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Actual Date of Delivery Title of Working Document Workpackage Dissemination Level Nature Date of Preparation Author(s)
STEER EIE/05/059/SI2.421631 SpiCycles Sustainable Planning & Innovation for Bicycles Project Deliverable 7.4 August 2008 November 2008 Final Evaluation Report WP 7 Public Report September – November 2007 Luca Persia, Marco Valerio Salucci (DITS ) Simon Hayes (DSD), Cristina Pou (SSM Barcelona Municipality) Hermann Bluemel (Senat Berlin) Laurentiu Rizea, Razvan Fronescu (RATB) Håkan Perslow (Göteborg Municipality) Gina Voinea (Ploiesti Municipality) Marco Contadini, Piefrancesco Canali, Chiara di Majo, Michele Ieradi, Fabiana Marconi, Annalisa Perla, Vittorio Petrini, Angelamaria Verdi (ATAC) Luca Persia, DITS Mario Gualdi ISIS - Istituto di Studi per l'Integrazione dei Sistemi Tel +39 06 3212655; E-mail: email@example.com
Editor(s) Project Co-ordinator
Abstract: This report provides a description of the project evaluation results. It briefly summarises the objectives of the project, the evaluation methodology defined in the Final Evaluation Plan, and provides a description of the actions implemented. As a general result the actions proved to be successful in promoting cycling as a mode of transport. The implementation process was influenced by a reduced number of institutional barriers and by several drivers, which along with other local conditions seem to moderately affect the implementation and transferability of the actions in other cities.
Document Control Sheet
Project Document name Document reference Other internal reference Prepared by (organisation) Author(s) DITS Luca Persia, Marco Valerio Salucci (DITS) Simon Hayes (DSD), Cristina Pou (SSM Barcelona Municipality) Hermann Bluemel (Senat Berlin) Laurentiu Rizea, Razvan Fronescu (RATB) Håkan Perslow (Göteborg Municipality) Gina Voinea (Ploiesti Municipality) Marco Contadini, Angelamaria Verdi (ATAC) Luca Persia, DITS
Final Evaluation Report D 7.4
Editor(s) Reviewed by
Issue Draft 1 Draft 2 Draft 3 Draft 4 Draft 5 Issue 1 Description TOC First outline Draft Draft for Comments Final Draft for Review Official version Originator Luca Persia Luca Persia Luca Persia Luca Persia Luca Persia Luca Persia Date of issue September 2008 October 2008 October 2008 November 2008 November 2008 November 2008
Table of Contents
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Project objectives and structure Overview of the evaluation process Role and structure of this document Terminology
6 8 11 12
Description of the actions
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Bike Sharing (WP 3) Communication and Awareness Raising (WP 4) Planning for Cycling (WP 5) Building Local Partnerships (WP 6)
14 18 23 28
Common evaluation analysis
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Background indicators Process evaluation Impact assessment Transferability analysis
31 35 61 77
Conclusions References and bibliography
List of Tables Table 1-1 Table 3-2 Table 3-3 Table 3-4 Table 3-5 Table 3-6 Table 3-7 Table 3-8 Table 3-9 Table 3-10 Table 3-11 Table 3-12 Table 3-13 Table 3-14 Table 3-15 Table 3-16 Table 3-17 Table 3-18 Table 3-19 Table 3-20 Table 3-21 Table 3-22 Table 3-23 Table 3-24 Table 3-25 Table 3-26 Table 3-27 Table 3-28 SpiCycles Evaluation Working Group 11 Background indicators: comparison of general indicators 32 Background indicators: the modal split 32 Background indicators: the average length of a trip within the city in km 33 Background indicators: total number of trips per day per person 33 Background indicators: infrastructure for bicycles 34 Background indicators: safety and security 35 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Barcelona) 36 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Berlin) 37 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Bucharest) 38 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Göteborg) 39 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Ploiesti) 40 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Rome) 41 Categories of barriers and drivers (city context constraints) identified by METEOR 42 Bike Sharing sensitiveness to city context constraints 48 Communication and Awareness Raising sensitiveness to city context constraints 49 Planning for Cycling sensitiveness to city context constraints 50 Building Local Partnerships sensitiveness to city context constraints 51 General performance process indicators: introduction of parking spaces at key interchange points (Intermodality) 52 General performance process indicators: number of most dangerous intersection reconstructed (Safety) 52 General performance process indicators: extension of the cycling path with extra lanes expressed in km 53 Bike-sharing process indicators 55 Planning for cycling process indicators: most heavily used route sections, and location of major cyclist/pedestrian conflicts (City of Barcelona) 58 Building Local Partnerships process indicators: number of periodical roundtables. 60 Building Local Partnerships process indicators: number of annual meetings. 60 Legenda for the overall estimation of impacts for the evaluation sub-categories 61 Overall estimation of impacts for “User Acceptance” 63 Overall estimation of impacts for “Operator Acceptance” 64
Introduction of parking spaces at key interchange points Number of most dangerous intersection reconstructed Extension of the cycling path with extra lanes expressed in km Bike Sharing: Number of involved companies/organisations Bike Sharing: Number of users Bike Sharing: Number of bicycles Change in mobility in Berlin Change in modal split in Barcelona Emissions: Reduction of CO2 Emissions: Reduction of NOX Principles for Mapping Transferability Contexts. Fundamental Mapping for the SpiCycles actions 7 52 53 54 56 56 57 68 69 72 73 80 80 81 .Table 3-29 Table 3-30 Table 3-31 Table 3-32 Table 3-33 Table 3-34 Table 3-35 Table 3-36 Table 3-37 Table 3-38 Table 3-39 Table 3-40 Table 3-41 Overall estimation of impacts for “Political Acceptance” Overall estimation of impacts for “Information/Awareness Level” Overall estimation of impacts for “Change in Mobility” Overall estimation of impacts for “Modal Split” Overall estimation of impacts for “Integration” Bike-sharing process indicators: number of involved companies/organisations Overall estimation of impacts for “Emissions” Overall estimation of impacts for “Overall Transport Safety” High Level Objectives identified by METEOR Key impacts of the cluster of measures “Cycling” in CIVITAS I 76 Key impacts for each action implemented in SpiCycles Key impacts of the set of actions implemented in SpiCycles as a whole SpiCycles Actions transferability sensitiveness to other local conditions 66 67 68 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 79 List of Figures Figure 1-1 Figure 3-1 Figure 3-2 Figure 3-3 Figure 3-4 Figure 3-5 Figure 3-6 Figure 3-7 Figure 3-8 Figure 3-9 Figure 3-10 Figure 3-11 Figure 3-12 Figure 3-13 The structure of the SpiCycles project. Legenda for Mapping Transferability Contexts.
it is beneficial to health. The overall objective of the SpiCycles (Sustainable Planning & Innovation for Bicycles) project was to demonstrate to what extent an articulated strategy.Contract no. four actions were carried out and tested at local level: • WP3 Bike Sharing. cycling is still underused in many cities. Despite these many advantages. Bucharest. WP6 Building Local Partnerships investigated appropriate measures to involve local actors in the cycling plans of the municipal authorities. addressed the issue to inform and make travellers aware of the benefits of alternative sustainable transport modes and particularly cycling. a challenging and innovative measure. it increases road safety and helps traffic management. Ploiesti and Rome) and if it is possible to successfully implement them in other European cities and how it can be done. and its effectiveness is too often undervalued by national and/or local transport policies.1 Project objectives and structure It is generally recognised that cycling. Göteborg. It was led by the city of Barcelona. highlighting similarities and differences among cities (cross-comparison). This WP was led by the city of Rome (Dipartimento X). This WP was led by the 6 .421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. • • • The evaluation work package (WP7) has analysed and reported the project results. Berlin. which consisted in integrating cycling planning in the broader framework of transport planning and accordingly providing adequate infrastructure for deployment. This WP was led by the city of Berlin (DB Rent). drawing conclusions on their transferability. WP5 Planning for Cycling tackled the issue of encouraging cycling from a different angle. The minor role the bicycle still plays in the overall transport systems is due to reasons of both technical and political nature. as a daily mode of transport.4 Introduction 1. WP4 Communication and Awareness Raising. In fact. has positive impacts on cities. supports equity and accessibility. which tried to transfer the better-known principles of car sharing to bicycles. can contribute to the increase of the modal share of cycling in the six participating cities (Barcelona. consisting of a set of actions. and improves the overall quality of life. EIE/05/059/SI2. it improves the environmental conditions by reducing pollutant emissions. Starting from a benchmarking (WP2) on the state of the art of the cycling systems. barriers and drivers. led by the city of Göteborg.
4 Department of Hydraulics. emissions.Contract no. SpiCycles had direct and significant beneficial impacts on: • • • • • • cycling modal share. Transport and Road (DITS) of the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. EIE/05/059/SI2. integration of cycling into broader transport/land use planning. energy consumption. local stakeholders involvement. attitudinal change. The experiences made by implementing different actions and the results obtained will be disseminated to a wide audience of European cities (WP8WP9). WP1 – Project Management ISIS WP2 – Benchmarking WP2 – Benchmarking Goudappel Coffeng The City Cases WP3 WP3 Bike Bike Sharing Sharing Berlin Göteborg Rome Ploiesti WP4 WP4 Communication Communication & Awareness Raising & Awareness Raising Göteborg Barcelona Berlin Rome Ploiesti Bucharest WP5 WP5 Planning Planning for Cycling for Cycling Rome Barcelona Berlin Göteborg Ploiesti Bucharest WP6 WP6 Building Local Building Local Partnerships Partnerships Barcelona Berlin Göteborg Rome Ploiesti Bucharest WP7 – Evaluation WP7 – Evaluation DITS WP8 – Dissemination WP8 – Dissemination Velo Mondial WP9 – Common Dissemination WP9 – Common Dissemination Velo Mondial Figure 1-1 The structure of the SpiCycles project.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. It was essential to 7 . The following flow chart provides an overview of the structure of the SpiCycles project. The success of the SpiCycles project depended to a large extent on the consensus it was able to reach for the implementation of cycling initiatives.
