Advances In Management ^

Vol. 4 (4) April (2011)

Implementing total Quality Management in Professional Educational Institutes in India
Agarwal P.K.*, Pradeep Kumar, Gupta Swati and Tyagi A.K.
IIMT Professional College, Pocket O, Ganga Nagar, Meerut (U.P.), INDIA *direct;orprofessionaliimt@gmail.com

Abstract
One of the emerging philosophies in quality and management concepts is Total Quality Management, (TQM). TQM has been applied to business and industry and recently has been experimented and implemented in professional education institutions to provide high quality and standards for both industry and professional education institutes. Total quality management (TQM) is a management strategy which is aimed to embed quality awareness in all the organizational processes. Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) have been successfully adopted and applied in the field of professional education by developed countries such as Japan, USA and UK. In India, TQM has been successfully implemented in some Professional Education Institutions (HEIs) and it has improved the quality of professional education in those institutions. TQM has become the most important concept because the quality, of the student makes the difference between success and failure of any institution. TQM can serve as a paradigm for improving every aspect' of collegiate functioning from fiscal administration to classroom instruction. Keywords: Total Quality Managenient (TQM), Quality, Professional education. Customer, Stakeholders. ;

educational institutions in their attempt to satisfy various stakeholders including students, parents, industry and society as a whole. In any organization, there are workers, investors, producers, distributors, sellers and customers which form a kind of supply chain. Here, they are conceived as servers and customers. However, when TQM philosophy is applied, all participants become servers and customers at the same time. Total quality management has generally been recognized as a major innovation in management thought and has gained widespread acceptance in business and industry.

Quality in Professional Education
The phrase "quality of education" is a difficult one to discuss in a concrete way, since it is almost always related to some specific goals and can involve a related argument about whether such goals are legitimate or not. Quality is also a difficult word because it evokes a wide range of attributes and the usual way of acknowledging the existence of quality is to appeal to observation and experience of a range of possibilities. The philosophy behind the quality movement is to convey the message that customer satisfaction is paramount and that through a process of continual improvement involving every member of the organization; quality outcomes can be achieved with a structured, wellmanaged system. There is no doubt that quality plays an important role in today's professional education.' Feigenbaum^ believes that in "invisible" competition between Institutes the quality of education is the main and important factor and this is because quality of products and services is defined by. the action, decision-making and thoughts of managers, engineers, workers and faculty members in the quality work. Like other businesses, in today's market, education and in particular professional education has entered to commercial competition which is due to economical forces.* Identifying what does the quality mean in professional education as the first phase of quality work seems to be essential. However, still there is no one unique definition about the quality of professional education, there are plenty of these explanations > that in somehow have industry perspective. Campell and Rozsnayi** have defined the concept of quality of professional education in several ways related to industry: • Quality as excellence: This definition is considered to be the traditional academic view that holds as its goal to be the best.

Introduction
The importance of education for the develophient of excellence, expertise and knowledge leading to overall development in economy cannot be undermined. This has necessitated a sound strategy for the developnient of professional education in almost all countries of the world. Establishing leadership in the world is possible only when we have a developed system of professional education in which efficiency remains the sole criterion to evaluate performance. The system of professional education is found efficacious in making available to the society a dedicated, committed, devoted and professionally sound team of human resources to decide the future of any nation. This is possible only when the principles of quality management are inculcated in the system of professional education. \ Total Quality Management (TQM) is inevitably common factor that will shape the strategies of professional *Author for Correspondence (18)

