i r e oper­ a t i n g range of t h e radiocompass (with t h e t e n t h button depressed). .

B e f o r e t h e f i r s t d e t e r m i n a t i o n of pensator is usually neutralized. we c a n u s e a c o m p e n s a t e d c u r v e o f r a d i o d e v i a t i o n . t h e r a d i o devi­ a t i o n a t t h e s e c o u r s e a n g l e s r e a c h e s a maximum.e. t h e v e r t i c a l component of t h e v e c t o r o f p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e w a v e f r o n t h a s l e s s o f a n e f f e c t on t h e r e c e p t i o n c o n d i t i o n s .1 1 p a n e l ( s u b r a n g e s w i t c h . 2 0 ) w i t h e x t r e m e v a l u e s AP = . t h e c u r v e of r a d i o d e v i a t i o n h a s a q u a r t e r n a r y a p p e a r ­ + a n c e ( F i g .1 1 h a s a t o g g l e s w i t c h f o r n a r row a n d w i d e f r e q u e n c y b a n d p a s s : " w i d e . 3 . compass frame i s mounted i n t h e p l a n e o f symmetry o f t h e a i r c r a f t X .. I n t h e "narrow" p o s i t i o n . r a d i o d e v i a t i o n .Z . s o t h a t t h e d e v i a t i o n a t c o u r s e a n g l e s 90 and 270° i s n o t g r e a t and p a s s e s t h r o u g h z e r o a t c o u r s e a n g l e s c l o s e t o it. If t h e r e c e p t i o n o f s i g n a l s from a ground r a d i o s t a t i o n i s b e i n g made a t c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s w h i c h e x c e e d 5-6 t i m e s t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . 1 3 5 . <. t h e com­ each of t h e screws i s unscrewed 279 . R a d i o d e v i a t i o n i s c o m p e n s a t e d by a m e c h a n i c a l c o m p e n s a t o r The compen­ l o c a t e d on t h e a x i s o f r o t a t i o n o f t h e frame a n t e n n a .n a r r o w " . whi'ch i s a f u n c t i o n o n l y o f t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . The t r a n s v e r s e p l a n e o f t h e a i r c r a f t Y-Z i s a l s o c l o s e t o t h e p l a n e of symmetry. toggle switches and b u t t o n s ) have t h e same m a r k i n g s a s i n t h e ARK-5. T h e maximum a s y m m e t r y o f t h e a i r c r a f t t a k e s p l a c e r e l a t i v e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s 4 5 . Therefore. The r e a s o n f o r t h e r a d i o d e v i a t i o n i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f e l e c ­ t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s f r o m t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e a i r c r a f t or t h e i r r e Since the r a d i o r e f l e c t i o n from i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s of t h e a i r c r a f t . /268 Radiocompass Deviation C o n d i t i o n s f o r d i r e c t i o n a l r e c e p t i o n of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves on a n a i r c r a f t a r e n o t f a v o r a b l e a n d d e p e n d on t h e d i r e c t i o n o f p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e wave f r o n t i n b o t h t h e h o r i z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l planes.The c o n t r o l p a n e l o f t h e A R K . t h e extraneous noises i n t h e earphones are reduced and t h e d e s i r e d r a d i o s t a t i o n c a n b e h e a r d more c l e a r l y . I n t h i s c a s e . O t h e r c o n t r o l u n i t s on t h e A R K . Hence.1 2 t o 25O d e p e n d i n g on t h e t y p e o f a i r c r a f t . s a t o r h a s a c o n t r o l s t r i p which produces a n a d d i t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a x i s o f t h e m a s t e r s e l s y n by means of a s p e c i a l t r a n s m i s ­ sion. k n o b s f o r coarse and f i n e s e t t i n g . The r e q u i r e d s h a p e i s g i v e n t o t h e c o n t r o l s t r i p b y means of 2 4 c o m p e n s a t i n g s c r e w s t o s e t t h e r e a d i n g s f o r t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s a t 15O i n t e r v a l s on t h e s c a l e f r o m z e r o t o 360O. 2 2 5 a n d 315O. t h e d e v i a t i o n a t c o u r s e a n g l e s z e r o a n d 180° i s c l o s e t o z e r o .

I n t h e d e v i a t i o n d i s t a n c e . a n d t h e mag­ n e t i c course of t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l be e q u a l t o t h e magnetic b e a r i n g o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n a s m e a s u r e d o n t h e c h a r t (MBR). m a g n e t i c b e a r i n g s o f o n e or t w o s e p a r a t e l a n d m a r k s (MBL) a r e m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e a r e a w h e r e t h e r a d i o d e v i a t i o n w i l l b e p l o t t e d . w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r d e v i ­ I f t h e a r e a �or t h e d e v i a t i o n a t i o n of t h e m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s .t o such a p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e c o n t r o l s t r i p has a shape with t h e c o r r e c t c u r v a t u r e and t h e a d d i t i o n a l r . The a i r c r a f t i s t h e n r o l l e d o u t o n t h e r u n w a y . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g C A R = 0 : C A L = MBL - MBR. 3. and t h e n t h e magnetic b e a r i n g o f t h i s r a d i o s t a t i o n (MBR) i s d e t e r m i n e d . w e w i l l h a v e t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n e r r o r o f t h e frame: 280 I I I II I 1111111IIII 11 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I II II 11 1 11 1 11 1 1 . t h e reading of t h e radiocompass i s taken (RRC).1 0 0 km f r o m t h e a i r p o r t ) a n d t h e t r u e b e a r i n g i s m e a s u r e d as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e on a l a r g e . The d e v i a t i o n d i s t a n c e f i n d e r i s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e a i r c r a f t i n a l i n e 0-180° e x a c t l y a l o n g i t s l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s . t h e l e v e l l i n e is s e t t o t h e cal­ c u l a t e d CAL. and t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e landmark (CAL) i s c a l c u l a t e d t o g e t r i d o f i n s t a l l a t i o n e r r o r s i n t h e r a d i o compass.+ a t i o n o f t h e a x i s o f t h e m a s t e r s e l s y n i s e q u a l t o z e r o a t a l l cou. /269 Fig. By m e a n s o f a d e v i a t i o n d i s t a n c e f i n d e r . o p e r a t i o n s a t t h e a e r o d r o m e i s c o n s t a n t . I n t h i s case.-se a n g l e s . T o d e t e r m i n e r a d i o d e v i a t i o n .20. i n t h e way w h i c h w a s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 11.000). t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l b e l i n e d up e x a c t l y w i t h t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n (CAR = O ) .s c a l e c h a r t ( u s u a l l y 1:500. a g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n i s se­ l e c t e d ( p r e f e r a b l y a t a d i s t a n c e o f 5 0 . and t h e a i r c r a f t i s t u r n e d u n t i l t h e s i g h t l i n e of t h e d i s t a n c e . If RRC i s n o t e q u a l t o z e r o . t h e MBL w i l l b e known e a r l i e r . Graph o f R a d i o D e v i a t i o n .f i n d e r .f i n d e r c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e s e l e c t e d landmark. T u r n i n g on t h e r a d i o compass a n d s e t t i n g i t t o t h e d e s i r e d r a d i o s t a t i o n .

f i n d e r once again. t h e r a d i o de­ v i a t i o n is determined successively a t 24 RRC's a t 15O i n t e r v a l s . i f R R C i s n o t e q u a l t o z e r o a f t e r t h e f r a m e h a s b e e n f a s t e n e d d o w n . w i t h o u t t u r n i n g o f � t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s . we d e t e r m i n e t h e a c t u a l c o u r s e a n g l e of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n a n d c a n w r i t e t h e r a d i o d e v i a t i o n as f o l l o w s : 'r = CAR . The d e v i a t i o n d i s t a n c e . To d o t h i s . a n d t h e n t o 3 0 . Consequently. To d o t h i s .R R C . T h u s . The c o m p e n s a t o r i s t h e n r e m o v e d f r o m t h e a x i s o f t h e f r a m e . The r e m a i n i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n e r r o r . t h e g r a p h o f r a d i o d e v i a t i o n i s p l o t t e d and t h e extreme values of t h e graph a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e e q u a l p a r t s t o a v o i d s h a r p b e n d s i n t h e s t r i p . by t u r n i n g t h e p r o p e r s c r e w s . i n e a c h r e a d i n g o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s . 60°.RRC. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o s e n t h e f a s t e n i n g screws which h o l d t h e frame t o t h e f u s e ­ l a g e and t h e n (by t u r n i n g t h e b a s e of t h e frame) a d j u s t it u n t i l the indicator points t o RRC = CAR = 0 . c o m p e n s a t i o n i s made f o r t h e r a d i o 281 . a f t e r which two i n t e r m e d ­ iate graphs of radio deviation are plotted. e t c . A f t e r c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n e r r o r .f i n d e r m o u n t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r makes it p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n (CAR) o n t h e s c a l e d i a l b y t u r n i n g t h e a i r c r a f t t o a n y a n g l e . and t h e n f a s t e n t h e s c a l e of t h e d i s t a n c e . c a n b e c o m p e n s a t e d �or i m m e ­ d i a t e l y e i t h e r b y t h e n a v i g a t o r or t h e p i l o t b y t u r n i n g t h e b o d y of t h e s e l s y n r e l a t i v e t o t h e i n d i c a t o r scale. l o o s e n t h e d i a l o f t h e d e v i a t i o n d i s t a n c e . Compensation of r a d i o d e v i a t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d a f t e r i t h a s b e e n determined. /210 Then.'est = CAR . .f i n d e r a n d move i t s o t h a t t h e l i n e o f s i g h t 0-180° p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e s e l e c t e d landmark. I n t h i s case C A R = 0 a n d MBR = 0 . i f w e t u r n t h e aircraft according t o t h e indi­ c a t i o n s of t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s t o a RRC = 1 5 O .f a s t e n e d to the fuselage. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e t t h e s i g h t l i n e o f t h e d e v i a t i o n distance-finder along t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e a i r c r a f t t o 0­ 180°. w e can calcu­ l a t e t h e C A R i m m e d i a t e l y f r o m t h e s c a l e on t h e d i a l . 4 5 .f i n d e r each t i m e t o a s e l e c t e d landmark) . successively ( s e t t i n g t h e s i g h t system of t h e deviation d i s t a n c e . a f t e r w h i c h t h e frame i s r e .

30. 1 6 5 . 1 5 . 150. 2 5 5 . i . the order 0 . a d i s t a n t power r a d i o s t a t i o n ) .3 0 0 km a w a y f r o m t h e f l i g h t a r e a i s s e l e c t e d . 135. 240. . For e x a m p l e : (a) D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e m a g n e t i c c o u r s e o f a n a i r c r a f t b y d i s t a n c e . a n d t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f c o u r s e a n g l e s o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of it. . t h e r a d i o d e v i a t i o n i s compensated once a g a i n by a n a d d i t i o n a l t u r n i n g of t h e screws c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e radiocompass. In these aircraft. .f i n d i n g a t t h e t a i l ( n o s e ) . 345. approach­ i n compensating f o r r a d i o d e v i a t i o n : i n g t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . 1 9 5 a n d 180O.d e v i a t i o n i n terms of t h e f i r s t i n t e r m e d i a t e graph. A f t e r compensation f o r r a d i o d e v i a t i o n . a n d 1 0 5 . d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r a d i o d e v i a t i o n on t h e ground i s i m p r a c t i c a l . t h e f l i g h t c a n b e c a r r i e d o u t o v e r a 2 4 . p r a c t i c a l l y a l o n g a c o u r s e which c r o s s e s t h e s t r a i g h t ­ 2 82 . t h e r e a r e o t h e r s . 120. 90. . o f c o m p e n s a t i o n i s s e l e c t e d as f o l l o w s : 315. 2 4 0 . i . 1 2 0 . 330. 345. 285. 225. I n a i r c r a f t w h e r e t h e frame a n t e n n a o f t h e r a d i o compass i s m o u n t e d b e l o w t h e f u s e l a g e .f i n d e r i s used t o check t h e c o r r e c t n e s s of t h e o p e r a t i o n s which have been c a r r i e d o u t . 45. a t i o n i s compensated by t h e second i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a p h . Usually. the radio deviation is determined i n f l i g h t . w i t h a m i r r o r image of t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s . e t c . If a n y e r r o r s i n compen­ s a t i o n a r e d i s c o v e r e d . g . To s a v e t i m e . t h e compensator is m o u n t e d on t h e m e c h a n i s m o f t h e frame. 6 0 .a n g l e r o u t e . 1 5 . up t o 1 8 0 ° . g o i n g away f r o m i t . a r a d i o s t a t i o n l o ­ c a t e d 2 0 0 . Usually. e . c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c o r r e c t i o n made i n t h e s e l e c t e d p o r t i o n o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s Then t h e d e v i ­ b y m e a n s of a s p e c i a l p o i n t e r o n t h e c o m p e n s a t o r . To d e t e r m i n e r a d i o d e v i a t i o n i n f l i g h t . 270. /271 2 1 0 . 75. 30. Compensation f o r r a d i o d e v i a t i o n by a l l t h r e e g r a p h s i s p e r ­ formed i n an o r d e r such t h a t a f t e r each i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p o s i t i v e c o r r e c t i o n t h e r e i s a c o r r e c t i o n of e q u a l magnitude b u t n e g a t i v e . e . a s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 11. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e m e t h o d d e s c r i b e d a b o v e for c o r r e c t i n g r a d i o d e v i a t i o n s on t h e g r o u n d . The f l i g h t i s c a r r i e d o u t i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t c r o s s e s t h e l i n e o f t h e g i v e n b e a r i n g a t e a c h s e g m e n t of t h e f l i g h t a n g l e o f t h e radio station. 300. . (b) R a n g e f i n d i n g of a r a d i o s t a t i o n w h i c h i s v i s i b l e f r o m t h e a i r p o r t ( e . 255. 105. s i n c e t h e r e f l e c t i o n of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves from t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e ground c a u s e s a d i s t o r t i o n of t h e electromagnetic f i e l d . and f i n a l l y b y t h e c u r v e of r a d i o d e v i a t i o n . t h e a i r c r a f t i s t u r n e d a n d t h e d e v i a t i o n d i s t a n c e . e t c . t h e order of t h e course angles i s then s e l e c t e d s o t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n mechanism i s employed 0 .

t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n (CAR) a t t h e moment w h e n t h e r e c o r d i n g s a r e made i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e f o r m u l a CAR = TBR - TK.RRC. C o m p e n s a t i o n f o r r a d i o d e v i a t i o n i s made a f t e r t h e a i r c r a f t l a n d s i n t h e same way a s a f t e r d e t e r m i n i n g i t o n t h e g r o u n d . a n d t h e ' r a d i o d e v i a t i o n o f t h e r a d i o compass i s d e t e r m i n e d as t h e difference: Ar = CAR . However. (d) D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t by o b t a i n ­ i n g b e a r i n g s from two r a d i o s t a t i o n s . s i n c e t h i s would r e q u i r e r e p e t i t i o n of t h e f l i g h t . Measurement o f t h e d r i f t a n g l e a f t e r f l y i n g o v e r t h e r a d i o /272 (c) Checking t h e p a t h f o r d i s t a n c e by measuring t h e d i s t a n c e t o a radio station located t o the side. (b) s t a tion.f i n d e r s .l i n e f l i g h t f o r 20-30 s e c f o r e a c h r e c o r d i n g of t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e r a d i o compass a n d c o u r s e . as w e l l a s t h e w i n d p a r a m e t e r s at flight altitude. A?:rcraft N a v i g a t i o n Using R a d i o c o m p a s s e s on B o a r d t h e Aircraft R a d i o c o m p a s s e s on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t m a k e i t p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e t h e same n a v i g a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s as g r o u n d r a d i o d i s t a n c e . b u t w i t h o u t c h e c k i n g t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e work which h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t . The s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s by means o f a r a d i o c o m p a s s mounted on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n p r i n c i p l e o f s o l u t i o n t o t h e ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e . it i s neces­ s a r y t o determine t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e aircraft a t each p o i n t being m e a s u r e d a n d t o e n t e r i t on a c h a r t s o t h a t when t h e d a t a i s a n a l y z e d i t w i l l b e p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e a r i n g of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n from t h e p o i n t a t which t h e r e a d i n g w a s t a k e n . i n t h i s c a s e . e s p e c i a l l y if t h e i n d i c a t o r f o r t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s o f t h e r a d i o compass i s combined w i t h t h e c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r o f t h e a i r c r a f t a n d t h u s shows t h e r e a d i n g f o r t h e b e a r ­ ing (Fig. (e) Determining t h e d r i f t angle and t h e groundspeed from suc­ c e s s i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . I n f a c t . (a) Path c o n t r o l i n t e r m s of d i r e c t i o n and s e l e c t i o n of t h e course t o be followed during f l i g h t toward t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n and away f r o m i t .21). The f i g u r e s h o w s t h e c o u r s e i n d i c a t o r f o r t h e n a v i g a t o r .f i n d e r s . 283 li . 3.

c o r r e c t i o n s f o r d e v i a t i o n o f t h e m e r i d i a n s a r e made i n t h e s e r e a d ­ ings. s i n c e t h e t o t a l c o r r e c t i o n i s t h e n shown on t h e s c a l e o f d e v i a t i o n s .I11 Ill 111 . w h i l e t h e o t h e r e n d s o f t h e p o i n t e r s c a n b e u s e d t o show t h e bearings of t h e aircraft. m o v a b l e s c a l e o f t h i s i n d i c a t o r ( r e l a t i v e t o a t r i a n g u l a r m a r k on t h e o u t e r s c a l e ) . t h e a d d i t i o n a n d s u b t r a c t i o n o f t h e a n g l e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h o s e same r u l e s is carried out automatically. I t i s c l e a r from F i g u r e 3. T h i s s h o r t c o m i n g t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e c a n b e r e d u c e d by u s i n g an orthodromic system for. I n t h i s case. i f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d on t h e r e f e r ­ e n c e m e r i d i a n for c o m p u t i n g t h e p a t h a n g l e s . T h e r e f o r e . w h e r e 6 i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m e r i d i a n of t h e a i r c r a f t l o c a ­ t i o n and t h e m e r i d i a n of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . and i s e f f e c t i v e o n l y f o r one r a d i o s t a t i o n A = A M + 6 . m o v a b l e s c a l e . The u s e o f combined i n d i c a t o r s c o n s i d e r a b l y s i m p l i f i e s t h e o p e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e u s e o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s mounted on b o a r d aircraft.c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e b e a r i n g i n d i c a t o r s o f t w o r a d i o c o m p a s s e s (UShM). a n d AM i s t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n of t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e aircraft. w h i l e t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d on t h e o u t e r f i x e d s c a l e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o i n t ­ ers of t h e radiocompasses. a s s u v i n g t h a t i n t h e combined i n d i c a t o r s . t h e need t o introduce c o r r e c t i o n s i s n o l o n g e r a p p l i c a b l e . On t h e i n n e r . and a f t e r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e approximate b e a r i n g s of t h e a i r c r a f t by t h e o p p o s i t e e n d s of t h e p o i n t e r s o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s e s . Obviously. t h i s method i s p r a c t i c a l o n l y f o r u s e w i t h one r a d i o c o m p a s s . a n d i n a n y c a s e t h e c o r r e c t i o n r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t if t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s n o t o b s e r v e d .22 t h a t t h e magnetic b e a r i n g of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n (MBR) a n d t h e t r u e b e a r i n g o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n (TBR) a r e added from t h e c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t i n c o r r e s p o n d i n g s y s t e m s o f c a l c u l a t i o n a n d t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n : /273 2 84 1111 I . When i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n t h e t r u e b e a r i n g s o f a n a i r ­ c r a f t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from two r a d i o s t a t i o n s . o n l y t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s s e t on t h e d e c l i n ­ a t i o n scale. it is possible t o c a l c u l a t e t h e bearings of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s . i n t h e g e n e r a l case t h i s c o r r e c t i o n w i l l be d i f ­ ferent for different radio stations. T h e n e c e s s i t y t o make c o r r e c t i o n s for t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e m e r i d i a n s i s one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s h o r t c o m i n g s o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s . o p p o s i t e t h e arrows. However. The c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s m e a s u r e d o n t h e i n n e r . e s t i m a t i n g t h e p a t h a n g l e s and courses of the aircraft. t h e methods of u s i n g them f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l purposes must b e viewed as non-recorded i n d i c a t o r s of c o u r s e a n g l e s of r a d i o s t a t i o n s .

TBA = TBR + 6 . i n c a l c u l a t i n g c o u r s e s from t h e t r u e m e r i d i a n t h e a i r c r a f t ' s l o c a t i o n . 3 . Consequently. i n t h e o r t h o d r o m i c s y s t e m of OBR = OC calculating courses + CAR. /274 MBR = MC CAR.i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t . Similarly. t h e t r u e b e a r ­ i n g s of t h e a i r c r a f t ( T B A ) a r e p l o t t e d on t h e f l i g h t c h a r t f r o m grBound r a d i o s t a t i o n s .Fig.l8Oo. where OBR i s t h e o r t h o d r o m i c b e a r i n g o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n and OC i s t h e orthodromic course. TBR = TC + + CAR. 2 1 . I n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e t r u e b e a r i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t . I n determi. Combined I n d i c a t o r f o r C o u r s e a n d C o u r s e Angles of a Radio S t a t i o n . i S O o a r e d d d e d if t h e TBA h a s a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e l e s s t h a n 1 8 0 ° a n d s u b t r a c t e d when t h e v a l u e of t h e b e a r i n g exceeds 180°. where 285 of . + where 6 is t h e a n g l e of convergence of t h e meridians.

