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Project Report

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank the project coordinator Ms. Payal Mittal, for providing all the material possible and encouraging through out the course.It is great pleasure for me to

acknowledge her assistance and contributions for her prompt and timely help and valuable suggestions during the development of this project. Last but not least,I express my heartiest gratitude to Almighty god,our Parents for their love and blessings to complete the project successfully.

MTNL was set up on 1st April, 1986 by the Government of India to upgrade the quality of telecom services, expand the telecom network, introduce new services

and to raise revenue for telecom development needs of India's key metros . Delhi, the political capital and Mumbai, the business capital of India. In the past 23 years, the company has taken rapid strides to emerge as India's leading and one of Asia's largest telecom operating companies. Besides having a strong financial base, MTNL has achieved a customer base of 8.06 million as on 31 st March 2009. The company has also been in the forefront of technology induction by converting 100% of its telephone exchange network into the state -of-the-art digital mode

Alcatel 1000E10 is the Digital Switching system developed by Alcatel CIT.

Multi-application Alcatel 1000E10 could be used for the entire range of switch from the smallest local exchanges to the largest transit gateway switches. It adapts to every type of habitat, to sparsely populated areas, and to every type of climate, from the Polar Regions to the hot and humid climate of Equatorial Africa and the tropics. System operation and maintenance can be local or common to several switches, or both at the same time. Alcatel 1000E10 provides all modern Communication services : Basic Telephony ISDN Centrex Digital Cellar Radio Telephony, and All the Intelligent Network applications. It handles all accepted signalling system in a current total of over 80 Countries and is built in accordance with recognised International standards. Alcatel CIT actively contributes to definitions of those standards.

System Applications (non-exhaustive list) Remote Subscriber Unit Local Subscriber Unit Transit Exchange ( Local Trunk or International Gateway ) Hybrid Local / Transit Exchange Tandem Exchange centrex

Global Network The development of Alcatel 1000E10 is a key element in Alcatels concept of a Global Network. The Alcatel Global Network offers a complete service for all current and future needs of our customers. The Alcatel Global Network encompasses the telephone network and its evolution towards ISDN, Data and Value added network (particularly message handling and video text), Intelligent netw ork, Cellular radio systems, operation and maintenance network and finally, the evolution towards Broadband ISDN using Asynchronous Transfer mode Techniques. These development are common to the entire Alcatel Group. The are supported by modern proven technology, the multi application

telecommunication processer ALCATEL 8300, field proven experience, versatile software, open architecture.

ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network is a telephone system network. Prior to the ISDN, the phone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data. The key feature of the ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same line s, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. There are several kinds of access interfaces to the ISDN defined: Basic Rate Interface (BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Broadband -ISDN (BISDN).

ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, that also provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better voice quality than an analog phone. It offers circuit switched connections (for either voice or data), and packet -switched connections (for data), in increments of 64 kbit/s. Another major market application is Internet access, where ISDN typically provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s in both upstream and downstream directions (which can be considered to be broadband speed, since it exceeds the narrowband speeds of standard analog 56k telephone lines). ISDN B -channels can be bonded to achieve a greater data rate, typically 3 or 4 BRIs (6 to 8 64 kbit/s channels) are bonded.
Service Provided Call Handled The Alcatel 1000E10 handles telephone call from or to the national and international public switched telephone network. It also transfer data between its ISDN subscriber as well as to and from the packet switched network.

These call includes Local calls (private, public) Regional calls (outgoing, incoming, trasist) National calls International calls (automatic or semiau tomatic, outgoing or incoming) Manual calls (operator assisted) Outgoing calls to special services

Test calls
Subscriber Facilities Analogue Subscriber Facilities -Denied origination or Denied termination lines (Incoming only Outgoing only) -Hot lines -Charge free lines -Immediate charge indication -12 or 16 KHz private metering pulse -Battery reversal -VIP or Priority lines -Itemized billing -Malicious call identification (permanent or on request) -Call waiting indication -Last Number repletion -Short code dialling -Automatic call back on busy -Wake up call -Outgoing access restriction (permanent or on request)

Digital Subscriber Facilities (non-exhaustive list) Digital Subscriber can use all facilities available to analogue subscribers plus to following:-

Bearer Services -64 Kbit/s circuit switching (CCBT), (user to user digital connectivity) -Circuit switching in the 300-3-400 Hz baseband (CCBNT) -Teleservices -Group 2 or Group 3 facsimile -Group 4 facsimile (64 Kbit/s) -Alphamosare video tex -64 Kbit/s alphaphotogrphic audio video tex -64 Kbit/s audiography

Supplementary Services Terminal probability during call One to four figure subaddresses Direct dialling with designation No. Private metering on the D channel

Total cost of call Temporary terminal transfer Call splitting Listing of unanswered calls Routine call offering Call party identification User to user signalling Frame service management


When you make a long-distance phone call, your voice is transformed from sound waves to electrical current to light waves to radio waves and back to sound waves again as it travels to its destination. Millions of far-flung families were unable to celebrate together during the recent holiday season. Yet, they still wished each other well and caught up on family news via the telephone, placing millions of long -distance calls over billions of miles of circuits. Americans dial 1-plus-area-code-plusnumber so often, we don't even think abo ut it. But a closer look will reveal that during these cross-country journeys, the human voice is transformed many times. For example, eight-year-old Junior Smith of Small Town, Georgia, has just put aside his SuperNintendo for a minute to say hello to hi s grandmother in San Francisco. The grandmother, Belle, is driving in her red convertible on the way to an all-day rock concert. Mom dials Belle's car phone, and after turning down the volume on her Guns N' Roses tape, Belle answers. Mom hands the phone to Junior. "Hi, Granny," he says. (He calls her Granny because she hates it.) Then a really amazing thing happens. At that moment, seemingly instantaneously, on the other side of the continent, Belle hears Junior's voice say "Hi, Granny." She doesn't just hear the words "Hi" and "Granny" recreated by a machine; she hears the unique sound and expressive tone of her grandson's voice, as if he were sitting beside her in the car. How did the words get to her?