objectives. As the products of professional education. quality of output and reputation in academic research is most likely to be valued in Professional Institutes. giving a priority to them is essential. However. should be to give each student opportunities to improve in knowledge. were employers. They provide the right leadership. They are the core factors in the teaching-learning activity. In our professional education system. Tribus' believes that we must keep in mind some differences between education and businesses. Any institution having these norms is deemed to be of quality. while they see it even worse to define students as customer of professional education. The philosophy behind ranking was that since needs/ expectations of different groups-of customers may differ or even oppose each other.pf uniform products can show conformity to them. Quality as value for money: The notion of accountability's central to this definition of quality with accountability being based on the need for restraint in public expenditure. Students: Knowledge. "From different customers of professional education. • Successful cönipletion of the product requires the student to participate as a worker. No university or Institute wants to have a specific definition of customer in professional education. to persevere and to become respected and trusted members of society. or university.. since it refers to assumption that "customer is always right". Quality as threshold: Defining a threshold for quality means to set certain norms and criteria. • • • Despite of these different definitions on quality of education. the third one enables students to set priorities and finally the character provides the''possibility for them to cooperate. that what should a good education provide for learners? Tribus' believes that the objectives of every school. skill and abilities to pursue personal and professional goals. In fact. Quality as transformation: This concept focuses firmly on the learners: the better is the professional education institution. co-managing the learning process. Quality as enhancement or improvement: This concept emphasizes the pursuit of continuous improvement and is predicated on the notion that achieving quality is central to the academic ethos and that it is academics themselves who know best what quality is at any point in time. requirements or desires. this view is not always considered to be applicable in professional education. processes. The first concept enables students to understand and the second one facilitates them to do accordingly. • • Customer of Professional Education As per the research of Owlia and Aspinwalf. The differences between education and industry are in four ways. In fact. According to Venkatraman'°. . the candidates are not expected to be identical. joy in learning. The needs are as follows: 1. their point of view comes from the point that students are mostly engaged with short-term satisfaction and students are just concerned about result and degrees. society. students were given the highest rank. the more it achieves the goal of empowering students with specific skills. quality systems adapted from business and industry operations need to be reoriented and reinstalled for professional education conditions to turn the focus from the management-based to the education-based practices. wisdom and character. For industries* the measure in which they use as an indicator of the effectiveness of organization is the profit. customer in professional education must be regarded as stakeholders'which in this case we take into consideration both internal stakeholders like employees and external stakeholders such as students and society. research work and social-extension work. • The student is not a "product". They also touch upon other segments such as co-curricular work. wm Vol. which is in the contrast of real learning and long-term purposes of education. while the objectives in education are not simple. with the declared vision and mission of the institution and they project the enduring values of the institution which harmonize themselves vyith the society to which it is rooted in. Quality as fitness for purposes: This approach requires that the product or service has conformity with customer needs. input and outputs.Advances In Ma/fag-eme/i/ • Quality as zero errors: This is defined most easily in mass industry in which product specifications can be established in detail and standardized measurements. as we have in India. That does not mean that the management or the principal have no visible role. • The education of the student is the product. The remainders. 4 (4) April (2011) answer to this question precisely. faculty and society as a whole. in rank order. the objectives of every professional education institution should cover the (19) Model for management implementing total quality Though a synergistic unison of all the parts is vital for the institution's survival. according to Mizikaci*. In this circumstance. Quality of education does not mean necessarily to give students whatever they want. dynamic role to play in the system. the customers are varied and diverse which includes students. faculty and students do have a decisive. faculty and families". knowledge and attitudes that enable them to live and work in the knowledge society. Most faculties do not agree with the point to define students as customer of education. know how. which are as follows: • The school is not a factory.

3. • Growth in the non-traditional modes of educational provisions. This will appeal every year to maintain rapport with past students. | Employers: performance. The lectures must be made more and more interesting by using latest teaching aids/tools such as power point presentation/video conferencing/question answer sessions. The HQD should monitor proper progress of syllabi of all the subjects so that the balance study is feasible for the students. alumni. The quality infrastructure availability with unlimited free/open access must be provided to students without any blockage/reservations. with 100% attendance of students in all lectures and practical. all the seats in centralized process. TQM aims at continuous improvement. indicating no of students placed with percentage. packages offered. which will establish a good bond between the Institute and students and also dialogue between present and past students with better knowledge of Dos and Don'ts. Increasing leaning towards private providers and private sources of funding. its effect will not be complète. effective teaching learning process. politically active citizens. Change in the general perception of education as public good to education as a tradable service. parents. group discussion capabilities and administrative skills to get better placements in good companies carving their career. Replacing the traditional academic skills by computer fortified skills. through . 4 (4) April (2011) the highly experienced and trained faculty. ! joy in work. The process must penetrate deeper to students. A proper feedback system may be devised to ensure effective and quality Teaching Learning process. to meet the needs of the customer. This can achieve goals like public image elevation. the stress is on team work. there is a clear cut shift in demands from the conventional ways of thinking in professional education. attracting meritorious students and faculty. Faculty: Continuous personal growth. ]• Introduction of new forms of educational delivery. institutional level and in vacancy rounds should be strictly filled by meritorious students. . the emphasis has been on "quality culture" among all employees. with great concern to satisfaction of state holders. Further. The new paradigms are: i • • • • • • • • • • • Shift in the objectives of professional education from transmission of knowledge to skill and capacity building. The students should be encouraged to participate in paper presentation competition. During admission process. In the present century. leaders and followers. The senior and experienced faculty may be assigned for difficult subjects in which concepts and the fundamentals need to be cleared. 4. then the conventional style of thinking changes. (20) Community: Competent work force. Shift from national focus to International focus. productive I Vol. faculty members and society. I Moving away from career specific quaHfieatlOftS towafds more general training. need to be followed by faculty members and ensured by HOD/Director. information and input. communication skills and interrelationship among the group. Moving away from rigid curricula to a flexible cuiricular structure. security. Proper dialogue needs to be established with students. Competent ' employees.Advances In Management 2. Strict implementation of academics schedules. Hence. Proper placement records be maintained. Also the multidimensional development of students be ensured encouraging them to participate in sports. With the advent of TQM approach. by anticipating and changing. If TQM is implemented. The quality of students passed out also needs to be accepted nationally/globally by industries. who are present manager/Recruiters. If there is no voluntary participation in this process by all elements at all level. at every stage and by all involved. track record of passed out etc. Change in the curricular transaction from a teachercentered approach to a student-centered approach. Shift from a non-competitive ambience of professiotial education to a competitive environment. producing professionals to accept millennium challenges. Measures for Students: Total quality needs to be inculcated in professional colleges' right from admission to results. in the present system thêfe is a need to concentrate more at the fundamental level of a professional educational system for improving the conditions prevailing and gearing up the institutions to take up responsibilities at a professional level. volunteer in community service. is ensuring quality in imparting education to students. Making total quality management implementation successful Total quality management in Professional Education. cocurriculum and extra curricular activities by extending the proper guidance from skilled faculty members available. quiz contents etc. list of companies. in the companies with proved performance of our past students. An alumni must be formed. in other colleges. The guidance must be extended to the students for exchange of their soft skills. facilitate placement of our students.