other citizens not using bicycle as a means of transport.1). called user groups. a work package was specifically dedicated to promoting local partnerships and building consensus on cycling initiatives. in each participating city. bicycle users (current users of bicycle) and cycling associations. which were all those groups that benefited from more accessible and liveable urban areas. and evaluations of performances. cycle rental companies. on the one hand. paid to gain the support of target users and key actors not directly involved as partners. it defined to what extent it has met its objectives and what contributions and improvements it has brought to the European Union development. 1. In fact. Involving these four main actors in the decision-making process regarding cycling planning was essential and made the final result more sustainable. A special attention was.2. public transport infrastructure managers and undertakings. etc.2 1. in order to have cross-city and cross-country exchanges of experiences on a very wide scale. and contributed to the deployment of activities and the fulfilment of goals. because. EIE/05/059/SI2.4 obtain at first the consensus of potential beneficiaries of the project. As a consequence of the overall objective of SpiCycles (see § 1. the main objectives of the evaluation process were: • at local level. to evaluate the impacts of the actions and strengthen planning and performance capabilities.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. on the other hand. 8 .1 Overview of the evaluation process The evaluation approach Evaluation was critical to the success of the project. • All these actors were committed to the implementation of the project. Groups who played an active role in this initiative (actors) were: • • • city administrations that led demonstrations. Networks of cities were at the core of the dissemination strategy: all efforts were done to involve as many as possible networks of cities. however. manufacturers of bicycles and of technological devices related to bike sharing. Not only city networks were involved but also networks of users. PT infrastructure managers and enterprises involved in the demonstrations. benchmarking of experiences. consultancies and universities supporting cities to carry out the demonstrations. it measured the impacts it has generated at local level and possible impacts at European level.Contract no. experts and industry. These groups. were city administrations (local decision makers and urban planners) and networks of cities.
parking lot for bicycles. through the selection of suitable indicators and measurement methods. EIE/05/059/SI2. 2.421631 SPICYCLES • Deliverable 7. technical and operational framework conditions. 9 .4 at European level.2 The evaluation phases The definition of the evaluation process drew on the MAESTRO guidelines and the CONVERGE guidebook and checklist. and analysed the reasons for changes and deviations from the original plan in order to identify the drivers and barriers for their successful implementation. to compare the results from the participating cities and explain the reasons for possible gaps (considering that different contexts can cause differences in results). such as institutional. in order to identify the success factors and to draw conclusions on the transferability of the actions in other European cities. 1. etc. The background indicators provided information on the local framework conditions in which the measures were implemented and the trend in parameters (e. The process evaluation appraised the activities carried out for the implementation of the SpiCycles actions. comparing the actual impacts to the expected ones and identifying causes of possible differences.) which were useful for the evaluation process. the impact evaluation. Therefore. the different reference cases and definition of success. each city defined at local level (see Annex B) which indicators and which measurement methods actually used to assess the impacts. the variety of methods of measurements. giving a contribution to the European know-how on transferability issues.Contract no. The evaluation process consisted of three phases: 1. considering the necessity of comparing its results with those of the other cities. In order to pursue the second objective it was essential to adopt a common evaluation approach as far as possible. defining impacts and indicators common to all participating cities and measuring them in the same way. identification and analysis of background indicators.2. modal choice.g. The evaluation process consisted of three main components: 1. or at least in a way that could permit to compare the results from the different cities. The extent to which it was possible to adopt a common evaluation approach depended on many factors. the process evaluation. evaluation planning. The impact evaluation identified and evaluated the expected impacts produced by the implementation of the actions. km of cycling lanes. 3.
an analysis of the results from the different cities was carried out in order to evaluate. in order to control the correct progressing of the process. a preliminary evaluation of the project results. Attention was paid to possible effects of external factors (e. in order to identify the success factors with a view to successfully transferring the SpiCycles actions in other European cities. and the overall co-ordination of the production of WP 7 deliverables.4 In the first phase. using the indicators and the measurement methods defined in its Local Evaluation Plan. In addition. at local level. In fact. At the end of this phase the Final Evaluation Plan was issued. Each city drew up its own Local Evaluation Plan in which the planning of local activities was defined. 1.2. During this phase internal reports and the Mid Term Evaluation Report were issued. key activities were to identify the impacts that were expected to be produced by the implementation of the SpiCycles actions and to define the most suitable indicators to measure them. the real impacts of the actions implemented by the project in each city and compare the real impacts to the expected ones. he was responsible for the day-to-day management and co-ordination of the various tasks and activities of the work 10 . The measurements took place before and after the implementation of the SpiCycles actions. At the end of this phase the Final Evaluation Report was prepared. Deliverable 7. each city collected data and information on the impacts. EIE/05/059/SI2. interfacing with LEMs and WP leaders. The results of each city was also compared to those of the other cities in order to identify and explain differences due to the implementation in different sites. one for each participating city. It was also important to define appropriate methods of measurement. The OEM was the leader of WP 7 and his responsibilities included work package supervision. evaluation reporting.g. data collection and measurement activities. identifying causes of possible gaps. the effects of other measures implemented in the same area outside the SpiCycles project and affecting its transport pattern) that could have led to incorrect conclusions about the results. six Local Evaluation Managers. During the third phase. The analysis of the real project results was carried out when possible by comparing the situation before and after the implementation of the proposed actions. was carried out (“initial evaluation”).3 The evaluation management structure The SpiCycles evaluation process activities were carried out by an Evaluation Working Group composed of: • • an Overall Evaluation Manager. based on existing knowledge and experts’ opinion.421631 SPICYCLES 2. 3. During the second phase.Contract no. responsibilities and scheduling of the evaluation activities were defined. During this phase tasks. appointed by their Local Site Leader.
as well as the Mid-term and Final Evaluation Report. He organised exchange of information between the LEMs and other WP leaders in order to ensure the necessary flow of information. It describes the results of the evaluation of each city and among cities in a number of impact areas (Social. Table 1-1 Role Overall Evaluation Manager Barcelona LEM Berlin LEM Bucharest LEM Göteborg LEM Ploiesti LEM Rome LEM SpiCycles Evaluation Working Group Partner DITS DSD Senat Berlin RATB City of Göteborg Ploiesti Municipality ATAC Responsible person Luca Persia Simon Hayes Hermann Bluemel Razvan Fronescu Sofie Vennersten. in terms of the indicators established in the Final Evaluation Plan (FEP) and in each Local Evaluation Plan (LEP). He was directly involved in the evaluation planning and reporting activities and co-ordinate the drawing up and issuing of the Draft and Final Evaluation Plan. Environment.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. in order to allow the project management to detect any delay or problems and plan appropriate corrective interventions. Håkan Perslow Gina Voinea Marco Contadini 1.Contract no. Section 3 illustrates the results of the evaluation analysis according to the three main 11 .3 Role and structure of this document This document is the final step of the evaluation process for the SpiCycles project. EIE/05/059/SI2.2) provides an overview of the evaluation methodology and a description of the terminology adopted. and Economics). as well as the analysis of the results. They also co-ordinated at local level the collection of data and information. Finally. he reported to the PMG and SC on progress of activities. Safety.4 package. The following paragraph (§ 1. Transport system/Behaviour. The LEMs co-ordinated the local evaluation processes and they were responsible for all contributions to the overall evaluation process from their local partners. Section 2 illustrates the objectives and provides a general description of the actions implemented during the project in each participating city. The members of the EWG are listed in Table 1-1. They took part proactively in the evaluation planning by drawing up a Local Evaluation Plan (see annex B).
Section 5 contains the conclusions on the evaluation. user friendliness and similar issues. The direct and indirect effects caused intentionally or Assessment objective Definition of success Demonstration Evaluation Impact 12 . A precise statement of an individual objective of validation. Standard terms Action Assessment A measure or a set of measures implemented in order to pursue specific objectives. and deriving recommendations for decision makers. also evaluating the possibility of transferring the actions implemented in SpiCycles in other European cities. acronyms and abbreviations used in the evaluation process. in order to avoid misunderstandings and encourage the use of a common terminology throughout the project. and their definitions. and including an experimental process based on real-life or other trials. 1. It should be associated with a precise definition of the associated indicator(s) and definition of success.4 Terminology A list of the main terms. It quantifies or qualifies the expectation about the performances and impacts of an application. often involving users.Contract no. In SpiCycles the terms evaluation and validation will be considered synonyms. is included in the following sub-sections. while the annex contains the results of the local evaluation activities carried out in each city.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. as seems the current usage of the terms. The demonstration stage of validation will use a sufficiently large sample of users in a real-life situation to provide information on cost-effectiveness. It is most exact when it is defined for a single indicator. In performing these tasks the evaluation work done in CIVITAS (METEOR project) has been taken into account. EIE/05/059/SI2. It is essential in the validation methodology. The success or failure of the validation results is determined on the basis of these criteria. The process of determining the value of an application in comparison with alternative applications and/or a “base case”. usually in comparison with a reference case. The process of determining the performances and/or impacts of an action.4 components of the process evaluation. as well as testing the feasibility of the system when used on a large scale.
and that the use of the application is an improvement over alternative ways of achieving the objectives of the application (user acceptance and impact analysis). The verification stage of validation will use a small but significant sample of users in a real-life situation to test the technical feasibility of the demonstrator and to yield preliminary findings on user acceptance. it is directly measured or derived from measurements or simulations. probably representing the main market for the application. Validation is the process of testing how an application performs in comparison with the assessment objectives. For quantitative assessment. “Before and After” might feature in assessment of user acceptance and impact analysis. The performances and impacts of an application are usually compared against some existing situation in order to show that the application meets required standards (in tests for the physical functioning of the application or user acceptance). They might include operators of the application. intermediate users (e. For qualitative assessment.Contract no. providers of information) or end users of the application. Reference case User groups Validation Verification Acronyms and abbreviations EWG LEM NGO OEM PMP WP WPL Evaluation Working Group Local Evaluation Manager Non Governmental Organisation Overall Evaluation Manager Municipality of Ploiesti Workpackage Workpackage Leader 13 . EIE/05/059/SI2.g. Groups involved in validating the application.4 unintentionally by the implementation of an application Indicator The parameter indicating the performance or impacts of an application.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. the indicator is assessed by personal opinion.
3). which aims at increasing the cycling modal share.1.3).3). and it was focused on the central city area where the Bicing system was first implemented. which can provide a strong support to policies. this service was set up in the first months of 2007. 2. and some 400 bike stations have been implemented during 2007 and 2008. There are stations every 300m. political will.4 2 Description of the actions This section briefly describes the measures carried out in each participating city under the four actions1 of the SpiCycles project (for detailed information on the activities carried out in each specific action. 400 stations. Communication and Awareness Raising. 4. while Bike Sharing were implemented in a smaller number of cities (it is referred to as “common” action). Planning for Cycling and Building Local Partnerships were carried out in all participating cities (they are referred to as “core” actions). Results Within 11 months. Communication and Awareness Raising (Deliverable 4.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.Contract no. In fact. Bike Sharing (Deliverable 3. Planning for Cycling (Deliverable 5.1 Bike Sharing (WP 3) The overall objective of this action was to develop a general framework for the implementation of bike sharing services. Bicing is being financed by the revenues of the Green Area on-street parking scheme. The Bicing public bike scheme is conceived as a form of Individual Public Transport. financial investments and technical cooperation enabled a 200-bike pilot to become a city-wide service of 6. it is possible to refer to the deliverable included in round brackets next to the action): 1.1 Barcelona Description The implementation of the bike sharing service called “Bicing” was not planned at the beginning of SpiCycles. 1 14 . although the Bicing scheme is being extended to all areas of the city except those having severe slopes (and the university area where the scheme could generate an over-concentration of bicycles). 2. 3. 2. designed to provide faster access to the train and metro network. Building Local Partnerships (Deliverable 6.3).000 bikes. EIE/05/059/SI2.
