‫ﻛﻠـﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺷـﻌﺒـﺔ ﻣﻜـﺘﺒـﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﺭﺿﻮﻱ ﻃﻠﻌﺖ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﲏ‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﺑﺴﻤﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺷﻮﻗﻲ‬

‫ﲢﺖ ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻑ ‪/‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ /‬ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺟﻮﺩﺕ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺔ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺕ ﲡﻬﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻧﺴﺠﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺧﻼﺕ ) ﻛﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ( ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﱯ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ‪-:‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻷﻛﱪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺗﺪﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﻜﻤﺎﺵ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
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‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻭ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺃﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﲡﻨﺐ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﺒﺬﻭﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻵﱄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ؟‪.‬‬

‫‪ .٨‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻹﻗﻼﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ .٩‬ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻵﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ .١٠‬ﺗﻘﺒﻴﺺ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺘﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪-:‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﻗــﻮﻯ ﺑـﺸــﺮﻳـﺔ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻣﺪﺭﺑﺔ ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻮﺳﺒﺔ‬
‫) ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ( ﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﻷﺟــﻬــﺰﺓ ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻵﱄ ﻭ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺧﺮﺍﺝ ) ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺸﻐﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‪....‬ﺇﱁ ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﺍﻟﺒــﺮﺍﻣــﺞ ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻏﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔﺣﻴﺚ ﳜﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻭ ﻳﻨﻔﺬﻫﺎ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .٤‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﺰﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻵﱄ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪On-line Catalog‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪Circulation‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ‪Acquisitions‬‬
‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺩ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ‪Cataloging‬‬
‫ﻩ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪Serials Control‬‬
‫ﻭ‪ -‬ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪Reference and Information‬‬
‫‪Retrieval‬‬

‫ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﱄ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ‪-:‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﺍﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﱃ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ‪ Input‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ‪٠‬‬
‫§ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﻴﺔ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬
‫§ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﻭﺗﻜﺸﻒ ﻭﺗﺮﺻﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﺎﻓﺎﺕ ‪٠‬‬
‫§ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻴﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻻﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻝ ‪٠‬‬
‫§ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺛﻴﻖ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲞﻄﻂ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .٢‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻼﺕ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪-:‬‬

‫§ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ‪ Origination‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪٠‬‬
‫§ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ‪ Verification‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻫﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ‪٠‬‬
‫§ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ‪ Classification‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﲡﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬
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‫ﻣﻘﻨﻨﻪ ﰲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ‪٠‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺯ ‪ Sorting‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﳐﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺻﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﰐ ﻛﺒﲑ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ‪ Storage‬ﻭﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﳊﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻻﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ‪ Retrieval‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﳎﺎﺯﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪٠‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻴﺺ ‪ Summarization‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺅ‪٠‬‬