keeping abreast of latest developments. motivation. Thus.. The faculty must be capable by giving them all facilities as per University/AICTE/State Directorate norms such as scales. recognition of professional performance/scores should be ensured with clear-cut instructions to lower performers/scorers. may be given to ensure retention of best faculty. students feedback. in place of imposed discipline /quality standards. Within the given infrastructure and technology human efforts can create wonders. Consistency in improved performance with in-built professional eligibility.O. Institutes be given Score/points on the basis of their performance. Extra efforts taken by the faculty member for below average and above average students. presentation of papers in International/National Conferences/Journals. two principles viz. • • • • • Meeting the expectations of stake ho}dersstudents/parents/industries and authorities i. Co-operation. such as Medical assistance. Periodic progress reports should be taken to ensure corrective actions in time.Advances In Management t Measures for Faculty/Staff: A best teacher is one who creates interest of one's subject in students mind initiating proper thinking process sequentially. job specifications with clear cut duties defined. this is not borne out by evidence. 4 (4) April (2011) procedure. singing of M. Continuous improvisation in imparting quality education. the staff seminar scheme be implemented. so as to ensure scope of improvement. The weightage should be given to publication of books.e. co-ordination. self appraisal and review by the Principal/Director. Proper appreciation. in seminars and conferences etc. indication for effective implementation by follower group will assure Total Quality in the Teaching Learning process./agreements programs per year should be considered. The involvernent of students must fully be ensured during conduct of practical by individual attention and random data generation so that calculations are done individually by all the students which enable them to perform well during Semester End Examination in practical and orals. utilization of grants. in specific well defined objectives. research from industries and R & D agencies to suit their needs and cater projects and requirements. All types of leave vacations. Each element in the system like teaching staff. so as to make others also aware about the recent developments. with timely corrective measures. It should be ensured that the goals are attained with zero defects/deviations. Autonomy in deciding and implementing better practices should be given to the departments. Expert team etc. in college. For maintaining academic healthy environment. The best performer must be awarded in the form of cash prize/membership of professional body and appreciate certificate. Positive attitude and proper motivation and involvement of all elenients in the system are most important. Application of TQM will result in. conducting seminars/conference in the department/college. TTtie leadership must not only "talk the talk" but also "walk the' talk". to get the feedback in time for the corrective action by the individual based on this assessment. Though many educational administrators believe that quality in education is a function of high quality infrastructure and technology. Injecting self discipline/self quality and its maintenance should be ensured. so as to evaluate the positives and negatives of individual. Epilogue TQM need to be implemented in all colleges and universities even if there is no accreditation or certification. involvement and team efforts of every one concerned should be ensured. Holiday/Travel assistance. delivery of keynote address/invited lectures in other colleges/chairing sessions. The accountability with ranked performance will definitely fetch the expected results. 'focus on clients' and 'involvement of all' can be the effective tools of TQM for professional education. Appropriate goals/benchmarks should be set which must be revised periodically. Willingness of superiors. allowances. transparently. Remote place allowance etc. proper deputation to seminars/conferences at all levels be ensured.U. which is back bone of TQM! Measures for Offlce StafC^Administration: A proper (21) Vol. Both infrastructure and technology are instruments in the hands of humans in the system. completion of the projects in schedule time be taken into consideration. to take the bull of internationalization by the horns. The research/consultancy projects undertaken by the faculty. An inter disciplinary R & D cell be formed so as to take up the collaborative. Starving for excellence to achieve the quality at individual/departmental/institutes level must be ensured. . department. This will enhance the confidence among the junior faculty members and students under expertise of senior and experienced faculty. Refined and tuned monitoring at all stages ensuring expected levels of quality results in bridging the gap between expectations and outcome. University. efforts taken by the individual' for establishing interaction with industries. . The faculty and staff will be experiencing the pleasure of working in tight time schedule. A routine practice of developing a small presentation before all faculties by the deputed faculty member be inculcated. communicate them yearly. whether accredited or not. Efficient and effective Teaching Learning process. grant obtained for this purpose. Let us wait and watch to see whether TQM is a Panacea or Placebo. laboratory. non teaching and office. Even some additional facilities. standardization of procedures with least movements and lead times is needed to be set in the office.