The Physics of the Spoken Word

When Junior spoke, he made his vocal cords vibrate by expelling air through them. As they vibrated, the cords produced sound waves in the air. If you drop a pebble in a pond, it creates a circular wave that ripples through the water. Similarly, a sound wave is a pressure wave that ripples through the air (or other substance), spreading out in all directions from the source and exerting a force on objects in its path. The motion of Junior's vocal cords set up an alternating pattern of compression and expansion in the surrounding air. After being kicked by the cords, the moving molecules of air kicked neighboring molecules into motion, so that the pattern of movement was communicated through the air, domino-style. This pattern of movement was the sound wave. The sound wave's frequency (that is, the rate at which the pattern of compression and expansion repeated itself) was determined by how quickly

Junior's vocal cords vibrated back and forth. Frequency affects the pitch of a sound. As Junior spoke, muscles in his throat contracted or relaxed to change the tension in his vocal cords, which changed their rate of vibration, which changed the pitch of his voice. At the same time, Junior changed the shape of his throat and mouth to form the sounds we call words. To transmit and recreate the sound waves Junior produced, the telephone system used a series of transducers, devices which convert one type of signal into another. On its way from Georgia to San Francisco, the sound of Junior's voice took the form of electric current, light waves, and radio waves. All these signals traveled at fantastic speed, moving through wires, optical fibers, and air. A variety of receivers and transmitters picked up and passed on the signals as they traveled.

Translating Signals
As Junior spoke into the telephone, a microphone in the handset responded to the sound waves of his voice and delivered an equivalent electric signal. The microphone in Junior's telephone is a carbon button mike, which contains a packet of carbon granules through which an elec tric current flows. The amount of current depends on how tightly the granules are packed. A thin diaphragm linked to the packet compresses and expands the granules and varies the flow of the current. Like puffs of wind blowing against a sail, the sound waves from Junior's voice set the diaphragm in motion, which, in turn, pressed on the carbon granules. As the granules were pressed together and released, the current in the microphone changed in response to the sound wave. This changing pattern of electrical current was the signal transmitted through the wires by the telephone. Physically, the current consisted of the movement of electrons in the metal telephone wire. So, at this point in the call, the pattern of the motion of Junior's vocal cords, converted into the motion of the air, and then converted again into the motion of the diaphragm, had resulted in a corresponding pattern in the motion of electrons in a telephone wire.

Going Digital
Initially, the electrical signal was an analog signal. That is, the pattern of rising and falling electrical current corresponded directly with the rising and falling pressure of the sound wave the electrical signal was analogous to the

sound wave. However, soon after leaving Junior's house, the electrical signal reached a nearby collection point where it was converted from an analog signal to a digital signal. The analog signal mimicked the original sound pattern. The digital signal, on the other hand, consisted of a series of discrete electrical pulses that, taken together, described the analog pattern in binary code. Binary code, the mathematical language used in computer programming, uses a binary or "base two"number system. Just as Morse code uses various combinations of long and short beeps to represent letters, this system uses only two digits, 1 and 0, to represent all numerical values. The digital conversion is made because digital networks have many advantages over analog systems. For one thing, the distinct pulses can be transmitted more accurately than the infinitely varying analog signal. In addition, the binary code "shorthand" lets digital networks carry more information at one time than analog. To make the conversion, the analog-to-digital converter in Junior's neighborhood sampled the incoming analog signal eight thousand times a second. For each sampled value, the converter generated a series of electrical pulses that represented the value in binary code, with high signals represented as 1s and low signals represented as 0's.

Moving onto the Information Highway

After being digitized, Junior's message was routed to the local ex -change office, or what the telephone company calls the central office (CO). At the CO, digital switches routed Junior's signal on-to the most efficient path through the network of switches in cities between Georgia and San Francisco. For Junior's call, that path included copper cable, optical fiber cables, and cellular radio links. If Junior's call had taken another path to California, it could have traveled via microwave radio links as well. If Junior were making an international call, the path might have also included satellite transmissions or submarine cables. First, Junior's call was routed onto a high-capacity telephone cable, which carries multiple conversations simultaneously on one line. A device known as a time-division multiplexer routed the signals from multiple calls onto the cable and inserted routing signals that allowed the mingled calls to be separated by a de-multiplexer once they reached their destination.

