ABSTRACT T h e c o n t i n u i n g a c c u m u l a t i o n o f used tyres is one of the worst solid wasteproblems faced by developed andu n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s .

T h e incineration of tyres is costly andcomplex while stock piling used tyres ist h e s u b j e c t o f g r o w i n g c o n c e r n . M o r e o v e r a p o s s i b i l i t y o f t y r e f i r e s o n the site possesses an ever-increasingthreat to the environm ent. On the other hand tyres represent a source of energya n d c h e m i c a l s . B y t h e r m a l decomposition, it is possible to recover useful products in an environmentalfriendly way.W hen subjected to pyrolysis thetyre rather than burning up, breakdownto give an oil and gas leaving a residualsolid carbon and gas product in additiont o t h e s t e e l ; c o r d a l l o f w h i c h h a v e t h e potential to be recycled. The yield of oilw a s u p t o 5 5 % o f t y r e a n d t h e o i l h a s b r o a d f u e l p r o p e r t i e s s i m i l a r t o c o m m er c i a l g r a d e l i g h t f u e l o i l / d i e s e l fuel. The oil obtained by pyrolysis wasrefined chemically.In this paper an attempt was made tocompare the properties of pyrolysis oil withdiesel and furnace oil. The Pyrolysis oil wasthen blended with diesel in different ratio tor u n a 1 0 H P d i e s e l e n g i n e . T h e e f f e c t o f blending on the performance and emissionso f t h e C I E n g i n e s h a s b e e n s t u d i e d . T h e results obtained are compared with theperformance and emissions of the sam e CIengine operated in pure diesel mode. INTRODUCTION Recycling is defined as the seriesof activities, including collectionseparation and processing by whichproducts or other materials are recoveredf r o m t h e w a s t e s t r e a m s f o r u s e i n t h e f o r m o f v a l u e a d d e d m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e manufacture of new products. Recyclingmeans taking a product- such asa l u m i n u m c a n , p l a s t i c j u g , o r a p h o n e b o o k , d e c o n s t r u c t i n g i t - a n d u s i n g t h ematerials to remanufacture somethingnew. It reduces the amount of waste thatis thrown into the community dustbinsthereby making the environment cleaner and the air fresher to breathe.T h e s c r a p t y r e d i s p o s a l p r o c e s s can be broadly divided into physical andchemical m ethods. One of the physicalm e t h o d s i s t o u s e t h e s c r a p t y r e f o r landfill although this method should notbe employed any more due to theintrinsic environmental limitation. Other p h y s i c a l m e t h o d i s t o m a k e t h e s c r a p tyre into granules and recycle them for carpets, tiles and road pavementmaterials. However the treatment anddisposal option for spent tyres mostcommonly used is land filling whichrepresents a problem for local communitiesin that they are an eyesore and may result inaccidental fires with high pollutionemissions. In addition tyres can be abreeding ground for insects and a hom e for v e r m i n . T h e c u r r e n t d i s p o s a l m e t h o d s o f land filling of tyres are clearly a waste of avaluable resource. Consequently alternativetreatment and disposal routes for tyres areurgently being sought. The novel alternativep r o c e s s i s p y r o l y s i s , w h i c h i s a c h em i c a lm e t h o d . A s t o t h e c h e m i c a l m e t h o d , t h e thermal decomposition has been widelyused. STATUS OF SCRAP TYRES T h e s c r a p t y r e g e n e r a t i o n i n developing and developed countries ise n o r m o u s a n d i s g r o wi n g wi t h p o p u l a t i o n every year. The disposal of scrap tyres is agrowing problem throughout the world. It is a m a j o r c h a l l e n g e t o d i s p o s e t h e s c r a p tyre without causing a environm entalp o l l u t i o n a s t h e c o n s u m p t i o n i s increasing. Approximately 180 millionscrap tyres are produced each year in theEuropean union, and 150 million in theU>S alone. COMPOSTION OF TYRES The raw materials in tyres includenatural and synthetic rubber, carbon black,nylon, polyester and even Kevlar cord,sulphur, oils and resins, and other chemicals. ADVANTAGES OF WASTETYRE RECYCLING ‡ L a d s t o l e s s u t i l i z a t i o n o f r a w materials. ‡ R e d u c e s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts arising from wastetreatment and disposal. ‡ Makes the surroundings cleaner and healthier. ‡ Saves on landfill space. ‡ Saves money. ‡ R e d u c e s t h e a m o u n t o f e n e r g y required to manufacture newproducts. PYROLYSIS ± THE PROCESS. S.noComponents Percentage(%)weight