I n t h e orthodromic system of c a l c u l a t i n g courses.r.m. and i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e course from t h e magnetic meridian T B A = MC + AM + CAR + 6 + 18'0O. In a f l i g h t from a r a d i o s t a t i o n . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e L A i s d e t e r m i n e d w i t h t h e a i d o f mag­ n e t i c compass d e v i a t i o n . i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c o u r s e f r o m t h e m a g n e t i c m e r i d ­ i a n of t h e a i r c r a f t ' s l o c a t i o n .-X..TBA = TC + CAR + 6 + - 180°..s.. / sv /$a+* 2c $ CAR must t a k e p l a c e w i t h a c o n s t a n t t r u e b e a r i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t .. w h e r e 6. w e must s a t i s f y t h e e q u a t i o n : 286 .. L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e means of s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s by means o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s l o c a t e d on b o a r d a i r c r a f t . t a k i n g t h e r u l e s m e n t i o n e d above i n t o account.s. i s t h e a n g l e of c o n v e r g e n c e of t h e m e r i d i a n s ( r e f ­ e r e n c e a n d r a d i o s t a t i o n ) w h i c h i s e q u a l t o (Xr... 6 . - + 180°.m. t h i s bearing is equal t o the azi­ muth o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e r e l a t i v e t o t h e m e r i d i a n of t h e r a d i o sta- For e x a m p l e . TBA = OC + CAR + 6 r..)sin~av.

t h e f l i g h t can be made d i r e c t l y a l o n g t h e o r t h o d r o m i c b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t w i t h a z e r o c o r r e c t i o n on t h e d e c l i n a t i o n s c a l e . a f t e r s e t t i n g i t on t h e s c a l e o f d e v i a t i o n s . Correction f o r devi­ a t i o n o f m e r i d i a n s i s o n l y v a l u a b l e when t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d t o t h e s i d e o f t h e f l i g h t r o u t e or t h e m e r i d i a n o f t h e r a d i o s t a ­ t i o n does not coincide with t h e r e f e r e n c e meridian. e . + is the true where c 1 i n i t i s t h e t r u e b e a r i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t and “ref bearing of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n .180’. Inasmuch as t h e t o t a l c o r r e c t i o n ( A > o v e r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p a t h segment w i l l change c o n s t a n t l y . I n u s i n g a c o m b i n e d i n d i c a t o r for t h e b e a r i n g . t h e radiocompass i n f l i g h t .s . t The t r u e b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e o t h e r e n d of t h e i n d i c a t o r p o i n t e r . where O B A i s t h e o r t h o d r o m i c b e a r i n g of the aircraft. If a r a d i o s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d a t t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of t h e r o u t e (SPR) with a r e f e r e n c e meridian. .l i n e segments of a p a t h b y means o f a r a d i o c o m p a s s .180°. w h i l e i n f l i g h t away f r o m a r a d i o s t a t i o n t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h e p o i n t e r m u s t show a r e a d i n g equal t o t h e i n i t i a l azimuth of t h e orthodrome. t h e t o t a l c o r ­ r e c t i o n A = A M t 6 c a n b e e n t e r e d on t h e s c a l e of d e c l i n a t i o n . The p r o b l e m i s s i m p l i f i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n a n o r t h o d r o m i c s y s ­ t e m of calculations f o r t h e aircraft course. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b e g u i d e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g r u l e s : /276 287 . i . Note.r. The c o r r e c t i o n 6r. t h e d i r e c t r e a d i n g o f t h e p o i n t e r on t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s must b e e q u a l t o t h e f i n a l a z i m u t h o f t h e o r t h o d r o m e .m. I n t h i s case TBA = O B A + 6r. c1 ref + AM t 6 + CAR .l i n e p a t h s e g m e n t s .m.r. A s i n t h e case o f u s i n g a ground r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . t h e T B A c a n b e r e a d o f f i m m e d i a t e l y on t h e i n d i c a t o r o v e r t h e e n t i r e s t r a i g h t .f i n d e r i n s e l e c t i n g t h e course t o be followed along s t r a i g h t .l i n e path segment. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s c o r r e c t i o n i n each measurement i n o r d e r t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r ­ a t i o n o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s or e n t e r i n g t h e d e c l i n a t i o n s o f t h e c o m b i n e d This poses considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n using i n d i c a t o r on t h e s c a l e . Then i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s a t i s f y t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t “ i n i t = TBA and t h a t “ r e f = T B A .c1 init = MC = MC + AM t 6 t CAR. i n f l i g h t t o w a r d a r a d i o s t a t i o n . i s c o n s t a n t f o r a l l s t r a i g h t .s.

correc tion is Example. C A R e q u a l s 345O). I n a f l i g h t along a course determined by a r a d i o d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r . a f t e r a s e c o n d p l a c i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e p a t h . which i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e of . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e a n i n t e r m e d i a t e l e a d i n t h e c o u r s e o f 12-13O (CAR If t h e CAR i s t o b e s t a b l e . an i n c r e a s e i n t h e course angle of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n corresponds t o a d r i f t of t h e aircraft t o t h e l e f t ( t h e TBA i n c r e a s e s ) . L e t us assume t h a t t h e d r i f t of t h e aircraft w i l l b e t o t h e l e f t w i t h i n l i m i t s of approx­ i m a t e l y loo. t a k i n g o n v a l u e s o f 3 4 4 . I n a f l i g h t w i t h a c o u r s e of 9 2 " . 3 4 3 . In order f o r the a i r c r a f t t o follow a constant When t h e b e a r i n g . ensure t h a t t h e orthodromic bearing of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n is equal t o t h e orthodromic p a t h a n g l e and t o c o n t i n u e t h e f l i g h t w i t h t h e selected course. t h e b e a r i n g i s i n c r e a s e d and t h e c o u r s e t o be followed must b e reduced.l o o . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e q u a l s 348-347O). e . with a d e c r e a s e i n t h e b e a r i n g . . i f t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d ( ? . 288 . it i s n e c e s s a r y t o assume an orthodromic c o u r s e o f 9 2 O . (b) I n t h e case o f a f l i g h t t o w a r d t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . t h e c o u r s e m u s t b e i n c r e a s e d when t h e b e a r i n g i n c r e a s e s a n d d e c r e a s e d i f t h e aircraft bearing decreases. t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n w i l l r e m a i n c o n s t a n t and e q u a l t o t h e d r i f t a n g l e b o t h i n v a l u e and i n s i g n . i n a f l i g h t t o w a r d a r a d i o s t a t i o n a t a c o n s t a n t course of t h e a i r c r a f t . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p l a c e t h e a i r c r a f t o n t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t a n d t o t a k e a l e a d o f 15O ( c o u r s e e q u a l s 9 7 O . t h e same m e t h o d o f h a l f used. L e t us assume t h a t t h i s l e a d t u r n s o u t t o be t o o g r e a t . I n s e l e c t i n g a c o u r s e . In t h i s case. 353O i n s u c c e s s i o n ) . t h e c o u r s e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d b y u s i n g t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s on b o a r d i f t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n remains c o n s t a n t . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make a f l i g h t t o w a r d a r a d i o s t a ­ t i o n w i t h a o r t h o d r o m i c p a t h a n g l e o f 82O. For e x a m p l e . after f l y i n g over t h e turning point i n t h e r o u t e . t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t must b e i n c r e a s e d . The c o u r s e a n g l e t h e of r a d i o s t a t i o n w i l l t h e n b e e q u a l t o 350°. a n d 342O T h e n . 3 5 2 . t h e c o u r s e must be i n c r e a s e d . w i t h a d r i f t of t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e r i g h t . t h e n t h e C A R b e g i n s t o d e c r e a s e . S e l e c t a c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d b y u s i n g t h e m e t h o d of h a l f c o r r e c t i o n .(a) I n a f l i g h t from t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . i f t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d i s s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f s t a b l e b e a r i n g s ShchDR or ShchDM. lead i n t h e course is equal i n value t o t h e d r i f t angle of t h e air­ c r a f t . if w e a c q u i r e t h e v a l u e s o f 351.

a s t a b l e f t a n g l e o f -loo. i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e on e a c h o c c a s i o n t h e b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t or t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n b y s u m m i n g t h e c o u r s e a n d c o u r s e angles of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e course is a l s o a c c o m p l i s h e d by means o f s t a b l e p a t h a n g l e s o f r a d i o s t a t i o n s . t h e d r i C A R m i n u s 180°. How-: ever. i t s h o u l d n o t b e r e d u c e d b u t i n c r e a s e d f u r t h e r . A t t h e same t i m e . regard­ /277 I less of whether t h e aircraft i s f l i g h t or a s a s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n TAR = 350° c o r r e s p o n d s t o a d r i from t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . However. I n f l i g h t away f t angle i s always e q u a l t o a s t a b l e The d r i f t a n g l e o f t h e a i r c r a f t c a n b e m e a s u r e d d i r e c t l y a f t e r f l y i n g over t h e radio s t a t i o n . s o t h a t US = C A R . i n order t o c o n t r o l t h e path of t h e aircraft i n t e r m s of direc­ t i o n .The c o u r s e t o f o l l o w e d i n a f l i g h t away f r o m a r a d i o s t a t i o n i s s e l e c t e d i n t h e same m a n n e r . For e x a m p l e . taking i n t o account t h e deviation of t h e m e r i d i a n s o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n and a i r c r a f t and t h e magnetic d e c l i n a t i o n a t t h e p o i n t where t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d . t h e s e l e c t e d s t a b l e course angle of t h e r a d i o sta­ t i o n i s always e q u a l t o t h e d r i f t angle of t h e a i r c r a f t .180'. I n using o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s . t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t when t h e CAR i n c r e a s e s . where OBA i s t h e o r t h o d r o m i c b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e OC is t h e orthodromic course of t h e aircraft. or or U S = OBA - OC. a f t e r f l y i n g o v e r t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n w i t h any c o n s t a n t c o u r s e . I t should be mentioned once again t h a t i n a f l i g h t toward a r a d i o s t a t i o n . w e can s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d e t e r m i n e t h e s i d e t o which t h e a i r c r a f t d e v i a t e s ( l e f t or r i g h t ) b y c o m p a r i n g t h e g i v e n p a t h a n g l e a n d t h e d e t e r m i n e d r a n g e of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h e s y s t e m o f 2 89 . t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n w i l l be s t a b l e . I n t h i s case. l o c a t e d on t h e l i n e o f t h e d e s i r e d from i t . i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s t h e d r i f t a n g l e i s d e t e r ­ m i n e d d u r i n g f l i g h t away f r o m a r a d i o s t a t i o n a s a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m a g n e t i c ( t r u e or o r t h o d r o m i c ) b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t a n d t h e m a g n e t i c ( t r u e or o r t h o d r o m i c ) c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t : U S = MBA - MC.

f i n d i n g t i m e must a l l b e d e s c r i b e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o r a g i v e n moment o f t i m e . t h e c o u r s e . 29 0 1 1 1 1 I 11111111111. one i s s e t t o t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f two g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s . l o c a t e d n o m o r e t h a n 1 8 0 . c o n t r o l l a n d m a r k s a r e m a r k e d o n a map a n d t h e b e a r ­ For i n g s of r a d i o s t a t i o n s a r e d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e s e l a n d m a r k s . With t h e a i d o f a r a d i o c o m p a s s l o c a t e d on b o a r d . when t w o r a d i o The e s s e n c e o f t h e m e t h o d i s t h e f o l l o w i n g : c o m p a s s e s a r e on b o a r d . t h e bearings of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n t h e same s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e c o u r s e o f For e x a m p l e . t h e s a k e of convenience i n c a l c u l a t i o n . w h i l e w i t h orthodromic a n g l e s i t i s OBR. w h i l e on t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t c o r r e c t i o n s a r e made t o t h e c o u r s e w h i c h a r e & q u a l t o t h e a v e r a g e . However. The m o n i t o r i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t p a t h i n t e r m s o f d i s t a n c e b y means o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h p r ' e v i o u s l y c a l c u ­ lated bearings of the lateral radio station. it can be e s t i m a t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h o u t any c o r r e c t i o n s from t h e scale of t h e instrument. moment when t h e sum o f t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e a n d t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n become e q u a l t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y c a l c u l a t e d b e a r ­ i n g ( i n c o m b i n e d i n d i c a t o r s . 180O. t h e readings f o r t h e course A t the a n d t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n a r e o b s e r v e d . t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e a n d t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . i n v o l v i n g c o n s i d ­ erable difficulty i n the process. I Ill I1 I .'the aircraft acquires t h e given l i n e of f l i g h t according t o t h e c a l c u l a t e d course angle of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . is insufficiently higt. t h e a c c u r a c y o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a i r c r a f t l o c a t i o n by t h i s method. o f t h e a i r c r a f t . p a t h a n g l e s i t i s MBR a n d w i t h t r u e f l i g h t a n g l e s i t i s T B R . To d o t h i s . Then t h e a p p r o x i m a t e t r u e b e a r i n g s o f t h e aircraft are determined: TBAl = MC + AM AM T B A 2 = MC + + + CAR1 CAR2 + t 180°. In approaching a c o n t r o l landmark. a n g l e of d r i f t . t h e method i s n o t w i d e l y employed i n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . If t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s e s d o n o t a g r e e .coordinates being used. There­ f o r e . I t i s d e s i r a b l e when d o i n g t h i s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e b e a r i n g s o f t h e s e r a d i o s t a t i o n s cross a t an angle close t o 90°. i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e b a s i s o f t r u e b e a r i n g s from two r a d i o s t a t i o n s . Then t h e b e a r i n g o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n w i l l c o n s i s t of o n l y two c o m p o n e n t s . t h e moment f o r f l y i n g /278 o v e r t h e landmark i s determined. f o r f l i g h t w i t h m a g n e t i c t h e a i r c r a f t i s measured. t h e b e a r i n g s o f r a d i o s t a t i o n s become e q u a l t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e ) . being used only f o r determining approximate a i r c r a f t coordinates i n f i n d i n g l o s t landmarks. on t h e o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s . and t h e d i s t a n c e .2 0 0 km f r o m t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s o f t h e two r a d i o s t a t i o n s .

3 . p a r a l l e l t o t h e f i r s t b e a r i n g up t o t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h t h e l i n e of t h e second bearing. 3. They a r e c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e o p p o s i t e e n d s of t h e p o i n t e r s o f t h e r a d i o compasses and are d e s i g n a t e d as T B S l and TBS2. Having t h u s d e t e r m i n e d t h e a p p r o x i m a t e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t . defining t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e aircraft a t t h e moment o f d i r e c t i o n f i n d i n g f o r t h e s e c o n d r a d i o s t a t i o n . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r i t s p a t h when d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t f o r t h e t i m e b e t w e e n t h e moments o f d i r e c t i o n f i n d i n g . T h e s e c o r r e c t e d b e a r i n g s a r e a g a i n p l o t t e d on t h e c h a r t t o g i v e a p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e moment o f d i r e c t i o n finding. 2 3 ) .T h e b e a r i n g s w h i c h h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d a r e p l o t t e d on t h e f l i g h t c h a r t from t h e m e r i d i a n s o f s e l e c t e d r a d i o s t a t i o n s by means of a p r o t r a c t o r and scale r u l e . t h e a n g l e s of convergence of t h e meridians o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s w i t h t h e r e f e r e n c e m e r i d i a n for c a l c u l a t i n g t h e course a r e determined beforehand. In a d d i t i o n . A l i n e i s drawn t h r o u g h t h e p o i n t which i s o b t a i n e d . t h e l a t t e r a r e p l o t t e d on a c h a r t . I n t h i s c a s e . t h e d r i f t angle of t h e a i r c r a f t is 291 . A s we have already mentioned. when u s i n g r a d i o c o m p a s s e s m o u n t e d on b o a r d a i r c r a f t . A f t e r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a v e r a g e b e a r i n g s of t h e a i r c r a f t . b u t t h e i n d i c a t o r s of t h e r a d i o compasses must /279 match. and t h i s i s done as f o l l o w s ( F i g . t h e a n g l e of d e v i a t i o n o f t h e merid­ i a n s f o r t h e f i r s t and t h e n t h e second r a d i o s t a t i o n a r e e n t e r e d on t h e s c a l e o f d e v i a t i o n s of t h e i n d i c a t o r i n s u c c e s s i o n . F i g . w e c a n f i n d i t s t r u e b e a r i n g by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e p r e c i s e v a l u e of t h e m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n a n d m a k i n g c o r r e c t i o n s t o t h e d e v i a t i o n a n g l e s of t h e meridians o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n and t h e aircraft loca­ tion. If o n l y o n e r a d i o c o m p a s s i s m o u n t e d on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . The b e a r ­ i n g s o b t a i n e d are f i n a l and no c o r r e c t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d . A t t h e t i m e of measurement.23. Diagram f o r L o c a t i n g t h e P o s i t i o n of an Aircraft from t h e B e a r i n g s o f Two R a d i o S t a ­ stions. The l a b o r i o u s n e s s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y r e l i e v e d i f t h e f l i g h t i s made w i t h o r t h o d r o m i c c o u r s e s . a n d t h e n t h e f l i g h t p a t h o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t i s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f l o c a t i o n of t h e f i r s t r a d i o s t a t i o n f o r t h e time between t h e measurements of t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n i n a d i r e c t i o n which c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e t r u e b e a r i n g s o f t h e a i r c r a f t a r e f o u n d i n t h e same way a s i n t h e c a s e o f t w o r a d i o c o m p a s s e s .

S p e c i a l F e a t u r e s o f U s i n g R a d i o c o m p a s s e s on Board A i r c r a f t a t High A l t i t u d e s and F l i g h t S p e e d s High a l t i t u d e s a n d f l i g h t s p e e d s c a u s e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s for u s i n g r a d i o c o m p a s s e s a b o a r d a i r c r a f t f o r p u r p o s e s of aircraft navigation. d u e t o t h e i n c r e a s e d s p e e d o f f l i g h t . High f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s h a v e a n e f f e c t m a i n l y on t h e a c c u r a c y o f o p e r a t i o n of r a d i o c o m p a s s e s a n d e s p e c i a l l y on t h e a c c u r a c y of 29 2 .d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e s t a b l e c o u r s e a n g l e s o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s or measured a f t e r f l y i n g o v e r a r a d i o s t a t i o n . Static e l e c t r i c i t y . creates d i f f i c u l t i e s i n using radioc o m p a s s e s on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . emitted a t pointed portions of the aircraft ( i n c l u d i n g open a n t e n n a s ) creates n o i s e and r a d i o i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e frequency r a n g e a t which radiocompasses o p e r a t e . This shortcoming can b e l a r g e l y overcome by u s i n g combinations /280 of b e a r i n g i n d i c a t o r s .' ment f r o m two r a d i o s t a t i o n s . A t high a i r s p e e d s . I n a d d i t i o n . The l a t t e r m e t h o d i s n o t a c c u r a t e . i s t h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r o s t a t i c n o i s e on t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . a c o n s i d e r a b l e e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t s u r f a c e s o c c u r s . t h e c o u r s e or f r o m t h e m o m e n t s when t h e a i r c r a f t p a s s e s over radio stations. u s u a l l y i s n o t u s e d d u e t o t h e i n a d ­ equate precision of t h e determination of t h e aircraft location. Despite the m e a s u r e s w h i c h a r e t a k e n t o p r e v e n t t h e c h a r g e s f r o m f l o w i n g by u s i n g s p e c i a l d i s c h a r g e d e v i c e s . o b t a i n e d by d i s t a n c e m e a s u r e . The g r o u n d s p e e d o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d b y c h e c k i n g t h e f l i g h t i n t e r m s o f d i s t a n c e b y means o f r a d i o s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d t o t h e s i d e o f . another shortcoming of aircraft radiocompasses w h i c h o p e r a t e o n medium a n d s h o r t w a v e s . The u s e o f radiocompasses and t h e o b s e r v a t i o n of a l l r u l e s for r e t a i n i n g a c c u r a c y o f d i s t a n c e f i n d i n g i s a l a b o r i o u s p r o c e s s . d u e t o t h e e r r o r i n t h e r e a d i n g s o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s when f l y i n g o v e r r a d i o s t a t i o n s . a n d t h e d r i f t a n g l e b y t h e same m e t h o d s a s f o r g r o u n d r a d i o distance-finders. t h i s s h o r t c o m i n g c a n b e overcome o n l y p a r t i a l l y and m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n very d i f f i c u l t f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . t h e a i r ­ s p e e d . e s p e c i a l l y i n clouds and i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n . c a l l i n g f'or o p e r a t i v e n e s s of navigational c a l c u l a t i o n s . e s p e c i a l l y when f l y i n g a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s . The method o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e wi n d b y u s i n g t h e s u c c e s s i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . s o t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n f l i g h t s p e e d . e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e orthodromic system of calcu­ lating aircraft courses. as w e l l as s h i e l d i n g t h e open a n t e n n a s o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s e s . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e w i n d a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i s accomp­ l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e g r o u n d s p e e d of t h e a i r c r a f t .

2 9. a i I I I I yb( 3-_ ' 1 q\ ! b ca.3 . Equivalent of an Open A n t e n n a o n B o a r d a n A i r ­ craft. However. b u t i n a p h a s e This leads /281 which i s o p p o s i t e t o t h e r e c e p t i o n up t o t h e p o i n t a . . The l a t t e r c h a n g e s w i t h i n w i d e l i m i t s when t h e a i r c r a f t a p p r o a c h e s t h e l o c a ­ t i o n of a r a d i o s t a t i o n . Fig. A t l a r g e d i s t a n c e s from t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . The r e c e p t i o n o f t h e a n t e n n a w i l l t h e n i n c r e a s e . a t p o s i t i o n a t h e antenna w i l l have zero r e c e p t i o n .24) and t h e a i r c r a f t i s approaching t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n a t a high f l i g h t a l t i t u d e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of v e c t o r iT. T h u s . .I d e t e r m i n i n g t h e moment when t h e a i r ­ craft f l i e s over a r a d i o s t a t i o n .24. 3. t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c wave i s v e r t i c a l l y p o l a r i z e d . I . \ / / I The d e c r e a s e i n t h e a c c u r a c y o f o p e r a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e due t o t h e change i n t h e n a t u r e of r a d i o d e v i a t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s o f d e v i a t i o n of t h e p r o p a g a t i o n v e c t o r o f r a d i o waves. A d i a g r a m of t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f e r r o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e moment w h e n t h e a i r c r a f t f l i e s over a ground r a d i o s t a t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e 3 . F i g . 3. t h e c h a n g e i n t h e r e a d i n g s o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s b y 180° t a k e s p l a c e u n t i l t h e moment w h e n t h e a i r c r a f t p a s s e s o v e r t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n ( a t point a ) and only t h e o s c i l l a t i o n of t h e needle w i l l b e o b s e r v e d from t h e n on. Fig. L e t us assume t h a t a n open a n t e n n a o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s i s t i l t e d backward ( p o s i t i o n a .-A' /"\ 1 . b r 1 \ I \ \ \ '. a f t e r p a s s i n g t h e s t a t i o n . 3. Then. O p e r a t i o n of a n Open A n t e n n a When F l y i n g P a s t a Radio S t a t i o n . 2 4 w h e r e there is a picture of the electrical f i e l d r a d i a t e d by a n open v e r t i c a l a n t e n n a on a g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n . t h e r e i s a s p a c e n e a r t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n and above it w h e r e t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n s h i f t s t o t h e h o r i z o n t a 1 .25. Obviously. t o a r o t a t i o n o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s f r a m e b y 180° u n t i l t h e a i r c r a f t passes a radio st a t i o n . t h e n back t o t h e v e r t i c a l b u t i n opposite phase. t h e phases of b o t h t h e frame a n d open a n t e n n a s c h a n g e a l m o s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ( a t t h e p o i n t all.

/282 29 4 . i f t h e a i r c r a f t i s p a s s i n g a r a d i o s t a t i o n t o t h e s i d e . t h e y w i l l d e p e n d b o t h on t h e a n g l e of p i t c h on t h e a i r c r a f t a n d on t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h t h e p a s s a g e of t h e a i r c r a f t o v e r t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n is determined. n i t s forward when t h e r a d i o M o u n t i n g o f t h e a n t e n n a i n t h e same p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c e n t e r b u t below t h e f u s e l a g e l e a d s t o a p r e l i m i n a r y r e a d i n g o f t h e moment w h e n t h e a i r c r a f t p a s s e s t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . 3 . e . constituting i t s g r o u n d i n g or c o u n t e r w e i g h t ( F i g . of t h e i n c l i n ­ case. b u t i n t h i s c a s e a n a d v a n c e or d e l a y i n t h e r e a d i n g s i s o b s e r v e d . p o i n t e r c a n make a r e v e r s e t u r n a n d a g a i n s h o w t h e p a s s a g e b y t h e radio station at point bl. i n some c a s e s . b u t t h e r e c a n a l s o b e a d o u b l e r e a d i n g involving both an advance and delayed i n d i c a t i o n . F o r a s t r i c t l y v e r t i c a l a n t e n n a ( p o s i t i o n b ) . 2 5 ) . which i s f o r w a r d i n t h i s t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e open a n t e n n a above t h e f u s e l a g e i s e c t i o n c a u s e s a d e l a y i n t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e moment s t a t i o n is passed. e r r o r s i n determini n g t h e passage of t h e t r a v e r s e of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n w i l l be prac­ t i c a l l y non-existent. ' t h e movement Then t h e o f t h e n e e d l e t h r o u g h 180° c a n t a k e p l a c e p r e m a t u r e l y . . Obviously. w h i l e t h e passage by t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n with r o t a t i o n of t h e needle through 180° w i l l b e n o t e d a t p o i n t c l . Thus. i . The b e s t p l a c e t o m o u n t t h e a n t e n n a i s a b o v e or b e l o w t h e e l e c ­ t r i c a l c e n t e r o f t h e a i r c r a f t . This system f o r t h e c r e a t i o n of e r r o r s i n measuring a f l i g h t only approximately r e f l e c t s t h e reasons f o r these e r r o r s . s t r a i g h t l i n e 1-3 is t h e equivalent a t i o n o f t h e open a n t e n n a . t h e s e d e v i a t i o n s d e p e n d on t h e h e i g h t a n d s p e e d of f l i g h t .When t h e a n t e n n a i s ' t i l t e d f o r w a r d ( p o s i t i o n c ) . t h e n o b v i o u s l y t h e r e will n o t b e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f p a s s ­ a g e w i t h movement o f t h e n e e d l e t h r o u g h 1 8 0 ° . t h e r e w i l l b e a d e l a y i n m a r k i n g t h e passage. p o i n t 1 i s t h e t o p of t h e open a n t e n n a . I n t h i s f i g u r e . p o i n t 2 i s t h e r e c e i v e r and p o i n t 3 i s t h e e l e c t r i c a l c e n t e r of t h e a i r ­ craft. t h e o s c i l ­ l a t i o n s of t h e radiocompass n e e d l e w i l l b e g i n a t p o i n t c . I t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d t h a t an e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e open a n t e n n a o f t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s i n terms of i t s i n c l i n a t i o n i n t h e v e r t i c a l p l a n e i s t h e r e s u l t a n t c o m b i n i n g t h e u p p e r or l o w e r p o i n t s o f t h e antenna with t h e e l e c t r i c a l center of t h e aircraft. For e x a m p l e . e . . i . b u t a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e passage over t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . In prac­ t i c e . The oppo­ s i t e p i c t u r e i s o b s e r v e d when t h e a n t e n n a i s mo u n t ed b e h i n d t h e e l e c t r i c a l c e n t e r of t h e a i r c r a f t .