Seeing the Light

For Junior's call, the next destination was a fiber -optic conversion station. Here, the digital electrical signal that represented Junior's message was converted into pulses of light produced by a light -emitting diode (LED). Fiber-optic cables are smaller, lighter, more economical, and more noise resistant than their copper counterparts, and they carry more information more quickly. By using different frequencies of light to transmit different calls, more than twenty calls can be sent simultaneously through a single fiber one-tenth of a millimeter in diameter. Like an electrical signal, a light signal owes its existence to moving electrons. Light, like microwaves, radio waves, and X -rays, is a type of electromagnetic wave. Such waves are produced when electrically charged particles, such as electrons, jump about and radiate energy. The type of electromagnetic wave produced depends on the amount of energy per jump. In the case of an LED, the incoming electrical pulses cause electrons to jump into a higher energy state, then fall back to their starting level, giving off the extra energy in the form of visible light or infrared rays. Once produced, Junior's light pulses traveled through the hair -thin glass fibers at about 123,000 miles per second (two-thirds the speed of light in a vacuum) to another conversion station on the opposite side of the country. There, the light pulses were decoded back into electronic digital signals.

Making Waves
The electronic signal made its way through teleph one cables to the central office serving Granny. Granny's CO routed the call to a digital switching center operated by her cellular telephone company. This central switch, or base station, regularly routes calls via land-based telephone cables to the cluster of high-frequency radio towers that serve Granny's area. Towers are located two to ten miles apart, and each tower transmits calls only to its immediate area, or cell. When it received Junior's call, the base station sent a signal to all the towers to let them know it was looking for Granny's car phone, kind of an electronic All-Points-Bulletin. Each tower then broadcast this signal to its area over a special set-up channel, asking in essence, "Hello, are you there?" Granny's car phone, constantly listening for such a call to come in over the set-up channel, sent back an "I'm here" signal to the tower transmitting the strongest signal the tower closest to Granny's car. With that response, the base station knew to send the incoming call via that radio tower.

Once it reached the appropriate tower, the digital electrical signal representing Junior's message was converted back to an analog signal, then converted into high-frequency radio waves. Remember the light waves that were produced when an electron j umped around? Radio waves are also types of electromagnetic waves, which are produced when electrons move and radiate energy. Any changing electrical current gives off electromagnetic waves, but antennas and transmitters are designed to control and direct the waves that are produced. By feeding an electrical signal of the right frequency to an antenna, engineers can generate and transmit a radio frequency signal that moves away from the antenna into the air, or even into space. In the radio tower, a radio frequency generator produced a regular pattern of radio waves. This pattern, the carrier signal, was then modulated by Junior's incoming message signal. In other words, Junior's signal was superimposed onto the carrier signal. The composite signal was ampl ified and broadcast by the antenna tower toward Granny's car.

Back to Sound
As Granny moved down the freeway, the radio signals were intercepted by her antenna, where they set electrons in motion, to produce the electrical signals identical to the ones that Junior's voice produced in the telephone back in Georgia. These signals ran into the receiver located in Granny's telephone and traveled through a coil of wire in the phone's earpiece. The wire was wrapped around a small magnet to form an electromagnet. Any electric current generates a magnetic field, which varies in strength as the current varies. If iron is placed inside a current-carrying coil of wire, the resulting magnetic field is even stronger, and the combination is called an electromagnet. The magnetic force produced by the electromagnet in Granny's phone changed in strength as the incoming signal changed. The changing force acted on a nearby metal armature, causing it to rock back and forth. The armature was attached to a diaphragm that moved the air and generated the sound waves that traveled out of the phone and into Granny's ear. These sound waves mimicked the ones Junior set in motion in Georgia an instant earlier. They set Granny's middle-ear structures, inner-ear fluids, and finally her inner-ear membrane and hair cells into motion, which produced an electrical impulse in her brain, so that she heard the words "Hi, Granny" in Junior's voice.

On the cross-country trek, the pattern of motion of Junior's vocal cords had been transformed into sound waves in the air, the mechanical vibrations of a diaphragm, the movement of electrons in metal cable, pulses of light, radiated radio waves, a varying magnetic field, and finally back to sound waves just like the ones his own vocal cords produced. All in a heartbeat. And Granny thinks that SuperNintendo is complicated!

OCB283 Functional Architecture

Time Base (BT) The BT ensures time distribution for LR and PCM to provide the synchronization and also for working out the exchange clock. Time distribution is tripled. Time distribution can be autonomous or slaved to an external rhythm with a view to synchronise the system with the network.

Host Switching matrix (SMX) The SMX is a square connection matrix with a singl e time stage, T1 duplicated in full, which enables up to 2048 matrix links (LR) to be connected. A Matrix link LR is an internal PCM, with 16 bits per channel (32 channels)

PCM Controller (URM) The URM provides the interface between external PCMs a nd the OCB283. These PCM come from either :-A remote subscriber digital access unit (CSN) or from a remote electronics concentrator CSE, -Another switching centre, on channel associated signalling or CCIT No.7, -The digital recoded announcement equipment. In particular, The URM carries out the following equipment: -HDB3 conversion to binary (PCM Matrix link) PCM)

-Binary conversion to HDB3 (Matrix link

-Extraction and pre-processing of the channel associated signalling of T.S16 (PCM Command) -Transmission of channel associated signalling in T.S16 (Command PCM)

Auxiliary Equipment Manager (ETA) The ETA supports:-The tone generator (GT) -The frequency receiving and generation devices (RGF) -Conference unit -The exchange clock