T h e liquid oil is collected in a glasscontainer. The solid carbon residue left after pyrolysishas potential as solid fuel or as a low-gradecarbon black.1 . T h e reactor is provided with a 1. However.Pyrolysis of tyres has been aroundfor decades but that has not taken off as analternative treatm ent technology due to thel a c k o f c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e d e r i v e d product. carbon and gasproduct.5 and 2.0 wt%d e p e n d i n g o n p r o c e s s c o n d i t i o n s . The pyrolysisgases are composed of mainly hydrogen. The heat generated in the heatingc o i l i s g i v e n t o t h e c o r e o f t h e r e a c t o r a n d t h e h e a t l o s s i s m i n i m i z e d u s i n g c e r a m i c insulation around the reactor. Pyrolysis of tyrestherefore produces an oil. R u b b e r h y d r o carbon512 .The vacuum is measured using a vacuumgauge. P y r o l y s i s i s t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e r u b b e r o f t h e t y r e u s i n g h e a t i n t h e absence of oxygen. When subjected topyrolysis the tyres rather than burningu p . T h e y i e l d o f o i l c a n b e u p t o 58wt% of tyre and the oil has broad fuelproperties similar to commercial gradelight fuel oil/ diesel fuel. in addition to the steel cord. Pyrolysis is theprocess of heating complex organicsubstances in the absence of oxygen sot h a t l o n g h y d r o c a r b o n s c a n b e c r a c k e d d o w n t o s m a l l e r m o l e c u l e s wi t h f e w e r carbon atoms.which could offset the cost of treatment andmake the process economically attractive EXPERIMENTAL SETUPREACTOR It is a mild steel reactor of 200 mmd i a m e t e r a n d 3 0 0 m m l e n g t h wi t h a c a p a c i t y t o h o l d 2 . 5 k g o f T y r e . The bed temperature and the temperature of thev a p o u r a r e m e a s u r e d u s i n g t w o thermocouples connected to a digitaltemperature indicator at suitable heights. VACUUM PUMP . b r e a k d o w n t o g i v e a n o i l a n d g a s l e a v i n g a r e s i d u a l s o l i d c a r b o n a n d t h e steel casing of the tyre. CONDENSER: T h e c o n d e n s e r e m p l o y e d i s a s h e l l t y p e c o u n t e r f l o w h e a t e x c h a n g e r w i t h single pass. O t h e r chemicals8 . a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e p y r o l y s i s m a y b e c o m b u s t e d d i r e c t l y o r a d d e d t o petroleum-derived fuels. the process has thepotential to produce higher value products.Number of tubes -6Length of the condenser -370 mmTube diameter -9 mmShell diameter -75 mmDuring the pyrolysis vapor from thereactor are made to pass over the tubeso f t h e c o n d e n s e r a n d t h e y g e t condensed due to continuous circulationo f c o l d w a t e r t h r o u g h t h e t u b e s .The targeted product are the valuablearomatic chemicals found in the oil whichc a n b e u s e d i n t h e p e t r o c h em i c a l i n d u s t r y and the residual carbon which is beingupgraded to produce a high grade activatedcarbon. r 1 5 .methane and other hydrocarbons andh a v e s u f f i c i e n t e n e r g y v a l u e t h a t t h e y can be used to provide the energyr e q u i r em e n t s o f t h e p y r o l y s i s p r o c e s s . allof which have the potential to ber e c y c l e d .8 kw electricalheating with nichrome as the heatingelem ent. C a r b o n b l a c k 2 6 3 O i l 1 3 4 .T h e e n e r g y v a l u e o f t h e o i l i s e s t i m a t e d t o b e 4 2 MJ k g 1 and sulphur content between 0. S u l p h u Z i n c o x i d e ` 1 6 .