In addition. u s i n g radiocom­ passes. t h e work i s s h i f t e d when m a n e u v e r i n g t h e a i r ­ craft mainly t o measuring course angles of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s a t i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s a l o n g t h e maneuver. D e p e n d i n g on t h e t y p e o f a i r c r a f t a n d t h e f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . e x c l u d i n g t h e case o f e x a c t d e t e r m i n a t i o n . i f t h e r e i s a tendency t o d r i f t i n t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e .Usually. w h i c h d o e s n o t make i t p o s s i b l e t o c o n ­ s i d e r t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e d e l a y a d v a n c e i n m a r k i n g t h e p a s s a g e .4 0 0 0 m) w i t h a g r a d u a l r e d u c ­ t i o n of t h e a i r s p e e d . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f u s i n g r a d i o c o m p a s s e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f a i r p o r t s w h e r e l a n d i n g s a r e t o made i s i n c r e a s e d a l s o b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f l i g h t i s made a t s h o r t d i s t a n c e s f r o m g r o u n d r a d i o s t a ­ t i o n s . the e f f e c t s related t o height and f l i g h t speed i n t h i s c a s e are c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced. and consequently of t h e course of t h e aircraft a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of t h e m a n e u v e r . e . i n p r a c t i c e t h e r e i s always a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e effect of passage w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f e r r o r . a t v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v i a t i o n s of t h e a i r c r a f t f r o m t h e g i v e n l i n e of f l i g h t . t h e s y s t e m f o r u s i n g r a d i o c o m p a s s e s i s b a s e d on two or t h r e e s t a n d a r d s w h i c h a r e u s e d a t a l l a i r p o r t s . O f course. U n l i k e a f l i g h t a l o n g t h e r o u t e . beyond t h e l i m i t s of a zone w i t h h o r i z o n t a l p o l a r ­ i z a t i o n . which g i v e s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l l i n e a r e r r o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t i n view o f t h e e r r o r s a l r e a d y committed i n measuring t h e course angles of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n . Therefore. . The a c c u r a c y o f a i r ­ c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e aerodrome. Therefore. t h e exact passage of an aircraft over a r a d i o sta­ t i o n occurs only i n s p e c i a l and e x c e p t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . e x a c t d e t e r ­ m i n a t i o n c a n o c c u r a t d i s t a n c e s which e x c e e d t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e of t h e a ' i r c r a f t . However. This i s p r o f i t a b l e i n t h i s respect: r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e l a n d i n g s t r i p . D e t a i Z s o f U s i n g R a d i o c o m p a s s e s i n Making Maneuvers i n t h e V i c i n i t y o f t h e A i r p o r t a t Which a L a n d i n g is t o b e Made The m a n e u v e r o f a p p r o a c h i n g f o r a l a n d i n g u s u a l l y b e g i n s a t a r e l a t i v e l y l o w f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ( 1 2 0 0 . these e r r o r s can occur w i t h i n l i m i t s e q u a l t o 1-3 f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s . it i s no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y t o c a l c u l a t e t h e magnetic d e c l i n a t i o n a n d t h e d e v i a t i o n a n g l e s of t h e m e r i d i a n s . t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o r r e c t i o n s m u s t b e made i n t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n wh i ch a r e e q u a l i n magni­ t u d e and s i g n t o t h e l e a d which h a s b e e n t a k e n . i . i s considered t o be q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y i n a l l s t a g e s of t h e maneuver w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s : (a> D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e maneuver by /283 29 5 . where t h e main o p e r a t i o n i n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n i n v o l v i n g t h e u s e o f r a d i o c o m p a s s e s i s meas­ u r i n g o f b e a r i n g s .

(b) On a l a n d i n g s t r i p .f i n d e r s with r e s p e c t t o u n i n t e r ­ r u p t e d v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t r e g a r d i n g i t s p o s i ­ tion. U 1 t r a . 296 .s h o r t w a v e s .R a n g e F i n d i n g Systems A s w e have mentioned. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e e r r o r s c a u s e d by t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l o c a l r e l i e f . if t h e maneuver i s b e g i n n i n g a t a high a l t i t u d e . (d) The e f f e c t o f s t a t i c n o i s e i n t h e r a n g e o f r e c e i v e d r a d i o frequencies a t high airspeeds .r a n g e n a v i g a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e shortcomings. T h i s means t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n v e r y w i d e l y e m p l o y e d a n d a r e i n s t a l l e d i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t y p e s o f a i r c r a f t as a r u l e i n a d o u b l e set. I n a d d i t i o n . (b) An i n c r e a s e i n t h e e r r o r s i n d i s t a n c e f i n d i n g d u e t o i n a c ­ c u r a t e measurements of t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . w h i c h r e d u c e t h e a c c u r ­ acy and f e a s i b i l i t y of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n . w h e r e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e v e r y h i g h a c c u r a c y of f l i g h t a l o n g a g i v e n t r a j e c t o r y f o r b r i n g i n g t h e aircraft i n f o r a landing. radiocompasses are s u b j e c t t h e need t o p l o t t o a g e n e r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e of g o n i o m e t r i c s y s t e m s : b e a r i n g s on t h e c h a r t f r o m t w o g r o u n d p o i n t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o c a ­ t i o n of t h e aircraft. ( e ) T h e e f f e c t o f f l i g h t a l t i t u d e o n t h e a c c u r a c y o f meas­ u r i n g t h e r a n g e a n d d e t e r m i n i n g t h e moment o f f l y i n g o v e r t h e r a d i o stations.F i t f l y i n g p a s t t h e power r a d i o s t a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e i t seems n a t u r a l t o t r y t o b u i l d d e v i c e s f o r s h o r t r a n g e r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n which would have t h e advantages of t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s e s m o u n t e d on a i r c r a f t b u t w o u l d n o t h a v e t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s from which t h e y s u f f e r . which a f f e c t a l l systems f o r s h o r t . (c) The n e c e s s i t y t o c o n s i d e r t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e m e r i d i a n s a n d m a g n e t i c d e c l i n a t i o n s when u s i n g m a g n e t i c c o m p a s s e s t o d e t e r ­ mine b e a r i n g s . t h e r e a r e a number o f i m p o r t a n t s h o r t c o m i n g s f o r r a d i o c o m p a s s e s m o u n t e d on b o a r d a i r c r a f t . r a d i o compasses have t h e f o l l o w i n g shortcomings: (a) Unfavorable c o n d i t i o n s f o r d i r e c t i o n a l r e c e p t i o n of elec­ t r o m a g n e t i c waves on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t ( r a d i o d e v i a t i o n o f a n u n s t a b l e nature) . Such d e v i c e s a r e t h e g o n i o m e t r i c a n d g o n i o m e t r i c .S h o r t w a v e Gon i ome t r i c a n d Gon i ome t r i c .r a n g e f i n d ­ i n g s y s t e m s w h i c h o p e r a t e on u l t r a . radiocompasses have s i g n i f i c a n t advan­ t a g e s o v e r ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e .

which o p e r a t e on u l t r a .s h o r t w a v e s . magnetic d e c l i n a t i o n . and d e v i a t i o n of meridians. 3. The g e n e r a t o r of low f r e q u e n c i e s p r o d u c e s a f r e q u e n c y which i s s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t i o n a l antenna. from s t a t i c There are s e v e r a l t y p e s of goniometric d i r e c t i o n a l r a d i o bea­ cons and r e c e i v i n g d e v i c e s t o c a r r y aboard a i r c r a f t . F i g u r e 3 . 2 6 shows t h e s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of a r a d i o b e a c o n w i t h a r o t a t i n g d i r e c t i o n a l antenna. 29 7 . g . t h r o u g h t h e n o r t h e r n d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c or t r u e m e r i d ­ i a n of t h e b e a c o n . together with t h e r e c e p t i o n on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . . g i v e s t h r e e v e r y i m p o r t a n t a d v a n t a g e s f o r navigational systems: (1) I t f r e e s t h e s y s t e m f r o m r a d i o d e v i a t i o n s on b o a r d .A common f e a t u r e o f t h e s e s y s t e m s i s t h e d i r e c t i o n a l r a d i a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves by g r o u n d i n s t r u m e n t s and t h e i r d i r e c t i o n a l This f e a t u r e .26. The u s u a l p r i n c i p l e o f o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e s e s y s t e m s i s t h e r o t a ­ t i o n of the d i r e c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e r a d i a t i o n of t h e trans­ m i t t i n g a n t e n n a of a g r o u n d i n s t a l l a t i o n w i t h i t s r e c e p t i o n a b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t by a n open ( o m n i d i r e c t i o n a l ) a n t e n n a f o r a t r a n s m i t t e r of r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l s . (3) I t sharply i n c r e a s e s t h e freedom of t h e system and atmospheric i n t e r f e r e n c e . r e l a t e d t o t h e p a s s a g e of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e a n t e n n a t h r o u g h t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r m e a s u r i n g b e a r i n g s . /284 (2) The b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t becomes i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e aircraft course. trans mitter 1 ­ modu­ call -Eiato+ signal Fig. e . S c h e m a t i c Diagram o f a R a d i o Beacon With R o t a t i n g D i r e c t i o n a l A n t e n n a . On t h e a x i s o f r o t a t i o n o f t h e a n t e n n a i s a s p e c i a l d i s k . The r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e m o d u l a t o r and t r a n s m i t t e r t o r e a c h t h e open a n t e n n a of t h e r a d i o b e a c o n . r a n g e o f waves employed. which g e n e r a t e s t h e r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l r e l a t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e r o t a t i n g antenna.

e . 3. t h e s i g n a l r e a c h e s t h e r o t a t i n g a n t e n n a t h r o u g h a m o d u l a t i o n s u p p r e s s o r . /285 (2) The s i g n a l f r o m t h e d i r e c t i o n a l a n t e n n a . eevo 1 g e ta channel azimuthal I azimuthal-’ I voltage E I channel I phase di sc r i m anator I Fig. whose a m p l i t u d e maximum c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e moment when t h i s a n t e n n a c r o s s e s t h e l i n e t o the aircraft. 3. t h e s i g n a l from a d i r e c t i o n a l a n t e n n a is modulated by a l o w fre­ q u e n c y w h o s e p h a s e r e l a t i v e t o t h e r e l a t i v e s i g n a l i’s s h i f t e d t h r o u g h a n a n g l e e q u a l t o t h e a z i m u t h of t h e a i r c r a f t . i . Apparatus f o r Goniometric System Aboard a n A i r c r a f t . (3) I receiver ’ earphone channel r f r.From t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . The r e c e i v e r o n t h e a i r c r a f t h a s t h r e e c h a n n e l s ( F i g .27.27): (1) (earphones (2) C h a n n e l f o r p i c k i n g up t h e c a l l l e t t e r s f r o m t h e b e a c o n . direction. t h e p h a s e o f t h e r e f e r ­ e n c e s i g n a l i s changed by a n a u t o m a t i c p h a s e s h i f t e r s o t h a t i t 298 . Azimuthal v o l t a g e channel. T h u s . two s i g n a l s r e a c h t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n addition t o the call-letter signals: (1) Reference s i g n a l f o r beginning t h e reading. . s o t h a t t h e a m p l i t u d e of t h e s i g n a l r a d i a t e d b y t h e a n t e n n a i n a n y g i v e n d i r e c t i o n d e p e n d s o n l y on t h e position of the antenna r e l a t i v e t o this. The i n d i c a t o r m e c h a n i s m i s u s u a l l y b a s e d o n m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e p h a s e r a t i o o f t h e r e f e r e n c e a n d a z i m u t h a l s i g n a l s w i t h low f r e q u e n c y by t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n m e t h o d . Reference-channel. Consequently.

s e l e c t i o n of t h e course t o be followed. a n d t h e e q u i p m e n t on b o a r d must i n c l u d e a g e n e r a t o r o f a r e f e r e n c e f r e q u e n c y as w e l l as s p e c i a l d e l a y d e v i c e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n t i m e b e t w e e n t h e m o m e n t s when t h e r e f e r e n c e a n d azimu'thal s i g n a l s are r e c e i v e d . when t h e r o t a t i n g d i r e c ­ t i o n a l antenna passes through zero reading. t h e p l o t t i n g o f t h e b e a r i n g s i s d o n e b y t h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e com­ mand d i s t a n c e f i n d i n g s t a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s .c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e p h a s e of t h e a z i m u t h a l s i g n a l . w h i l e i n f l i g h t t o w a r d a r a d i o b e a c o n i t i s t h e r u l e s f o r b e a r i n g ShchDM w h i c h a r e f o l l o w e d . I n t h i s case. o p e r a t i n g o n u l t r a s o n i c w a v e s . g o n i o m e t r i c U S W b e a c o n s h a v e a much w i d e r r a n g e of a p p l i c a t i o n than ground r a d i o .r a n g e n a v i g a t i o n . monitoring of t h e path f o r d i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n . . c a n b e b u i l t on t h e p r i n c i p l e of t i m e r a t i o s r a t h e r than phase r a t i o s . has a pulsed character. t h e r u l e s for f l i g h t a l o n g t h e ShchDR b e a r i n g a r e o b s e r v e d .f i n d e r .f i n d e r s and a i r c r a f t radio­ 29 9 . /286 The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n u s i n g U S W b e a c o n s a n d g r o u n d r a d i o distance-finders i s only t h a t i n order t o determine t h e location o f t h e a i r c r a f t from two b e a r i n g s u s i n g a r a d i o d i r e c t i o n . The g e o m e t r y o f n a v i g a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f U S W b e a c o n s w i t h d i r e c t i o n a l r a d i a t i o n i s e x a c t l y t h e same a s t h e u s e o f g r o u n d r a d i o All t h e problems of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n such as distancefinders. e t c . s o t h a t t h e s i g n a l on t h e p h a s e d i s c r i m i n a t o r t h e r e f o r e on t h e z e r o i n d i c a t o r d e v i c e ) w i l l b e e q u a l t o z e r o i n t h e case when t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d e x a c t l y a l o n g t h e of the desired bearing. to a (and only line For f l i g h t a l o n g a g i v e n b e a r i n g . w h i l e i n t h e c a s e o f U S W b e a c o n s i t i s d o n e b y t h e crew o f t h e a i r c r a f t .d i s t a n c e . a r e s o l v e d In i n e x a c t l y t h e same way a s f o r g r o u n d r a d i o d i s t a n c e .i n d i c a t o r i n s t r u m e n t . t h e s i g n a l on t h e p h a s e d i s c r i m i n a t o r w i l l b e e q u a l t o z e r o w h i l e t h e b e a r i n g i n d i c a t o r on t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l a c t as t h e p o i n t e r o f t h e phase s h i f t e r . t h e method o f s e l e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e i n f l i g h t from t h e b e a c o n and t o w a r d t h e b e a c o n w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s w i t c h i n t h e mode o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r e c e i v e r l e a d s us t o o n l y one t y p e : t h e p o i n t e r of t h e z e r o i n d i c a t o r shows t h e d i r e c t i o n of d e v i a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t from t h e LGF. I f t h e f l i g h t i s made u s i n g a z e r o . I n t h i s c a s e . measurement o f t h e d r i f t a n g l e and g r o u n d s p e e d . i n t h e c a s e when t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e r o t a t i n g d i r e c t i o n a l a n t e n n a h a s a s h a r p l y p r o n o u n c e d maximum ( w h i c h u s u a l l y i s a c h i e v e d b y u s i n g r e f l e x r e f l e c t o r s ) . t h e r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l . measurement o f t h e wind a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . The g o n i o m e t r i c s y s t e m f o r s h o r t . f l i g h t away f r o m a r a d i o b e a c o n . determination of t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a i r ­ c r a f t f r o m two b e a c o n s . t h e p h a s e s h i f t e r i s s e t g i v e n p o s i t i o n .f i n d e r s .

3. t h e UW b e a c o n s h a v e l e s s f a v o r a b l e o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a n g r o u n d S r a d i o distance-measuring s t a t i o n s . i t i s v e r y a d v a n t a g e o u s t o combine t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a g o n i o m e t r i c UW s y s t e m S with range f i n d e r s .28. i f t h e r e a r e some o b s t a c l e s a l o n g t h e p a t h o f t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e r a d i o waves ( e . it i s p o s s i b l e t o consider t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e l o c a l r e l i e f on t h e r a d i u s of a p p l i ­ c a t i o n .f i n d e r s .c o m p a s s e s . t h a n k s t o t h e c o n s t a n t i n d i c a t i o n o f b e a r i n g s on b o a r d the aircraft. . Fig. 3. System.f i n d e r s . i n using r a d i o d i s t a n c e . However. t h e y w i l l a p p e a r i n s u r m o u n t a b l e f o r USW.f i n d e r s . T h e o p e r a t i n g r a n g e o f a UW s y s t e m S i s l i m i t e d by t h e l i m i t s o f d i r e c t g e o m e t r i c v i s i b i l i t y f r o m t h e g r o u n d b e a c o n t o t h e air­ c r a f t w i t h an i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e c a u s e d by r a d i o r e f r a c t i o n . /287 - type The a i i a c r a f t t r a n s m i t t e r s e n d s o u t i m p u l s e s o f u l t r a s h o r t waves w h i c h r e a c h t h e r e c e i v e r a b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t a t t h e same t i m e a s a reference signal. I t i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a p p r o x i m a t e f o r m u l a s s = 122 JK. w h i c h c a n n o t b e done f o r UW b e a c o n s . . Diagram o f Long-Range Navigational 300 . R a n g e f i n d i n g UW n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s t e m s a r e u s u a l l y o f i m p u l s e S (Fig. m o u n t a i n p e a k s ) .28). H o w e v e r . The i n s t r u m e n t a l a c c u r a c y o f g o n i o m e t r i c UW n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s ­ S t e m s i s higher than for ground r a d i o d i s t a n c e . From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f n a v i g a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . The p r a c ­ t i c a l a c c u r a c y u n d e r a v e r a g e c o n d i t i o n s o f a p p l i c a t i o n i s a l s o somewhat h i g h e r or e q u a l t o t h e a c c u r a c y o f d i s t a n c e . S In this respect. g .

Ai). L e t u s assume t h a t w e have a s t r a i g h t .Ri s i n ( 9 . While t h e s i g n a l i s t r a v e l i n g . The r a n g e i n d i c a t o r a b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t h a s a g e n e r a t o r o f s t a n d a r d f r e q u e n c i e s . t h e s h o r t e s t d i s t a n c e from t h e beacon a l o n g t h e l i n e of f l i g h t (Rs) ( d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e spher­ i c i t y o f t h e E a r t h ) .l i n e point A t o point B (Fig. and a d e l a y l i n e f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e p u l s e t o measure t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s i g n a l t o p a s s from t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e ground beacon and back t o t h e a i r ­ craft. When t h e g r o u n d b e a c o n i s l o c a t e d t o t h e s i d e o f t h e p a t h t o b e c o v e r e d by t h e a i r c r a f t . m e a s u r e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e meridian f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e bearings (magnetic or t r u e m e r i d i a n o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e g r o u n d b e a c o n ) . t h e problem o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s i s s o l v e d a n a l y t i c a l l y . a f r e q u e n c y . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f a z i m u t h a n d d i s t a n c e r e a d i n g s m a k e s i t v e r y easy t o s o l v e t h e problems of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n .29). c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a or f o r a n y p o i n t l y i n g o n t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t Rs I n o t h e r words. e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e b e a c o n i s m o u n t e d a t t h e s t a r t i n g or e n d p o i n t o f a s t r a i g h t l i n e f l i g h t segment.The g r o u n d r e c e i v e r r e c e i v e s p u l s e s o f wave e n e r g y e m i t t e d by t h e a i r c r a f t . p a t h segment from /288 I f we a r e g i v e n t h e p a t h a n g l e o f t h e s e g m e n t ( $ 1 . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e . . t h e g i v e n l i n e of f l i g h t i s t h e g e o m e t r i c l o c u s 30 1 . a n d w e know t h e a z i m u t h o f t h e e n d p o i n t o f t h e s e g m e n t ( A f i n ) a s w e l l as t h e d i f f e r e n c e from i t t o t h e beacon ( R f i n ) .d i v i d e r c i r c u i t . t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e d e l a y i n t h e reference p u i s e p r i o r t o i t s combination with t h e received s i g n a l determines t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e ground beacon. t h e crew o f t h e a i r c r a f t has a constant supply of d i r e c t data regarding t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t i n t e r m s o f d i r e c t i o n and distance. which i s u s u a l l y used as a v i s u a l i n d i c a t o r o f t h e a z i m u t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t ( t h e d i r e c t r e a d i n g i n s t r u m e n t f o r d i s t a n c e and azimuth. 3. a m p l i f i e s them a n d s e n d s them o u t a g a i n t h r o u g h a t r a n s m i t t e r i n t o t h e e t h e r . D R I D A ) . or v e r y s i m p l e c a l c u l a t i n g d e v i c e s are used t o convert t h e p o l a r system of c o o r d i n a t e s f o r t h e posi­ t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t i n t o t h e o r t h o d r o m i c s y s t e m . One t y p e o f s u c h d e v i c e i s t h e c o m p u t e r w h i c h i s i n s t a l l e d f o r z e r o i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e l i n e of t h e p a t h t o b e t r a v e l e d d u r i n g f l i g h t i n a g i v e n d i r e c t i o n . t o b e r e c e i v e d by t h e a i r c r a f t .