DB Rent. income demographic factors etc.1. it was found that there is a higher risk of bike loss if water (rivers. while bikes that may be placed in backyards are likely to be found within days and can be reintegrated into the fleet.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.2 Berlin Description With the offer of environmental-friendly services before and after using the train. It was also found that there are no significant linkages to urban indicators such as employment rate.. but it seems that districts with a 15 . specification of new locks.Contract no. the Deutsche Bahn confirms its ambitious goal of being a provider for sustainable mobility services. with its experience of almost six years in the field of bike sharing. hotels and others integrates more stakeholders into the bike sharing world.). 2.) is near to the bikes (the reasons seem to be that some people enjoy throwing bikes into the water).000 subscribers and 6 million trips made by cycling (28% connecting with other modes). In SpiCycles DB Rent – as the responsible subsidiary for intermodal services – aimed to strengthen the Call a Bike scheme in Berlin improving the acceptance of the existing Call a Bike scheme as well as optimising its sustainability. integration of event platform (for the first time in Berlin bike sharing was connected to sport events to promote cycling as a green means of urban transport that alleviates problems of congestion caused by such events). EIE/05/059/SI2. and finally a boost of cycle infrastructure planning. As to the profile of stolen bikes. The measures implemented were: • integration into location based services (LBS). profile of stolen bikes (facts and figures about stolen bikes are collected and analysed). analysis of customer acceptance. concepts for hotels & companies (the collaboration with companies. in any situation. people can use their mobile phone to receive the best use of a bike sharing scheme and the best way to integrate bike sharing into public transport.4 with 135. canals etc. made also important contributions for setting up bike-sharing schemes in the other participating cities. • • • • • Results The location-based service was frequently used and this demonstrates that bike sharing is an attractive content most suitable to be integrated into LBS. so.
and a significant part also have a public transport subscription. Call a Bike users are generally satisfied with the service. Finally. While the pilot was running in the city district of Lundby. minor follow-up of bike sharing system. evaluation of the pilot bike sharing system. This high-tech system based on smart card use. the study has shown that there is normally a higher theft rate and even vandalism rate at the beginning. investigate areas for expansion of the bike sharing system. 16 .1. Services like customer care are also evaluated positive.3 Göteborg Description The objective of the city of Göteborg was to implement a bike sharing pilot scheme for companies. The measures implemented were: • • • • • • • promotion of a pilot bike sharing system targeting companies (selection of new stakeholders). Most of the users are between 19 and 39 years old. the availability of bikes and especially the quality of the bikes. improvement of bike sharing technique. expansion of the system to private persons in the Lundby area. The analysis of customer acceptance has shown that Call a Bike is well known and still has a positive image. Because of the different levels of participating cities (Berlin already had a scheme without involvement of the city. and contacts with authorities and partners concerned were established. DB Rent started the exchange of bike sharing knowledge in 2006 with Ploiesti and Rome. operations.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. which is the mobility management test-site of Göteborg. and introducing technological innovations. 2. Probably the most important result was to raise the awareness for bike sharing in Berlin. targeted employees of a number of companies in the Lundby area and their short distance trips during work-hours. EIE/05/059/SI2. DB Rent was able to optimise the bike sharing service with respect to customers. expansion planning for city wide bike sharing system open for all. Within SpiCycles.4 lower social index face a slightly higher theft rate. adequate areas for the expansion were identified. involving further stakeholders.Contract no. Göteborg already had a pilot) it was very difficult to find a common platform for the exchange of knowledge and experiences. with the intention to upscale the system to the whole city. The pointto-point bike sharing system is the first one in Göteborg. After about half a year the rate decreases and falls to a permanent level.
Deliverable 7. Although plans have been delayed. The system works very well on a technical level and the bikes are well liked. design and administration of a communication and promotion campaign to stimulate a positive behaviour and change attitudes toward cycling. identification of citizens’ needs through questionnaires at different public events. within SpiCycles. The system has mainly been mainly targeted towards companies in the area and they have mainly been positive in respect of the bike sharing scheme. Sometimes those marketing activities have led to a demand that could not be met. This is most likely because the companies not using the system have travel habits that are not suitable for the system.4 Results The pilot bike sharing system in Lundby has now been operating for several years. The success of a bike sharing system depends to a significant degree on the needs of the individual companies and in particular the location of the company’s premises in relation to the stations. and acquired know-how from the other participating cities. development of a pilot scheme with a fleet of 50 bicycles. increasing the number of bicycles composing the pilot fleet in order to sustain the promotion campaign and to involve more local investors. A general conclusion is also that there seems to be a limited potential for further growth of the system in Lundby.4 Ploiesti Description The city of Ploiesti considers bike sharing as an interesting alternative mode of transport and. developed strategies and a pilot scheme. Areas that can be improved in the future are the coordination between the marketing activities of the Traffic & Public Transport Authority and the operating company. in order to set up a bike sharing scheme fitting the specific needs of the city.421631 SPICYCLES • • decision on possible expansion. has conducted studies. EIE/05/059/SI2.1. planning for (possible) procurement. there is a readiness within the city to continue the plans. 17 . The main measures implemented were: • • • • • collection and analysis of traffic data to assess the potential demand. The pilot in Lundby has provided valuable information and experience for the future roll out of a full-scale system in Göteborg.Contract no. The stations were considered to be functional and the bikes to be practical. 2.
as well as more than 6.000 people have subscribed to the service. students. and students). 34. local police and employees of PMP.5 Rome Description In the city of Rome feasibility study was carried out. Results The bike sharing pilot has been launched on 22 September 2007 during the “Mobility Week”.Contract no.2 Communication and Awareness Raising (WP 4) The overall objective of this action was to raise peoples´ awareness and induce a change in their travel behaviour by encouraging the use of cycling. The system operates 200 bicycles and 19 stations for a total of 271 racks.) were defined. 2. etc.000 movements has been registered. 2. with 50 bicycles and then on 5th June 2008 – Environment Day Ploiesti offered to citizens another 50 by signing a partnership with Unilever Company. bus stations etc. stations. to set up a bike sharing system and a survey to estimate the potential demand for the new bike sharing system. self-employed. existing commercial models of bike sharing were analysed with a view to selecting the most suitable for the city of Rome. The test zone was the Traffic Limited Zone (which is the central area of the city with traffic restrictions). EIE/05/059/SI2. The most innovative aspect of the system was the possible inclusion of cycling into public transport (underground. as well as raising 2 Ploiesti launched the bike sharing pilot scheme on 22 September 2007 during the “Mobility Week. Different categories of users have been using the system (mainly employees.000 enquiries to the dedicated contact centre.4 analysis of the results of the pilot and the questionnaires in order to develop a bike sharing scheme fitting the needs of Ploiesti. It operated 1002 bicycles offered to the pupils. could make use of the service free of charge. In June 2008 the testing of the system in real life conditions has started for a time period of six months. 2. in which the interested areas and the extent of the system (e.421631 SPICYCLES • Deliverable 7. teachers.g. After four months since its launch over an area of 4 km2.1. At the end of the testing the Municipality of Rome will call for tenders to extend the bike sharing to the entire city. It was a promoting initiative. so citizens.) by introducing systematic shifts with the relevant upgrading of infrastructures and optimisation of links. for a period of six months. the number of bikes. of ages mainly ranging from 30 to 50 years (62% of the users were men). 18 . In particular. within SpiCycles. Results The bike sharing pilot is currently being tested in real life conditions.
2. operating schedule) was fully reached. an annual event called “the Bike Week”) involving a range of promotional activities (traffic-free tours. A plan of activities including pre-activities. traffic police and interest groups were involved.2. EIE/05/059/SI2.1 Barcelona Deliverable 7.4 Description The objective of this action in the city of Barcelona was to induce a gradual increase in bicycle use by raising general awareness through communication measures: • • a school programme for promotion of safe cycling to schools involving ten schools and one university.2.). Results The target to develop a communication strategy (made of the following three elements: concept of a motivation and image campaign.Contract no. repair workshops. traditional promotion. teachers. mobility learning for pupils. in which medias. budget options/sponsoring. and six events took place to illustrate several aspects concerning cycling safety (such as infrastructure planning and improvement.2 Berlin Description One of the main barriers against an increase of bicycle traffic in Berlin is the aggressive and risky behaviour of cyclists and car drivers. public relations and actions has been presented and will be implemented as soon as sponsors have been recruited. As a consequence the objectives of this action was to increase both groups awareness about each other's rights and responsibilities and enhance a climate of respect and responsibility on the street. secure ways to school etc.) organised by local representative organisations with the support of the Municipality. 19 . Results The two communication measures have been realised satisfactorily.421631 SPICYCLES the status of cycling. Organisation of the European Mobility Week in Berlin (September 2007). etc. politicians. The cities have from this overall purpose 2.
which was developed among local actors. energy consumption. The aim was also to point out the advantages of using different mode of transport at different situations. RATB developed an information and marketing campaign based on a study. In order to achieve the objectives.3 Bucharest Deliverable 7. arranging 20 .2. communication. 2.421631 SPICYCLES 2. • • The communication campaign included: • an awareness campaign in order to stress the advantages of bike usage (from health. However. considering the increased number of cyclists. • Results The communication campaign was deployed in good conditions. but all traffic participants. EIE/05/059/SI2. which identified the bicycle conditions in Bucharest in terms of information.4 Göteborg Description The main purpose of communication activities in Göteborg was to increase safety of cycling. The target groups accepted the promotional materials without any adverse reactions regarding the message promoted within the campaign. an on-street communication campaign to distribute promotional and informative materials. and awareness. a sustainable communication strategy. to outline a profile of the current bike user.4 Description The objective of this action in Bucharest was to improve the information level on cycling and increase awareness. the overall objective of the action was accomplished. The bike usage study consisted of the following major tasks: • a qualitative survey on citizens’ opinion (not only bikers.2. Göteborg wanted to improve the cycle situation for the already dedicated cyclists as well as trying to change the travel behaviour of non-cyclists.Contract no. money saving and environment point of view). as they could play an important role in influencing the decision makers. to identify the barriers and the incentives of bike usage in Bucharest. any potential biker) regarding the current status of the specific infrastructure.