‫§ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪ Reproduction‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺁﺧﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺍﻟﺒﺚ ‪ Dissemination‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺮ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .٣‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻵﱄ ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﱄ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﳚﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻤﻮﻟﲔ ﻭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﲔ‬
‫ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻭ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
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‫ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻛﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺁﱄ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻭ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .٤‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺒﲏ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٥‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﳐﻄﻂ ﺃﻭﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﲏ ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٦‬ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ :‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ) ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﻨﺔ ( ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﺳﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﳌﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﲡﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳊﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﻨﺔ ﻭ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ‪:‬‬
‫§ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪...........‬ﺇﱁ‬
‫§ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﻨﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻭ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫§ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺽ ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺭﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻰ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﲔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﲎ ‪‬ﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻮﳍﺎ ﻭ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺧﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﻭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ‪..........‬ﺇﱁ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٤‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻸﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻛﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٥‬ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٦‬ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻋﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ‪.........‬ﺇﱁ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٧‬ﺍﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٨‬ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
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‫‪ .٩‬ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻻﺇﺣﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﰲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .١٠‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻛﻼﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .١١‬ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻠﺮ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .١٢‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻓﲕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ‪ :‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫§ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻌﲑ ﲟﺎ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺳﻮﻓﻴﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﲑﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ‪......‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
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‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻤﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﲏ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻵﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺁﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫§ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻋﻬﺎ ﻓﻠﻜﻞ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ ﻇﺮﻭﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﳎﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺧﻄﻄﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻮ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ‪‬ﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺑﺮﺍﳎﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻻﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﳍﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ‪-:‬‬
‫§ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻀﻄﺮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﲏ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﳓﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪ ﲨﺔ ﺗﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﺄﺳﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻮﺳﺒﺔ ﺳﻴﺆﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺚ ﺍﻵﱄ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪(online‬ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬
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‫ﻭﺑﻨﻮﻙ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﻓﺮﺕ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﲏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﹰ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎﹰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻟﻴﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻘﺎﲰﻮ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﻏﲑﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﳝﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﻒ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﻒ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ‪. virtual library or museum‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ )‪ (Milliseconds‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻟﺪﻯ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﻳﻨﻔﺬ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺳﻮﻳﺎﹰ ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲣﺰﻥ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳜﻴﻞ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺘﺄﺩﻳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٤‬ﻳﻮﻟﺪ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﳌﺎ ﳚﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٥‬ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻮﺳﺒﺔ ﱂ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺗﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻛﺔ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﱪﺕ ﻗﺪﳝﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺣﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻛﺎﳌﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﲰﻌﻴﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺎﹰ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻸﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﺄﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٦‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻮﺳﺒﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻵﱄ ﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪ (On-line‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ‪ Resource Sharing‬ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫‪Telefax‬ﻭﺗﻨﺎﻗﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺎ )‪. (Electronic Document Delivery‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫§ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻴﻜﻨﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ )‪. (MARK‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﻨﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﳏﻮﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺧﺰﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﺎﹰ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﶈﻮﺳﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﹰ )‪ ، (MARC‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﺗﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻨﺼﺒﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ‪،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﺬﺕ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺻﺎﺭﻡ ﻭﺩﺍﺋﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳒﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻣﻌﲔ ﺃﻭﻻ ‪-:‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻫﻰ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ ؟‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﳒﺮﺱ ﰱ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻴﺔ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺼﺮﻡ ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺮﺕ ﻣﺎﻳﺴﻤﻲ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ)ﻓﻤﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺅﺓ ﺍﻟﻴﺎ(ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﺓﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﲤﻴﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻠﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻄﻮﺭﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﺧﲑﺍ ﺍﱃ ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﺳﻢ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ‪ ٢١‬ﻭﺍﺻﺒﺢ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻻﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﳒﺮﺱ ﺍﻻﻥ ﲟﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺭﻙ‪ ٢١‬ﻭﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮﻩ ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺍﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ ﰱ ﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﻻﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻣﻘﻨﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﱴ‬
‫ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﳏﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﻮﺏ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﶈﺪﺩﺍﺕ ﻫﻰ ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺠﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ﰱ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﻌﲔ‬
‫ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﻋﺖ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﳍﺎ ﻭ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‬
‫ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫§ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﶈﻮﺳﺒﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﳐﺰﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﻮﺏ‪ ،‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﳐﺰﻥ ﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﶈﻮﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ ﳏﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻥ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ‪.‬‬
‫§ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻂ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪ :‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﱪ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺳﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺗﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﺷﻬﺮ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻲ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪ )‪ (World Cat‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ )‪ ،(OCLC‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻧﻈﻢ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﲝﺚ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ )‪. (Online Searching‬‬
‫§ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻴﺘﺎﺩﺍﺗﺎ )‪ : (Metadata‬ﻣﻊ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻻﻣﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
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‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﺭﺑﺎﻙ ﻛﺒﲑﺍﹰ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﲟﺤﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ )‪ (Search engines‬ﺇﻻ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﱂ ﲢﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺸﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﹰ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﶈﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺤﻞ ﳍـﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﻜـﻠﺔ ﻇﻬـﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌـﺮﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ) ‪Internet‬‬
‫‪ ،(resources catalogs‬ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺑـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌـﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴـﺔ‬
‫)‪ (Subject gateways‬ﺍﻭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ )‪ ،(directories Subject‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮﺍﺑﺎﺕ )‪ ، (Gateways‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺪﻝ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﻴﲔ ﻭﺍﳋﱪﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺎﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ )ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺑﺎﺕ( ﺑﲔ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﻴﲔ ﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺍﱃ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻮﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻼﺕ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ )‪ (Detailed metadata records‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻮﺻﻒ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻘﺔ )‪(Links‬‬
‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ)]‪ .([٢٠‬ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﲢﺖ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ ‪ -‬ﺗﻨﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪ -‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﲔ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻴﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺧﱪﺍﺀ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺗﻀﻔﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ )‪ (Added value features‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺿﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻤﻂ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﺒﻮﺍﺑﺎﺕ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻫﺮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻔﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩ ‪ -‬ﲢﻮﻱ ﺷﺮﻭﺣﺎﹰ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳋﺒﲑﺓ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ) ‪ ( mental faculties‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﳏﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﻪ‪gold- stein‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻳﻀﻌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺩﺭﺝ " ﺑﺮﺍﺟﻌﺎﻥ "ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻼ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳋﺒﲑﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﺍﳋﱪﺓ‪ :‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱄ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﱃ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪٨‬‬

‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ‪ :‬ﺃﻱ ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﲟﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﻱ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎ ﺫﻛﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﻞ ﺫﻛﺎﺀﺍ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .٤‬ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ‪ :‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺎﰲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻟﺘﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺧﺒﲑﺍ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٥‬ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺑﺮﺯﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﻴﻔﻲ ﻛﻲ ﳛﻮﳍﺎ ﺍﱃ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻻﻥ ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ)‪. ( rules‬‬
‫‪ .٦‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ‪ :‬ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .٧‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻬﻴﺊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺣﻠﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺔ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻨﺪﳎﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻛﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺬﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻳﻌﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﻳﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳒﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﰲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳍﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .١‬ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﳌﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ) ‪ ( reasoning‬ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‪. ( heurhstigs ) .‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺴﺮ ) ‪ ( interpretere‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺟﻢ ‪ ( compler ) ,‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﺑﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺑﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ‪ ( lis, prolog ) ,‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﱪﻣﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺧﺒﲑ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺧﺒﲑ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺃﻛﻴﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﻟﻸﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻣﻦ ﻭﺑﺪﻗﺔ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٤‬ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺬﺑﺬﺏ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٥‬ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﻨﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﲤﺜﻴﻞ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲟﺠﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٦‬ﺗﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰﻳﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻮﺀ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﳋﺒﲑﺓ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪٩‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﶈﺎﻛﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻜﺮﺍ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻮﺑﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﻹﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪.٣‬‬
‫‪.٤‬‬
‫‪.٥‬‬
‫‪.٦‬‬

‫ﻟﺘﺨﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﳋﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﻮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺐ ﻭﺍﳌﻠﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺺ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﱪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ) ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ‪: ( Alis‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻵﱄ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﺭ )‪: aLIS (Advanced Library Information System‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﺮﰊ ﺃﻧﺘﺞ‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﲟﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍﺀ ﰲ ﲨﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰎ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﲟﺎ ﺑﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺃﺣﺪﺙ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺰﻭﺩ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﻌﺪ ﺧﺼﻴﺼﺎ ﻟﻴﻘﺪﻡ ﻷﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺇﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﻢ ﻓﲏ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻴﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﻨﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﻨﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﺧﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻭﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﻭﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺒﻠﻮﺟﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ‪ :‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻳﻮﱄ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺳﻨﺎﺩ ‪ :‬ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻟﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺷﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ‪...‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﻮﻟﻴﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﻭﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻠﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ :‬ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﲝﺚ ﻣﻮﺳﻌﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﺷﱴ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﲞﻮﺍﺹ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﲝﺎﺙ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﳊﺠﺰ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻭﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﻭﲡﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﻨﻴﺖ ﺧﺼﻴﺼﺎﹰ‬
‫ﻟﺘﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺠﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻮﻓﺮ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﺠﺰ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻴﺰﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺭﺩﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺰﻭﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﳌﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﻱ‬
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‫ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻄﻮﺭ ‪ aLIS‬ﰲ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺗﲔ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ :‬ﻣﻮﺳﻌﺔ ‪ enlarged version‬ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﺒﺴﻄﺔ ‪ version simplified‬ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ‪.‬‬

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