29. t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e beacon t o t h e end p o i n t of t h e segment ( R f i n ) a n d t h e a z i m u t h o f t h e e n d p o i n t ( A f i n ) . i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r a f l i g h t f r o m a r a d i o b e a c o n or a l o n g t h e ShchDR b e a r i n g s . a n d v i c e v e r s a . on t h e Thus. a n d t h e p o i n t e r o f t h e With a d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e z e r o i n d i c a t o r a l s o moves t o t h e l e f t . t o s e l e c t t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d by t h e a i r c r a f t f o r a f l i g h t a l o n g a g i v e n l i n e o f f l i g h t . t h e a r r o w o f t h e z e r o i n d i c a t o r w i l l move t o t h e right. If i t t u r n s o u t i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e f l i g h t t h a t Rs i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e g i v e n v a l u e . L G F t o t h e r i g h t . When a f l i g h t i s made i n a d i r e c t i o n w h i c h i s o p p o s i t e t o t h a t shown i n F i g u r e 3 . F i g . t h e n i n t h e example shown i n F i g u r e 3. s o t h a t when t h e a i r c r a f t m o v e s t o t h e l e f t o f t h e l i n e of f l i g h t t h e p o i n t e r of t h e z e r o i n d i c a t o r w i l l a l s o move t o t h e l e f t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a b s o l u t e d i s t a n c e Rs i n t h i s c a s e d e c r e a s e s .ind t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r Rs which c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t e x a c t l y on t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t .e. The c a l c u l a t i n g d e v i c e f o r z e r o i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e g i v e n l i n e o f f l i g h t i s v e r y s i m p l e a n d makes i t p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e o n l y o n e p r o b l e m . :. w i l l h a v e a n e g a t i v e s i g n . w o r k i n g on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i n d i c a t i o n s from t h e D R I D A : 302 .29 t h e a i r c r a f t d e v i a t e s f r o m t h e LGF t o t h e l e f t . t h e v a l u e s i n ( $ A i ) a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y R s . /28' I t i s b e t t e r t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m or t o u s e c o m p u t o r s t o s o l v e it using t h e computation of numerical v a l u e s of orthodromic coord­ i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . Diagram Showing O p e r a t i o n o f Computer f o r Zero Indication of Path Line. having s e t t h e p a t h angle of t h e segment ($1 c a l c u l a t o r . 4 0 . . w e can f.( $-Afin).sin($-Ai) 2 = const = Rfin sin. 3.o f p o i n t s f o r which R. u s i n g t h e method of h a l f c o r r e c t i o n .

necessary t o t r a v e l along t h i s l i n e t h a t t h e correction i n t h e course when t h e c o o r d i n a t e Z b e c o m e s z e r o h a v e c a l c u l a t e d a t 6 0 km) t h e c o u r s e I f t h e j u n c t u r e w i t h t h i s c o u r s e t a k e s p l a c e e a r l i e r or l a t e r . F o r e x a m p l e . T h e c o o r d i n a t e Z v a r i e s f r o m z e r o t o + 4 km.I n t h i s case. t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l r e a c h t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t i n 80 k m . t h e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y once a g a i n t o determine t h e a n g l e of s h i f t o f t h e a i r c r a f t (A$) a n d t o move t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e r i g h t b y t h i s angle. I n a d d i t i o n . of'fl must (and w i l l W w i l l e ight fo be -E0. c a n b e s o l v e d a n a l y t i c a l l y by means o f a n a v i g a t i o n a l slide rule. t h e p r o b l e m s i n f i n d i n g t h e a n g l e of s h i f t of t h e a i r c r a f t and checking t h e p a t h f o r d i s t a n c e and /290 d i r e c t i o n . The d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d b e t w e e n meas u remen t p o i n t s i s e q u a l t o 6 0 km. if this have t o assume t h a t i t i s r a n o t h e r 6 0 km s o b u t a t t h e moment t a k e s p l a c e a s we i n c r e a s e d by 4 O . 80 I n t h e orthodromic system. S o l u t i on A+ = arctg -= 4". t w o p o i n t s b a s e d on t h e b e a r i n g s a n d d i s t a n c e s f r o m a ground beacon are p l o t t e d every 15-20 min. t h e s e same p r o b l e m s c a n b e s o l v e d by p l o t ­ t i n g on t h e c h a r t t h e i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e a z i m u t h a n d d i s t a n c e o f t h e a i r c r a f t as o b t a i n e d from t h e b e a c o n . 60 &.I AZ XC& Example. t h e problem of checking t h e path for d i s t a n c e a n d d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g r o u n d s p e e d i s s o l v e d s i m p l y For l a c k o f a c a l c u l a t o r . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e 30 3 . i f we h a v e a n i n i t i a l s h i f t f r o m t h e d e s i r e d p a t h o f 4 k m . t h e angle of s h i f t of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o t h e l i n e of f l i g h t i s d e t e r m i n e d v e r y s i m p l y as t h e r a t i o o f t h e change i n t h e c o o r d i n a t e Z t o t h e d i s t a n c e covered between t h e p o i n t s of two m e a s u r e m e n t s (Xcov): tg A+ -. Find t h e required correction i n t h e course f o r traveling p a r a l l e l t o t h e l i n e of f l i g h t . so that 4 A+ = arctg -= 3". On a f l i g h t c h a r t w h i c h h a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e g i v e n l i n e o f f l i g h t .

The r e f l e c t i o n of r a d i o waves i n v o l v e s a p h a s e s h i f t i n t h e w a v e w h i c h d e p e n d s o n t h e o p t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e r e f l e c t i n g med­ ium. I n a d d i t i o n . L e t u s d r a w l i n e A A 7 i n s u c h a way t h a t t r i a n g l e A B A 2 i s a n isosceles triangle. Obviously.30).p o s i t i o n s of t h e s e p o i n t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t . 3. w e can It is then easy determine t h e i r orthodromic c o o r d i n a t e s X and Z .30. and a l s o t h e d r i f t angle and t h e r e q u i r e d angle f o r t u r n i n g t h e a i r c r a f t .f i n d i n g s y s t e m i s mounted a i a c e r t a i n a l t i t u d e above t h e s u r f a c e of t h e ground ( p o i n t A i n Fig. t h e g r o u n d s p e e d as w e l l as t h e w i n d param­ eters a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . s i n c e t h e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p a t h o f t h e c o h e r e n t waves i n t h e case o f s h o r t w a v e l e n g t h s g i v e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e s h i f t i n t h e i r phase. D e t a i l s of U s i n g G o n i o m e t r i c . l i n e A1A2 w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e path d i f f e r e n c e of the rays i n t h e s t r a i g h t and r e f l e c t e d waves. t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a n g l e o f s h i f t of t h e a i r ­ craft (A$). (a) Along t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e AB 3 (b) Along t h e b r o k e n l i n e ACB w i t h r e f l e c t i o n a t p o i n t C o f f the Earth's surface. 30 4 /291 . The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c wave a t t h e r e c e i v e r p o i n t B w i l l be prop­ a g a t e d a l o n g two p a t h s : Fig.R a n g e F i n d i n g S y s t e m s a t D i f f e r ­ ent Flight AZtitudes A s p e c i a l f e a t u r e o f u l t r a s h o r t waves i s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o b e r e f l e c t e d from t h e i n t e r f a c e s of media with d i f f e r e n t o p t i c a l densi­ t i e s . D i a g r a m Forma­ t i o n o f L o b e s o f Maximum Radiation. With a s m a l l d i f f e r e n e i n o p t i c a l d e n s i t i e s o f t h e m e d i a . Let us say t h a t the antenna o f a g r o u n d t r a n s m i t t e r o f a gon­ i o m e t r i c or r a n g e . a t s h o r t w a v e l e n g t h s . 3. s i n c e t h e a n g l e of i n c i d e n c e o f t h e wave i s e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e of r e f l e c t i o n . a n d e s p e c i a l l y f r o m c o n d u c t i n g m e d i a i n a more s h a r p l y p r o ­ n o u n c e d f o r m t h a n i s t h e c a s e for w a v e s o f s h o r t e r f r e q u e n c i e s . t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e which a r i s e s w i t h c o m b i n a t i o n o f o s c i l l a t i o n s shows up more r a r e l y t h a n i n t h e case o f l o n g waves. A p u r e l y m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n c h a n g e s t h e p h a s e o f a wave by 180O. I t i s clear i n t h e diagram t h a t s t r a i g h t l i n e A1B i s equal t o t h e b r o k e n l i n e A C B .

s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s u s i n g UW g o n i o m e t r i c . t h e p h a s e s h i f t c a n t a k e p l a c e differently. if t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e l o b e o f t h e maximum o f d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . A change i n t h e phase of t h e wave w i t h r e f l e c t i o n f r o m t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e causes corresponding changes i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e maxima a n d minima o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of directionality. . introduce considerable corrections i n t h e possible range of recep­ t i o n of u l t r a s h o r t waves.3. 3. as w e l l as t h e a l t i t u d e a t which t h ? a n t e n n a i s mounted above t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . a t c e r t a i n h e i g h t s a n d d i s t a n c e s . t h e r e w i l l b e an i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n f o r t h e propaga­ t i o n o f r a d i o w a v e s i n t h e v e r t i c a l p l a n e w i t h maxima a n d m i n i m a of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of t h e r a d i a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (Fig. 2 .5. Rangefinding instruments can b e used t o measure n o t only t h e horizontal but a l s o t h e sloping distance from t h e aircraft t o i t s r a d i o beacon (Fig. when t h e a i r c r a f t p a s s e s t h r o u g h r e g i o n s o f r a d i o s h a d o w or i n t e r f e r e n c e minima. t h e r e c a n b e r ' d i p s r ' i n a u d i b l i t y . e x p r e s s e d b y t h e a p p r o x i m a t e f o r m u l a S = 122&.31. t h e p h a s e o f a wave remains fixed. Thus.(2n- 1).r a n g e S f i n d i n g d e v i c e s a t h i g h f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s art: r e l a t e d t o t h e i r r a n g e finding sections. i s maximum a t a s u f f i c i e n t p o w e r o f t h e t r a n s ­ m i t t e r a n d s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e r e c e i v e r . Multilobe Radia t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Waves.31). Fig.32).2n 2 ' . T h e o p e r a t i n g r a n g e of a s y s t e m . a n d a minimum i f K i s a n odd m u l t i p l e o f t h e h a l f . I n a d d i t i o n . The i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n o f shading i n t h e d i r e c t i o n s of radi­ of r a d i o waves b y o b j e c t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . 3. 3. 4 . but the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n w i l l b e s i m i l a r t o t h a t shown i n t h e diagram. However. . Then t h e r e s u l t a n t o f t h e d i r e c t and r e f l e c t e d s i g n a l s a t t h e r e c e i v i n g p o i n t B w i l l h a v e a maximum w h e n t h e p a t h d i f f e r ­ e n c e of t h e beams h a s a v a l u e w h i c h i s a n e v e n w h o l e m u l t i p l e o f t h e h a l f wave: A AS=2%-~ = 0 .w a v e : x= 1. . L e t u s s a y t h a t u p o n r e f l e c t i o n . .when t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e r e f l e c t e d w a v e t a k e s p l a c e a l o n g a c u r v e w i t h a d i p i n t h e r e f l e c t i n g medium. Therefore. /292 sh= cos e SH or 30 5 .

Risin($-Ai) = const calculating device. a n d t h e i r d i r e c t i o n d e p e n d s on t h e . t h e use of goniometric-range finding instruments f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l measurements u s u a l l y l i m i t s t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e b e a c o n t o 3-4 f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s . . The t o t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e t h r e e a n t e n n a s g i v e s t h e m u l t i l o b e p i c t u r e of r a d i a t i o n as s e e n i n Figure 3. t h e r a d i u s o f t h e i n o p e r a t i v e zone t h u s d e f i n e d must b e e q u a l t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 km. . Sloping and Horizontal Distance t o Radio Beacon.34. 3. when t h e e r r o r s i n m e a s u r i q g t h e d i s t a n c e c h a n g e s o r a p i d l y t h a t i t becomes impossible t o e n t e r corrections without using s p e c i a l calculating devices. a t a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e o f 1 2 km.32. 3 3 ) . 306 . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l t i t u d e e r r o r s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t due t o t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e a i r c r a f t p a s s e s o v e r t h e b e a c o n .I n t h e s p e c i a l case when t h e a i r c r a f t i s p a s s i n g a b o v e t h e r a d i o beacon L e t us suppose t h a t an a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g a l o n g a g i v e n r o u t e w i t h Rs = 1 0 km. r a t i o of t h e p h a s e s i n t h e o u t e r and i n n e r antennas of t h e r a d i o beacon. e . The h e i g h t e r r o r s i n goniometric-rangefinding devices h a v e some i m p o r t a n t s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t h e i r use i n the shortrange applications and e s p e c i a l l y i n maneuverings i n t h e v i c i n i t y of an a i r p o r t . The t w o o u t e r m o s t a n t e n n a s a r e s e t t o some w a v e l e n g t h a n d t h e power f o r them i s i n o p p o s i t e p h a s e . i . Therefore. Fan-Shaped G o n i o m e t r i c R a d i o Beacons The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a i r c r a f t r a d i o compasses a r e i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by u s i n g f a n . e . For e x a m p l e . W i t h $-A = 9 0 ° . d i s t a n c e R m u s t b e e q u a l t o 1 0 km. The number o f l o b e s d e p e n d s on t h e r a t i o of t h e /293 l e n g t h of t h e b a s e l i n e between t h e end antennas t o t h e wavelength. 3 .s h a p e d g o n i o m e t r i c b e a c o n s ( F i g . i t d e f i n e s a n e f f e c t i v e zone around t h e beacon with t h i s r a d i u s . a t a n a l t i t u d e which i s a l s o e q u a l t o 1 0 km w i t h t h e u s e o f a t y p e Fig. i . The p i c t u r e shows t h e s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f a r a d i o b e a c o n . t h e a i r c r a f t m u s t d e v i a t e from t h e given course and pass over t h e r a d i o beacon.

s e v e r a l f a d i n g d o t s w i l l b e h e a r d . t h e l o b e s w i l l begin t o r o t a t e .341. . g . . 3. a n d e a c h d o t t e d l o b e w i l l change p l a c e with t h e s o l i d lobe t o t h e r i g h t of i t . 3. If t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e of d o t s w i l l be e q u a l i n l e n g t h t o t h e which i s c l o s e t o t h e r i g h t .34. l i m i t s of a d o t t e d l o b e . I f we t h e n s m o o t h l y c h a n g e t h e p h a s e r a t i o i n t h e end antennas.33. a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of a c y c l e and a f t e r t h e p a u s e .34.. n e a r t h e r i g h t l o b e . Fig. with each o p e r a t i n g cycle of t h e beacon i n radiation. . 30 7 . t o t h e r i g h t . A t a point/294 of t h e d o t t e d l o b e .With a c h a n g e i n t h e p h a s e o f t h e m i d d l e a n t e n n a by 1 8 0 ° . t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e l o b e s s h i f t t o t h e i r m i r r o r images ( t h e s o l i d and d o t t e d l o b e s i n F i g . t h e n a continuous s i g n a l .e. and f i n a l l y a long series of dashes. 3. and t h e phase r a t i o s w i l l change i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c tion: each of t h e s o l i d l o b e s w i l l change p l a c e s with t h e d o t t e d l o b e t o t h e r i g h t of i t .h a n d l i m i t of d o t s w i l l b e l o n g e r t h a n t h e s e r i e s middle of t h e l o b e .34). w h i l e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of t h e dotted lobes. l o n g s i g n a l s ) . 3. I n t h i s case. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s b e t w e e n c o m m u t a t i o n s . g . w h i l e t h e p o i n t s w h e r e t h e d o t t e d a n d s o l i d l o b e s i n t e r s e c t become axes o f e q u a l s i g n a l s . if w e t r a n s m i t s h o r t and long s i g n a l s i n t h e forms of d o t s and dashes i n an overlapping p a t t e r n . ain phas ~. L e t u s assume t h a t 3. I n zones o f e q u a l s i g n a l s ( n e a r t h e a x e s of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e l o b e s ) . only s h o r t s i g n a l s w i l l be heard. s i g n a l s of o n l y one t y p e w i l l b e h e a r d w i t h i n t h e e d g e s of t h e s o l i d l o b e s ( e . t h e series s e r i e s of dashes. within the hand l i m i t of t h e s o l i d beginning after a pause an a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d a t P o i n t B ( s e e Fig.h i f t e r s Fig. e . one w i l l hear a continuous tone. 3. Fan-Shaped Radio Beacon..33. R a d i a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a Fan-Shaped Radio Beacon. t h e s e r i e s of dashes. Fig: Fig.

i s a m u l t i p l e o f t h e number of signals i n the cycle. T h i s n a r r o w s e c t o r w i l l c o n t a i n 1 2 s i g n a l s o f t h e same t y p e (Fig. t h e t h i n orthodromic Beacons.A similar picture f o r t h e the aircraft is located within t h e sole difference being t h a t d a s h e s would b e h e a r d . P r a c t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g . With a s e c t o r w i d t h b e t w e e n t h e axes of equal signals of 15O and 60 s i g n a l s p e r c y c l e . 36 d o t s a n d 2 4 d a s h e s o n t h e t h i r d .35.35). a f t e r which t h e r e w i l l b e 48 d a s h e s . a u d i b i l i t y w o u l d b e o b t a i n e d when t h e l i m i t s of t h e s o l i d lobe with a t t h e beginning of the cycle t h e d o t s would b e h e a r d o n l y a f t e r t h e Thus. a t o t a l o f 60 d o t s and 60 dashes w i l l b e h e a r d . For e x a m p l e . If t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d b e t w e e n t h e t h i n o r t h o d r o m i c l i n e s p l o t t e d on t h e c h a r t . t h e n t h e l i n e of t h e b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t can e a s i l y be found by i n t e r p o l a t i o n of t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e plotted lines. Fan-shaped /295 b e a c o n s make i t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e v e r y a c c u r a t e l y 30 8 . 3. Grid of Position s e c t o r between t h e axes of e q u a l L i n e s f o r a n A i r c r a f t on t h e signals is then divided into Basis o f Fan-Shaped Radio f i v e p a r t s . i f a n a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d a t t h e s e c t o r o f p o i n t s on t h e f i r s t t h i n l i n e t o t h e r i g h t of t h e a x i s o f e q u a l s i g n a l s . If t h e Fig. e t c . On t h e s e c o n d l i n e t h e r e w i l l b e 2 4 d o t s a n d 36 d a s h e s . a n d t h e continuous tone. t o o b t a i n t h e b e a r i n g o f an a i r c r a f t . each s i g n a l w i l l correspond t o 1 5 min o f a n g l e . it i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p l o t t h e orthodromic l i n e s on a c h a r t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e axes of equal signals i n order t o obtain the b e a r i n g of t h e a i r c r a f t . t h e n 1 2 d o t s w i l l b e h e a r d which w i l l f a d e i n t o a c o n t i n u o u s t o n e . t h e number o f a u d i b l e s i g n a l s w i l l b e l e s s t h a n 6 0 . s o t h a t a f t e r c o u n t i n g them t h e number of a u d i b l e s i g n a l s s h o u l d b e t a k e n s u b t r a c t e d from 6 0 . 3. t h e n d i v i d e d i n h a l f a n d a d d e d t o t h e number o f s i g n a l s o f b o t h t y p e s t h a t were h e a r d . A t t h e l i m i t of t h e s e c t o r ( t h e a x i s of e q u a l s i g n a l s ) . l i n e s w i l l diverge a t angles of 3O. a n d a l s o t o d i v i d e t h e angles between them by o r t h o d r o m e s as w e l l as t h i n l i n e s i n a r a t i o w h i c h . i f w e c o n s i d e r t h a t p a r t of t h e s i g n a l s ( d o t s and d a s h e s ) are mixed w i t h t h e c o n t i n u o u s t o n e . Note.

t h e e r r o r s d o n o t e x c e e d 0 .s h a p e d Under t h e b e a c o n s d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e i s n o w o r s e t h a n 0. In a f u r t h e r zone o f d i s t a n c e measurement.t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e s of an aircraft. and a l s o t h e s h o r t . it is necessary t o determine t h e approximate p o s i t i o n of t h e air­ c r a f t w i t h an e r r o r which i s n o g r e a t e r t h a n t h e w i d t h o f one s e c t o r . most u n f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r d i s t a n c e measurement ( i n t w i l i g h t when w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s p a c e w a v e . or a t t h e b o u n d a r y f o r t h e u s e of s u r f a c e waves). as w e l l as t h e s i m p l i c i t y of o b t a i n i n g p o s i t i o n l i n e s of t h e aircraft during f l i g h t . t h i s f i g u r e i s 7 4 0 km a n d a b o v e t h e s e a . An i m p o r t a n t a d v a n t a g e o f f a n .s h a p e d b e a c o n d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e r e a c h e s 1 3 5 0 km o n d r y l a n d a n d 1 7 5 0 km a b o v e t h e s e a . magnetic d e c l i n a t i o n . with t h e a i d of a r a d i o c o m p a s s or b y g e n e r a l l y c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p a t h o f t h e a i r c r a f t .s h a p e d b e a c o n i s only a very r a r e case.r a n g e z o n e .s h a p e d b e a c o n s i s t h e i n d e p e n ­ dence of d i s t a n c e measurement from t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e . A t night a b o v e d r y l a n d . w i t h o p e r a t i o n on a s u r f a c e wav e. T o do t h i s . 5-1°. i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o l i s t e n t o t h e o p e r a t i n g c y c l e s o f t h e two b e a c o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y u s i n g t w o m e m b e r s o f t h e c r e w who a r e u s i n g t w o r a d i o c o m p a s s e s or o n e r a d i o c o m p a s s a n d t h e c o h e r e n t r a d i o r e c e i v e r . s h i f t of t h e aircraft during t h e t i m e between t h e t a k i n g o f b e a r i n g s from t h e two b e a c o n s .d i r e c t i o n a l and omnidirec­ t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n . or w i t h t h e c o h e r e n t r e c e i v e r . s u c h as w e h a v e i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l d i s t a n c e measure­ ment w i t h g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s . w e c a n d e t e r m i n e t h e position of t h e aircraft i n t h e s e c t o r . and r a d i o d e v i a t i o n s aboard t h e a i r c r a f t . It is often desirable t o carry out aircraft navigation during /296 30 9 . A s i m i l a r method i s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s e c o n d l i n e o f p o s i ­ t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t .s h a p e d b e a c o n . The a c c u r a c y o f d i s t a n c e f i n d i n g w i t h t h e a i d o f f a n . t h e e r r o r s can reach 3 and sometimes 5 O . h a v i n g l i s t e n e d t o t h e o p e r a t i n g c y c l e of t h e beacon w i t h t h e r a d i o c o m p a s s .1-0. One s h o r t c o m i n g t h a t s h o u l d b e men­ tioned i s t h e l a c k of a continuous indication of a navigational p a r a m e t e r . T h i s method i s t h e most s u i t a b l e one f o r f a n . Unlike t h e r a d i o beacons with n o n . which a r e mounted as a r u l e a t t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t s of a i r r o u t e s . whose f a m i l y of p o s i t i o n l i n e s i n t e r s e c t s t h e l i n e s o f t h e f i r s t b e a c o n . u s i n g t h e s e c o n d f a n .s h a p e d b e a c o n s b e c a u s e t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s manner with a s u f f i c i e n t l y high accuracy. d e v i a t i o n of meridians . f l i g h t a l o n g t h e b e a r i n g l i n e of a f a n . The o p e r a t i n g r a n g e o f a f a n . T h e r e f o r e . Then. t h e p r i n c i p a l method o f a i r ­ craft navigation using fan-shaped beacons is determining a l l navi­ g a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s i n c l u d i n g t h e wind p a r a m e t e r s a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e by s u c c e s s i v e m e a s u r e m e n t s of t h e L A . I n order not t o t a k e i n t o account t h e .3O. 9 5 0 km.

r i g h t angles. I I . which s a t i s f y t h e requirements of accuracy i n a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n and o p e r a t e o u t i s d e t h e l i m i t s of d i r e c t geometric v i s i b i l i t y . Therefore. s i n c e t h e l i n e s of posi­ t i o n of an aircraft i n t h e s e systems always c r o s s a t . and t h e l i n e a r e r r o r i n d i s t a n c e i s A S = ABC . I n range finding systems. t h e t e c h n i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t i n m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s i s much m o r e c o m p l e x t h a n t h a t i n m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e azimuth.. increasingly high require­ m e n t s a r e i m p o s e d on t h e m e a s u r e m e n t a c c u r a c y . 310 . 3.. D I F F E R E N C E . w h i l e b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s of d i r e c t geometric v i s i b i l i t y it is very d i f f i c u l t t o r e t a i n d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t r a n s m i s s i o n or r e c e p t i o n d u e t o t h e e f f e c t o f l o c a l r e l i e f a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e i o n i z e d l a y e r s of t h e a t m o s p h e r e . I II 1I I 1 .s h a p e d b e a c o n s for c h e c k i n g t h e p a t h f o r d i s t a n c e a n d d e t e r ­ mining t h e ground speed. However.11. C i r c u l a r l i n e s do n o t d i v e r g e .111. t h e c o s i n e i s p r a c t i c a l l y O equal t o unity. t h e l i n e a r e r r o r i n determining t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t i n a.11. The s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat b e t t e r as f a r a s t h e c i r c u l a r p. t h e t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s u c h s y s t e m s .. A t s m a l l a n g l e s . t h e e r r o r s i n determining t h e distance a r e u s u a l l y many t i m e s l e s s t h a n t h e e r r o r s i n t h e a z i m u t h a l s h i f t (Fig.A C S(1-cosAA). t i o n or away f r o m a r a d i o s t a t i o n .III - I I 1111 . on t h e o r d e r o f 6 .goniometric system i s proportional t o t h e s i n e s of t h e angles of t h e propagation e r r o r s : A2 = S sin Ad. these e r r o r s a r e proportional to t h e cosines o f t h e a n g l e s of t h e p r o p a g a t i o n e r r o r s : AS = S ( I . are connected with very high technical d i f f i c u l t i e s . I1 1111111.f l i g h t using fan-shaped beacons with conventional distance-finding For e x a m p l e .COS PA).1. i n a f l i g h t t o w a r d a r a d i o s t a ­ from r a d i o s t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n .osi­ t i o n l i n e s are concerned. W can s e e from t h e f i g u r e t h a t t h e l i n e a r e r r o r i n determin­ e i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n C C l = SsinAA. i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o u s e b e a r i n g s f r o m f a n .R A N G E F I N D I N G ( H Y P E R B O L I C ) < N A V I G A T I O N A L SYSTEMS The b e s t n a v i g a t i o n a l d e v i c e s f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f g e o m e t r y are t h e goniometric-range f i n d i n g systems.1.36). 3. However.. The a z i m u t h l i n e s o f p o s i t i o n a r e d i v e r g e n t b e c a u s e as t h e range of operation of a system increases. s o t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a c c u r a c y i n d e t e r m i n i n g them r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t at a l l distances.

