Personality The unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave Difference from Character and Temperament: y y II. Character Value judgments of a person s moral and ethical behavior Temperament The enduring characteristics with which each person is born with Personality Theories A. Psychodynamic Approach 1. Sigmund Freud - Believed that the unconscious mind was the most important factor in human behavior and personality a. Divisions of Personality Id part of personality which seeks pleasure; works on the pleasure principle Ego establishes balance between id and superego; works on the reality principle Superego the moral center of personality; contains the conscience **Freud believed that the constant state of conflict within these parts (especially between the id and the superego) is the mechanism that explains how personality works. b. Stages of Personality Development Oral Stage from birth to 1 ½ years old; oral activities are the focus of pleasure Anal Stage 1 ½ to 3 years; focus of pleasure: bowel and bladder control Phallic Stage 3 to 6 years; focus of pleasure: genitals Latency Stage 6 years to puberty; focus of pleasure: social skills Genital Stage puberty until death; focus of pleasure: sexual behavior **Freud also called these stages as the psychosexual stages of personality development because he believed that personality or psyche develops as a result of sexual development. 2. Neo-Freudians a. Carl Gustav Jung - Believed that there was a collective unconscious containing racial memory, memories of ancient fears and themes - Archetypes: collective, universal human memories Types: Anima/animus feminine side of a man / masculine side of a woman Shadow the dark side of personality b. Alfred Adler
and abilities that form the basis of the striving for self-actualization -
.Focused on the child s sense of basic anxiety .Believed that the driving force behind all human endeavors.Believes children cope with anxiety by: being dependent and clingy. Reciprocal Determinism .Emphasized the importance of social relationships in the stages of life (Psychosocial Stages) B. traits. very competitive Younger children: Feel inferior because freedom and responsibilities of older children are denied from them.Believed that developing an image of oneself (self-concept) is an important tool for human self-actualization Real self: One s actual perception of characteristics.People s expectancy on the effectiveness of their efforts to achieve a goal in any particular circumstance .Formulated the hierarchy of needs showing the most basic and fundamental needs of a person 2. expectations. tends to be overachievers Middle child: Feels superior upon dethroning the older child and dominating the younger ones.Developed a theory regarding birth order affecting personality First born: Feels inferior when younger siblings get attention. or withdrawing from relationships d. Behaviorist Approach 1. personal dispositions) b. Karen Horney . Erik Erikson . Abraham Maslow . Self-efficacy . cognitive factors (beliefs.Bandura believed that there are three factors which affect each other in determining patterns of behavior which make up personality: environment. Carl Rogers . supposedly pampered c. moving against people.Locus of control: People s assumption on whether they have control (internal locus) or do not have control (external locus) over events and consequences in their lives C. Humanistic Approach 1.Viewed personality as a relatively stable set of potential responses to various situations . Albert Bandura a. Julian Rotter . behavior.Affected by what others say and by personal assessment 2. emotions and thoughts is the seeking of superiority and not the seeking of pleasure. as Freud believed .
nonconforming Low Scorer Characteristics: Conventional. relaxed. ambitious Low Scorer Characteristics: Unreliable.Ideal self: The perception of what one should be or would like to be D. being quiet. Surface trait: Shyness. irritable. down-to-earth Conscientiousness: A person s organization and motivation High Scorer Characteristics: Organized. enduring way of thinking.Defined two types of traits Surface traits: Represents the personality characteristics easily seen by other people Source traits: Basic traits which underlie the surface trats E. to narrow down the number of traits to sixteen source traits (later suggested to be 23) . Trait Theories .Came up with 200 traits lifted from the dictionary . lazy.Attempt to describe personality and predict behavior in terms of a person s traits Trait: A consistent. an assessment questionnaire. or behaving 1. spontaneous Extraversion: One s need to be with other people High Scorer Characteristics: (Extraverts) Sociable.g. Raymond Cattell . neat. uncooperative. affectionate. stable. temperamental Low Scorer Characteristics: Calm. helpful Low Scorer Characteristics: Rude. trusting.Believed that the combination of traits in each person is unique 2. a statistical technique.Developed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). comfortable alone Agreeableness: Basic emotional style of a person High Scorer Characteristics: Good-natured. insecure. talkative Low Scorer Characteristics: (Introverts) Reserved. disliking crowds Source trait: Introversion .Believed that traits were part of a person s nervous system to guide a person s behavior .Used factor analysis. Gordon Willard Allport . The Big Five: OCEAN/The Five-Factor Model .Represent the core description of human personality . feeling. uncreative.Developed by groups of researchers arriving at more or less the same five traits Openness: The willingness of a person to try new things and new experiences High Scorer Characteristics: Creative. secure . curious.Traits are not interdependent allowing for a variety of combinations of personality descriptions
. aggressive Neuroticism: Emotional stability or instability High Scorer Characteristics: Anxious. wherein the source traits are seen as continuums or trait dimensions with two opposite ends and varying degree of the trait 3.