21 . where it is possible to find more information about cycling. fines. while the bicycle facts folder turned out to be a failure (only 5000 out of 10 000 folders have been delivered). • a bicycle facts folder. Results The new cycle lighting was a success. To increase their knowledge about traffic safety and freedom of movement courses were arranged to educate at least 10 bicycle instructors per year. which will support participants who would like to arrange biking classes for different target groups. • cycling training for immigrated women (several immigrant women can not cycle. During 2006 about 120 women took part in a bicycle course and about 60 women learnt to ride a bike). which contains information about bicycle rules. The cyclists were also welcomed to inform the city about the cycle situation and the conditions of the cycle routes and they were also invited to the lighting-projects information meetings). which organised a number of activities (among which information from the municipality. but it will be even better in the future. and so on. The cycle training for immigrant women project was not continued. • a new updated pocket size bicycle map was prepared and 60000 copies were printed (it contains the entire town district on one side and a more detailed map of the city centre on the other side). increase the knowledge and visibility of cycling. was prepared and 10000 were printed. From the beginning of June 2008 twinkling backlight is legally accepted in Sweden. and the city preferred to focus on developing a concept material to be used in bicycle courses for people within a wide range of target groups. bicycle organisations. The city of Göteborg will prepare a concept for biking education. bicycle repairing services) for employers in the municipality in order to raise the status of cycling.421631 SPICYCLES cycle campaigns and marketing cycling was carried out. Every bicycle-instructor led a course for about 10 women. The cycle map was a success. • a bicycle week. The main measures implemented were: Deliverable 7. Many people signed up for the project.Contract no. which was the largest marketing event during the autumn of 2006 (it finished in October 2007).4 • test-bikers for a new cycle lighting. and involved 1000 participants who cycled 1-2 times a week for one year with this new bicycle lighting (this special bicycle lighting is not yet legally accepted in Sweden so the aim of the project was to investigate if the lighting might increase the visibility of the cyclists and thereby reduce the cycle accidents. When the lighting is fixed assembled it is not especially liable to be stolen and no batteries are needed. EIE/05/059/SI2. In that way the knowledge and experience achieved by city staff will go on to new bikers and the quality of the education will remain on a high level. suppliers of bicycle equipment.
setting up of a cycling reference group. 2. but also for commuting. The city currently implements a lot of good initiatives. but unfortunately the public is not aware of all them.4 Cooperation within the traffic department at the city of Göteborg is getting better and better. Ploiesti communicated news and results from the project to its networks (Ploiesti is a member of AMR and FALR municipality associations) and presented the work done within SpiCycles to national conferences or any related working groups. promoting the use of the bicycle not only for leisure. The city of Ploiesti activities of this action mainly focused on: • • • • • • • • • • changing the poor image of cyclists in relation to car driver status.5 Ploiesti Description The main objectives were to raise awareness. integration of mobility information systems. making it easier to coordinate and strengthen the message to the public. EIE/05/059/SI2.Contract no. environmental institutions). the contribution of cycling to personal and social health. create interest and encourage contributions. involvement of NGOs in the communication strategy.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. spread the results of the project widely to the different target groups and key actors with a view to increase awareness of society at all levels (from decision makers to citizens) on issues concerning “bike using and sharing”. involving local authorities in the communication strategy (local police. the active character of the communication campaign. schools.2. 22 . university. Results The measures implemented in Ploiesti have raised the awareness of the citizens about the importance of the cycling in their life with reference to the impact on the environment and their health. prevention of theft and vandalism. analysing the impact of each communication campaign’s step.
parking racks and lanes.1 Barcelona Description During the SpiCycles project.g. However. because. communication technology. It also proposed to use the new information coming from the monitoring programme (e. implementation and experimentation of the prototype for the Journey Planner using the cycling network. implementation and presentation of the municipal cycling map. such as cycle lanes. and sustainable development of cycling in the participating cities. etc. on the other hand he set in motion interventions to promote and facilitate cycling activities. it was intended the range of physical components supporting cycling services. efficient. These actions represented the key reference for an adequate planning of cycling strategies in each city. it identified and quantified the need for additional or improved infrastructures. especially for what concerns the institutional cooperation between the Municipality technical offices. the city of Barcelona fully implemented the cycle monitoring programmes for 2006 and 2007. This activity was essential to all operational cycling policy. based on the consolidated ATAC Infopoint.3. By infrastructure. and compared this monitoring activity with those realised in the other SpiCycles cities. realisation of a data model to describe and realise the cycling network layer.421631 SPICYCLES 2. 2.3 Planning for Cycling (WP 5) This activity consisted in the definition of infrastructure requirements to support an adequate.Contract no.6 Rome Deliverable 7. Results In Rome very positive results were obtained. 2. EIE/05/059/SI2.4 Description The main objectives of this action in the city of Rome were: • • • • • setting up a common working group between ATAC and Municipality. on the one hand. usage levels by different districts in terms of statistics concerning population 23 .2. routes that carry most traffic. the activities and how they were carried out in each city differed according to their specific needs and background. setting up procedures for data exchange between the two different offices. because all initial targets were achieved and surpassed. The city of Rome and the SpiCycles working group were satisfied with the results and the outputs obtained. signals.
2 Berlin Description The city of Berlin explored the framework conditions for the planning of a Second Level Bicycle Route Network (SLBRN) for one of its boroughs. The total network has evolved from 127 km to a total of 155 km.000 new parking places were implemented in 2007. A further 10. The network was presented to the local level parliament (Bezirksverordnetenversammlung) in September 2007. By the end of the year.111 units in 2006. when the necessary finances will have been acquired. housing societies. and needs for new connecting links. the actual building and creation) will take place after the end of the project.000 spaces are now planned for 2009 onwards.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. The outcome of the Workpackage in Berlin are guidelines for a SLBRN and parking facilities ready for the implementation and widely accepted by retailers.646 spaces in total. leading to a total city offer of 14. It also assessed parking needs for bicycle. The total volume of average daily cycle traffic was recorded as being: 27. 2. Guidelines on the “Second Bicycle Route Planning” and on “Bicycle Parking in 24 . This helps planners to identify the sections carrying heaviest traffic. private companies and of course inhabitants in the respective area. The intelligence of the monitoring system was used to produce a cycle traffic map. This more than triples the level at the start of the SpiCycles project.3. Some 28 km of new cycle lanes have been implemented in 2007/8. A final local workshop on Planning for Cycling . Finally. EIE/05/059/SI2. The implementation (i.917 in 2007.Contract no.4 and quality of route provision) for assessing and reviewing – for the first time – the infrastructure planning (lanes & parking places).Second level bicycle route network and bicycle parking was carried in April 2008: more than 50 participants from Senate and Borough administrations. Results Some 7.e. consultants and bicycle organisations took part in it. The first count sites were presented to SpiCycles delegates in June 2006. and 36. counts registered at 16 permanent sites were processed. DB Rent planned to develop a concept to integrate bike rental systems into PT in Berlin. Results A second level bicycle lane network has been elaborated for the Borough Pankow. The implementation of the public bike service “Bicing” has stimulated an increase in network offer during the last years of SpiCycles.
EIE/05/059/SI2.spicycles. because it can contribute to raise the modal split of public and bicycle transportation. Generally the interested of PT-operators has been increased permanently. • the Study for the integration of cycling into public transport.4 Berlin” were released and distributed in April 2008 – more than 250 copies were distributed. Further coordination meetings with local Transport companies took place and are planned 2. intermodality).spicycles. general requirements. cyclists experience. o designing the bicycle facilities (dedicated lines. RATB performed. It also studied the possibility to adapt PT vehicles to make them suitable for transporting bicycles. safety and security. o safety and security (accidents type. maintenance for facilities). intersection. Due to threatening strike in PT of Berlin. Results The results are: • the Technical Study for the development of cycling infrastructure. during the SpiCycles project.de.Contract no. In addition guidelines are available for download at www.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. avoiding accidents. parking lots. which contains the following issues: o bike developing based on the users’ needs (scope for biking. an assessment of infrastructures according to bikers’ requirements. In the nick of time the strike was cancelled. although the concept was elaborated and promoted several times to PT-operators. 25 .3 Bucharest Description In the city of Bucharest. DB Rent and S-Bahn Berlin prepared a special price offer for subscribers of S-Bahn. o planning for designing bicycle network development. The activities for integrating cycling into PT has not yet successfully completed. so the concept was immediately obsolete.de. o traffic calming methods within the residential area. a reduced fixed payment tariff.3. awareness programs). geometrical elements. average distance for cycling. An English summary of the guidelines was produced in May 2008 and is available at www. tackling with the following issues: o benefits for using both bicycle and public transport. DB Rent and a local PT operator prepared a small concept as a strike alternative including Vouchers for bike sharing.
buses (regional and local). which Göteborg intends to build this year. The next step has been to develop a business case where the financial aspects have been proposed together with concrete location. but there is no focus on cycling today. Finally tenders were made and construction is currently in progress.Contract no. a market survey has been conducted among commuters to and from the travel centre to gather information about what services to provide. The cycle centre should be manned and thus offer the possibility to safely lock bicycles during night time as well as daytime. There is very high expectation from the political side to see the effects of bicycle highway on cycling. air-filling stations. An assessment of the existing cycle network supply in close cooperation with traffic planners.4 o facilities for bicycle at the interchange points and some methods for carrying bicycle on-board of the vehicles. air stations. The expectations are connected to the zeal of being of the first cities in Sweden with such concept and thus to be an example to others in the field of cycling. It is important that the cycle centre takes into account the demands of the cyclists. During the year 2008. an objective of the city of Göteborg were to further improved the quality of the existing bicycle “highways” (highly frequented cycle lanes). by providing them with services and facilities (e. EIE/05/059/SI2. This process was intended to feed into more detailed feasibility studies and will result in the construction of the lanes. Results The actions within SpiCycles on bicycle highways include initial studies and conceptualisation of bicycle highways. o bicycle as a public transport mode.421631 SPICYCLES o integration between biking and public transport.g. trains. The process of detailed drawings is also initiated for a part of one path. Finally. drawings were finalized for those sections of the planned bicycle highway. The plan was to establish a modern cycle centre at the central station. which requires major construction measures. which services to provide etc 26 . 2. scale. A pre-study about the possible cycle centre has been carried out and presented in September 2006. repairs.4 Göteborg Description Within SpiCycles. Therefore. and cycle information. another objective was to investigate possibilities to establish a modern cycle centre located at the central station. service-stations and information) in order to improve the attractiveness for cyclists. and car parking are available. At the existing travel centre. Deliverable 7. The centre should also provide a variety of services for the inhabitants and the tourists such as possibilities to rent bikes.3. and the identification of possible room for improvement was another objective. The aim was to map the prerequisites and requirements for the cycle centre. located at the central station.