CCS7 Protocol Handler (PUPE) and CCS7 controller (PC) CCITT No.7 protocol processing For connection of 64 Kbits / signalling channel, semi -permanent connections are established via the connection matrix, to the POPE which processes the CCIT No.7 protocol. More precisely, the PUPE function carries out the following: -Signalling channel level 2 processing. -The message routing function. The PC carries out the following:-The Network Management functions -PUPE defence -Various observation task which are not directly linked to CCITT No.7

Call Handler (MR) The MR is the responsible for the establishment and breaking off of communications. The call handler takes the decision, necessary for processing of communications in terms of the signalling received, after consultation of the subscriber and analysis data base manager (TR) if necessary. The call handler processes the new call and hanging up operations, releases equipment, commands switching on and switching off etc. In addition the call handler is responsible for different task (control of test of circuit, observation)

Subscriber and Analysis Database Manager (TR) (Translator) The TR function carries out management of the analysis, subscriber and circuit group database. The TR supplies the call handler, on request from it, with subscriber and circuit characteristics necessary for establishing breaking off communications. The TR also ensures matched between the dialling received the address of circuit groups or s ubscriber (preanalysis, analysis, translation functions). Call Charging and Traffic Measurement (TX) The TX function carries out charging for communications. TX is responsible for - Calculating the amount to be charged for each communications. - keeping the charge account of each subscriber served by the switched centre. - Supplying the necessary information for drawing up detailed billing, on line to the OM. Matrix System Handler (GX) The GX function is responsible for processing and for defenc e of connections on the receipt of - Request for connection or disconnection coming from call handler (MR) or message distributor function (MR). - Connection faults signalling by the matrix switch controller function (COM). Message Distributor (MQ)

The MQ function is responsible for distribution and formatting of certain internal messages but, above all it carries out - Supervision of semi-permanent connections (data links) - Transmission of message between communication multiplexes (gateway function) Communication Multiplex One to five communication multiplexes are used to transmit messages from one station to another. This transfer of message is carried out by only one type of medium, the TOKEN RING with a unique protocol which is processed in accordance with IEEE802.5 standard. Single Multiplex (compact configuration) It is referred to as the inter station multiplex (MIS). More than one specialist Multiplex Inter station multiplex (MIS) for interchanges between the connection functions (URM, COM, POPE) and the command functions. Operation and Maintenance Functions (OM) The function of the operation and maintenance subsystem are carried out by the operation and maintenance software (OM). The operating authority access all of the Alcatel 1000E10 system via computer terminals belonging to the operation and maintenance subsystem, consoles, magnetic media, intelligent terminal. These functions can be grouped into two categories - Operation of the telephone application. - Operation and maintenance of the system. Finally, the operation and maintenance subsystem permits two way communications with operation and maintenance network at regional or national level (TMN).

Very rapid changes have been seen in the telecom industry in last few years .these coupled with growth in computer and IT industry have led to INFORMATION REVOLUTION. Geographical boundaries are no more seen as a barrier and d world is now being termed as GLOBAL VILLAGE. With the evolution of Optical fiber cables, the distance is no more the criterion for working out the telecommunication tariffs. Apart from falling prices; deregulation, innovation and technological advancement has resulted into major growth that the telecommunication industry has witnessed in the recent past. The telephone lines have been doubling almost every five years.


The invention of telegraph by Samuel Morse in 1838 ushered the era of communication. This was followed by equally important invention of telephone by Alexander graham bell in 1876. Telegraph was used for long distant call where as telephone for local calls. Initially telephone exchanges wren manual. A customer would first land on the operators board who in turn would connect him to the called party. Over a period of time, as technology improved automatic exchanges using selectors were installed. This cut down operator workforce considerably. But they were still needed in case of putting phone through trunk calls. But with the advent of STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing), even the long distant calls also became fully automatic. The transmission networks have also improved considerably. From a single channel it graduated to 3 channels, then 8 channels to 12 channel open wire carrier systems. This continued for some time, till coaxial cables were introduced in the 60s. This started the era of multichannel communication systems for long distance. Coaxial cables and radio systems covered the length and breadth of the country. Satellite systems again revolutionized communication industry by allowing calls between continents with good quality speech circuit. Considerable progress took place in the switching technology as well, with the convergence of computer and communication technology in 80s. This convergence led to the introduction of SPC (storage program control) switches. This was possible due to high performance of CPU and very low prices. Then came the digital switches. They were more reliable, robust and would require less space than earlier versions of relay based switches like cross bars.

Common channel Signaling (CCS) was introduced, unlike the earlier concept of CAS (channel associated Signaling); the signaling function was separated from the voice channel. The CCS, along with introduction of ISDN (integrated service digital network), had brought to the customers a host of service. The customer then could use telephone; connect to a pc and other devices like G4 FAX one the same telephone line for voice and data applications.


The telecom network can be classified in three categories, broadly. 1. Switching system 2. Transmission network 3. Access network

A diagram showing different network elements

A typical intercity network is shown in above figure. The call is made from one subscriber to another. If the call is local, the call routed from exchange B to exchange C. in case of a long distance call, the call is routed along TAX (trunk automatic exchange). Tax is then connected to long distance media. We shall now see the functions of each entity in the network.

The basic job of switch is to route call from the calling party to the called party and provide connection path as long as the two parties are in the conversation. The important functions of a switch can be classified as follows. 1. Connecting/disconnecting the call. 2. Routing the call. 3. Provide necessary signaling information. 4. Generate call details for billing function.

