Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03, Page 1

Chapter 7
Sheet-Metal Forming Processes

Chapter 7: Overview
• • • • • • • • • Characteristics of sheet-metal forming processes Shearing of sheets and plates Bending of sheets Stretch forming Bulging Rubber forming Spinning forming for making axisymmetric parts Deep drawing Various other forming processes

car bodies. High ratio of surface area to thickness 2. Preparation of sheet metal • • Sheet metal is produced by rolling processes Available as coils. e. beverage cans. Tensile stress in the plane. galvanizing with zinc . but significant reduction in thickness should be avoided 3. etc. Page 2 Introduction Sheet metal forming processes 1.Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03.g. Sheet-metal formed parts: metal desks. flame or laser Sheet-metal characteristics • Elongation behaviors • Anisotropy or directionality • Grain size Influence mechanical properties and surface appearance • Residual stress • Springback Thin parts is subjected to relatively small strains and likely springback • Wrinkling occurs under compressive load • Coating. appliance bodies. or flat sheets or plates Removal of a blank from a large sheet Mainly done by shearing processes Can also be cut with band saw. fuselages. Able to form a large variety of shapes and sizes 4.

the more diffuse the neck becomes Strain: ε 2 = −ε1 / 2 For isotropic material: φ ≈ 55o & σ = Cε m Yield-point elongation • Frequently occurs for low carbon steels • With upper and low yield points • After the material yield. m The higher the m.Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03. it stretches further in certain regions with no increase in the low yield point • Influence surface quality (surface depression) and cause difficulty in coating and painting operations . Page 3 Elongation of sheet metal • Uniform elongation expected • High total elongation expected • Necking begins when ε = n for a strain hardening material Strain rate sensitivity.

punch & die Their corner radius Clearance is the major factor The greater c is. Page 4 Shearing • Cutting sheet with shear stresses • Carried out between a punch and a die (like a paper punch) • Process variables: Punch force P Punch speed Lubrication Condition of the punch and die. the rougher the sheared edge Shearing ⇐ Punched hole ⇐ Punched slug . Clearance bet.Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03.

Page 5 Shearing • Burr height increases with increasing clearance and increasing ductility • The burnished surface is formed from the contact and rubbing of the sheared edge against the die wall or punch wall • The ratio of the burnished to rough areas increases with increasing ductility. it decreases with increasing blank thickness and die-punch clearance • With increasing punch speed. the sheared surface becomes smoother Shearing operations ⇐ Fine blanking c ~ 1% of the thickness .Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03.

• Impart stiffness to the part by increasing its moment of inertia • The most important factor is the bending radius • It is important to minimize springback The outer layer are in tension and the inner one is in compression. The Theoretical strains is given by: eo = ei = 1 (2 R / T ) + 1 .Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03. etc. curls. corrugation. seams. Page 6 Shearing dies Slitting (rotary knives) Shaving Shearing & shaving Bending • Another common metal working operation • Form parts such as flanges.

Increase temperature Bottoming . Bottoming 3. Stretch bending (external tension forces ) 4.Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03. Overbending 2. Page 7 Minimum bend radius The radius at which a crack appears on the outer surface of the bend. Minimizing springback Springback terminology Overbending Compensation for springback 1.

Page 8 Common bending operations Hemming Stretch forming • The sheet is clamped around its edges and stretched over a moving die • Make large-area parts such as aircraft and car panels • Cannot produce sharp contours and corners • Low-volume production.Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03. but versatile and economical .

a elastic and soft plug is placed inside the tube. and then pressed to expand the tube • Typical products: coffee or water pitchers. beads on drums.Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03. barrels. Bulged tube Rubber forming • One of the die is made of flexible material. such as rubber • The outer surface of the sheet metal is protected by the rubber • Pressure is usually on the order of 10 MPa . Page 9 Bulging • Expand the internal cavity of tubes • First.

containers. Process variables 1. Punch-die clearance 5. Punch speed tube spinning . Page 10 Spinning processes Spinning involves the forming of axisymmetric parts over a rotating mandrel with the use of rigid tools or rollers Conventional spinning Shear spinning No change in diameter Shear spinning test Deep drawing • A flat blank is formed into a deep-cavity part by a pressing die • Typical parts are beverage cans. Punch & die corner radii 6. etc. Ratio of blank to punch diameters 3. Sheet thickness 4. Blankholder force 7. pots and pans.Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03. Sheet properties 2. Friction 8.

resulting in necking and tear • The blank diameter keeps at constant Various other forming methods • Superplastic forming for superplastic alloys • Explosive forming: using the high explosive energy • Hydroforming: pressure transferred from liquid • Peen forming: using the energy of high speed steel or iron balls • Electro-magnetic forming .Sheet Metal Forming Processes 6/12/03. Page 11 Deep drawing Pure drawing Pure stretching • Low blankholder force • The blank thickness keeps at constant • The blank diameter decreases and the blank flows freely • High blankholder force or use of beads • The blank thickness changes.

clearance. burnished area. Assume that you are carrying out a sheet-forming operation and you find that the matieral is not sufficiently ductile. thickness. etc. 3. Make suggestions to improve its ductility. List and explain several examples where (a) friction is desirable and (b) friction is not desirable. Explain why and how the modulus and the yield strength of the sheet influence the springback in bending.) 2. . punch speed. lubrication. 5. Can the hardness of a sheet metal have an effect on the metal’s springback in bending? Why? 4. area. (Shear strength and strain hardening.Sheet Metal Forming Processes Questions and Discussion (in class) 1. Describe the material and process variable that influence the punch force in shear operations.

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