In April 2008. A special attention was paid to the cycling facilities in the central area (subject to an access control policy) and other areas in which cyclists can be given higher priority.5 Ploiesti Description In the city of Ploiesti. identifying the areas in which cyclists can be given higher priority. More in details the activities carried out were: • • • defining the vision for an intermodal urban transport system according to the future Ploiesti General Urban Plan that will be elaborated the next year. 2. in order to create a real network. • • • • • • • 27 . a research study was carried out in order to find the opportunities for expanding the cycling routes to other areas.Contract no. defining the measures in order to integrate the cycling as a daily means of transport. Public and Private Domains Administration Company. identifying the barriers and the principal actors associated with cycling from different points of view (Local Police. identifying other types of services or accessories that could be offered in the same time with bike-sharing. the plan is to meet with these and present the business case in order to “sell” the project. establishing the streets and the locations for the bicycle parking. identifying the citizens expectations. related to the travel modes and the possibility to increase the cycling use by some of the previous users of the public transport.4 A workshop was organised during spring 2007 with 8 experts from different companies to discuss the future cycle centre. identifying the minimum conditions to be taken for citizens so that cycling becomes a viable transport option. transferring the adequate know-how from other partners of SpiCycles to Ploiesti. During the later part of 2007 the business case has been further developed and possible clients have been identified.3. Deliverable 7.421631 SPICYCLES for the cycle centre. EIE/05/059/SI2. identifying the most used routes of public transport by the citizens in order to adopt the cycling on the same routes if it is possible. Public Services Local Company. high-schools and university representatives). principal investors.
users. like cycle anti-theft systems. Timisoreana) in order to set up a Public Private Partnership. Rome Description During the SpiCycles project. the city of Rome designed and developed the full range of technical and administrative activities required by the elaboration. involving stakeholders. meetings with local investors (Reiffeisen Bank. it coordinated and supervised the detailed traffic planning for what concerns cycling. 2.1 Barcelona Description The city of Barcelona required stakeholder agreements for a number of activities of the Municipal Programmed Actions. the expansion of the cycle route network and parking facilities (particularly with a view to resolving cyclist/pedestrian conflicts and promoting metro/cycle travel). officials. companies. where possible. Local partnerships are often a critical factor when introducing new proposals to improve cycling conditions.421631 SPICYCLES • • • • • 2.Contract no. EIE/05/059/SI2. submission. Urban Planning and Environment/Maintenance departments and other organisations including user groups had already and successfully been achieved for the establishment of the strategic cycling route network (through the creation of the 28 . to involve key actors and to coordinate the actions of different municipal departments.4 Building Local Partnerships (WP 6) The overall objective of this action was to ensure that key activities to promote cycling were agreed between local actors and stakeholders according to the authorities’ original proposals and. A collaboration between the Mobility. There is a need to find consensus to resolve issues such as end-users’ interests regarding the reallocation of street space.4. collaborative agreements for marketing /raising awareness. demonstrated that the consensus process contributed to an improvement of the original proposal. collecting the operators’ and citizens’ questionnaires in order to analyse their opinion regarding bike-sharing service opportunity. Petrom. 2.3. Finally. It also carried out an elaboration of a study for the improvement and equipment of cycling paths leading to public transport exchange nodes.6 Deliverable 7. Unilever.4 creating of the cycling facilities in the central area through the control access measures (through CIVITAS SUCCESS project). approval and adoption of the Municipal Cycling Action Plan.
the overall forum for consultation and representation. metropolitan transit companies.4. The Cycling council regularly met once a year for a whole day. Results All activities were successfully carried out.4 Barcelona Mobility Pact. EIE/05/059/SI2. a representative of the bicycle trade and the Senate cycling coordinator. to inform the local borough parliament on the planning scheme. were discussed with the Senate Department of Urban Development (SenStadt). The Municipality can act as a link between all main stakeholders interested in encouraging citizens to use the bicycle for their trips. The activities implemented were: • • • • • to inform the Cycling Council about SpiCycles activities.4. environmental and transportation interest groups. Junge-Reyer and Members of the transport committee of the Berlin Parliament on the occasion of European Mobility Week. to inform the Cycling Council about progress of SpiCycles activities. the progress made and the outcome of the SpiCycles Project was presented. bicycles clubs. At the annual meetings in 2006. and during the SpiCycles project. this collaborative framework was renewed and adapted with a view to implementing the key actions of the new mandate.2 Berlin Description SenStadt convened a FahrRat (Cycling Council). to inform the Cycling Council about results of SpiCycles activities. external experts. Aspects ranging from road and bicycle path construction and bike conveyance in public transport systems to mobility education and public relations as well as encompassing traffic safety assurance.3 Bucharest Description The City of Bucharest is very much interested in developing those strategies with high positive impact on the quality of the city inhabitants. bicycle tour with the Senator Mrs. which is composed of officials from various city government units concerned with biking. and other interested actors created a platform for discussion on this topic. 2007 and 2008 the objectives.Contract no. The City’s representatives together with those from transport operators. 2.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. 29 . and the Civic Commission for the Bicycle). 2.
4. infrastructure managers (Ferrovie dello Stato. In order to facilitate the participation of all those directly and indirectly involved in this action since the very beginning.A.p. 2. there is a dramatic increase in car ownership. County of Rome.A. differently from Western Europe cities. Trambus S.Contract no.A. Local partnerships and stakeholder collaboration with external stakeholders (e.) as well as the coordination of cyclists’ associations (Roma Ciclabile). etc. City Planning Authority. construction companies. EIE/05/059/SI2.4 Göteborg Deliverable 7. local municipal development companies. public transport undertakings (Trenitalia. Moreover.). in Romanian cities.6 Rome Description Developing a cycling programme in Rome and making bicycles a credible alternative to individual motorised vehicles requires a strong political commitment as well as the willingness and capability of coordinating the several actors involved in governing and managing the territory and its complex transport system.4.g. Metro S.5 Ploiesti Description Building Local Partnership was a key action in the city of Ploiesti.. although public transport modal split is still above 50%.421631 SPICYCLES 2. 30 . the city of Göteborg involved stakeholders with different perspectives on cycling in elaborating a new cycling strategy. it is important to avoid mistakes made in the past by Western Europe cities and establish from the beginning an intermodal vision of urban transport with cycling as an important component. The new strategy aimed at reaching an internal consensus on how to work with cycling. 2.A. maintenance and infrastructure.p. As a consequence.p. The group identified the main different types of actions for encouraging the use of bicycle such as planning for cycling. RFI S. Lazio Region).4. Atac S.. the Municipality established a technical round-table on intermodality between bicycle and public transport.) were also developed when carrying out the other local actions of SpiCycles (see previous paragraphs) in order to improve the communication and marketing of the advantages of cycling for both individuals and society.p. because bicycle is not a traditional means of transport and it is necessary to reach a consensus between stakeholders in order to encourage its use.4 Description During the SpiCycles project. cycle rental companies. This platform of discussion included local institutional authorities (Municipality of Rome.
and transferability analysis. In the paragraphs dedicated to CIVITAS I High Level Objectives. EIE/05/059/SI2. In general.). These two indicators permit to calculate the population density. the modal share of car is greater than that of PT and walking. The general indicators (Table 3-2) show that the participating cities considerably differ in the extension of the surface of the urban area/agglomeration and the number of inhabitants. etc. Data on modal split also show that the use of bicycle is appreciable in Berlin and Göteborg (respectively 10% and 9%). etc. barriers and drivers.1 Background indicators The background indicators give information on the local framework conditions in which the measures have been implemented. Ploiesti and Göteborg have the smallest extensions (respectively 58 km² and 192 km²) and Berlin and Rome the largest (respectively 892 km² and 345 km²). or school. the approach defined in the EU project METEOR has been considered for carrying out the analysis.Contract no. culture.. while the last paragraph contains considerations about the possibility of transferring the actions implemented in SpiCycles in other European cities. 31 . which. wealth. and impact evaluation). have more cycling infrastructures and services. because people usually travel greater distances to get to work. on the other hand. 3. process evaluation. The reasons for this anomaly can be ascribed to different factors (land use.4 3 Common evaluation analysis The first three paragraphs of this section illustrate the information and data collected by the participating cities according to the three main components of the process evaluation (background indicators. The extent and the significance of the analyses carried out by the Evaluation Working Group naturally depend on the information and data actually collected and made available by each city. which should be taken into account in order to successfully implement actions for encouraging the use of environmental-friendly means of transport. where population densities are low the need for a car is usually greater than in high population density urban areas. Nonetheless.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. although the density is high. data collected for the modal split of the total number of trips made in the city (Table 3-3) show that Rome does not comply with this general rule because. efficiency and effectiveness of public transport systems. which is highly correlated to trip distances and transport modes. and mainly because PT stops have a half-empty catchment area. social issues.
7% 0.2 and 2.0% 15. EIE/05/059/SI2.620 3.145 2.0% 15.108 1.0% 1.0% Rome 55.615 8.0% 52.187 The total number of trips per day and per person is similar for the cities in spite of their different population densities except for Rome and Ploiesti.134 503 3.000 2.0% 27.000 8.3% Berlin 38.4% - Mode of transport Car Public transport Walking Cycling Other modes 3 Various years of surveys 32 .241 Berlin 892 5. which have the lowest values (respectively 2.0% 26.629.0% 38.0% <5% Göteborg 50.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-2 Indicator Surface area of the city (km²) Surface area of the urban area/agglomeration (km²) Number of inhabitants of the city Population density (city) Population density (urban area) Deliverable 7.0% Bucharest 28.060 490.395.285 1.1% 25.1% 0.821 Göteborg 192 450 Ploiesti 58 92 Rome 345 1.0% 9.0% 10.332 Bucharest 238 1.963 2.4 Background indicators: comparison of general indicators Barcelona 101 3.929.1).537 16.0% Ploiesti 20.500 3. Table 3-3 Background indicators: the modal split3 Barcelona 10.552 1.7% 31.810.515 2.0% 15.6% 8.3% 49.089 231.0% 26.807 641 1.Contract no.0% 25.8% 18.
