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The process of BREAKING DOWN an electrolyte into CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS by passing ELECTRIC CURRENT through it.

E/plating
Iron ring Silver AgNO3 Electrode Half equation Products Observation Cathode (-) Ag+ + e Ag Ag Anode (+) Ag++ e

molten

ELECTROLYSIS

Silver atom Grey shiny solid deposited

Silver ions Anode become thinner

Electrolyte Purification Electrode Ions presence Moving of ions Half equation Products Observation Cathode (+) Anode (-) Br- , Pb2+ Br2BrBr2 + 2e Bromine gas Brown gas released Pb2+ Pb2+ + 2e Lead Pb Compound that CONDUCT ELECTRICITY in MOLTEN or AQUEOUS STATE undergoes CHEMICAL CHANGES CuSO Electrode Half equation Products Observation POSITION in ECS Carbon CONCENTRATION Cathode (-) Cu2+ + 2e Cu atom Brown solid deposited Cu Cu Anode (+) Cu2+ + 2e Impure Cu pure Cu

Grey solid formed

Aqueous

Cu2+ ion Anode become thinner

TYPE of ELECTRODE Carbon 1.0 mol dm-3 CuCl2 Cu electrode Cu electrode CuCl2 OH-, ClION PRESENCE MOVING OF ION half Equation (Selected ions to discharged) PRODUCT OBSERVATION

0.01 mol dm-3 CuCl2

Cu2+ , H+ Cathode
Position in E.C.S

Cu2+ , H+ Cathode
Position in E.C.S

ION PRESENCE MOVING OF ION

OH-, ClAnode
Position in E.C.S

Cu2+ , H+ Cathode
Position in E.C.S

ION PRESENCE MOVING OF ION half Equation (Selected ions to discharged) PRODUCT OBSERVATION

OH-, ClAnode Anode


Factor of Conc. Factor of electrode

Cu2+ + 2e Copper atom Brown solid deposited

Cu

half Equation (Selected ions to discharged) PRODUCT OBSERVATION

4OHO2 + 4e

2H2O +

Cu

Cu2+ + 2e

Cu2+ + 2e Copper atom Brown solid deposited

Cu

Cu2+ + 2e Copper atom Brown solid deposited

Cu

2Cl-

Cl2 + 2e

Oxygen gas Colourless gas released

Chlorine gas Greenish yellow gas released

Copper (II) ions Copper become thinner

Blue colour of copper (II) chloride solution turn to colourless. Explain why? -Because concentration of Cu2+ ions decreases

Blue colour of copper (II) chloride solution turn to colourless. Explain why? -Because concentration of Cu2+ ions decreases

Blue colour of copper (II) chloride solution remain unchanged. Explain why ? because rate Cu2+ change to Cu is same with rate Cu change to Cu2+

Normally observe at Cathode in an electrolysis(negative terminal)

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Electrolysis product

Observation Greenish yellow gas released

Confirmatory test Put a damp blue litmus paper into test tube, the litmus paper turn to red and bleach it Put a damp blue litmus paper into test tube, the litmus paper turn to red and bleach it Add starch solution into test tube, the starch solution turn to dark blue Put a glowing wooden splinter into test tube, the glowing wooden splinter will light up

Chlorine gas

e-

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Ki te-

Bromine gas

Brown gas Brown (in aqeous)/purpe in gas Colourless gas released

Iodine

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Oxygen gas

Comparison between electrolytic and chemical cell

-consist of electrolyte - consist of anode and cathode - electron flow from anode to cathode

similarities

Electrolytic cell Difference s Two or different electrode Used to produce chemical reaction Elect to chem. -ve terminal +ve terminal +ve terminal to ve terminal Made of Electric current Energy change Cathode Anode Flow of electron

Voltaic cell

Normally observe at anode in electrolysis (positive terminal) Electrolysis product Almost all metal (except Cu metal) Cu metal Observation Grey solid formed Brown solid formed Colourless gas released Confirmatory test Put a lighted wooden splinter into test tube, a pop sound is produced

Two different electrode Produced from chemical reaction Chem. To Elect +ve terminal -ve terminal -ve terminal to +ve terminal

Hydrogen gas