The function of a transmission network is to provide a medium for the call from one exchange to another. This can be from one local exchange to another. In this case, the medium is transport medium. However, when the network is connecting two TAXs and calls are meant for long distance communication, it is called transmission network. It mostly deploys the optical fibers as the preferred medium. However, it can also be radio or satellite systems as well. The transport network or the Access medium has been predominantly based on the copper cables. But introduction of RSUs (Remote switching units) and technology of FILL (fiber in local loop) and WLL (wireless in local loop) the deployment of optical fiber and radio links in the transport system has increased many folds. The transmission systems can be generally classified into the following 3 categories. 1. Cables 2. Radio systems 3. Satellite systems

Can further be classified into 2 categories 1. Co-axial cables 2. Optical fibers A co-axial cables consists of a stiff copper wire as the core. It is then surrounded by an insulating material, which in turn is encased by a cylindrical conductor called the outer conductor. An optical fiber contains a very thin glass fiber as the core and then covered by an insulating material. There are many advantages of using optical fires over the coaxial cables. The major advantage is that it provides much higher capacity than the coaxial cables.

Radio systems
These systems work on the theory of Electromagnetic theory of the radio waves. These waves operate on the principle of propagation of light and are most efficient to transfer the energy in LOS (line of sight) condition. The number of oscillations per second of these waves is called the frequency, f, measured in Hertz (Hz).

Access network
The access network is the part of the networking which the subscriber is connected to the exchange.

This a traditional network in which a multi pair copper cable (usually 1200 pairs, 800 pairs etc.) is taken out from the exchange to the cabinet. This is called the primary cable. From here the cable is further distributed via secondary cables, a typical size being 200 pairs. These cables are terminated at the pillars, from where cables are taken to the DP (distribution point). The traditional access network has been in use for last one century. But now things are changing. Both optical fiber cable and radio systems are finding their place in the local loop. More and more operators are deploying these technologies sin the local loop. WLL and FILL are gaining popularity with each passing day.

But there are a large number of underground copper cables have been laid so these cannot be discarded for new technologies. So new techniques like ADSL (asymmetrical digital subscriber line) and HDSL (high bit-rate digital subscriber line) are being worked out in order to exploit the existing copper cables commercially. Out of these HDSL is more common with operators, especially with the ISPs.

Copper cables support very narrow bandwidths hence it cannot provide large number circuits. But business persons demand high bandwidth at their premises. HDSL provides the answer to the problem. It has the following features. 1. Can provide 2 Mbps symmetric speed 2. Partial speed is also possible 3. Can provide good BER(bit error rate) This technology is mostly used for internet applications these days.

Wire gauge 26 AWG/0.40 mm 24 AWG/0.51 mm 22 AWG/0.61 mm 19 AWG/0.91 mm

Distance(kms) 2.51 3.34 4.30 6.10

Loop resistance 686 569 457 322

Table 1: maximum reach of HDSL on various gauges of copper wires

The basic function of a switch is to provide connectivity from one subscriber to another subscriber. This connectivity is achieved through the switching element of an exchange. Broadly, switching function can be classified into following activities. 1. Connecting/disconnecting two subscribers. 2. Routing the call 3. Charging the call In the above process the information is passed through the signaling system, which plays very important role.

Brief history
Initially there were manual exchanges with number please system. Then came the era of Electro mechanical exchanges, which were known as Strowger exchanges, where the movement of selector would connect the calling subscriber to the called subscriber. Subsequently, crossbar switches were added in the network in 60s &70s. The metallic switches were miniaturized reed relays also called cross points. In this case n*n cross points are needed for n inlet and n outlet matrix for full availability. But with the increasing number of subscriber the size of the matrix became unmanageable. For reduction of cross point, multi stage switching was deployed by cascading matrices of much smaller sizes. In multi stage switching only different stages of swatches were deployed to reduce the internal blocking. But these led to the complexity of Common Control Equipment and also fall in GOS (grade of service. The advancement in computer technology and its adoption in Telecom has led to the era of SPC (storage program controlled) exchanges. Initially the exchanges were based on ANALOG TECHNOLOGY, but then DIGITAL SWITCHING technique had been deployed. Instead of a metallic cross point, a semiconductor gate was used for transmission of digitally encoded signal. They are very compact and use very less space. They support PCM (pulse code modulation) streams for transmission systems. They can provide end to end connectivity. This feature gave introduction to ISDN (integrated services digital network) and IN (intelligent network). The BHCA (busy hour call attempts) are also very high in case of these switches. They can handle very high traffic.

Time division switching

In this case, the path of any circuit is not dedicated, but is shared in time frame with number of such circuits. The signal is switched from one time slot to another in the same highway. These signals are held up and stored for the

duration of current frame and released after rearrangement on the same path in the next frame. It is purely non-blocking for any of the time slots as there is always one memory location available for a particular time slot.

Packet switch
When the signal is broken down into smaller units called packets. The path is established only for the duration in which a bunch of packets is transmitted. This path can be used for bunch of packets of another call. Thus the efficiency of a particular circuit is increased, as more data flow takes place. However, the problem is that these packets are to be reassembled at the receiving end in the same sequence ass they were transmitted. This requires lot of complex algorithms to be built into the call processing. Moreover, for transmission of data packets, the problem is less as they are not so delay sensitive. But in case of speech circuits, this is a major bottleneck. Internet telephony is based on this concept

ATM switch
Asynchronous transfer mode is a connection oriented technology but ba sically uses packets for information flow. Since all the cells from source to destination take the same route, the cells from a given source can be identified by the virtual path and the virtual circuit that the cells are coming through. This saves bandwidth and processor time to identify a cell. Disadvantages of ATM are that to transmit even a few cells, a circuit is to be formed which consumes bandwidth.