Only t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of s i g n a l s from t h e ground s t a t i o n s must b e s y n c h r o n i z e d . a l t h o u g h i t o f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o m i s e i n future. I t i s s i m p l e r t o s o l v e t h e problem of d e t e r m i n i q g t h e p o s i ­ t i o n l i n e o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e d i s t a n c e s t o two g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s . t u r n s o u t t o b e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s f o r u s e on medium a n d long waves.A s w e s a w i n t h e case o f UW s y s t e m s . By m e a n s o f t h e s e s p e c i a l timing devices . thus a l l o w i n g u s t o u s e a s y n c h r o n i z i n g d e v i c e f o r t w o or t h r e e s t a t i o n s together. C : Location of t h e A i r c r a f t ( A c t u a l ) . The a i r ­ craft generator f o r t h e c a l i b r a t i o n frequency i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case a c t s o n l y as a c e n t r a l m e a s u r i n g gauge t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l s b e t w e e n t h e moments o f r e c e p t i o n o f t h e s i g n a l s f r o m t h e two r a d i o s t a t i o n s . t h i s method h a s n o t b e e n w i d e l y employed due t o t h e complexity involved i n keeping a highly s t a b l e r e f e r e n c e frequency on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . Fig. t h e calibrat i o n frequency can be converted t o a l o w e r f r e q u e n c y which i s synchronous with t h e s i g n a l s of t h e g r o u n d b e a c o n . B: Point of Mirror Reflection of R a d i o Waves. s i n c e t h e d i s t a n c e between ground s t a t i o n s remains c o n s t a n t . However. d i s t a n c e i s d e t e r m i n e d S /297 by r e t r a n s l a t i o n o f s i g n a l s f r o m on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t by a g r o u n d This method. I f we t a k e t h e s i g n a l s from t h e ground s t a t i o n s a n d compare them i n t i m e with t h e s i g n a l s from t h e g e n e r a t o r of t h e c a l i b r a t i o n fre­ quency. w e can determine t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e s e r a d i o s t a t i o n s .36. I n a d d i t i o n . C1: M e a s u r e d P o s i t i o n of t h e A i r . ground i n s t a l l a t i o n s are n o t l i m i t e d by 311 . 3. which i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d a t s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . craft. L A : A n g u l a r Error i n Propagation. The b e s t method o f m e a s u r i n g long distances at the present t i m e i s t h e maintenance of a c a l i b r a t i o n f r e q u e n c y on b o a r d The g e n e r a t o r the aircraft. S y n c h r o n i z a t i o n of t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e a p p a r a t u s a t ground r a d i o s t a t i o n s c a n b e a c h i e v e d i n c o m p a r a b l y more e a s i l y t h a n s y n ­ c h r o n i z a t i o n o f a g r o u n d a p p a r a t u s w i t h one a b o a r d an a i r c r a f t . Errors i n M e a s u r i n g B e a r i n g a n d Range w i t h R e f l e c t i o n o f E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Waves from Obstacles: A: Location o f Ground R a d i o B e a c o n s . there is no n e c e s s i t y f o r a s t r i c t s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e g r o u n d i n s t a l l a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e on b o a r d . b e a c o n a n d t h e i r r e c e p t i o n b a c k on b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t . In t h i s case. f o r t h e c a l i b r a t i o n frequency is set a t t h e frequency of a ground t r a n s m i t t e r and r e t a i n s a given frequency f o r long periods o f t i m e by means o f s p e c i a l s t a b i l i z i n g elements.

The o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t w o s l a v e s t a t i o n s i s s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h t h e master s t a t i o n b y s y n c h r o n i z i n g s i g n a l s s e n t o u t by t h e m a s t e r station. which d i f f e r i n magnitude and a r e m u l t i p l e s of t h e l e n g t h o f t h e measured wave. i . E a c h o f t h e s e m e t h o d s h a s i t s own a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d ­ vantages. The l i n e c o n n e c t i n g p o i n t s F 1 a n d F p w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d as t h e f o c a l l i n e o f t h e b a s e . . n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e a p p a r a t u s on b o a r d . L e t u s b e g i n b y e x a m i n i n g t h e g e o m e t r y of one p a i r o f ground r a d i o s t a t i o n s ( F i g . b u t t h e i r r e s u l t s a r e more d e f i n i t e . t h e o p e r a t i o n of Two g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d a t p o i n t s F1 a n d F2. w h i l e t h e p o i n t s F1 a n d F 2 a r e t h e f o c i o f t h e system. t h e r e s u l t o f meas. An a d v a n t a g e o f t h e p h a s e m e t h o d s i s t h e h i g h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l a c c u r a c y o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s .s i z e and weight r e s t r i c t i o n s . O f c o u r s e . e . o n e o f t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g r a d i o s t a t i o n s ( t h e m a s t e r ) i s made common f o r two p a i r s s o t h a t t h e s y s t e m c a n i n c l u d e t h r e e ground r a d i o s t a ­ tions. The p u l s e m e t h o d s o f m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e h a v e somewhat l e s s i n s t r u m e n t a l a c c u r a c y . Since t h e e r r o r s i n oper­ a t i o n of t h e s y s t e m s u n d e r p r o p a g a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s o f r a d i o waves a r e p r a c t i c a l l y t h e s a m e for b o t h p u l s e d a n d p h a s e s y s t e m s .­ u r e m e n t i s t h e same a n d m u s t b e u s e d a s a m e a s u r e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e pathway a l o n g which t h e a i r c r a f t i s t r a v e l i n g . 3 . t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l a c c u r a c y o f measurement which c a n b e a t t a i n e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e b o t h by t h e p u l s e a n d p h a s e m e t h o d s i s s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h S O t h a t t h e i r e r r o r s a r e many t i m e s l e s s t h a n o t h e r s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s which a r e r e l a t e d t o c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o p a g a t i o n of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c e n e r g y . On e a c h o f t h e s e p a t h s . it should b e mentioned t h a t f o r long-range navi­ g a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . 3 7 ) . For p u r p o s e o f r e d u c i n g t h e a m o u n t o f g r o u n d e q u i p m e n t for t h e s y s t e m . t h e r e may b e s e v e r a l i s o p h a s a l p a t h s simultaneously with d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e s t o t h e ground r a d i o s t a t i o n s . t h e a d v a n t a g e o f p h a s e m e t h o d s o f m e a s u r e m e n t may b e r e s t r i c t e d o n l y t o s h o r t d i s t a n c e s from ground r a d i o s t a t i o n s ( i n t h e short-range zone of e f f e c t i v e n e s s ) . /298 The m e t h o d s of m e a s u r i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e t o g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s c a n i n v o l v e e i t h e r t i m e ( p u l s e ) s y s t e m s or p h a s e systems. 312 . Operating P r i n c i p l e s of Differential Rangefinding Systems D i f f e r e n t i a l rangefinding systems of a i r c r a f t navigation c o n s i s t o f two p a i r s o f s y n c h r o n o u s l y o p e r a t i n g ground r a d i o s t a t i o n s and a receiving-indicating apparatus aboard an aircraft. b u t i n t h i s c a s e t h e r e s u l t o f meas­ u r i n g i s o b t a i n e d a m b i g u o u s l y .

we c a n a l w a y s p l o t t h e h y p e r b o l i c l i n e o f t h e p o s i t i o n where t h e a i r ­ craft is located. A t the beginning. Consequently. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d i s t a n c e s f r o m t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e s e r a d i o s t a t i o n s i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d i f f e r ­ ence i n t i m e between t h e a r r i v a l of t h e s i g n a l s i n t h e p u l s e system o r b y t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n m o d u l a t i o n of t h e p h a s e s i n t h e w a v e s r e ­ c e i v e d from t h e two r a d i o s t a t i o n s i n t h e p h a s e s y s t e m . T h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e v a l u e 2a i s m e a s u r e d b y n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m ­ eters of t h e system s o t h a t t h e accuracy i n determining t h e l i n e s o f p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t d e p e n d s on t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h which t h i s parameter i s measured.L e t u s assume t h a t a t p o i n t M t h e r e i s a n a i r c r a f t which i s r e c e i v i n g s i g n a l s f r o m r a d i o s t a t i o n s F1 a n d F 2 . I t i s obvious t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e s from t h e o f t h e h y p e r b o l a t o any p o i n t a l o n g i t s b r a n c h e s i s e q u a l t o t h e d i s t a n c e along t h e f o c a l a x i s from t h e imaginary a x i s t o This distance is c a l l e d parameter a . The g i v e n p o i n t s . W know t h a t t h e l i n e w h i c h e is t h e geometrical locus of p o i n t s . t o which t h e d i s t a n c e s are measured. Consequently. i s c a l l e d a hyperbola. t h e family of hyperbolas is divided 313 . where t h e d i s ­ t a n c e between t h e peaks of t h e hyperbola is e q u a l t o t h e d i f f e r ­ ence i n parameters a . an e r r o r i n determining t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e o f t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e f o c a l a x i s i s e q u a l t o t h e e r r o r i n m e a s u r i n g p a r a m e t e r 2a. 3 7 . Fig.37). t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n whose d i s t a n c e t o two g i v e n p o i n t s i s a c o n s t a n t v a l u e . Hyperbolic System o f P o s i t i o n L i n e s . foci t w i c e the Accord­ i of T h e maximum d e n s i t y o f h y p e r b o l i c l i n e s o f p o s i t i o n i s f o u n d a l o n g t h e f o c a l a x i s b e t w e e n t h e f o c i of t h e s y s t e m . t h e a i r c r a f t w i l l r e c e i v e a s i g n a l from t h e f i r s t r a d i o s t a t i o n /299 and t h e n from t h e s e c o n d . d i v i d e d i n h a l f . The d i s t a n c e a l o n g t h e f o c a l a x i s o f t h e f a m i l y o f h y p e r b o l a s from t h e f o c i t o t h e imaginary a x i s i s c a l l e d t h e p a r a m e t e r e . knowing t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e d i s ­ t a n c e s t o t h e two r a d i o s t a t i o n s . A s w e see from F i g u r e 3 . are c a l l e d t h e f o c i of t h e h y p e r b o l a . T h i s l i n e i s c a l l e d t h e i m a g i n a r y axis of t h e h y p e r ­ bola.37. 3. peak o f t h e h y p e r b o l a . i n g l y . t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e s from any p o i n t t o t h e f o c t h e hyperbola i s always e q u a l t o 2a. The h y p e r b o l i c l i n e w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e s e q u a l t o z e r o becomes a s t r a i g h t l i n e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e f o c a l a x i s and d i v i d i n g t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e f o c i of t h e system i n h a l f ( s e e Fig. 3.

by a family o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s . A t d i s t a n c e s from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s y s t e m w h i c h e x c e e d 2c, t h e h y p e r b o l a s p r a c t i c a l l y become s t r a i g h t l i n e s , whose d i r e c t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e r a d i i Thus, t h e h y p e r b o l i c system e x t e n d e d from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s y s t e m . i s converted i n t o a goniometric one. /300 H o w e v e r , t h e d e n s i t y of t h e l i n e s o f p o s i t i o n , i n t h i s c a s e w i l l n o t b e e q u a l a l o n g t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e , as i s t h e case i n p u r e l y goniometric systems. A t a given d i s t a n c e from t h e c e n t e r of t h e s y s t e m , t h e maximum d e n s i t y of p o s i t i o n l i n e s w i l l b e f o u n d a t t h e imaginary a x i s of t h e hyperbola, gradually decreasing along t h e The d e n s i t y o f p o s t c i r c u m f e r e n c e as t h e y a p p r o a c h t h e f o c a l a x i s . t i o n l i n e s a t a d i s t a n c e g r e a t e r t h a n e on t h e f o c a l a x i s becomes s o s m a l l t h a t t h e s y s t e m becomes u n s u i t a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t .

Fig.

3.38.

E f f e c t i v e Area of H y p e r b o l i c N a v i g a t i o n a l System.

The m a s t e r s t a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d h y p e r b o l i c p a i r c a n b e l o ­ c a t e d a l o n g t h e e x t e n s i o n of t h e f o c a l a x i s o f t h e f i r s t p a i r . In t h i s case, t h e a n g l e of f r a c t u r e of t h e b a s e ( 8 ) i s e q u a l t o z e r o .
If t h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n of t h e s e c o n d p a i r i s n o t l o c a t e d on t h e f o c a l axis of t h e first p a i r , t h e r e is a d e f i n i t e f r a c t u r e of the base (Fig. 3.38).

The a n g l e o f f r a c t u r e o f t h e b a s e c r e a t e s a more f a v o r a b l e condition f o r i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e i n t h a t region of a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s y s t e m toward which i t i s d i r e c t e d , s i n c e t h e a n g l e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e h y p e r b o l a s i n t h i s case a p p r o a c h e s a r i g h t angle and t h e r e f o r e t h e accuracy i n determining t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s i n c r e a s e d when t w o p o s i t i o n l i n e s i n t e r s e c t . However, 314 t h i s involves a decrease i n t h e q u a l i t y of t h e condi­

I

t i o n s f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , as w e l l as a n a r r o w i n g o f t h e range of a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e system from t h e opposite s i d e of t h e I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n of problems r e l a t e d focal axis. t o n a v i g a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s y s t e m i s c o m p l i c a t e d t o a s i g ­ n i f i c a n t degree by t h e f r a c t u r e of t h e b a s e , e . g . , i n converting hyperbolic coordinates t o geographical orthodromic ones ( s e e Chapter I , Section 7 ) . The c o m p l e x o f e q u i p m e n t f o r a h y p e r b o l i c n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s t e m aboard an aircraft usually c o n s i s t s of t h e following: a non­ d i r e c t i o n a l r e c e i v i n g antenna, a matching block f o r t h e antenna with a r e c e i v i n g device, a r e c e i v e r , and an i n d i c a t o r . The m a t c h i n g b l o c k s e r v e s t o p r o d u c e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e r e c e i v ­ i n g a n t e n n a s when s i g n a l s a r e r e c e i v e d f r o m g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s . S i g n a l s r e c e i v e d by t h e a n t e n n a a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e i n d i ­ c a t o r for m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l p a r a m e t e r . The i n d i c a t o r has a g e n e r a t o r f o r a c a l i b r a t i o n f r e q u e n c y , which produces s t a n ­ d a r d s i g n a l s f o r p u r p o s e s o f m e a s u r e m e n t , a n d a number o f f r e q u e n c y d i v i d e r s w h i c h a r e r e q u i r e d f o r f o r m i n g e l e c t r o n i c m a r k i n g s on t h e r e a d i n g s c a l e s , a s w e l l a s r e p e t i t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h e s c a n on a c a t h o d e r a y t u b e , s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n s of s i g n a l s from ground r a d i o s t a t i o n s . The s i g n a l s w h i c h a r e r e c e i v e d p a s s t o t h e s c a n o f t h e c a t h ­ ode r a y t u b e , where t h e o p e r a t o r c o n t r o l s t h e i r s i z e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amplification of t h e receiver. The s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f t h e s c a n on t h e s c r e e n i s t h e n r e g u l a t e d w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e r e c e i v e d p u l s e s s o t h a t t h e l a t t e r r e m a i n f i x e d on t h e s c r e e n . The o p e r a t o r t h e n m i x e s a r e f e r e n c e ( s e l e c t i n g ) s i g n a l f r o m t h e g e n e r a t o r w i t h t h e s i g n a l from t h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n , which i s a c h i e v e d by t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n of s m a l l d i s t o r t i o n s i n t h e generator f o r the c a l i b r a t i o n frequency, s o t h a t t h e pulses of t h e s i g n a l s b e g i n t o move a c r o s s t h e s c r e e n . The m o t i o n o f t h e p u l s e s s t o p s when t h e s i g n a l o f t h e m a s t e r s t a t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e reference s i g n a l of t h e generator (usually a rectangular base a t t h e beginning of t h e scan). To m e a s u r e t h e t i m e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e s i g n a l s and t h e s i g n a l from t h e s l a v e s t a t i o n , a s e l e c t i n g p u l s e i s g i v e n which i s r e l a t e d t o t h e d e l a y i n s c a n n i n g o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l , a f t e r which t h e i n d i c a t o r i s s w i t c h e d t o t h e r e f e r e n c e regime and t h e r e a d i n g i s t a k e n on t h e e l e c t r o n i c s c a l e . I n some t y p e s of r e c e i v e r i n d i c a t o r s , t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t h e r e a d i n g i s made o n a d i a l w i t h t w o or t h r e e s c a l e s ( f o r d i f f e r e n t scanning r a t e s ) , f o r example, beginning with thousands of micro­ s e c o n d s , t h e n h u n d r e d s a n d f i n a l l y t e n s , w i t h i n t e r p o l a t i o n up t o u n i t s of m i c r o s e c o n d s . This provides increased accuracy of readings due t o t h e many-fold i n c r e a s e i n t h e scale of t h e i n d i c a t o r .
/301

315

I I I1

I n systems w i t h a u t o m a t i c t r a c k i n g o f t h e s i g n a l s from ground s t a t i o n s , t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l s b e t w e e n t h e moments o f a r r i v a l o f t h e s i g n a l s a r e c a l c u l a t e d on m e c h a n i c a l c o u n t i n g d i a l s , whose r o t a ­ t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e d e l a y mechanisms f o r t h e s e l e c t i n g p u l s e . The r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l f r o m t h e g e n e r a t o r i s t h e n r e i n f o r c e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s i g n a l f r o m t h e master s t a t i o n , by a n a u t o m a t i c f r e q u e n c y adjustment of t h e c a l i b r a t i o n generator. Thus, t h e r e i s an automatic t r a c k i n g of t h e s i g n a l s r a d i o s t a t i o n and a c o n s t a n t numerical i n d i c a t i o n of t h e navigational parameter of t h e system, and t h e difference t a n c e s from t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e ground r a d i o s t a t i o n s i s i n m i c r o s e c o n d s o f r a d i o wave p r o p a g a t i o n . from t h e output i n dis­ expessed

/302

I n p h a s e s y s t e m s , b y means o f d i s t r i b u t i n g e l e m e n t s i n t h e c a l i b r a t i o n g e n e r a t o r , i t s phase i s matched w i t h t h e phase of t h e s i g n a l s from t h e master r a d i o s t a t i o n , a f t e r which a phasometer i s used t o measure t h e phase d i f f e r e n c e between t h e c a l i b r a t i o n generator and t h e s l a v e r a d i o s t a t i o n , and t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e of t h e a i r c r a f t i s determined from t h i s d i f f e r e n c e .

A s w e have already pointed o u t , i f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e s t o t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s includes s e v e r a l periods of t h e modulating f r e q u e n c y o f t h e g r o u n d s t a t i o n s , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i l l b e ambig­ uous.
The s o l u t i o n o f t h e a m b i g u i t y of p l i s h e d by s e v e r a l methods. t h i s e s t i m a t e c a n b e accom­

(1) An i n i t i a l s e t t i n g o f t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t with automatic t r a c k i n g of t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s i g n a l s . In t h i s case, u s i n g known c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e a i r c r a f t ( e . g . , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e v i s u a l determination of t h e aircraft l o c a t i o n ) , t h e i n d i c a t o r is s e t b y h a n d t o show t h e i s o p h a s a l l i n e on w h i c h t h e a i r c r a f t i s located. If c o n s t a n t t r a c k i n g o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s i g n a l s i s t h e n c a r r i e d o u t , c o m p l e t e l y r e l i a b l e r e a d i n g s of t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e w i l l be obtained. A shortcoming of t h i s system is t h e n e c e s s i t y t o r e l a t e t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e l o c a l t e r r a i n o n t h e b a s i s of t h e i n i t i a l r e a d i n g of t h e hyperbolic coordinates. In addition, during f l i g h t , there may b e r e a d i n g s o f o t h e r i s o p h a s a l l i n e s , d u e t o i n t e r f e r e n c e , w h i c h c a n be d e t e r m i n e d a n d c o r r e c t e d o n l y by a r e p e a t e d r e l a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t t o t h e l o c a l t e r r a i n by means of o t h e r m e t h o d s .

(2) By m o d u l a t i o n o f t h e c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y o f t h e g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s a t v e r y low f r e q u e n c i e s ( w i t h l o n g m o d u l a t i n g w a v e s , c o n s i d ­ e r a b l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e s from t h e aircraft t o the radio stations). I n t h i s case, a t a low f r e q u e n c y p h a s e , t h e r o u g h p o s i t i o n of t h e i s o p h a s a l l i n e o f a c a r r i e r f r e ­ q u e n c y or t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s e c o n d m o d u l a t i o n w i t h a s m a l l , l o n g period can be determined.

3 16

(3) By u s i n g s e v e r a l c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h e g r o u n d r a d i o s t a t i o n s , t h e isophasal l i n e can be considered t o be determined i f it i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on t h e i s o p h a s a l l i n e s f o r a l l f r e q u e n c i e s a t which t h e measure ment i s c a r r i e d o u t ( u s u a l l y t h r e e f r e q u e n ­ c i e s , s i n c e t w o w i l l b e i n a d e q u a t e i n some c a s e s ) . On a d j a c e n t isophasal l i n e s , f o r each frequency used, t h e isophasal l i n e s of o t h e r f r e q u e n c i e s w i l l n o t c o i n c i d e with t h e readings of t h e phaso­ meter.

Navigational Applications o f Differential-Rangefinding Systems
Differential-rangefinding navigational systems, l i k e fan-type beacons, are intended primarily f o r determining t h e locus of t h e a i r c r a f t on two p o s i t i o n l i n e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r i n c i p a l method of aircraft navigation using these systems is t h e determination o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f a s e r i e s o f d e t e r m i n ­ a t i o n s of t h e LA. By r e c o r d i n g a n d p l o t t i n g on a c h a r t a s e r i e s o f p o i n t s f o r t h e l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t , r e c o r d i n g t h e time a t which t h e y were passed, and using a s c a l e r u l e r and p r o t r a c t o r t o measure t h e d i s ­ t a n c e s b e t w e e n t h e m o n t h e c h a r t , a s w e l l a s t h e d i s t a n c e Erom t h e f i r s t r e c o r d i n g of t h e LA t o t h e s e c o n d , i t i s e a s y l t o d e t e r m i n e t h e speed and f l i g h t angle of t h e a i r c r a f t .

/303

4J = a1,2;

where a1.2 i s t h e azimuth of t h e second r e c o r d i n g of t h e LA from t h e f i r s t and S1.2 is t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e LA. The d r i f t a n g l e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d a s t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e a c t u a l f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e and t h e average c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t o v e r t h e segment b e t w e e n two s u c c e s s i v e r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e
LA:

W i t h a known g r o u n d s p e e d a n d d r i f t a n g l e , t a k i n g t h e a i r s p e e d i n t o a c c o u n t as w e l l as t h e c o u r s e t o b e f o l l o w e d , t h e wind param­ eters a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e can be determined with t h e a i d of a naviga­ tional slide rule. I n s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , when t h e f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h one of t h e b r a n c h e s of t h e h y p e r b o l i c f l i g h t l i n e s , t h e f l i g h t To d o t h i s , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n ­ c a n b e made a l o n g t h e l a t t e r . t a i n a c o n s t a n t r e a d i n g f o r t h e c a l c u l a t o r of h y p e r b o l i c c o o r d i n a t e s of one p a i r . The f a m i l y o f p o s i t i o n l i n e s f o r t h e s e c o n d p a i r i n t h i s case i s u s e d t o m o n i t o r t h e p a t h f o r d i s t a n c e .

317

M o n i t o r i n g t h e p a t h f o r d i s t a n c e b y means o f t h e r e a d i n g s o f o n e o f t h e c o u n t e r s c a n b e u s e d i n t h e c a s e when t h e a i r c r a f t n a v i ­ g a t i o n i n t e r m s o f d i r e c t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g two d e v i c e s , e . g . , t h e U S W b e a r i n g o f a g o n i o m e t r i c s y s t e m or a f a n - t y p e b e a c o n .
To increase the f e a s i b i l i t y of using differenfial-rangefind­ ing systems, t h e hyperbolic coordinates can be converted t o ortho­ d r o m i c or g e o g r a p h i c a l o n e s ( s e e C h a p t e r I , S e c t i o n 7 ) .