3 Bucharest 3. 5 6 33 .421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-4 Deliverable 7. Ploiesti and Rome show very low values for cycling modal share.4 7.5 - Mode of transport Car Public transport Walking Cycling Other modes Table 3-5 Barcelona 2.0 1.9%).5 Bucharest 6. Bucharest.4 6. EIE/05/059/SI2.Contract no.0 8.2 The infrastructure indicators (Table 3-6) show that in Göteborg the extension of bicycle path against the total length of road network6 (34%) is noticeable.3 Ploiesti 2.0 2.3 1. 4 Various years of surveys Various years of surveys This indicator is calculated as (Total length of bicycle paths) / (Total length of road network). Bucharest. although the modal share of cycling is 1% less than in Berlin.1 Rome 2. Ploiesti and Rome show very low values. and they are the participating cities.6 Background indicators: total number of trips per day per person5 Berlin 3.0 Göteborg 3.4 Background indicators: the average length of a trip within the city in km4 Berlin 7. whose extension of bicycle paths against the extension of the road network is less than a half (14.4 Rome 9.6 8.6 Göteborg 9.1 5. which did not have a bike-sharing service before SpiCycles project (Ploiesti and Rome has set up a pilot bike sharing service).
so called multi-functionalpartitions for bicycles.325 34. day ticket. Berlin’s public transport allows bikes onto (regional) trains. in Göteborg only on ferries. Because of missing standards in safety reporting and documentation the figures have to be treated carefully.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-6 Background indicators: infrastructure for bicycles Barcelona Total length of bicycle paths (km) Total length of road network (km) Extension of bicycles path vs.7% Currently. month ticket) according to their personal transport routines. while highest in Berlin (35. 8 7 Prices refer to year 2007. For regional trips you may also choose between the different types of tickets but their rates are slightly higher8. When evaluating these data. metro. A single bicycle ticket costs between 1 to 2 EUR according to trip length.1% Göteborg 450 1.8 326 2. 34 .275 10. the city has planned the construction of 100 guarded cycle parking spaces). provided there is sufficient space.40 to 4. 4 and 6. tubes and trams have designated carriages. it is important to consider that they can depend on the accuracy and reliability of the collection and recording process. trams and night buses for money. road network 128. that allow you to take the bike on trains as often as you want per day. Bicycles are transported. The city of Barcelona is the only one to provide an appreciable number of secure parking spaces for bicycles per inhabitants.4 1. Day tickets.0% Deliverable 7.70 EUR.821 0. Regional trains. and trams but not on buses. the order of magnitude for the total number of road accidents every 1000 inhabitants is similar in Barcelona. in Bucharest and Ploiesti it is not possible to take bicycles on public transport vehicles. The total number of cyclists injured per inhabitants and the total number of bicycle thefts per inhabitant (Table 3-7) are only appreciable for the cities of Berlin and Göteborg. the city of Göteborg does not provide secure parking spaces at all. and in Rome it is possible but only according to specific time bands.3 respectively) and lowest in Ploiesti (respectively 1). Unexpectedly. cost 4. while in Barcelona it is possible on trains. For what concern the safety indicators.4% Rome 133 5. Passengers can choose between several ticket options (single ticket. even though the total number of theft per inhabitant is important (however.8).Contract no.7 and 38. Rates for bicycle ticket per months vary between 8 and 15 EUR. Although the city of Berlin provides secure parking According to legal guidelines in Germany no special cycling infrastructure needs to be provided on street with a speed of 30km/h or less.9 1. city trains (SBahn).343 14. Göteborg and Rome (respectively 8.4 Ploiesti 7. EIE/05/059/SI2.1% Berlin7 760 5.9% Bucharest 1.000 2.
7 Bucharest 38.1 3. especially near public transport stations.5 0.1 Process evaluation Planned activities and outputs The implementation of the planned measures within the SpiCycles actions in the participating cities was generally successful.4 spaces for bicycles.2 - 5. Generally.2 1. their achievements or outputs. Table 3-9.1 - 6.3 - 8. Table 3-10.802 N. Furthermore.3 Göteborg 4.1 All cities provide information on cycling.0 0. In this paragraph a summary of the planned activities.6 8.2. Table 3-7 Background indicators: safety and security Barcelona Total number of road accidents (every 1000 Inhabitants) Total number of cyclists injured (every 1000 Inhabitants) Total number of drivers/passengers of cars injured (every 1000 Inhabitants) Total number of bicycle thefts (every 1000 Inhabitants) Total number of secure parking spaces for bicycles Total number of secure parking spaces for bicycles (every 1000 Inhabitants) 8. 35 .0 Berlin 35. but it is possible to find information on cycling in other websites (Berlin and Bucharest) or dialling a dedicated telephone number (Rome). and the degree of completion is presented for each participating city (Table 3-8.4 0. mainly using the city hall website. EIE/05/059/SI2.A. Finally all cities provide a map of cycle routes except for Bucharest.0 0. it is possible to find bicycle racks of different types all over the city.3 0. no statistical data on their total number is available.8 0.Contract no.0 Rome 6.0 Ploiesti 1.7 - 5.0 0.7 2.2 3.4 - - 0. parking places must be built on every new building site.8 0. The few bicycles boxes available in the city are mostly located in residential areas. - 0 0 210 5. according to local building laws. Table 3-11. 3. In Berlin the cyclist NGO “ADFC Berlin” has implemented the bicycle navigation platform named “Berlin by Bike” that provides information electronically.8 0.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.
or “obvious deviations from the original targets”. 16 permanent count sites have been implemented.000 bikes. or “unclear results”.917 in 2007.111 units in 2006.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. 400 stations. which means “achieved more than one third of the planned target and showed good results in qualitative terms”. 483 bicycles were registered during the initial pilot (the target was 100) The scheme was implemented within Municipal web services with a total of 1. EIE/05/059/SI2. which means “full implementation after the official end of SpiCycles” or “too late to perform a meaningful evaluation”. which means “not reported”. and 36.Contract no. Notable. which means “achieved at least four fifth of the planned target and/or showed remarkable results in qualitative terms”.000 subscribers and 6 million trips made by cycling (28% connecting with other modes) School programme has been set up and presented The annual events called “Bike Week” and “Sustainable Mobility Week” have been set up and realised 3218 new parking places were implemented in 2007 About 28 km of new cycle lanes have been implemented in 2007/8. Delayed. or “lost track of original targets”.227 bikes registered by the end of the project. a 200-bike pilot has become a city-wide service of 6. or “achieved less than one third of the planned target”.4 Table 3-12. Completion rate Notable (if not part of planned SpiCycles actions) • • Table 3-8 Planned activity Bike sharing service “Bicing” (WP3) School programme for promotion of safe cycling to schools involving ten schools and one university (WP4) Realisation of an annual event (WP4) Acceptable Acceptable Creation of 200 parking places for bicycles (WP5/6) Provision of new cycling infrastructure (WP5/6) Design and testing of an antitheft system (WP5/6) Notable Notable Notable Implementation of the cycle monitoring programmes for 2006 and 2007 (WP5/6) Notable 36 . which means “officially cancelled”. The total volume of average daily cycle traffic was recorded as being: 27. Acceptable. Weak. The degree of completion has been defined in line with the options defined by METEOR for CIVITAS I. or “remained far below the expectations in qualitative terms”. which are: • • • Abandoned. Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Barcelona) Output Within 11 months. with 135. Table 3-13).
the actual building and creation) will take place after the end of the project. The objective was fully achieved Not yet successfully completed. Organised in September 2007 Plans. The objective was fully achieved. Because of the different levels of participating cities it was very difficult to find a common platform for the exchange of knowledge and experiences. Concept for new target groups was elaborated. The campaign has been fully developed and will be implemented as soon as a sponsor will fund it. private companies and of course inhabitants in the respective area. The objective was fully achieved The analysis has been carried out and the results used to better rationalise the service levels in the city areas. Concepts and guidelines for bicycle parking in Berlin have been developed and are ready for use. promoted and used. (WP4) Planning of a Second Level Bicycle Route Network (SLBRN) for one of its boroughs. They have been widely accepted by retailers. Finally a new innovative approach has Completion rate Notable Notable Addressing hotels and companies as new targets groups (WP3) Special offers for small events (tourists.e.4 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Berlin) Output The integration has been done. housing societies. when the necessary finances will have been acquired (WP5) Analysis of parking needs for bicycle. housing societies. concept was elaborated and promoted several times to PT-operators and only a little measure was implemented. promoted. concepts. DB Rent started the exchange of bike sharing knowledge in 2006 with Ploiesti and Rome. and guidelines for the SLBRN have been developed for the borough Pankow and are ready for use and implementation. guests) (WP3) Analysis of customer acceptance (WP3) Acceptable Notable Weak Transfer of Knowledge on bike sharing to the other participating cities (WP3) Weak Campaign to increase awareness of cyclists and car drivers about each other's rights and responsibilities (WP4) Organisation of the European Mobility Week in Berlin. They have been widely accepted by retailers. and used Concept was elaborated. EIE/05/059/SI2. private companies and of course inhabitants in the respective area.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-9 Planned activity Integration of bike sharing into location based services (LBS) (WP3) Profile of stolen bikes (WP3) Deliverable 7.Contract no. The objective was fully achieved. and planning of parking infrastructures for bicycles (WP5) Notable Notable Notable Notable Development of a concept to integrate bike rental systems into PT in Berlin (WP5) Delayed 37 . Due to the start at late Summer 2008 (at the end of bike sharing season) the analysis will be completely finished by end of December or by January. The implementation (i. The analysis of customer acceptance has been carried out.
421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. bicycles clubs and local stakeholders (WP6) Accomplished Acceptable Accomplished It will be ready after the end of SpiCycles Acceptable Delayed 38 . The objective was fully achieved Done Completion rate To inform the Cycling Council about SpiCycles activities. EIE/05/059/SI2.Contract no. Done. PT operators.4 Planned activity Output been defined. progress and results (WP6) To inform the local borough parliament on the planning scheme (WP6) Notable Notable Table 3-10 Planned activity Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Bucharest) Output Accomplished Accomplished Accomplished Completion rate Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Bike usage study (WP4) Communication and awareness campaign (WP4) Assessment of infrastructures according to bikers’ requirements (WP5) Study of the possibility to adapt PT vehicles to make them suitable for transporting bicycles (WP5) Guide for improving cycling condition within the city (WP5) A platform for discussions with city’s representatives. which will be implemented 2009.
and the city preferred to focus on developing a concept material to be used in bicycle courses for people within a wide range of target groups In progress Notable Better cooperation within the municipality and with stakeholders to be able to create better conditions and status for cyclists (WP6) Acceptable 39 .4 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Göteborg) Output It has been successfully implemented Completion rate Notable Completed in October 2007. EIE/05/059/SI2. fines. From the beginning of June 2008 twinkling backlight is legally accepted in Sweden 60000 copies were printed 10000 copies were printed Notable A new updated pocket size bicycle map (WP4) A bicycle facts folder. which contains information about bicycle rules.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-11 Planned activity The pilot bike sharing system in Lundby mainly targeted towards companies (WP3) Test-bikers for a new cycle lighting (WP4) Deliverable 7.Contract no. it has involved 1000 participants. etc (WP4) A bicycle week for raising the status of cycling. and increasing the knowledge and visibility of cycling (WP4) Cycling training for immigrated women (WP4) Notable Acceptable September 2006 and April 2007 Acceptable The cycle training for immigrant women project was not continued.