It is a system using digital phone connection. With this it is possible to transmit facsimile, data, images, etc. on a high speed communication line. In case of ISDN, voice and data are carried by bearer channel (B channel) occupying a bandwidth of 64kb/s. A data channel (D channel) handles the signaling at 16 kb/s. this type of service is called basic rate interface. Apart from that isdn also supports primary rate interface wherein there are 30B or 23B channels plus one 64 kb/s D channel, depending upon whether is a 2mbps or 1.5 mbps system.

For any telecom network to work effectively and efficiently, continuous monitoring of traffic parameters is a must. At the same time based on these parameters the architecture of exchanges and transmission media can be worked out. They are very important and fundamental for understanding the co ncepts related to traffic being carried out by a telecom network.

Traffic pattern

Traffic offered by customers is not uniform. It is called pure chance. Variation can be hourly (peak office hours), weekly (weekends) or festively. For this a very meticulous planning is needed so that neither network is overdesigned nor it gives congestion in peak hours.

Traffic unit (TU)

The unit of traffic measurement is Erlang. It represents the holding time for a call. Thus if the duration of one call is one hour, it is stated to be 1 Erlang.

Calling rates
There are two types of calling rate:-

1. Busy hour calling rate(BHCR) 2. Daily calling rate 1. Busy hour calling rate (BHCR)-this is the average number of calls originated per subscriber during busy hour. Busy hours defined as 60 min period in a day having maximum traffic over the long run. Daily calling rates- this represents average number of calls originated per subscriber during the day. It is normally 6 to 7 times BHCR.


BHCA (busy hour calling attempts) is defined as total seizures during busy hour. This parameter is very important from the point of view of designing and dimensioning an exchange. With the advancement in the technology, it has been possible to get exchanges designed for very high BHCA.

This is the sum of the entire holding times in an hour. This unit for traffic volume is Erlang-hour. The total traffic flow in thus of Erlangs can be calculated as a=n.h Where, n is the number of calls in the hour under observation and h is the average duration of calls, in hours. The value of A will be maximum during the busy hour.


While dimensioning the switch following factors are considered


Pure change traffic Full availability Average traffic offered by a large number of subscribers Busy hour and Busy hour traffic Existence of statistical equilibrium i.e. number of calls originating are same as terminating during a short period of time  Lost calls, having zero holding time.

While dimensioning an exchange, some calls are allowed to be lost or to fail. This proportion of lost calls is termed as Grade of Service. For instance, if 1call is allowed to be lost in 500 calls, the GOS will be.002

Call completion rate

Call completion rate (CCR) is a parameter, which indicates the quality of a network. The methodology adopted in carrying out CCR is to make few calls on a random basis and the number of successful calls is designated as the CCR figure.

Signaling plays a very important role in the working of an exchange. Traditionally, channel associated signaling (CAS) was being used in the exchanges. For this purpose on an E &M trunk line, found was applied on the M lead. This was termed as E & M signaling. Another type of signaling using the R2 MF concept was later on introduced. But it was found that with the increase in the size of the exchanges and increase in the traffic, it was hot meeting the requirement.

Signal encoding uses a set of rules for arranging the signal symbols in a regular pattern. This process is called channel or line encoding. There are various types of line codes. Some of the basic types of line codes used for transmission lines are: NRZ (not return to zero), RZ (return to zero) and AMI (alternate mark inversion), HDB3 codes etc.

Why is line coding required? Why not just send 1s and 0s?

This is due to the fact that the building block of all the devices used in transmitter and receiver are capacitor and other DC components. These devices require changing input signal to work. So in order to,
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To distinguish from no transmission from run of zeros. To prevent the errors in decoding the received signal, loss of synchronization, DC-component. To increase the bit rate, means several bits per signaling element. With line coding it is possible to increase the bit rate and decrease the bit error.

NRZ Coding
The simplest NRZ code is shown in figure below. In this transmitted data bits occupies a full bit period and output does not return to zero and so i t is called NRZ. These codes are easy to generate but do not have error monitoring and correcting capabilities. NRZ do not have self clocking features. Moreover, there is high DC component present.

RZ Coding
If an adequate bandwidth margin exists, each bit can be encoded as two line code bits. In this, transmitted bits occupies less than the full bit period of transmitted pulse as shown in figure below Because 1 bit pulse have only 50% duration, the timing pulses recovery is better than NRZ. But still because of high DC component, the code is not much suitable for transmission.

MANCHESTER CODES It can be obtained by direct modulo-2- addition the baseband (NRZ-L) signal and a clock signal. This coding is generally implemented in Ethernet and Token Ring technologies. Since it is RZ code, bandwidth required for this type of coding is twice the NRZ code.