Bucharest (2002) 5. Education available at reduced cost for tailor made courses in large numbers. to attain professional leyels of I • Establishing a bond between alutnni. 15 (1).. Concept Publishing Company.000/- Printing Process . 2nd ed. Ne^ York (1979) I 4. "TQM in education: the theory and how to put it to work". • Unesco-CEPES.quality-assurance-and-accreditationq.Foreign-US Dollar $ 400 Quarter Page (B/W) Indian Rs. "Quality is Free"..Foreign US Dollar $ 800 Full Page (B/W) Indian Rs. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management. 1." "I"' Vol.Advances In Management -^i • " i/. Venkatraman. Scheme 54. "Making the niost of Accreditation". Feigenbaum.000/. 10. 2. New York (1992) 9. Cambridge (1997) 3. New Delhi (2003) 2. 4 (4) April (2011) Achieving the targets through strategic. 14. 8.php/documents/policy-papers/187policypapers/306-policypaper. Mizikaci. "Total Quality Control: Engineering Management". Quality Assurance in Education. http://esu-online. 5 (1997) 8. McGraw-Hill. (Received 6* January 2011. Arlington. (2007) 11.OFFSET Print Space: 4 Column X 24 Cm.'. without reservations of all concerned and proper motivation/ co-ordination.R) INDIA Advertisement .". 6. Reward sharing and optimum use of Global Recourses. "Quality Assurance and the Development of Course Programs".. American Association of School Administrators. MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Studies.". VA (1994) 10.. and Stella Antony. stepped periodic approach and synchronization.000/.Foreign US Dollar $ 1000 Half Page (B/W) Indian Rs. E. "A systems approach to program evaluation model for quality in higher education".. Tribus. Quality Assurance in Education. "Ort Q: Causing Quality in Higher Education". Crosby. (17 cm X 24 cm) Please send your Cheques / Drafts in name of "Advances in Management" along with advertisenient material in CD at above address Please contact us for special rates for Advertisement publication for tvi^elve issues Participate in First International Management Conference I S M 2011 Be our Fellow Meniber and Enjoy various benefits (22) . institute and present students. 'TQM in higher education . Gnanam A.r.. INDORE 452 010 (M. accepted 10* March 2011 ) • • Integrated quality performance.a review". Best team efforts. "A framework for implementing TQM in higher education prograitis". Deming W.B. Advances in Management Sector AG/80.^'.000/Foreign US Dollar $ 200 Full Page (Coloured) Indian Rs. Campell and Rozsnyani. Owlia and Aspinwall.. New American Library. New York (1993) and • • • 6.org/index. In Quality Goes to School: Readings on Quality Management in Education. 37-53 (2006) 7. "The new economics". A.000/- Strip (B/W) Foreign US Dollar $ 100 Foreign US Dollar $ 600 Indian Rs. References 1.Tariff (Per issue) Cover Pages (Coloured) Indian Rs. Road. Papers on Higher Education. 14. Macmillan. 4000/. Seymour.

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