EIE/05/059/SI2.4 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Ploiesti) Output The bike sharing pilot has been launched on 22 September 2007 during the “Mobility Week” Achieved Completion rate Notable Raising citizens’ awareness of the importance of cycling in their life.Contract no. as well as the impact on the environment and their health (WP4) Analysis of citizens’ requirements regarding the bicycle use (WP4) Communication and awareness raising activities (WP4) Notable Achieved The measures implemented in Ploiesti have raised the awareness of the citizens about the importance of the cycling in their life with reference to the impact on the environment and their health. for providing better cycling facilities in the central area (WP5) Involvement of the local private investors in the urban development issues.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-12 Planned activity Bike sharing pilot (WP3) Deliverable 7. such as cycling (WP6) A strong connection between policy makers and local authorities in solving cycling issues (WP6) Building Local Partnership to reach a consensus between stakeholders in order to encourage cycling (WP6) Abandoned Delayed Achieved Notable Policy makers are currently not sufficiently interested in cycling. A subcontractor has not been identified yet In progress Notable Notable A subcontractor specialised in cycling analyses able to identify citizens’ demand for bike sharing (WP5) Research study to find the opportunities for expanding the cycling routes to other areas and create a real network. Achieved Weak Acceptable 40 .
2. each participating city was asked to identify barriers (negative influence on implementation) and drivers (positive influence on implementation) that affected the implementation of the SpiCycles actions in order to have an insight into the main factors which likely have an influence on the implementation process. in conjunction with the local Boroughs and cycling associations.3.2 Barriers and drivers Barriers and Drivers in CIVITAS and SpiCycles With a view to insert the SpiCycles actions into the framework of CIVITAS I as already done for the identification of the impacts expected by implementing the actions (see § 3. infrastructure managers. based on the consolidated ATAC Infopoint (WP4) Systematic appraisal and elaboration of the cartography of the local cycle lanes network (WP5) Develop. which will permit or prevent from successfully implementing the same measures in other cities. Accomplished Accomplished Accomplished Completion rate Notable Acceptable Notable Notable Updating and submission to new political decision makers of the City. Acceptable Acceptable Delayed 3. public transport undertakings. 41 . Deliverable 7.4 Overview of the planned activities and outputs (City of Rome) Output The bike sharing pilot is currently being tested in real life conditions. The definition of Local Cycling Network started at the end of 2006 and has been completed in February 2008 This platform of discussion has been established and included local institutional authorities. a new network of cycle lanes (WP5) Establishment of a technical round-table on intermodality between bicycle and public transport.Contract no.10).Sharing web portal” (WP4) Implementation and experimentation of the prototype for the Journey Planner using the cycling network. the approach of METEOR  was taken as reference for carrying out this task. EIE/05/059/SI2.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-13 Planned activity Bike sharing pilot (WP3) Implementation and presentation of the municipal cycling map (WP4) Creation of the “Bike. Once again. and the coordination of cyclists’ associations.
10 Each city was asked to add to the list any other barrier/driver it had experienced during the implementation of the actions In METEOR a distinction was made if the barrier/driver influenced the planning activities or the operational activities.4 The pattern of barriers and drivers identified in METEOR (Table 3-14)9 were the starting point of the “open list”10 used in the identification process. EIE/05/059/SI2. Not applicable Interpretation as Driver Not Applicable Commitment Commitment of key actors based on political and/or strategic motives. Limited understanding of user requirements 9 For a more detailed description of these barrier and drivers refer to section 3. Not Applicable Conflict Conflict between key actors due to diverging material interests and expectation of redistributive losses Not Applicable Coalition Coalition between key actors due to shared/complementary material interests and expectation of redistributive benefits Accurate and visionary technical planning and analysis to determine requirements for measure implementation Accurate economic planning and market analysis to determine requirements for measure implementation Not Applicable Planning Technical Insufficient technical planning and analysis to determine requirements for measure implementation Insufficient economic planning and market analysis to determine requirements for measure implementation Conflicting policies or policy frameworks hampering measure implementation Not Applicable Economic Policy Conflict Policy Synergy Synergetic policies or policy frameworks fostering measure implementation Thorough user needs analysis. Table 3-14 Category Politics and Strategy Categories of barriers and drivers (city context constraints) identified by METEOR Subcategory Opposition Interpretation as Barrier Opposition of key actors based on political and/or strategic motives. Lack of sustainable development agenda or vision. Good understanding of user requirements User Assessment Lack of user needs analysis.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.Contract no. 11 42 . Lack of sustainable development agenda or vision. which was carried out ex-post and no explicit reference was made to the planning or operational phase11.4 of METEOR deliverable 6 .
if the measures associated to the action absolutely require some form of support to be implemented or transferred in other cities.12 12 In the very few cases in which attributes were equally reported by LEMs. high or moderate or low) of the city constraints are those who were most reported by the LEMs. procedures and routines Hampering laws. 43 .4 Category Institutions Subcategory Administrative Structures and Practices Legislation and Regulation Interpretation as Barrier Hampering administrative structures.Contract no. Additional technological requirements Dependency on public funds and subsidies Relative isolation of the measure and lack of exchange with other cities Hampering cultural circumstances and life style patterns Not applicable Special issues which cannot be categorised Interpretation as Driver Facilitating administrative structures. we reported all of them. and Table 3-18 show for each SpiCycles action if each city context constraint acted as a barrier or driver during the implementation of the action and the intensity of their influence (high. individual motivation or know-how of key persons Insufficient or poorly performed consultations with or involvement of citizens Insufficient information of key stakeholders. The final attributes (barrier or driver. moderate. we wrote in the table Barrier/Driver.0 (August 2006) Table 3-15. EIE/05/059/SI2. rules. Table 3-17. rules. Lack of awareness raising activities Technology failure. if the measures can be easily implemented or transferred to other cities.g. air pollution) Special issues which cannot be categorised Cooperation Partnership and Involvement Key Individuals Citizen Participation Information and Public Relations Technology Public Funds and Subsidy Exchange and Mutual Learning Culture and Life Style Problem Pressure Other Source: METEOR: Deliverable D6 “CIVITAS 1 CROSS SITE EVALUATION” Rel.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. Table 3-16. regulations and their applications Constructive partnership arrangements and open involvement of key actors and/or other stakeholders “Local champions” motivating actors and catalysing the process Broad consultations with or involvement of citizens Information of key stakeholders. procedures and routines Facilitating laws. regulations and their applications Failed or insufficient partnership arrangements and limited involvement of key actors and/or other stakeholders Lack of leadership. For example if 3 LEMs reported a city constraints as a barrier and 3 LEMs as a driver. 4. Awareness raising activities New potentials offered by technology Availability of public funds and subsidies Exchange with other cities on experiences and lessons learned Facilitating cultural circumstances and life style patterns Severity of problems to be solved (e.
Conflict (Barrier)/ Coalition (driver) Most of the cities reported that key actors and/or local politicians tended to form a coalition for implementing the SpiCycles actions except for “Planning for Cycling”.Contract no. Furthermore. 1) Politics and strategy Opposition (Barrier)/ Commitment (driver) All participating cities reported that in general key actors or local politicians were highly motivated to plan and implement the SpiCycles actions. political support for Bicing (the bike sharing service) has enabled promotional events as well as other biking projects within the city. naturally helped following cities to efficiently planning the 44 . only bike sharing was an action with significant technical issues.g. who were responsible for the implementation of the actions. because the current trend is to implement schemes that are more “low tech”. which has a yearly experience in managing bike sharing service. Economic The economic planning of the SpiCycles actions acted in general as a barrier except for Bike Sharing. it is reported that so far no large bike sharing schemes has been introduced in new European Member States. This attitude is in line with the growing demand and necessity of more sustainable and environmentalfriendly transport systems. EIE/05/059/SI2. In the case of bike sharing. in Ploiesti) that inherent conflicts between different categories of traffic participants/actors can constitute a barrier to the implementation of the measures. which usually do not provide the common level of automated processes diffused in other European cities. A first consideration is that the six SpiCycles cities added no additional drivers or barriers to those identified by METEOR. the exchange of information with Berlin. 2) Planning Technical The technical planning of the SpiCycles actions constituted a driver of moderate/high influence. The risk of failure in economic planning can be due to the relatively innovative character of the actions.4 Any conclusion that can be derived from this task is affected by the fact that. In fact.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. In the final technical report on bike sharing (D3. In Ploiesti. but not particularly complex. cycling is still not considered in the Public Transport Local Master plan.3 ). for which it was found (e. at the most some cities only changed their name. in Barcelona. since the information was provided by self-assessment by the Local Evaluation Managers. it is possible that some kind of bias (intentional or not) have been introduced in the estimations.
User assessment User assessment of target groups was found to be a driver for the SpiCycles actions Communication and Awareness Raising and Planning for Cycling. acts of vandalism and deviation from the measure introduced by other users (e. In the case of the action Bike Sharing. and at the same time could revive the interest of young people. 3) Institutions Administrative structures and practices Relationships between public administrations or their different departments as well as the level of bureaucracy in the internal procedures were found to be barriers for the implementation of the action. in Ploiesti it was found that the innovative character of the bike sharing system could be a barrier for older citizens. Therefore. as well as the success of an awareness or information campaign. because on the one hand the identification of user needs clearly permit to implement a better tailored service. Policy conflict (Barrier)/ Synergy (driver) Deliverable 7.g. In fact. which are becoming the objective of many transport measures. because a failure in adequately determining the needs of users easily results in difficulties in creating cooperation between target groups. but. Furthermore. It is true that in Göteborg there is a strong political support for working with promotion of cycling. on the other hand. motorcyclists who uses cycle paths) can prevent target groups from using the service. in fact. as a consequence the combination of SpiCycles action with other measure can certainly lead to synergies. the LEM of Göteborg reported that in some cases there has been a conflict in policies and in some cases not. However. So it was hard for him to choose just one option (driver or barrier). it is very important to choose appropriate methods for promoting the bike sharing system according to the different target groups. except for Communication and Awareness Raising. EIE/05/059/SI2. Legislation and regulation The current regulatory and legislative framework was found to be a barrier for the implementation of the SpiCycles action in all participating cities. to adequately identify needs and preferences in the planning phase naturally increases the probability of success of the designed measure. the SpiCycles actions promote sustainable and environmental-friendly transport system. there have been some conflicts.Contract no. It was found to be a barrier for the implementation of the action Building Local Partnerships.421631 SPICYCLES implementation of bike sharing pilot. but. it was found that user acceptance can act as a barrier or driver. when it comes to concrete plans or constructions.4 The SpiCycles actions can easily and positively interact with other policies and measures with an appropriate coordination and integration. A better clear and structured legislative context aiming at improving sustainable transport systems 45 .