I n some h y p e r b o l i c s y s t e m s o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n , e . g . , t h a t o f Decca a n d D e c t r a ( E n g l a n d ) , s i m p l i f i e d m e t h o d s o f a u t o m a t i c p l o t ­ t i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e on a s p e c i a l c h a r t u s e t h e movement For t h i s p u r p o s e , of a pen i n mutually perpendicular d i r e c t i o n s . s p e c i a l c h a r t s a r e made on w h i c h t h e h y p e r b o l i c l i n e s o f t h e f i r s t and second family a r e l a i d out a t r i g h t a n g l e s . Naturally t h i s /304 r e s u l t s i n d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e c o n t o u r s o f t h e t e r r a i n on t h e c h a r t , as w e l l as t h e s c a l e a n d g e o g r a p h i c g r i d , a n d t h e l i n e o f f l i g h t of t h e aircraft i s a l s o bent. Such a method o f r e c o r d i n g h a s a number o f s h o r t c o m i n g s ( e . g . , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of o r t h o d r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s f o r t h e a i r c r a f t ) , b u t it i s v e r y e a s y t o a c h i e v e from t h e t e c h n i c a l s t a n d ­ p o i n t and i t s shortcomings are considerably reduced i f t h e p a t h of t h e a i r c r a f t has markings f o r d i s t a n c e . Methods o f Improving D i f f e r e n t i a l R a n g e f i n d i n g Navigational Systems

The d e s i g n o f h y p e r b o l i c s y s t e m s c o n t a i n s e l e m e n t s w h o s e i m ­ provement l e a d s t o a c o n v e r s i o n of t h e system t o a h y p e r b o l i c - r a n g e ­ f i n d i n g or h y p e r b o l i c - e l l i p t i c a l s y s t e m . Such e l e m e n t s i n c l u d e t h e s t a n d a r d f r e q u e n c y g e n e r a t o r s a b o a r d When t h e s e g e n e r a t o r s o p e r a t e i n a h i g h l y s t a b l e the aircraft. r e g i m e , t h e r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l s from t h e s e g e n e r a t o r s c a n b e k e p t s o p r e c i s e t h a t i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o m e a s u r e d i s t a n c e s t o one of t h e ground r a d i o s t a t i o n s . T o do t h i s , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o combine t h e p h a s e s o f t h e f r e q u e n c i e s of t h e g e n e r a t o r a b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t and t h e ground r a d i o s t a t i o n w i t h an i n i t i a l d i s t a n c e s e t t i n g ( e . g . , t h e takeoff point of t h e a i r c r a f t ) . F u r t h e r changes i n d i s t a n c e c a n be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e p h a s e s o f t h e s e f r e q u e n c i e s or b y t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e p u l s e s i g n a l s , i f t h e s y s t e m i s o p e r ­ a t i n g i n a pulse regime. Measurement of d i s t a n c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h one p a i r o f h y p e r b o l i c p o s i t i o n l i n e s makes it p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r a b l y improve t h e accur­ acy w i t h which t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s , a n d one p a i r o f g?ound r a d i o s t a t i o n s w i l l s u f f i c e f o r measurements. However, t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r measurement b e t w e e n t h e f o c i of t h e system near t h e f o c a l a x i s w i l l remain unfavorable (Fig. 3.39).

318

I t i s more a d v a n t a g e o u s i n t h i s case t o u s e t h e h y p e r b o l i c network of p o s i t i o n l i n e s ( s e e Chapter I , S e c t i o n 7).

H o w e v e r , s i n c e w e know t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e d i s t a n c e s t o t h e two r a d i o s t a t i o n s as w e l l a s t h e d i s t a n c e t o one o f them, i t i s e a s y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e sum o f t h e d i s t a n c e s t o t h e s e r a d i o stations, e.g., if
S2 > SI a n d AS=s2-s,,

so that

Sz = S i

+ AS

and

S I

+ s = 2s1 -I-p3. ,

S i m i l a r l y , � o r t h e c a s e when 5 2 < S I ,

T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e number o f t h e h y p e r b o l a , it is s u f f i c i e n t t o use t h e difference i n distances, while t o obtain t h e n u m b e r o f t h e e l l i p s e , we m u s t d o u b l e t h e d i s t a n c e t o o n e o f t h e r a d i o s t a t i o n s and add t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e s with t h e /305 corresponding sign. One g r e a t a d v a n t a g e o f t h e h y p e r b o l i c - e l l i p t i c a l n e t w o r k i s t h e o r t h o g o n a l i t y of t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e s a t any p o i n t i n t h e f i e l d which i s i n v o l v e d . On i n d i v i d u a l s h e e t s o f t h e c h a r t , t h e h y p e r b o l i c - e l l i p t i c a l network has t h e appearance of a nearly rectangular g r i d with noticeable curvature of t h e p o s i t i o n l i n e s o n l y i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e f o c i of t h e system. When u s i n g a h y p e r b o l i c - r a n g e ­ f i n d i n g (and e s p e c i a l l y a hyper­ b o l i c - e l l i p t i c a l system, a system of p o s i t i o n l i n e s ) t h e accuracy w i t h which t h e c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e aircraft are determined over long distances is increased several fold, s o t h a t t h e p r a c t i c a l range of appli­ cation of t h e system is a l s o consid­ erably increased, with t h e use of o n l y one p a i r o f ground r a d i o s t a ­ tions. Fig. 3.39. Combination of H y p e r b o l i c and R a n g e f i n g i n g Navigational Systems.
It should be mentioned, however, t h a t a serious obstacle t o t h e devel­ opment of systems of long-range n a v i g a t i o n f o r u s e on h i g h - s p e e d a i r c r a f t i s t h e low n o i s e s t a b i l i t y

3 19

o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e s y s t e m s , s i n c e o n l y v e r y l o n g waves c a n b e used f o r navigation over long distances.

4.

AUTONOMOUS RADIO-NAVIGATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

I n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e has been a considerable i n c r e a s e i n t h e use of r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s which are housed completely aboard t h e a i r c r a f t and o p e r a t e without t h e need f o r ground f a c i l ­ ities. Such i n s t r u m e n t s a r e c a l l e d autonomous r a d i o - n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s or, i f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n i s c o m b i n e d w i t h s o m e o t h e r n a v i g a ­ t i o n a l e q u i p m e n t a b o a r d t h e a i r c r a f t , autonomous n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s ­ tems. These i n c l u d e a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a l r a d a r , Doppler systems f o r a i r c r a f t navigation, and r a d i o altimeters.

All a u t o n o m o u s r a d i o - n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s o p e r a t e o n u l t r a ­ s h o r t waves, s i n c e they have a very high ( p r a c t i c a l l y complete) free­ dom f r o m i n t e r f e r e n c e d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n ( n o t c o u n t i n g a r t i f i c i a l interference).
Doppler m e t e r s f o r measuring t h e ground s p e e d and d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t m e a s u r e t h e m o t i o n p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e a i r c r a f t d i r e c t l y r e l a t i v e t o t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , which c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s them from a l l e x i s t i n g forms of n a v i g a t i o n a l equipment, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h /306 r e g a r d t o problems of automation of a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n an? p i l o t age of aircraft.

A i rcraft Navigational

Radar

A i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n a l r a d a r i s a v e r y f l e x i b l e and e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d o f a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n d u r i n g f l i g h t o v e r l a n d or s e a c l o s e t o coastal regions.

I n terms o f t h e geometry of t h e i r u s e , a i r c r a f t r a d a r d e v i c e s However, c a n b e i n c l u d e d among t h e goniometric-rangefinding s y s t e m s . i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e goniometric-rangefinding n a v i g a t i o n a l s y s t e m s , t h e y h a v e a number o f t a c t i c a l a d v a n t a g e s :

(1) T h e h i g h s a t u r a t i o n o f g r o u n d l a n d m a r k s m a k e s i t p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t t h e most s u i t a b l e ones f o r measurement i n n a v i g a t i o n .
(2) The l a c k o f e r r o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b e a r i n g s o f l a n d ­ marks from t h e r a d i o d e v i a t i o n o f b o t h t h e a i r c r a f t i t s e l f and t h e l o c a l r e l i e f , s o m e t h i n g which a f f e c t s a l l non-autonomous n a v i g a ­ t i o n a l systems.
(3) The p o s s i b i l i t y o f v i s u a l i z j - n g g r o u n d l a n d m a r k s w i t h t h e purposes of determining ground speed and d r i f t a n g l e t o a b e t t e r degree t h a n with o p t i c a l methods.

(4) The p o s s i b i l i t y o f i d e n t i f y i n g d a n g e r o u s m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n f l i g h t ( t h u n d e r s t o r m s , p o w e r f u l cumulus and cumulonim­ bus clouds).
320

... -

___ __ .

.. .

. ..

. . .. .. . - . . .. . . .

.

.

. .

.. .. .

. .

.-.- . . . ..

(5) The h i g h a c c u r a c y a n d e a s e o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s u s i n g o n l y one o p e r a t i o n a l f r e q u e n c y .

A t t h e same t i m e , s e v e r a l shortcomings:

t h e navigational use of aircraft r a d a r has

(a) The b e a r i n g o f t h e a i r c r a f t c a n b e u s e d o n l y a s a b a s i s f o r measuring t h e aircraft course, t h u s lowering t h e accuracy of distance findings.
A c e r t a i n amount o f e x p e r i e n c e i s n e e d e d f o r c o r r e c t r e c o g ­ (b) n i t i o n of ground landmarks and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of e r r o r s i n d e t e r ­ mining a landmark, s i n c e they are n o t l a b e l l e d .

The o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e o f r a d a r i s b a s e d on t h e a b i l i t y o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves a t h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s t o b e r e f l e c t e d from o b j e c t s l o c a t e d along t h e i r propagation path (from t h e i n t e r f a c e between media w i t h d i f f e r e n t o p t i c a l d e n s i t i e s ) .
T o o b t a i n a p a n o r a m i c i m a g e o f t h e t e r r a i n , a r o t a t i n g or s c a n ­ ning antenna is used t o cover a c e r t a i n s e c t o r , s o t h a t i t s posi­ t i o n m u s t b e s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s c k n n i n g beam on t h e s c r e e n o f a c a t h o d e r a y t u b e . In addition t o synchronizing t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e antenna with t h e scanning d i r e c t i o n of t h e beam, i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s c a n i s s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h t h e moment when t h e U S W p u l s e s a r e o m i t t e d f r o m t h e antenna transmitter

.

The r a d a r t r a n s m i t t e r e m i t s h i g h - f r e q u e n c y p u l s e s whose p r o p ­ a g a t i o n d i r e c t i o n d e p e n d s on t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e r o t a t i n g a n t e n n a /307 a t t h e moment o f e m i s s i o n . T h e s c a n n i n g o f t h e i n d i c a t o r beam b e g i n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e e m i s s i o n o f t h e p u l s e , moving from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s c r e e n t o w a r d t h e p e r i p h e r y ; t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e beam moves c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e movement o f t h e a n t e n n a . S i n c e t h e p r o p a g a t i o n r a t e of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves i s v e r y h i g h , and t h e r o t a t i o n a l s p e e d of t h e a n t e n n a and t h e s c a n r a t e a r e s l o w , t h e p u l s e o f wave e n e r g y c a n c o v e r t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e i r r a d i a t e d o b j e c t a n d r e t u r n i n a p e r i o d of t i m e w h i c h i s s u f f i ­ c i e n t l y s h o r t s o t h a t t h e a n t e n n a h a s n o t y e t moved t h r o u g h a n y noticeable angle. Therefore, t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e antenna a t t h e moment o f r e c e i v i n g t h e s i g n a l c o i n c i d e s w i t h i t s d i r e c t i o n a t t h e moment o f e m i s s i o n . The r e c e i v e d r e f l e c t e d s i g n a l i s a m p l i f i e d i n t h e r e c e i v e r a n d p a s s e s t o a n i n d i c a t o r , where i t c o n t r o l s t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e s c a n n i n g beam. Thus, t h e r a d a r s c r e e n shows t h e f o l l o w i n g : (a) The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a n t e n n a p o s i t i o n a t t h e moment o f e m i s s i o n a n d r e c e p t i o n o f t h e s i g n a l .

(b)

The d i s t a n c e t o t h e o b j e c t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e t i m e r e ­

321

q u i r e d for t h e s i g n a l t o t r a v e l b e t w e e n t h e moment when i t i s e m i t ­ t e d t o t h e moment w h e n i t i s r e c e i v e d . (c) The n a t u r e o f t h e o b j e c t , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e s c a n n i n g beam a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e r e f l e c t e d wave i s r e c e i v e d .

u a n d a . r d f r ea ue'n CY st and dividers -

Fig.

3.40.

Diagram o f A i r c r a f t R a d a r .

T h e r a d a r s c r e e n h a s a l o n g a f t e r g l o w s o t h a t when t h e a n t e n n a h a s made a c o m p l e t e r e v o l u t i o n , t h e s c r e e n s t i l l s h o w s a t r a c e o f a l l t h e i r r a d i a t e d o b j e c t s on t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e wh i ch a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e f i e l d s c a n n e d by t h e r a d a r . T h e m a i n s e c t i o n o f t h e r a d a r , c o n t r o l l i n g t h e pera at ion o f t h e e n t i r e system, i s t h e standard-frequency generator with fre­ quency d i v i d e r s f o r forming d i s t a n c e markings and a s i g n a l - t r a n s ­ m i s s i o n f r e q u e n c y s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h t h e s a w - t o o t h s c a n n i n g image on t h e s c r e e n ( F i g . 3 . 4 0 ) . The s i g n a l s from t h e s t a n d a r d - f r e q u e n c y g e n e r a t o r r e a c h t h e modulator, where t h e y a r e c o n v e r t e d t o h i g h - v o l t a g e r e c t a n g u l a r T h e h i g h - v o l t a g e p u l s e s from o s c i l l a t i o n s of a s p e c i a l l e n g t h . t h e m o d u l a t o r p a s s t o t h e t r a n s m i t t e r m a g n e t r o n , where h i g h - f r e ­ quency groups a r e g e n e r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p u l s e l e n g t h . The h i g h f r e q u e n c y r e a c h e s t h e a n t e n n a t h r o u g h a w a v e g u i d e and i s r a d i a t e d i n t o space.
A t t h e same t i m e , i n s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n w i t h t h e p u l s e s o f h i g h v o l t a g e which are s e n t t o t h e t r a n s m i t t e r , t h e s c a n n i n g g e n e r a t o r . forms a s a w - t o o t h v o l t a g e w h i c h c o n t r o l s t h e s c a n n i n g b e a m on t h e screen. The s c a n n i n g r a t e d e p e n d s on t h e s t e e p n e s s o f t h e s l o p e for t h e s a w - t o o t h w a v e s . A t a low s c a n n i n g r a t e , a f i n e image s c a l e i s o b t a i n e d as w e l l as l o n g - d i s t a n c e d e t e c t i o n o f o b j e c t s . When t h e s c a n n i n g r a t e i s i n c r e a s e d , t h e s c a l e o f t h e image d e c r e a s e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d by t h e r a d i u s o f t h e s c r e e n . The c o n t r o l o f t h e s c a n n i n g r a t e i s a c h i e v e d w i t h t h e a i d o f a s w i t c h on t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l .
1308

322

The d u r a t i o n o f t h e h i g h - f r e q u e n c y p u l s e s c o n t r o l s t h e r e s o l v ­ For e x a m p l e , a p u l s e d u r a t i o n o f 2 m i c r o ­ i n g power o f t h e r a d a r . s e c o n d s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a p r o p a g a t i o n d i s t a n c e o f t h e wave ( b a c k a n d f o r t h ) o f 300 m . Hence, i f two r e f l e c t i n g o b j e c t s are l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e o f l e s s t h a n 300 m a l o n g t h e p r o p a g a t i o n d i r e c t i o n o f t h e wave, t h e y w i l l a p p e a r as one o b j e c t . T h e r e f o r e , when w o r k ­ i n g a t c o u r s e s c a l e s , t h e m o d u l a t o r i s s e t for t h e f o r m a t i o n of s h o r t e r pulses with an increase i n t h e frequency of t h e i r trans­ mission. The r e s o l v i n g p o w e r o f t h e r a d a r i n t e r m s o f a z i m u t h s i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s h a r p n e s s o f t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e a n t e n n a beam. The a z i m u t h s o f g r o u n d l a n d m a r k s c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d i m m e d i a t e l y by t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a n t e n n a ( a n d t h e r e f o r e by t h e s c a n n i n g l i n e on t h e s c r e e n ) , a n d t h e a n t e n n a mechanism i s f i t t e d w i t h a s e l s y n mechanism f o r t i l t i n g t h e i n d i c a t o r . T h e a z i m u t h r e a d i n g i s made on a s c a l e l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e s c r e e n . To m e a s u r e t h e d i s t a n c e t o a l a n d m a r k , p u l s e s f r o m t h e f r e ­ quency d i v i d e r a r e s e n t t o t h e r e c e i v e r (and t h e r e f o r e t o t h e scan­ n i n g beam). T h e s e p u l s e s i n c r e a s e t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e beam a t c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e s from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s c r e e n , f o r m i n g c i r c u l a r distance markings. When u s i n g t h e r a d a r on d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s t h e d i s t a n c e m a r k ­ For example, ings are shifted t o different distance intervals. w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 0 km f o r t h e r a d i u s o f t h e s c r e e n , t h e m a r k i n g s a r e u s u a l l y 2 km a p a r t ; when u s i n g s c a l e s f r o m 1 0 t o 1 0 0 km, t h e m a r k i n g s a r e 1 0 km a p a r t ; a t a s c a l e o f 2 0 0 km, t h e y a r e 2 0 or 4 0 km a p a r t . Now l e t u s f o l l o w t h e p a t h o f t h e h i g h - f r e q u e n c y p u l s e s f r o m t h e t r a n s m i t t e r t o t h e o b j e c t a n d b a c k a g a i n , a n d s e e how t h e y c o n t r o l t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e s c a n n i n g beam. The h i g h - f r e q u e n c y p u l s e p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e wave g u i d e t o t h e r a d i a t i n g h o r n o f t h e a n t e n n a , a f t e r which i t i s s h a p e d i n t o t h e r e q u i r e d d i r e c t i o n a l d i a g r a m f o r r a d i a t i o n by means o f a r e f l e c ­ tor. Usually, t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of t h e antenna i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l T o do t h i s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y p l a n e i s made a s s h a r p a s p o s s i b l e . f o r t h e p h a s e o f t h e beam when e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e a n t e n n a t o r e m a i n constant over its e n t i r e perpendicular cross section (Fig. 3.41), i . e . , t h e r e f l e c t i o n i n t h i s p l a n e must have a shape such t h a t t h e wave p a t h from t h e h o r n r a d i a t o r t o t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e r e f l e c t o r and a l o n g i t s chord of emergence i s uniform. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e r a d i a t i o n i n t h e v e r t i c a l p l a n e m u s t b e s u c h t h a t t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n ot t h e t e r r a i n from t h e v e r t i c a l o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s as u n i f o r m as p o s s i b l e o v e r t h e e n t i r e e f f e c t i v e r a d i u s of t h e r a d a r . T o do t h i s , i t i s n e c e s ­ s a r y t o h a v e t h e maximum a m o u n t o f w a v e e n e r g y t r a n s m i t t e d a t s m a l l /309

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a n g l e s t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e h o r i z o n , i . e . , o v e r t h e maximum r a n g e , and t o h a v e t h e s m a l l e s t amount of e n e r g y r a d i a t e d a l o n g t h e v e r t ­ ical of t h e aircraft. S u c h a c h a r a c t e r < s t i c is c a l l e d t h e c o s e c a n t square, i . e . , t h e r e f l e c t o r s i n t h e vert­ i c a l plane are given a shape such t h a t t h e a m o u n t of e n e r g y r a d i a t e d i n t o s p a c e is roughly proportional t o t h e square of t h e cosecant of t h e angle of t h e plane of the horizon t o the propagation direc­ tion.

I n some t y p e s o f r a d a r , a n a c i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i s emplQyed, :.e., one which i s s h a r p e s t i n b o t h t h e h o r i z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l p l a n e s , combin­ ing it with t h e cosesant-square i n the v e r t i c a l p l a n e , e . g . , by a s c a n n i n g c y c l e . Fig. 3.41. R a d a r Ant e n n a f o r Use A b o a r d This i s achieved by u s i n g s p e c i a l l y shaped Aircraft. reflectors with a telescoping deflector or b y s e n d i n g e n e r g y t o t h e a n t e n n a b y d i f f e r e n t wave g u i d e s f o r t h e a c i c u l a r a n d c o s e c a n t - s q u a r e a n t e n n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s af t h e r a d a r .
A n t e n n a s w i t h c o s e c a n t - s q u a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e u s e d �or c i r c u l a r - s c a n r a d a r , mounted below t h e f u s e l a g e o f t h e a i r c r a f t . Antennas w i t h combined r a d i a t i o n a r e u s e d f o r s e c t o r - s c a n r a d a r s and a r e mounted i n t h e n o s e o f t h e f u s e l a g e t o c o v e r o n l y t h e a r e a ahead of t h e aircraft. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e r a d a r s c r e e n i s made w i t h t h e c e n t e r d i s p l a c e d s o t h a t t h e maximum a r e a o f t h e s c r e e n c a n be used. Usually, t h e t i l t i n g of t h e t h e r e f o r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i s a d j u s t e d m a n u a l l y by means o f a s w i t c h on t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l o f antenna i n t h e v e r t i c a l plane (and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of t h e r a d i a t i o n ) a s p e c i a l e l e c t r i c a l d e v i c e and the radar.