9 1 K g REFINING OF PYROLYSISOIL HEATING T h e o i l o b t a i n e d d u e t o p y r o l y s i s o f w a s t e t y r e s f r o m t h e pyrolysis reactor is of crude nature. coal.w t % o f t y r e a n d t h e o i l h a s br oad fuel p r o p e r t i e s s i m i l a r t o c o m m e r c i a l g r a d e l i g h t f u e l o i l / d i e s e l fuel. One u-tube has NaOH in it in order toa b s o r b t h e m o i s t u r e i n t h e v a p o r a n d t h e other u-tube with calcium chloride trapsexcess carbon particles. MASS PROPOSITION MASS BALANCE VOLATILEGASES-. The tyrepyrolysis oil is very aromatic andcontains certain chemicals in highc o n c e n t r a t i o n . RAW TYRE PYROLYSIS CARBON R e s i d u a l c a r b o n o b t a i n e d f r o m the process may also be further upgradedt o p r o d u c e a h i g h v a l u e p r o d u c t . E x a m p l e o f s u c h chemicals is limonene. T h e carbon after pyrolysis is high in ash andhas surface areas of about 80m 2 /g and isgenerally only useful for low-grade usesuch as a solid fuel. Th e removal of heavy metals from waste streamsis particularly important to industry since them e t a l s a r e k n o w n t o b e t o x i c . The surface area islow when compared with commerciallyavailable activated carbons. research hasshown that the activated carbons haveporosity and sulphur content which isparticularly suitable for the removal of cadmium and mercury from industriala q u e o u s wa s t e w a t e r s a n d f l u e g a s e s .The pyrolysis process was conductedby varying the following parameters ‡ Bed temperature of reactor ‡ Vapour temperature of reactor ‡ Vacuum pressure ‡ Quantity of rubber taken for pyrolysis ‡ Power input PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROMWASTE TYRE PYROLYSIS The main products of tyre pyrolysis are: ‡ Tyre pyrolysis oil ‡ Recovered Tyre Pyrolysis Gas ‡ Raw Tyre Pyrolysis Carbon ‡ Other chemicals from Pyrolysis oil. typically in the range 400t o 1 5 0 0 m 2 g -1 . T h e s e chemicals have an extremely fastgrowing wide industrial application.94Kg46%CARBONBLACK -08 K 44%OIL-0. These properties mean thata c t i v a t e d c a r b o n i s a n e x c e l l e n t a d s o r b e n t and is commonly used to remove pollutantsfrom gas or liquid streams.7 g 8KVOLATILE GASES -.x y l e n e a n d n a p h t h a l e n e .19Kg10%OIL-0.i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s y n t h e t i c r u b b e r s and plastics. The pyrolysis oils may bec o m b u s t e d d i r e c t l y o r a d d e d t o petroleum-derived fuels.V a c u u m i s a n i m p o r t a n t parameter in the tyre pyrolysis and avacuum pressure of the range 450-600mm of Hg is maintained throughout the pyrolysisprocess using the vacuum pump.coconut husks and peat respectively. indene. styrene.which contains impurities andmoisture.94KgCARBON BLACK -. The mostcommonly used feedstocks in the productionof activated carbon are wood. which arehighly porous carbonaceous materials withhigh surface areas. b u t a l s o t h e e m i s s i o n l e v e l s a r e h e a v i l y r e g u l a t e d a n d require expensive clean-up.T h e y a r e u s e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f industrial solvents.Of further significance. The use of a lowcost activated carbon derived from a wastesuch as scrap tyres would offset the costs of clean up. TYRE PYROLYSIS OIL T h e y i e l d o f p y r o l y s i s o i l w a s a b o u t 5 8 . resins and adhesives.7 g . U TUBES WITH CHEMICALS Two u-tubes are fitted along thes t r e a m o f t h e o i l f u m e s w i t h c h em i c a l s i n them. and in paint manufacture.T h i s m o i s t u r e h a s t o b e r em o v e d before subjecting the oil . lignite.