AMI CODE Using the AMI (alternate mark) code, the problem of DC content is largely solved. In this scheme, logic0 is represented by 0 volt, whereas logic 1 is encoded with alternately with positive and negative voltages. This is represented in figure below. Using this methodology, the average voltage is maintained very close to zero and hence no DC component is present. From the AMI wave form, it can be seen that the code has a built in error monitoring facility. This is because of the reason that as alternate marks (1) are to be inverted, any deviation from this would mean an error. However, AMI code suffers from the problem of timing information .this is because in case of series of 0 s are encountered, timing information may not be accurate. In order to solve this problem other codes like HDBF3 (high density bipolar). CMI and others have been developed. In HDB3code, the same methodology of AMI coding is used. But when a string of 0 is encountered, the zeroes are replaced by a special code. Here this is done, when the number of zeroes is more

than 3. The 4th bit position is filled with a violation pulse. The consecutive violations are made to be of opposite polarity, so that these violations themselves do not produce any DC component.

Whenever any binary signal is transmitted on a medium, say optical fiber, radio system etc, it should be faithfully received at the receiver. It may not happen always. With the result, binary digit 1 may be received as 0 or digit 0 transmitted at station A may be received as 1 at station B. the bit which is received wrongly is known as ERROR. Total numbers of such bits received during any specified interval are called Bit Error Counts.


It signifies the ratio of total number of bits received in error to the total number of bits transmitted during any specified interval of time. This can mathematically be expressed as follows.


The number or 1 second intervals during which the system was considered unavailable is called unavailable seconds. The period of unavailability is counted when the bit error rate in each second is more than IE-3 for 10 consecutive seconds. Thus Available seconds (AS) = total measurement period-unavailable seconds.


With the increase in the number of computers being used for various services, the need for their interconnection has always been felt. LAN (Local Area Network) offers a good solution for the same. These LAN also provides access to variety of servers, mainframe computers and the internet. Following three technologies are commonly used in LANs. 1- Traditional Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) 2- Switched Ethernet 3- Wireless Ethernet (IEEE802.11) The need for LAN is considered primarily for two basic reasons viz. information sharing and resources sharing. Information sharing refers to enabling users, who access the data files, to exchange information via electronic mail, use the In ternet etc. Resource sharing refers to one computer sharing a hardware device (e.g. printer) or software package with other computers on the network, in order to save costs. It also helps the organization to upgrade the network faster, whenever needed.


Following two approaches can be adopted for configuring the LAN in any organization. 1- Dedicated Server 2- Peer-to-Peer LAN One common way to categorize LANs is by whether they have a dedicated server or whether they operate as a peer -to-peer LAN without a dedicated server.
Dedicated Server Networks

Dedicated Server LAN has one or more computers that are permanently assigned as the network servers. These servers enable users to share files, share printers and other resources. A dedicated server LAN can connect

with almost any other network. It can handle very large files and databases, and uses sophisticated LAN software.

Peer-To-Peer Networks

Peer-to-peer networks do not require a dedicated server. All computers run network software that enables them to function both as a client and as a server. Authorised users can connect to any computer in the LAN that permits access and use their hard drive and printer as though they were physically attached to their own computers. Peer-to-peer network are often slower than dedicated server networks because if one access a computer that is also being used by its owner, it has a tendency to slow down.


There are six components in a traditional LAN. Client Computer is any normal computer that is switched to the network and asked for some services. They have capability to generate request on network. Server is a computer that is switched to the network and responds to the network requests. The server has the capability to provide some specific services to the client computers. The Network Interface card (NIC) is used to connect the computer to the network cable. Network cables: Each computer must be physically connected by network cable to the other computers in the network. The perfect cabling system also should be able to carry all kinds of electronic transmissions within the building. Most LANs are built with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wires, shielded twisted pair (STP), coaxial cable, or even fibre optics cable. The cabling can be of different types in an Ethernet topology. They can broadly be classified into following four categories a) 10 Base T This is using the twisted pair cables and can cover a distance of 100 meters.

b) 10 Base 2 In this technique thin coaxial is used. The maximum distance, which can be covered, is 185 meters. c) 10 Base 5 In this topology, thick coaxial is used and a maximum distance of 500 meters can be covered. Network Hubs or switches: Network hubs serve two purposes. Firstly, they provide an easy way to connect network cables. A hub can be thought of as a junction box, permitting new computers to be connected to the network. Secondly, hubs can act as repeaters or amplif iers. Signals can travel only so far in a network cable before they attenuate and can no longer be recognised. Apart from using the hubs, switches are also used in a LAN configuration. The network operating system (NOS) is the software that controls the network. Every NOS provide two set of software: one that runs on the network servers, and one that runs on the network clients. The server version of the NOS provides the software that performs the functions associated with the data link, network, and appli cation layers and usually the computers own operating system.


Almost all LANs installed today use some of Ethernet topology. Ethernet was originally developed by DEC, Xerox, and Intel.