4 ;

The t r a n s m i t t i n g a n t e n n a o f t h e r a d a r a c t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a s a receiving antenna, since t h e d i r e c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e a n t e n n a a r e r e v e r s e d , i . e . , u s e d b o t h for e m i t t i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g t h e wave e n e r g y . I n o r d e r f o r t h e p u l s e s o f wave e n e r g y e m i t t e d f r o m t h e t r a n s ­ m i t t e r n o t t o r e t u r n i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e wave g u i d e o f t h e r e c e i v e r , s p e c i a l a r r e s t e r s a r e u s e d w h i c h b l o c k t h e wave e n e r g y f r o m e n t e r ­ i n g t h e r e c e i v e r a t t h e moment w h e n t h e t r a n s m i t t e r i s o p e r a t i n g . The t r a n s m i s s i o n f r e q u e n c y o f t h e p u l s e s o f wave e n e r g y f r o m t h e t r a n s m i t t e r i s s e t s o t h a t t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l s b e t w e e n them a r e not s h o r t e r than those required f o r propagation of electromagnetic w a v e s t o t h e m o s t d i s t a n t o b j e c t a t a g i v e n o p e r a t i n g r a n g e for t h e r a d a r and f o r i t s r e t u r n t o t h e a i r c r a f t . When u s i n g t h e r a d a r a t large-scale settings, the decrease i n t h e pulse duration is

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c o i n c i d e s w i t h 325 . C i r c u l a r i n d i c a t o r s a r e t h e o n e s which a r e o f g r e a t e s t i n t e r ­ e s t from t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t ( F i g . To pick out r i v e r s and l a k e s . t o examine p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . t o a l l o w t h e f r e q u e n c y of t h e k l y s t r o n t o b e c h a n g e d . The s i g n a l s r e c e i v e d b y t h e a n t e n n a a r e mi x ed w i t h t h e f r e ­ quency o f t h e k l y s t r o n . a n i n t e r m e d i i i t . e f r e q u e n c y i s p r o d u c e d which t h e n g o e s on ( a f t e r d e t e c t i o n a n d a m p 1 i f i c a t i o n ) t o c o n t r o l t h e b r i g h t ­ n e s s o f t h e s c a n n i n g beam. F o r i m p r o v e d c o n t r a s t o f t h e i m a g e on t h e s c r e e n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of t h e r a d a r which w e have d i s c u s s e d above. For example. t h i s means t h a t a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s ( i . 4 2 ) .l e v e l s i g n a l s a r e i n c r e a s e d and t h e low-level s i g n a l s a r e reduced (by decreasing t h e b r i g h t n e s s of t h e background of t h e s c r e e n ) . T h e r e f o r e . t h e h i g h . t h e r e i s a n a u t o m a t i c f r e q u e n c y a d j u s t e r (AFA). e t c . Hence. I t should be mentioned t h a t f o r t h e formation of high-frequency p u l s e s by t h e t r a n s m i t t e r .r a n g e . s o t h a t i t s i n d i c a t o r m u s t b e made s o t h a t a l l r e q u i r e d n a v i g a t i o n a l measurements can be performed satisfac­ t o r i l y with it. t h u s p r e ­ a v e r a g e power of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . t h e s e u n i t s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e wave g u i d e s o f t h e /311 t r a n s m i t t e r ) a r e hermetically s e a l e d and t h e r e q u i r e d p r e s s u r e i s m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e m b y a s p e c i a l pump or b y s y s t e m s f o r p r e s s u r i z i n g the aircraft cabin. t h u s improving t h e v i s i b i l i t y of shaded o b j e c t s a g a i n s t a b r i g h t e r g e n e r a l background. I n d i c a t o r s of A i r c r a f t N a v i g a t i o n a E R a d a r s The a i r c r a f t r a d a r i s a n a u t o n o m o u s g o n i o m e t r i c . t h e low-level s i g n a l s are i n c r e a s e d . v e r y h i g h v o l t a g e s m u s t b e p r o d u c e d i n t h e m o d u l a t o r . t h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e r a d a r c a n u s e a s e p a r a t e s i g n a l a m p l i f i e r which This makes it p o s s i b l e t o d i s ­ o p e r a t e s a t h i g h a n d low l e v e l s . 3 . a t l o w atmo­ s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e ) . t h e r e c e p ­ reflected signals takes place i n the t i m e intervals p u l s e s o f wave e n e r g y e m i t t e d b y t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . I n p a r t i c u l a r . The c e n t e r o f t h i s i n d i c a t o r . t h e r e may b e f l a s h o v e r s i n t h e w i r i n g o f t h e s e units. . The r a d a r r e c e i v e r s h a v e s p e c i a l vacuum d e v i c e s ( k l y s t r o n s f o r g e n e r a t i n g h i g h f r e q u e n c y ) w h i c h p l a y t h e same r o l e a s h e t e r ­ odynes i n c o n v e n t i o n a l r e c e i v e r s .accompanied serving the t i o n of t h e between t h e by a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n f r e q u e n c y . t h e r e c e i v e r h a s a d d i t i o n a l c i r c u i t s and c o n t r o l units.f i n d ­ i n g a n d s i g h t i n g d e v i c e . t i n g u i s h s h a d e d or i l l u m i n a t e d o b j e c t s o n t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e a s desired. i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e devices f o r a d j u s t i n g t h e o v e r a l l amplification of t h e r e c e i v e r . e . m a r k i n g t h e ' p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t a g a i n s t t h e panorama o f t h e f i e l d of v i s i o n .

"beam s c a n f o c u s " . i n t h e upper p a r t of i t i s a c o u r s e m a r k i n g which shows t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e l o n g i t u d ­ The s c a l e of b e a r i n g s i s s e t t o i t s i n a l axis of t h e aircraft. t h e r e are other controls: "scale illumination". The s i g h t i n g l i n e s o f t h e i n d i c a t o r a r e m a r k e d on t h e p r o t e c ­ t i v e g l a s s o f t h e s c r e e n .43). r a d a r s c r e e n s h a v e somewhat fewer p o s s i b i l i t i e s (Fig. t h u s c o m p l i c a t i n g t h e d e t e r ­ m i n a t i o n o f b e a r i n g s a n d t h e m o t i o n o f l a n d m a r k s on t h e s c r e e n . f o r s e t t i n g t h e course o f t h e aircraft by t h e c o u r s e markings. F o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n s i g h t i n g . Thus. i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e "course" and " s i g h t " adjustments . own d i v i s i o n s b y m e a n s o f a " c o u r s e ' l . as w e l l as t h e p r o v i s i o n a l l i n e o f motion of t h e landmark f o r purposes of determining t h e d r i f t angle /312 a n d t h e g r o u n d s p e e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e t r a v e r s e of t h e f l i g h t over t h e landmark. t r a n s v e r s e s i g h t i n g l i n e i s p r o v i d e d f o r i n d i c a t i n g t r a v e r s e s when f l y i n g o v e r landmarks. which c a n b e r o t a t e d manually. a n d t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e luminous course l i n e s of t h e a i r c r a f t may a l s o b e i n c l u d e d . I n t h e lower p a r t of t h e i n d i c a t o r u n i t . t h r e e movable p o i n t s f o r l o n g i t u d i n a l s i g h t i n g l i n e s a r e p r o v i d e d . "beam b r i g h t n e s s a d j u s t m e n t " . Sector-type 3. 3. i t s d i s t a n c e . and one . r a c k a n d p i n i o n d e v i c e . t h e r e i s n o p o s s i b i l i t y for u s i n g a r o t a t i n g s c a l e o f b e a r i n g s or s i g h t i n g l i n e s . Instead. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e b e a r i n g s i n t h i s c a s e i s made b y a d d i n g t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e landmark t o t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t by t h e f o r m u l a : 326 . t h e c i r c u l a r s c r e e n of t h e r a d a r can b e used t o measure b e a r ­ Fig. c i r c u l a r d i s t a n c e markings appear on t h e s c r e e n . t h e screen i s f i t t e d with a system of divergent l i n e s f o r t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of t h e landmark ( C A L ) . When t h e r a d a r i s o p e r a t i n g . Since t h e c e n t e r of r o t a t i o n ( t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e aircraft o n t h e s c r e e n ) i s s h i f t e d f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s c r e e n on t h i s t y p e o f i n d i c a t o r . which c a n b e r o t a t e d by means o f " s i g h t " rack and p i n i o n .the center of the screen. Indicator for i n g s p r e c i s e l y or d e t e r m i n e t h e c o u r s e Radar w i t h Screen' angle of a landmark.42. accord­ i n g t o t h e r e a d i n g s of t h e c o u r s e i n s t r u m e n t s . a n d some t y p e s o f i n d i ­ c a t o r s a l s o have a " v e r t i c a l and h o r i ­ zontal centering of scan". Around t h e e d g e o f t h i s s c r e e n i s a s c a l e of b e a r i n g s .

The v i s i b i l i t y a n d o u t l i n e s o f t h e s e l a n d m a r k s d e p e n d on t h e n u m b e r and l o c a t i o n of m e t a l s t r u c t u r e s and c o v e r i n g s i n t h e o b j e c t .43. using t h e l i n e s of t h e c o u r s e a n g l e s a n d t h e g r o u n d s p e e d when p a s s i n g o v e r t h e d i s t a n c e m a r k i n g s on t h e s c r e e n . An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s c o n s t i t u t e d by l a n d ­ m a r k s w h i c h move a c r o s s t h e s c r e e n i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y of t h e course Fig. when t h e s e b o d i e s o f w a t e r a r e c o v e r e d b y a smooth l a y e r o f i c e . I t i s very d i f f i c u l t and n o t always p o s s i b l e on t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e moment o f f l y i n g o v e r t h e t r a v e r s e s of landmarks.l e v e l s i g n a l s a n d a minimum a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l o w level signals. e s p e c i a l l y a g a i n s t f o r e s t e d areas. R i v e r s and l a k e s . 3. R i v e r s and l a k e s c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a m p l i f y i n g t h e low-level s i g n a l s t o i n c r e a s e t h e b r i g h t n e s s of t h e e n t i r e background 327 . Popu­ l a t e d a r e a s a n d i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s a p p e a r as b r i g h t s p o t s on t h e s c r e e n .180° + 6. w i t h s h a r p l y bounded o u t l i n e s . Large populated a r e a s and i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . + CAL + . and c a n b e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e f o r Sector-Type Radar. I n t h e w i n t e r . D u r i n g t h e summer. 2. T h i s means t h a t t h e o u t l i n e s of t h e landmarks c o i n c i d e c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r o u t ­ l i n e s o n a c h a r t or a s t h e y a r e s e e n b y v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n . I c e p a c k s on r i v e r s c a n b e s e e n i n t h e f o r m o f b r i g h t s p o t s a g a i n s t a d a r k e r b a c k g r o u n d o f snow c o v e r e d banks. Indicator m a r k i n g . t h e s e l a n d m a r k s a r e v i s i b l e as d a r k a r e a s a n d s p o t s whose o u t l i n e s m a t c h t h o s e o f t h e landmarks a g a i n s t t h e a l i g h t e r background of t h e surrounding ter­ rain. N a t u r e of t h e V i s i b i Z i t y of Landmarks on t h e S c r e e n of a n A i r c r a f t Radar For purposes of a i r c r a f t navigation using aircraft r a d a r . P o p u l a t e d a r e a s s h o w u p m o s t c l e a r l y w i t h maximum a m p l i f i c a ­ t i o n o f t h e h i g h . I n s t e a d o f v i s u a l i z i n g t h e movement o f landmarks. t h e d r i f t a n g l e by t h e p a r a l l e l i s m of t h e i r s h i f t i n g .m e t a l l i c c o v e r i n g s s h o w u p much l e s s c l e a r l y / 3 1 3 and a r e v i s i b l e from s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e s t h a n m e t a l s t r u c t u r e s and coverings. a s g r o u p s o f s t r u c t u r e s w i t h n o n . t h e s o l u t i o n of n a v i g a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s on t h e s e i n d i c a t o r s i s more o f t e n accomplished by a succession of m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e LA on a c h a r t . following landmarks can be used: the 1. as a r u l e .TBL = TC TBA = T C + CAL. o n l y t h e r i v e r v a l l e y s a r e s e e n .

i n a form which i s v e r y c l o s e t o t h e i r n a t u r a l one.l e v e l s i g n a l s r e d u c e s t h e con­ t r a s t of t h e images o f t h e s e dangerous s t o r m s . and t h e r e ­ f o r e w i t h i n t e n s e t u r b u l e n c e and h i g h i n t e n s i t y of e l e c t r i c a l f i e l d s ) a p p e a r on t h e s c r e e n i n t h e f o r m o f b r i g h t s p o t s w i t h d i f f u s e e d g e s . Then t h e d a r k o b j e c t s w i l l b e o b s e r v e d as s t i l l d a r k e r areas a g a i n s t t h e l i g h t background. I n summer. Use o f A i r c r a f t Radar f o r P u r p o s e s of A i r c r a f t N a v i g a ­ t i o n and A v o i d a n c e o f Dangerous M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Phenomena Aircraft r a d a r can b e used t o s o l v e a l l problems of aircraft n a v i g a t i o n . A m p l i f i c a t i o n o f l o w . d e p e n d i n g on t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e a n d t h e v i e w i n g r a n g e .of t h e screen. 5. Highway and r a i l w a y b r i d g e s . it i s necessary (besides adjusting t h e a m p l i f i c a t i o n l e v e l of t h e r e c e i v e r ) t o choose t h e p r o p e r i n c l i n ­ A s a r u l e . 328 . Mountains. b y a m p l i f y i n g t h e l o w . landmarks which a r e l o c a t e d a t i o n of t h e r a d a r antenna. Forested areas. T h e s e l a n d m a r k s show up e s p e c ­ The r a i l w a y s i a l l y w e l l a g a i n s t t h e background of l a r g e r i v e r s . as t h e y appear t o v i s u a l observation. 3. t h e m s e l v e s s h o w u p c l e a r l y o n l y when t h e r e a r e e m b a n k m e n t s or s t e e l s t r u c t u r e s for s u p p o r t i n g c a t e n a r i e s f o r e l e c t r i f i e d r a i l w a y s . a g a i n s t a background of v e g e t a t i o n and c u l t i v a t e d areas. i . b u t areas of r a d a r shadows b e g i n t o a p p e a r . The i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e a n t e n n a c a n b e s e l e c t e d t o p r o v i d e t h e optimum c l a r i t y o f t h e i m a g e s of t h e l a n d m a r k s on t h e s c r e e n . T h e s e s t o r m s c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d v e r y w e l l w i t h maximum a m p l i ­ f i c a t i o n o f h i g h . I n o b s e r v i n g t e r r e s t r i a l landmarks a n d c l o u d s i n which t h e r e is thunderstorm a c t i v i t y . f o r e s t s a r e seen v e r y dimly and c a n n o t b e u s e d as l a n d m a r k s . b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of l a n d m a r k s o v e r which t h e a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g and e n d i n g w i t h measurement of a l l b a s i c elements of aircraft navigation. Mountains c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a s u i t a b l e s e l e c t i o n o f s i g n a l a m p l i f i c a t i o n a t b o t h h i g h a n d low levels.l e v e l s i g n a l s a n d minimum a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f l o w level signals. Areas w h i c h are dangerous f o r f l i g h t (with a l a r g e . e . c l o s e t o t h e aircraft are observed with an increased i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e a n t e n n a downward.l e v e l s i g n a l s . w h i l e t h o s e f u r t h e r away ( a n d s t o r m c l o u d s ) / 3 1 4 a r e v i e w e d w i t h a s l i g h t i n c l i n a t i o n d o w n w a r d or w i t h t h e a n t e n n a aimed upward. a g a i n s t a g e n e r a l background of snow-covered s u r f a c e . T h e s e l a n d m a r k s a p p e a r on t h e r a d a r s c r e e n . i n summer.d r o p l e t s t r u c t u r e . 4. which a r e v e r y c l e a r on t h e s c r e e n a n d are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i g n s of storm clouds. t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o w e r f u l cumulus a n d cumulonim­ b u s c l o u d s shows up v e r y c l e a r l y on r a d a r s c r e e n s . Landmarks o f t h i s t y p e c a n o n l y be s e e n c l e a r l y i n w i n t e r .

i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e correction f o r t h e deviation of t h e meridians. e . which always h a s a n e g a t i v e s i g n : AR = - ( v o m. and s e t t i n g t h e beam b r i g h t n e s s o n t h e s c r e e n . one must u s e a r a d a r s c a l e o f 1 0 0 km. W i t h a n i n d i c a t o r s c r e e n r a d i u s o f 5 5 m m . c h a r a c ­ t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s of t h e s h o r e s o f r i v e r s and l a k e s . a d j u s t ­ i n g t h e i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e a n t e n n a t o t h e p r o p e r a n g l e . H e n c e . i f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e radar permits. T h e r e f o r e .000. The s h a r p e s t d i s t i n c t i o n o f r a d a r l a n d m a r k s i s o b t a i n e d by u s i n g t h e p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n of c o n t r a s t i n t h e i mag e b y u s i n g v a r ­ i o u s a m p l i f i c a t i o n s of t h e s i g n a l s a t h i g h and low l e v e l s . the bearing of t h e aircraft is o b t a i n e d by a d d i n g t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e and t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e l a n d m a r k . e t c . a n i m a g e s c a l e of 1:1. 0 0 0 . i f t h e d i f f e r ­ ence i n t h e l a t i t u d e s of t h e landmark and l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t is significant.R). 1 1 0 km i s p o s s i b l e . i . When u s i n g c i r c u l a r s c a n r a d a r . t h e measurement must i n c l u d e a c o r r e c t i o n A R . a s i s d o n e when u s i n g a i r c r a f t r a d i o c o m p a s s e s w i t h n o n ­ integrated indicators. Point l a n d m a r k s i n t h i s c a s e c a n b e t h e c e n t e r s of p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . p l o t t i n g t h e b e a r i n g and d i s t a n c e from a landmark t o t h e a i r c r a f t on a c h a r t . However. 0 0 0 . when m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e s t o l a n d m a r k s . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d v e r y a c c u r a t e l y i n terms of t h e b e a r i n g and d i r e c t i o n from a p o i n t landmark. t h e S measurement o f d i s t a n c e s w i t h a n a i r c r a f t r a d a r means t h a t t h e r a d a r / 3 1 5 m e a s u r e s n o t t h e h o r i z o n t a l b u t t h e o b l i q u e d i s t a n c e ( O D ) of t h e landmark. i n d i v i d u a l mountain peaks .000 p r o d u c e s a r a n g e o f 5 5 km o n t h e s c r e e n . and R is the horizontal distance. w i t h a r o t a t i n g s c a l e o f b e a r ­ i n g s .For r e c o g n i t i o n o f t e r r e s t r i a l l a n d m a r k s . H i s t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . when u s i n g c h a r t s w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 : 2 . i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o u s e o p e r a t i n g s c a l e s of t h e r a d a r which c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s c a l e s of f l i g h t c h a r t s . A s i n t h e c a s e when UW r a n g e f i n d i n g s y s t e m s a r e u s e d . In using sector-type radars. . R=OD-AR. t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e same m e t h o d used f o r goniometric-rangefinding n a v i g a t i o n a l USW systems. w h i c h a r e l e s s t h a n f i v e t i m e s t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e (H). This oper­ a t i n g s c a l e f o r t h e r a d a r i s m o s t s u i t a b l e when u s i n g m a p s w i t h a s c a l e o f 1 0 km t o 1 c m . 329 . where OD i s t h e o b l i q u e d i s t a n c e .

5 0. T h i s s p o t i s caZZed t h e a Z t i m e t r a Z a n d i s u s e d for meas­ u r i n g t h e t r u e a l t i t u d e of f l i g h t a b o v e t h e l o c a l r e l i e f . s u c h a s l o o .1.B 0.u .5 1.? 0 0 00 .5 1.O I t 0 1.0 1. when a dark s p o t appears i n t h e middle of t h e i n d i c a t o r s c r e e n with a s h a r p l i m i t for t h e b e g i n n i n g o f i m a g e f o r m a t i o n .0 00 . t h e b e a r i n g s c a l e must b e s e t t o 350° o p p o s i t e t h e c o u r s e m a r k i n g . T o d o t h i s ..0 0. The b e g i n n i n g of image f o r m a t i o n i s s e p a r a t e d from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e s c r e e n by a d i s t a n c e w h i c h i s e q u a l t o t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e on t h e s c a n n i n g scale.0 0.5 1. t h e b e a r i n g s c a l e must b e s e t t o loo o p p o s i t e t h e c o u r s e m a r k i n g . t h e s c a l e o f b e a r i n g s on t h e i n d i c a t o r m u s t b e s e t n o t t o t h e c o u r s e of t h e a i r c r a f t .0 2.5 KX 1. .0 0. 00 . a n d t h e r e f o r e a p o s i t i v e l e a d a n g l e .o 0.o 00 .o 00 ' 0. w i t h a n e g a t i v e d r i f t a n g l e . ~ K.0 ..5 0.0 .o 0.5 0.o 0. t h e p a t h b e a r i n g o f t h e l a n d m a r k (PBL) w i l l b e e q u a l t o 30°.0 0.. w i t h LA = y-JI = .1.5 1.O 3.5 250 !.5 1. b u t t o t h e l e a d a n g l e (LA) o n t h e course of t h e a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e t o a g i v e n orthodromic path a n g l e o f f l i g h t or d r i f t a n g l e .If t h e o b l i q u e d i s t a n c e t o t h e l a n d m a r k i s e q u a l t o t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e ( t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e becomes e q u a l t o the oblique distance).1.O O.3.O 2. the horizontal distance w i l l be equal t o zero.O 4.0 0.5 015 1.0 4. w i t h a c o u r s e a n g l e o f 4 0 ° .O 5. 040 0. T h i s i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p a n o r a m a o f t h e i m a g e . 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 I 2.O *3.o For m a k i n g c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e m e a s u r e d d i s t a n c e s f o r t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e a i r c r a f t c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y m e a n s o f a i r c r a f t r a d a r and d i r e c t l y i n s t a g e s of orthodromic c o o r d i n a t e s . TABLE 3.. g . b e a r i n g o f t h e l a n d m a r k (PBL).o 0. w e can use Table 3.5 3.5 660 10.O 0. 0. w e can v e r y s i m p l y d e t e r m i n e t h e o r t h o d r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s o f t h e aircraft: / 316 330 I . e .u .5 2. 0. Flight1 a l t i t u d e .o 0.- 1 1 2 1 3 i 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 _­ 1 0 1 1 1 ) 12 1 c ) r r e c t i onsr.0 2. 0.o ­ 630 430 3.5 1.O 0.5 240 2.0 0. 5. .O 2.O 2.0 1.l o o .5 0.0 1. The s i g h t i n g d e v i c e c a n t h e n b e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p a t h For e x a m p l e .o 00 . Knowing t h e p a t h b e a r i n g a n d t h e d i s t a n c e t o a l a n d m a r k ( R ) .0 0.

h a n d s i d e .125~sin50" 250. Find t h e coordinates of t h e aircraft X Solution: X = 250 . Fig.44. w h i l e t h e v a l u e s R s i n ( 9 0 ° . - Rsin(9OO-PBL). w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o a p l o t t i n g o f t h e b e a r i n g s on t h e f l i g h t c h a r t . 2 km t o t h e l e f t o f t h e L G F . The s l i d e r i n d i c a t o r i s t h e n s e t on s c a l e 3 t o t h e mark­ i n g which corresponds t o 90° -PBL and P B L . and 2 . 3 . it i s very convenient t o use t h e cal­ culating navigational slide rule. t h e r e remains only t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of these values from t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e landmark and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e aircraft coordinates.96 = 156 K A . 3. 2 1 = 8 0 km a n d i s o b s e r v e d w i t h a p a t h b e a r i n g o f 40° a s a d i s t a n c e o f 1 2 5 km.X = X 1 - RcosPBL = X 2 = 2 1 - 1 RsinPBL. t h e d i r e c t i o n i s reckoned from a ground beacon t o t h e a i r c r a f t . 0 @ 40" 82 5 96 V 125 n I n s o l v i n g t h i s problem. The r a d a r l a n d m a r k h a s o r t h o d r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s X1 = 2 5 0 km. t h e t r i a n g u l a r i n d e x on s c a l e 4 i s s e t t o t h e d i s t a n c e of t h e landmark a l o n g scale 5. = Z=80-~25*~0~40~=80-82=--!2~~~. Then I t should be mentioned t h a t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t c o o r d i n a t e s when f l y i n g o v e r t h e t r a v e r s e o f a l a n d m a r k i s a d v a n ­ t a g e o u s . T h e p r o b l e m i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s i m p l i f i e d when t h e p a t h b e a r i n g of t h e landmark i s e q u a l t o 90° ( f l i g h t o v e r t h e t r a v e r s e of t h e landmark). 7 1 ) and ( 1 .r a n g e f i n d i n g s y s t e m s . To d o t h i s .1 O M . These formulas are d i f f e r e n t from ( 1 . This is explained b y t h e f a c t t h a t when w e a r e u s i n g g o n i o m e t r i c . Determination of Orthodromic Coordinates of a n A i r c r a f t on t h e N L . 4 4 ) . s i n c e i n t h i s case t h e e r r o r s i n measuring t h e p a t h b e a r ­ i n g o f t h e l a n d m a r k h a v e a b s o l u t e l y n o e f f e c t on t h e a c c u r a c y o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l a t e r a l d e v i a t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t f r o m t h e /317 331 . T h u s we h a v e f o u n d t h a t t h e a i r c r a f t i s l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e o f 1 5 6 km f r o m t h e l a s t P B L . A f t e r t h i s . w h i l e i n t h i s case i t i s r e c k o n e d from t h e a i r c r a f t t o a ground landmark. 7 1 a ) only i n t h e s i g n o f t h e s e c o n d t e r m s on t h e r i g h t .P B L ) and R s i n P B L a r e s e t on s c a l e 5 ( F i g . Example.

However . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l methods o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d r i f t a n g l e and t h e g r o u n d s p e e d by v i s u a l means. The g r o u n d s p e e d o f t h e a i r c r a f t a n d d r i f t a n g l e c a n b e d e t e r ­ m i n e d m o s t e a s i l y w i t h t h e a i d of a i r c r a f t r a d a r by u s i n g s u c c e s s i v e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e L A . f o r an accurate c o n t r o l of t h e path. How­ e v e r . This is very u s e f u l f o r monitoring t h e path i n t e r m s o f d i r e c t i o n a n d c o r r e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e a i r c r a f t by u s i n g a u t o n o m o u s D o p p l e r m e a s u r e m e n t s of t h e g r o u n d s p e e d a n d d r i f t angle. Therefore. L e t u s d i s c u s s s e v e r a l of them which a r e most o f t e n employed: 1. i f v i s u a l p o i n t s l i e i n t h e f i e l d o f v i s i o n of t h e r a d a r which do n o t a l l o w t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r ­ c r a f t t o b e d e t e r m i n e d ) s i n c e t h e y do n o t a p p e a r on t h e c h a r t . I n some c a s e s . s c r i b e d above. T h i s p r o b l e m c a n t h e n b e s o l v e d i n t h e same way a s f o r c i r c ­ ular-screen radars. t h e y a r e s u i t a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d r i f t a n g l e and t h e g r o u n d s p e e d by v i s u a l methods. it i s n o t possible t o determine t h e markings of t h e t r a v e r s e of f l i g h t s over landmarks. Measurement o f t h e d r i f t a n g l e o f an a i r c r a f t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e secondary Doppler e f f e c t . c a s e . i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o u s e o t h e r m e t h o d s f o r d e t e r ­ mining t h e ground speed ( e . . t h e b e t t e r t h e r e s o l v i n g p o w e r of t h e radar i n a tangential direction (perpendicular t o the radius /318 of t h e scan). i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p r a c t i c a l f o r measurements of t h e d r i f t The f a c t i s t h a t f o r a n a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e ­ angle of an a i r c r a f t . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d r i f t a n g l e q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y a n d r a p i d l y . The d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e c h a r a c ­ t e r i s t i c of r a d i a t i o n from an a i r c r a f t r a d a r i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e i s made a s n a r r o w a s p o s s i b l e . t h e p r a c t i c a l width o f t h e beam i s 2-3O. g . The n a r r o w e r t h e beam f o r t h e p r o p ­ a g a t i o n of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c w a v e s . s o t h a t t h e method of s u c c e s s i v e measurements of t h e l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t r e q u i r e s a l a r g e b a s e for m e a s u r e m e n t s . Therefore. due t o t h e l a c k o f s i g h t i n g l i n e s . T h i s m e t h o d o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e o r t h o d r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s of a n In this aircraft is a l s o suitable f o r use with sector-type radars. However. However. taking i n t o account t h e reduced accuracy of d i r e c t i o n finding. i n o r d e r t o p r o d u c e a v e r y n a r r o w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r a d i a t i o n .t y p e s c r e e n s as a r u l e . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o image t h e landmarks a t c o u r s e a n g l e s which a r e as l a r g e as p o s s i b l e . 332 . e s p e c i a l l y i n o r t h o ­ d r o m i c c o o r d i n a t e s .l i n e of f l i g h t . t h e method u s e d f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e g r o u n d s p e e d o n t h e b a s i s o f s u c c e s s i v e m e a s u r e m e n t s of t h e l o c u s o f t h e a i r c r a f t . when i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o p l o t t h e l o c u s o f The e s s e n c e o f t h i s met h o d h a s b e e n d e­ t h e a i r c r a f t on a c h a r t . ( l o c u s of t h e a i r c r a f t ) . w e m u s t u s e a n a n t e n n a r e f l e c t o r on t h e r a d a r which h a s v e r y l a r g e d i m e n s i o n s . m e n t t o b e made a l o n g a g i v e n p a t h . on s e c t o r . t h e p a t h b e a r i n g o f t h e landmark i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o r m u l a PBL = C A L + LA.

3. L e t u s s a y t h a t w e h a v e s t o p p e d t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e r a d a r an­ tenna a t a c e r t a i n angle t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t ' s motion (Fig. 3. Angle f3 h e r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e a n t e n n a p o s i t i o n o f t h e r a d a r . when r e ­ ceived aboard t h e aircraft. t h e l e f t . so t h a t f D R -cos(P-u+- 2 ') '. For t h e s a k e o f s i m p l i c i t y . T h u s . w e can see t h e r e f l e c t i o n of t h e electromag­ n e t i c waves f r o m t h e e l e m e n t a r y a r e a S which w e have s e l e c t e d . F L I n t h e p i c t u r e . The h i g h f r e q u e n c y r e f l e c t e d f r o m t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e .c a l l e d s e c o n d a r y D o p p l e r e f f e c t . while t h e angle a r e p r e s e n t s t h e d r i f t angle of t h e aircraft. The f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e l e f t ( L ) a n d r i g h t ( R ) b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e beam w i l l b e c o m b i n e d i n t h e r e c e i v e r a n d p r o d u c e a n i n t e r m e d i a t e 333 . w i l l n o t be equal t o t h e frequency r a d i a t e d by t h e r a d a r .45. f3-a). where f D i s t h e Doppler frequency. b u t w i l l h a v e a c e r t a i n p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e f r e ­ quency s h i f t which i s c a l l e d t h e Doppler e f f e c t . l e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e D o p p l e r e f f e c t o n l y f o r t w o e x t r e m e l i m i t s o f t h e b e a m w i t h a common c h a r a c t e r ­ i s t i c o f r a d i a t i o n d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . The e s s e n c e o f t h i s method i s t h e f o l l o w i n g .h a n d e d g e o f t h e beam i s g r e a t e r t h a n on t h e r i g h t .The w i d e n i n g o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f d i r e c t i o n a l i t y w i t h i n these l i m i t s is undesirable i n principle f o r surveying the terrain. ' R F i g . L e t us a l s o n o t e t h a t t h e Doppler e f f e c t i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e cosine of t h e angle between t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e a i r c r a f t ' s m o t i o n a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e wave p r o p a g a t i o n ( i .h a n d beam R i n o u r d i a g r a m . e .h a n d s i d e of t h e beam w i l l b e s o m e w h a t h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f r o m t h e r i g h t .h a n d beam i s m a r k e d L a n d t h e r i g h t . The s o l u t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i l l b e r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e angle 6 . s o t h a t t h e frequency r e c e i v e d by t h e a n t e n n a from t h e l e f t . C r e a t i o n of t h e Secondary Doppler E f f e c t .45). . b u t can be used very advantageously f o r measuring t h e d r i f t angle by t h e s o .h a n d s i d e . w e s e e t h a t t h e D o p p l e r e f f e c t on t h e l e f t .

f r e q u e n c y as f o l l o w s /319 which w i l l amount t o a m p l i t u d e m o d u l a t i o n o f t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l . t h e b e a t f r e q u e n c y w i l l b e v e r y low ( e x p r e s s e d i n H e r t z ) . s i n c e each of t h e luminous p o i n t s i s r a p i d l y c r o s s e d b y t h e s c a n n i n g beam a n d a p p e a r s on t h i s s c r e e n as an i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t w i t h s u b s e q u e n t a f t e r g l o w . . fDR--c0s- 8 2 . a s w e l l as t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e antenna. i n b o t h t h e h i g h a n d low s i g n a l l e v e l s . B=a. If t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e a n t e n n a s l o w l y a p p r o a c h e s t h e d i r e c ­ t i o n i n which t h e a i r c r a f t i s moving. I t i s t h e n necessary t o make a corresponding ampli­ f i c a t i o n i n t h e r e c e i v e r for t h e common a m p l i f i c a t i o n c h a n n e l .+cos -. Now l e t u s s a y t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a n t e n n a c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e a i r c r a f t i s m o v i n g . I n a c t u a l i t y . i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e s c a n n i n g l i n e s on t h e s c r e e n w i t h naximum s e c o n d a r y D o p p l e r e f f e c t . i .’ a n d t h e a m p l i t u d e m o d u l a t i o n f r o m t h e e d g e s o f t h e beam w i l l b e absent. t h e b e a t i n g o f t h e f r e ­ quencies is n o t n o t i c e a b l e t o t h e e y e . when i t s d i r e c t i o n d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h e d i r e c t i o n i n which t h e a i r c r a f t i s moving. u s i n g a s c a n n i n g d e l a y o f 2 0 km.s c a l e o p e r ­ a t i o n o f t h e r a d a r ( 2 0 km f o r t h e s c r e e n r a d i u s ) . e . w h i l e t h e v i s u a l e f f e c t o f t h e b e a t i s maximum. A slow b u t b r i g h t f l a s h i n g o f t h e l u m i n o u s p o i n t s on t h e s c r e e n i n d i c a t e s a c o i n c i d e n c e of t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a n t e n n a w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n The d r i f t a n g l e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i n which t h e a i r c r a f t i s moving. t h e r e w i l l be a very low-frequency amplitude m o d u l a t i o n owing t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e D o p p l e r f r e q u e n c i e s of t h e e d g e s o f t h e beam r e l a t i v e t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e c e n t e r o f t h e beam ( t h e b i s e c t r i x o f t h e r a d i a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ) . Measurement i s performed b e s t o f a l l w i t h a l a r g e . A s l i g h t impression remains of t h e secondary Doppler e f f e c t i n a f i x e d a n t e n n a . 334 I . t h e luminous p o i n t s a l l b e g i n t o f l a s h a t a reduced frequency and increased amplitude. b u t d u e t o t h e very s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e c o s i n e s of t h e a n g l e s . With c i r c u l a r r o t a t i o n o f t h e a n t e n n a . s i n c e t h e f l i c k e r ­ i n g of t h e p o i n t s i n t h i s c a s e t a k e s p l a c e a t h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s and i s b l u r r e d by t h e a f t e r g l o w on t h e s c r e e n . Then t h e D o p p l e r f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e l e f t a n d r i g h t s i d e s o f t h e beam w i l l be uniform i n value and p r o p o r t i o n a l according t o t h e cosines 6/2: fDL 8 .

km/hr.46. Change i n t h e D r i f t A n g l e a n d Ground S p e e d o f a P o i n t Near t h e C o u r s e I n d i c a t o r on a R a d a r S c r e e n . at The g r o u n d s p e e d i s d e t e r m i n e d b y means o f r u l e (Fig. If a c l e a r l y v i s i b l e point is located near the line o f f l i g h t of t h e a i r c r a f t on t h e r a d a r s c r e e n . km. 335 . t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r f l i g h t a l t i t u d e f o r a d i s t a n c e o f 30 km i s a d d e d t o t h e l e n g t h o f t h e b a s e . t h e ground speed and t h e d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t can be measured by t h e movement o f t h i s p o i n t .t y p e r a d a r s have a s p e c i a l o p e r a t i n g regime and an a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r f o r measuring t h e d r i f t a n g l e according t o t h e secondary Doppler e f f e c t .47. A t t h e moment when t h e p o i n t b e i n g o b s e r v e d c r o s s e s t h e 6 0 km m a r k i n g . a ) . w i t h n e g a t i v e d r i f t a n g l e s b e i n g c a l c u l a t e d a s a d d e d t o 360O. Measurement o f t h e d r i f t angle and ground speed by s i g h t i n g p o i n t s near t h e course. 0 /320 2. t h e timer i s switched on. With a l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e i n s e l e c t i n g t h e r e c e i v e r a m p l i f i c a t i o n and t h e a n g l e f o r t i l t i n g t h e a n t e n n a . 3. To a v o i d g r o s s e r r o r s i n measurement due t o a l t i t u d e e r r o r s . T h u s . 5 km.5 a h e i g h t o f 1 0 km. a t a h e i g h t o f 9 km. The b e a r ­ i n g s c a l e of t h e r a d a r i s t h e n t h e c o u r s e i n d i c a t i o n . 30.One a d v a n t a g e o f t h e m e t h o d o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t according t o t h e secondary Doppler effect i s i t s high accuracy. a navigational slide L e t u s s a y t h a t a t a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e o f 1 0 km t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o f l y a l o n g t h e b a s e b e t w e e n t h e 60 a n d 30 km m a r k i n g s i s 2 m i n The g r o u n d s p e e d i n t h i s case i s 840 and 1 5 sec ( F i g .1 0 km. set with the zero division opposite s i g h t i s moved s o t h a t t h e l a n d m a r k lines (Fig. and t h e is located along its parallel c r o s s e s t h e 30 km m a r k i n g . b ) .46). 3 1 km. t h e t t i m e of t h e b a s e i s c a l c u l a t e d . S e v e r a l t y p e s o f s e c t o r . 3. Fig. t h e s i g h t i n g of t h e p o i n t s m u s t b e made a t d i s t a n c e s f r o m 6 0 t o 30 km. a t f l i g h t a l t i t u d e s o f 8 . When t h e o b j e c t t i m e r i s switched off and t h e f l i g h The d r i f t a n g l e i s c a l c u l a t e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e b e a r i n g s c a l e .47. measurements c a n b e made l i t e r a l l y w i t h i n s e v e r a l s e c o n d s . t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r a d i s t a n c e o f 6 0 km a s e q u a l t o z e r o . To determine t h e ground speed. 3 1 . t h e l e n g t h o f t h e b a s e t u r n s out t o be equal t o : A t a h e i g h t of 8 km. 3. 3.

47. t h e use of t r i a n g l e method makes i t p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t more f r e e l y m a r k s on t h e r a d a r s c r e e n i n o r d e r t o t r a c k them. . when t h e v e c t o r o f t h e motion of t h e t a r g e t p o i n t does n o t agree with t h e r a d i u s of t h e s c r e e n . a t l a r g e d r i f t a n g l e s .. 3. t h e t i m e r i s s w i t c h e d o f f . T h i s method convenient and p r e c i s e i n comparison t o t h e s i g h t i n g of of a landmark n e a r t h e c o u r s e . Fig. f t and t h e i s more t h e motion the right t h e land­ The b e a r i n g s c a l e o f t h e r a d a r i s s e t t o z e r o o p p o s i t e t h e c o u r s e m a r k i n g . e . I n a d d i t i o n . 3 . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of D r i f t Angle a n d Ground S p e e d b y Means o f a R i g h t Triangle. a f t e r which t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of t h e l a n d m a r k i s m e a s u r e d w i t h t h e s i g h t . t h e e r r o r i n m e a s u r i n g t h e f l i g h t t i m e on t h e b a s e ( w h i c h amounts t o 4 s e c ) produces an e r r o r i n measuring t h e ground speed of about 30 k m / h r . R 2 4 and t h e l e n g t h o f t h e measurement b a s e i s : 336 . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Ground Speed of a P o i n t Near t h e Course I n d i c a t o r on a Radar Screen. e r r o r s a r i s e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e measurement b a s e from t h e d i s t a n c e m a r k i n g s on t h e s c r e e n . I n addition. p e n d i c u l a r l i n e on t h e s i g h t ( F i g . t h e d i s t a n c e t o t h e landmark i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c i r c u l a r markings. g . 3. and t h e timer i s switched on. . C o r r e c t i o n s a r e t h e n made i n t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e o b l i q u e d i s t a n c e f o r t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e .48. F i g . 3 . .T h i s method can b e used w i t h s u f f i c i e n t a c c u r a c y f o r measuring The a c c u r a c y of d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h e d r i f t angle of t h e aircraft. Thus. t h e o p e r a t o r o b s e r v e s t h e m o t i o n o f t h e A t t h e moment w h e n i t c r o s s e s t h e p e r ­ landmark a c r o s s t h e s c r e e n .. Fig. 3. a n g l e c1 b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s i g h t i n g l i n e a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e move­ ment of t h e landmark i s t h e n d e t e r m i n e d as f o l l o w s : $a=-.48. . o f t h e g r o u n d s p e e d i s o b t a i n e d w i t h a low a n d t h e r e f o r e v e r y s m a l l /321 measurement b a s e . 4 8 ) . .47. 3. Leaving t h e s i g h t i n g i n s t r u ­ ment i n a f i x e d p o s i t i o n . a t an a i r s p e e d o f 900 km/hr. Determination of t h e d r i f t angle of t h e a i r c r a ground s p e e d b y means o f a r i g h t t r i a n g l e . i t s d i s t a n c e on t h e c i r c u l a r m a r k i n g s i s observed. F i g . and t h e f l i g h t t i m e along t h e b a s e i s c a l c u l a t e d ..

5O. T h e c o r r e c t i o n for t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e f o r t h e f i r s t d i s t a n c e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as e q u a l t o z e r o .18.49.5O = -10. b ) . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f ( a ) t h e Acute Angle o f a T r i ­ ( b ) t h e B a s e a n d ( c ) t h e Ground Speed on t h e NL-1OM. 5 O ( F i g .T h i s p r o b l e m i s e a s i l y s o l v e d on a n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e (Fig.50. The d r i f t a n g l e i s d e t e r m i n e d as t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e l a n d m a r k a n d t h e a n g l e c1 ( F i g . 3 . t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of i n i t i a l l y equal t o 8 O a t O D 1 = 6 0 km. 5 min a n d 35 s e c . 4 9 . H = 1 0 km) i s e q u a l t o 3 km.49. a ) and t h e l e n g t h of t h e measurement b a s e i s S = 6 0 km ( F i g . Keys f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e ( a ) A c u t e An g l e o f t h e T r i a n g l e a n d ( b ) Measurement Base on t h e N L . 3 . 3. On t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e . angle. T h e r e f ore U S = 8 . 3. w h i l e t h e g r o u n d s p e e d i s d e t e r m i n e d a s t h e l e n g t h of t h e b a s e r e l a ­ t i v e t o t h e t i m e required t o cover t h e distance (Fig. 3. The o b l i q u e d i s t a n c e a t t h e moment w h e n t h e l a n d m a r k c r o s s e s t h e t r a n s v e r s e The f l i g h t t i m e a l o n g t h e b a s e w a s l i n e i n t h e s i g h t w a s 2 3 km. F i n d t h e d r i f t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t a n d t h e ground speed. w e f i n d t h e a n g l e c1 = 1 8 . 5 0 . Fig. 337 I . A t Example. b ) . /322 F i g . 5 0 . 3. a f l i g h t a l t i t u d e o f 1 0 k m . a l a n d m a r k was S o l u t i o n . S O t h a t t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i s t a n c e i s HD2 = 2 0 km.1 O M . a ) . 3 .49). The c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e s e c o n d d i s t a n c e (OD = 2 3 k m .

Find t h e d r i f t a n g l e and t h e ground speed. (Fig. H = 1 0 km. t h e f l i g h t t i m e a l o n g t h e b a s e i s 8 min a n d 1 5 s e c . t h e d r i f t l i n e o f t h e a i r c r a f t i s d e t e r m i n e d by . t h e t i m e r i s s w i t c h e d on a n d t h e c o u r s e a n g l e of t h i s p o i n t i s m e a s u r e d . However.50. The crew t h e n w a i t s u n t i l t h i s p o i n t m o v e s a c r o s s t h e s c r e e n a n d c r o s s e s t h e same c i r c u l a r d i s t a n c e m a r k ­ i n g a t t h e r e a r cf t h e s c r e e n . rection f o r a l t i t u d e is considered t o be zero.the formula /323 us = CAL1tCAL2 . t h e crew w a i t s u n t i l i t r e a c h e s o n e o f t h e c i r c u l a r A t t h e moment when t h i s p o i n t c r o s s e s d i s t a n c e markings ( F i g . .3. HD1 = HD2 = 60 km. t h e d i s t a n c e m a r k i n g . . t h e t i m e r i s s w i t c h e d o f f a n d t h e c o u r s e a n g l e o f t h e p o i n t i s meas­ u r e d once a g a i n . S i n c e i n t h i s c a s e HD1 = HD2. 2 a n d if t h e p o i n t moves t o t h e l e f t of t h e c o u r s e l i n e + us or CALltCALp 2 360° . 4. T h i s method i s t h e most p r e c i s e of t h e methods which w e have d i s c u s s e d w h i c h u s e s i g h t i n g of l a n d m a r k s . t h e l i n e o f m o t i o n o f t h e p o i n t ( f r o m A t o B) i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e b i s e c t r i x b e t w e e n CALl a n d CAL2. us = CAL1tCAL7 - 2700. A t t h e moment w h e n i t c r o s s e s i t . 3. 2 To d e t e r m i n e t h e g r o u n d s p e e d . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e g r o u n d s p e e d a n d d r i f t a n g l e of a n a i r c r a f t by d o u b l e d i s t a n c e f i n d i n g u s i n g a s i g h t i n g p o i n t w i t h equal oblique distances. The g r o u n d s p e e d ( W ) i s t h e r e f o r e e q u a l t o 830 km/hr c).9 0 0 . CALI = 32O. . it c a l l s f o r t h e maximum t i m e f o r m e a s u r e m e n t a n d c a l c u l a t i o n . CAL2 = 152O. e . When a h i g h l y v i s i b l e p o i n t s h o w s u p i n t h e f o r w a r d p a r t o f t h e s c r e e n . a c o r r e c t i o n f o r f l i g h t a l t i ­ t u d e i s made i n t h e o b l i q u e d i s t a n c e a t p o i n t s A a n d B a n d t h e l e n g t h of t h e measurement b a s e i s determined by t h e formula S = 2Rsin CAL~-CALL 2 the cor­ If H D 1 = HD2 e x c e e d s f i v e t i m e s t h e f l i g h t a l t i t u d e . Example.51). i f t h e p o i n t moves t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e c o u r s e l i n e o f t h e a i r c r a f t . 338 .

w e can s o l v e t h e l a t t e r e q u a t i o n and f i n d t h e ground speed (Fig. CAL Fig. i F i g . W should mention t h a t i n s o l v i n g problems i n determining t h e e /324 d r i f t a n g l e o f an a i r c r a f t by t h e f o u r methods e n u m e r a t e d a b o v e . 3. 2 ' = ' B y u s i n g a n a v i g a t i o n a l s l i d e r u l e . o f f e r b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r automation of t h e processes of aircraft navigation and p i l o t a g e of aircraft. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e Ground Speed and D r i f t Angle by Double D i s ­ t a n c e F i n d i n g o f a Landmark a t E q u a l Oblique Distances. D i a g r a m of F o r m a t i o n o f D o p p l e r F r e ­ q u e n c y With a Moving O b j e c t . 3. Determination of ( a ) t h e M e a s u r e m e n t B a s e a n d (b) t h e G r o u n d Speed on t h e N L . Autonomous Doppler Meters f o r D r i f t A n g l e and G r o u n d S p e e d Autonomous m e t e r s f o r g r o u n d s p e e d a n d d r i f t a n g l e o f a n a i r ­ c r a f t .52. us 320+15i" '-90"e + 20. 3.120 sin 6 ° 0. 3. Sg105K-q wt=765 km /hr .Solution. 339 . Then t h e c o u r s e angles i n a l l t h e formulas w i l l b e r e p l a c e d by t h e b e a r i n g s of t h e landmarks.53. e . 3. t h e b e a r i n g s c a l e o f t h e r a d a r may b e s e t t o t h e a i r c r a f t c o u r s e r a t h e r than zero. 2 152.52. Fig. b a s e d on t h e D o p p l e r e f f e c t .51. Fig. according t o t h e orthodrome. g .60 ah--. .1 O M .51.32 S = 2. 3. a Fig.52). and t h e r e s u l t of t h e s o l u t i o n w i l l n o t be t h e d r i f t a n g l e b u t t h e a c t u a l f l i g h t a n g l e of t h e a i r c r a f t .

e With a movable s o u r c e . If t h e s o u r c e A r e m a i n s f i x e d r e l a t i v e t o o b j e c t B y t h e n a f t e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e which i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves t o t r a v e l from p o i n t A t o p o i n t B . L e t u s s a y t h a t w e h a v e a moving s o u r c e of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c o s c i l l a t i o n s a t a h i g h f r e q u e n c y A and a f i x e d o b j e c t B which r e f l e c t s these o s c i l l a t i o n s (Fig. automatic c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e aircraft path i n t i m e .a u t o m a t i c c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e p a t h on t h e b a s i s o f m o t i o n p a r a m e t e r s m e a s u r e d o v e r i n d i v i d ­ u a l segments i s a v e r y approximate and u n r e l i a b l e method. t h e number o f o s c i l l a t i o n s r e a c h i n g p o i n t B p e r u n i t t i m e i s i n c r e a s e d by t h e number of w a v e l e n g t h s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d b y t h e a i r c r a f t i n t h a t same u n i t time. T h e r e f o r e . e a c h s u c c e s s i v e c y c l e o f o s c i l l a t i o n s i s e m i t t e d somewhat c l o s e r t o t h i s p o i n t . f r e q u e n c y o f t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s (f) b o t h a t t h e a n d a t t h e p o i n t of r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e w av es w A . . and t h e propaga­ fixed source. /325 When t h e s o u r c e o f o s c i l l a t i o n s m o v e s t o w a r d p o i n t B . c c w I=---+ w A - A +Tr 340 . using t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l devices described above. A l l o t h e r r a d i o d e v i c e s f o r a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n make i t p o s s i b l e The m o t i o n p a r