which makes the excessc a r b o n p a r t i c l e s i n t h e p y r o l i t i c o i l t o settle down while distillation is inprogress. TREATMENT OF CRUDE OILWITH CONC. Many process also produce astable granulate instead of an ash. these technologies do offer the scope for i n c r e a s i n g r e c y c l i n g r a t e s t o a c h i e v e g o v e r n m en t targets or address environmental concerns. In addition someprocess are targeted at producing specificr e c y c l a b l e s s u c h a s m e t a l a l l o y s a n d c a r b o n black W hile this type of recycling is rarelyeconomically attractive under current marketconditions.20. Centrifuge+ DISTILLATION DISTILLATION A k n o w n v o l u m e o f c r u d e p y r o l y s i s o i l i s mixed with certain quantity of fuller¶s earthin a round bottom flask. 5 4 Br ake Power Specific Fuel Consumption Diesel40% oil 60% diesel50% oil 50% diesel60% oil 40% diesel ADVANTAGES OF PYROLYSISOVER THER TYRE DISPOSALMETHODS INCREASED POSSIBILITIES OFRECYCLING Pyrolysis offers more scope for recovering products from waste than the other m et h o d s i n p r a c t i c e .the oil is heated to above 100 ºC for (15 ± 20) minutes. The impuritiesand excess carbon particles reacts withConc.H 2 SO 4 The moisture free pyrolysis oilcontains impurities in the form of excesscarbon particles and sulphur.70.80 0 . Due to this process pyrolysiso i l i s o b t a i n e d a f t e r t h e c o n d e n s a t i o n process.50. o i l s a n d s o l i d c h a r from pyrolysis and gasification can not only beu s e d a s a f u e l b u t a l s o p u r i f i e d a n d u s e d a s a feed stock for petro-chemicals and other applications. w h e r e a s t h e g a s e s . The volatile oilvaporizes and gets condensed into paley e l l o wi s h b r o w n o i l i n t h e c o l l e c t i n g flask. H 2 So 4 . stirredwell and left to settle for 40 hourswithout any disturbance. Thetemperature in the heating mandrelshould be maintained at 40 0 c. Sulphuric acid at least reduces thepercentage of sulphur in tyres. The chemically treated oil iscentrifuged at 2500 rpm in order toremove the sludge formed and pyrolysisoil without impurities is obtained .C engines and infurnaces. 5 3 3 . The excess carbon particles getadsorbed on to the chemical and remainsin the distillation flask. . treatment withConc. This refined oil can be used as analternate fuel in I.to anyfurther chemical treatments.H 2 So 4 a n d g e t s d e p o s i t e d a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e c o n t a i n e r i n t h e f o r m o f sludge. The oil ism i x e d w i t h 8 % o f C o n c .10. 5 2 2 .40. Then the mixture is CRUDE REFINED POLYSIS OIL Crude pyrolysisoil with Pyrolysis oil with lesser Sludge Crude Pyrolysis Oil Crude Pyrolysis OilWithout moisture heated in the heating mandrel. 6 2 4 2 Brake power Vs Specific Fuel Consumption 00. W h e n w a s t e i s b u r n t i n a modern incinerator the only practical product ise n e r g y .After sometime the vapours produced due toheating is made to pass through thecondenser. 5 1 1 . Thoughsulphur present in tyres cannot beremoved completely.30. Fuller¶s earth is a chemicaladsorbant. for getting rid of its moisture content. RESULTS AND GRAPHS CHARACTERISTICSPETROLD I E S E L P Y R O L YSISOILBOILINGPOINT(°C)1 5 0 2 1 0 1 6 0 FLASHPOINT(°C)4 0 8 0 5 0 FIREPOINT(°C)4 5 8 6 5 5 VISCOSITY(Redwood Sec)3 6 6 3 8 7 CALOR IFICVALUE(MJ/Kg)4 6 4 3 . Hence. which can bemore easily and safely utilized.60.

wastepyrolysis can meet renewable energy targets.BETTER ENERGY EFFICIENCY&CONTRIBUTION TOREDUCING GLOBAL WARMING : By displacing fossil.I engi nes. Lowpollution and Easy transferability.Document By SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY Email:help@matlabcodes. to handle the wastesgenerated by isolated communities whileothers are targeted at large (150. One such product is the tyrepyrolysis oil which is an alternate fuel.000-50.Fuel must have certain physical. achieve lower efficiency MORE FLEXIBILITY OF SCALE: Systems are being developed for awide range of capacities. L o w d e p o s i t f o r m i n g tendencies. Goodcombustion qualities.fuels. and combustion propertiessuch as high calorific value. T h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f u e l i n t h e p r e s e n t stage by vacuum distillation is notcompetitive. Low toxicity.com Engineeringpapers. R e q u i r em e n t s a r e m e t b y pyr ol ysi s oi l sot hi s can be ver y well used i n C.000 tonne per year). Conventional incineration.000tonne) regional facilities. Some process canb e u s e d a s l o c a l s o l u t i o n s . a t s m a l l s c a l e (30. Compatibility with theengine hardware.chemical. As the technology advancest h i s p r o d u c t i o n wi l l b e m a d e c h e a p e r a n d better.comMore Papers and Presentationsavailable on above site .blogspot. High thermals t a b i l i t y .used in conjunction with steam cycle boilersand turbine generators. CONCLUSION The accumulation of tyres isb e c o m i n g a g r e a t t h r e a t t o t h e environment and the new ways of r e c y c l i n g t h em i n t o u s e f u l p r o d u c t s i s necessary.address concerns about global warming andcontribute to achieving Kyoto Protocolcommitments.

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