Topology can be defined as the basic geometric layout of the network the way in which the computers on the network are interconnected. It is important to distinguish between a logical topology and a physical topology. A logical topology is how the network works conceptually. A physical topology is how the network is physically installed. Ethernets logical topology is a bus topology. All computers are connected to one half-duplex circuit running across the length of the network. All messages from any computer fl ow onto the central cable (or bus) and through it to all computers on the LAN. Every computer on the bus services all the messages sent on the bus , even those intended for other computers. Before processing an incoming message, the Ethernet

software on each computer checks the data link layer address and processes only addresses meant for it.
Media Access Control

When several computers share the same communication circuit, it is important to control their access to media. If two computers on the same circuit transmit at the same time, their transmissions will become garbled. These collision must be prevented, or if they do occur, there must be a way to recover from them. This is called Media Access Control. The commonly used technique to avoid these col lisions is known as CSMA/CD.
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection)

CSMA/CD is a contention based access method in which there is no scheduled time or sequence for stations to transmit on the medium. They compete for the use of medium. It is, therefore quite likely that more than one station will transmit simultaneously and the data frames will collide. In this technique each station wishing to transmit, monitor with this strategy is that if two stations are waiting to transmit, then chances are that they will collide, and require retransmission. One limitation of previous version of CSMA technique was that even after a collision has occurred, the stations continue transmissions till all the bits of the frames were over. This resulted in unnecessary wastage of channel time. If the stations listen to the channel while they are transmitting, a collision can be detected as soon as it occurs and further transmission can be abandoned thus saving the channel time. In this technique stations do not attempt to transmit again immediately after a collision has been detected. Usually the stations are given a random back off delay for retry. Through CSMA/CD we can achieve efficiencies of even more than 90%.

Switched Ethernet is identical to traditional Ethernet, except that a switch replaces the hub. In traditional shared Ethernet, all devices share the same multipoint circuit. When a message is sent from one computer to another, it enters the hub, and the hub retransmits it to all the computers attached to the hub. Each computer looks at the Ethernet address of incoming packets and if the address on the packet does not match its own address, it discards the packet. This process ensures that no two computers transmit

at the same time, because they are always listening and do not transmit while they are receiving a message, even if the message is not addressed to them. If the hub does not send the message to all the computers, a computer could begin transmitting at the same time as another computers transmission time because it may not be aware of the transmission.

Before communication starts, a virtual connection is established by sending a request to the receiver. If the receiver is not busy, it informs the sender that it is ready to accept the data. The receiver replies back using the same path by which it got the message from the sender, and later all the transaction between these two host takes the same path. This link works as if it were a leased for these two hosts (even when not leased). So, this is called a virtual channel.
VIRTUAL PATH In ATM communication for long distance transmission on physical medium grouping of virtual channels is done. Each group takes one route for switching communication. Thus a bundle of wires may have 2 or 3 more such conceptual groups. These groups are called virtual path.

The ATM layer has two types of interfaces. a) NNI (Network Network Interface ) - this is used for communication between two ATM switches. b) UNI (User Network Interface) this is used for communication between switch and host.


OSI (Open System Interconnection) deals with connecting open system i.e. the system that is open for communication with other systems. It is based on the international standardization of the protocols using various layers. OSI model has seven layers, with each layer having dedicated functionalities associated with it. The brief description and functionality of each layer is given below:


The main function of the Physical Layer is to transmit the raw bits over the communication medium. The NIC cards in the PC and the interface on routers all run at this level. This layer takes into account the characteristics of the transmission media; both guided (copper wire, coaxial and fiber optic cables) and unguided (wireless Radio systems).


The Data Link layer describes the logical organization of data bits transmitted on a particular medium. This layer defines the framing, addressing and check summing of packets. The task of framing is done by the sender which normally breaks the input data up into data frames (typically few hundred or few thousand bytes), transmits the frame sequentially, and processes the acknowledgement frames sent back by the receiver. The function of data link layer becomes to create the frames at the transmit end and to recognise them at the receiver. This is done by attaching special bit patterns to the beginning and end of frame.


The Network Layer defines the addressing scheme and routing structure for the packets and is concerned with controlling the operation of the subnet. This layer provides a mean for communication open system to establish, maintain and terminate network connections. The router in this network layer determine as how the packets are routed from source to destination. Routers can operate based on static tables that are wired into the network and rarely change or build dynamic routing table. To route a packet from source to destination some addressing scheme is required and this is called IP addressing.


The basic function of the Transport Layer is to describe the quality and nature of the data delivery. It accepts data from the session layer and splits it into smaller units and passes these packets to network layer. In the receive side it ensure that all the packets reached ar e correct, and in the same sequence as it were sent.


The Session Layer describes the syntax of data being transferred. This layer describes how floating point numbers can be exchanged between hosts with different formats. It provide for two communicating presentation entities to exchange data with each other. It allows users on different machine to establish a session between them. A session allows ordinary data transport, as does the transport layer, but is it also provides enhanced services useful in some applications. Session can allow traffic to go in the both directions at the same time or in only one direction at a time.


The Presentation Layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. This is where application data is either packed or unpacked and made ready for use by the running application. Protocol conversions, encryption / decryption and graphics expansion all takes place here. It can include features like JPEG, MPEG, MIDI, ASCII, etc.


The Application Layer consists of variety of protocols that are commonly used. In fact, Application Layer is where the user is directly interacting with machine. This layer contains a variety of protocols which are required very often to accomplish different tasks. It contains all virtual terminal software. This layer includes all processes that use Transport Layer protocols to deliver data to the Internet Layer. The most widely known and implemented application layer protocols are Network Terminal Protocol (Telnet) provides text communication for remote login and communication across the network. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) network. used to download and upload files across

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) messages across the network.

delivers electronics mail

Post Office Protocol, Version 3 (POP-3) allows user to pick up e-mail across the network from the central server. Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) used by the World-Wide-Web to exchange text, pictures, sounds, and other multi -meda information via a graphical user interface (GUI).