Technology was directly involved in the implementation of Bike Sharing and service and its integration. In Bucharest. personal skills were found to be drivers. 6) Information and public relations The SpiCycles actions were conceived as an articulated strategy for promoting cycling. the cycle training project worked out well especially thanks to the project manager. 7) Technology Technology was found to drive the implementation of SpiCycles actions. Current technology permit to provide to users a number of services which enhance the appeal of the bike sharing also accessible on mobile phones. in a Location Based Service. above all for finding new ways of financing. This activity was successfully carried out in all participating cities and acted as a driver.4 All cities found that the creation of partnership (an action was devised for this purpose) and the cooperation between all parties involved played as a driver for the implementation of the SpiCycles actions. as well as from car and cycling organizations and has worked together very well. avoiding that inadequate information and awareness campaign could cause problems understanding or acceptance of the measures. and one of its basic activities was to inform citizens and stakeholders about the objectives and the actions of SpiCycles. Personal commitment of key stakeholders and project managers can positively drive the implementation of the actions. the continuity of key staff components. In particular. Citizen’s involvement and public support since the planning phase clearly enhance the acceptance of a measure. EIE/05/059/SI2. 46 . In Göteborg. In particular is very important the cooperation between private and public sectors. managers. in the case of Berlin. 4) Co-operation Partnership and involvement Deliverable 7.421631 SPICYCLES obviously positively affect the implementation of these actions. a task force was successfully set up with representatives from SenStadt. 5) Citizens’ participation Citizen’s participation acted as a driver for the implementation of the SpiCycles actions. Key individuals The support of key individuals (decision makers. in Berlin. difficulties in coordinating involved actors have been experienced. people responsible for specific issues).Contract no. crating mutual respect for each other. as well as their communication and cooperation.
Contract no. EIE/05/059/SI2.421631 SPICYCLES
8) Public funds and subsidy
Financial support provided by SpiCycles act as a driver for the implementation of the actions. In fact, lack of funding is one of the main obstacles for the implementation of the measures in general, as, for example, Berlin reported to have experienced in particular for integrating bike rental systems into PT. Alternative financing is one option to implement the awareness campaign designed during SpiCycles.
9) Exchange and mutual learning
The exchange of information and experiences among the participating cities was a driver for the implementation of the actions. In particular a significant exchange of information was made between Berlin, on the one side, and Ploiesti and Rome, on the other side, about bike sharing. Learning or mutual learning from cities that have already implemented similar measures is always a driver factor in case of both good practice example and failure.
10) Culture and lifestyle
Cultural context and lifestyle was found to be a barrier for the implementation of the actions. This could be ascribed to the unwillingness to change habits from citizens more than policy orientations of local authorities. However in the case of Barcelona there was an increase in the modal share of cycling after the implementation of the actions, and this raises hopes that these barriers will be overcome in next years.
11) Problem pressure
The pressure of problems such as traffic congestion, pollutant and noise emissions, low level of quality of life in cities, ever-increasing petrol costs act as drivers for the implementation of actions like those proposed by SpiCycles.
Contract no. EIE/05/059/SI2.421631 SPICYCLES
Table 3-15 Bike Sharing sensitiveness to city context constraints
Type Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver
City context constraint 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Commitment Coalition Technical Economic Policy Synergy User Assessment Administrative Structures and Practices Legislation and Regulation Partnership and Involvement Key Individuals Citizen Participation Information and Public Relations Technology Public Funds and Subsidy Exchange and Mutual Learning Culture and Life Style Problem Pressure
Rate Moderate Moderate High High Moderate Moderate/High Moderate Moderate/High Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate/Low High Moderate Moderate High Low
Barrier/Driver Barrier Barrier Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Barrier/Driver Driver Barrier Driver
Contract no. EIE/05/059/SI2.421631 SPICYCLES
Communication and Awareness Raising sensitiveness to city context constraints
Type Driver Driver Driver Barrier/Driver Driver Driver Driver Barrier/Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Barrier/Driver Driver Barrier/Driver Driver Rate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate/Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate High
City context constraint 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Commitment Coalition Technical Economic Policy Synergy User Assessment Administrative Structures and Practices Legislation and Regulation Partnership and Involvement Key Individuals Citizen Participation Information and Public Relations Technology Public Funds and Subsidy Exchange and Mutual Learning Culture and Life Style Problem Pressure
Contract no. EIE/05/059/SI2.421631 SPICYCLES
Planning for Cycling sensitiveness to city context constraints
Type Driver Barrier Barrier/Driver Barrier Driver Driver Barrier Barrier Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Barrier Driver Rate Moderate Moderate High Moderate/High Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate/High Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate High Moderate/Low Moderate/High Moderate
City context constraint 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Commitment Coalition Technical Economic Policy Synergy User Assessment Administrative Structures and Practices Legislation and Regulation Partnership and Involvement Key Individuals Citizen Participation Information and Public Relations Technology Public Funds and Subsidy Exchange and Mutual Learning Culture and Life Style Problem Pressure
Contract no. S-Bahn). 100 bicycle racks at main tram and bus station in 2007. the number of parking lots is increasing especially near retailers and shopping centres (about 2. EIE/05/059/SI2. The city of Rome has created 450 parking spaces.3 Performance indicators Global performance indicators The cities of Barcelona and Berlin have well surpassed the expected final quantification (respectively 200 and 9000) for parking spaces at key interchange points (Table 3-19). more than 8. and 140 bicycle racks at central railway and bus station in 2008.000 parking lots have been provided at public transport stations (U-Bahn.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-18 Deliverable 7. 51 .2. while in Ploiesti work is still in progress. at Borough level. In Barcelona 3. for a total of 294 new parking places.500).218 stands were created in 2006. located close to stations.4 Building Local Partnerships sensitiveness to city context constraints Type Driver Driver Driver Barrier Driver Barrier Barrier Barrier Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Driver Barrier Driver Rate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate City context constraint 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Commitment Coalition Technical Economic Policy Synergy User Assessment Administrative Structures and Practices Legislation and Regulation Partnership and Involvement Key Individuals Citizen Participation Information and Public Relations Technology Public Funds and Subsidy Exchange and Mutual Learning Culture and Life Style Problem Pressure 3. and 1. In Berlin. In addition.500 public bikes are available (since July 07) at 100 “picking points”. Göteborg has built 54 bicycle racks at local bus stops in 2006.
Table 3-20 General performance process indicators: number of most dangerous intersection reconstructed (Safety) Berlin Final quantification Expected final quantification In progress 5 Ploiesti 22 15 52 .Contract no. in 2005. EIE/05/059/SI2.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-19 Deliverable 7. Since its foundation the commission looked at 77 of the 500 areas of accident clusters and so far (partly) implemented 40 measures (hotspots have been redesigned and civil works have been completed or started). In Berlin.500 9000 Göteborg 294 Not specified Ploiesti In progress 25 Rome 450 Not specified Final quantification Expected final quantification 3218 200 Introduction of parking spaces at key interchange points 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Barcelona Final Quantification Berlin Expected Final Quantification Figure 3-1 Introduction of parking spaces at key interchange points The city of Ploiesti has reconstructed 22 most dangerous intersections. 7 more of the planned 15 (Table 3-20).4 General performance process indicators: introduction of parking spaces at key interchange points (Intermodality) Barcelona Berlin 10. a commission on accidents was founded to investigate on intersections and other places were accidents accumulate and find solution to improve the situation.
421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. respectively. Table 3-21 General performance process indicators: extension of the cycling path with extra lanes expressed in km Barcelona Final quantification Expected final quantification 28 Not specified Bucharest >50 40 Rome 225 245 53 .Contract no. the 125%.4 N umber of most dangerous intersection reconstructed 25 20 1 5 1 0 5 0 Ploiesti Final Q uantif ication E xpect ed Final Q uantif ication Figure 3-2 Number of most dangerous intersection reconstructed The city of Bucharest and Rome have increased the extension of the cycling network for. EIE/05/059/SI2. and 92% of the expressed final quantification (Table 3-21).
X has started testing phase of its bike-sharing system in June 2008 in collaboration with the Spanish company CEMUSA SA. Göteborg has almost achieved or gone beyond the final target for all indicators. but it has surpassed the final quantification for the number of bicycles and achieved the number of users. it is carrying out interviews to determine citizens’ interest in this innovative service. the Cycling Office of Dip. and technical cooperation enabled in 11 months a 200-bike pilot to become a city-wide service of 6. Furthermore. These interviews are addressing possible target groups such as: people reaching LTZ (Historical Centre) for job reasons.Contract no.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. people living in the LTZ. and tourists. with a total of 270 racks. The city of Berlin. In Rome. 54 . EIE/05/059/SI2. political will. financial investments. Berlin has involved less companies/organisation than expected. except for the number of users (307 instead of 375). 400 stations. The Cycling Office of Dip X is coordinating local partners to monitor the bike sharing pilot thanks to a survey on the methodologies to follow during the monitoring phase that was carried out by ATAC before the testing phase. and it is still carrying out the activities for building the 5 cycling stations. with 135.000 bikes.000 subscribers and 6 million trips made by cycling (28% connecting with other modes). the expected one company.4 E xtension of the cycling path with extra lanes (km) 250 200 150 100 50 0 Bucharest Final quantification R e om E xpected final quantification Figure 3-3 Extension of the cycling path with extra lanes expressed in km Bike-sharing In Barcelona. after the completion of the feasibility study. The testing will go on for 6 months and is operating 200 public bicycles distributed in 19 stations situated within the LTZ. The monitoring will permit to define the characteristics of the final roman bike sharing system. LTZ users for leisure reasons. Göteborg and Ploiesti have selected a number of indicators (Table 3-22). while Ploiesti involved 300 of the expected 400 users. 100 bicycles (twice the expected 50).
Table 3-22 Indicator Number of involved companies/organisations Bike-sharing process indicators City Berlin Göteborg Ploiesti Berlin Göteborg Ploiesti Final quantification 20 50 1 20. and this service was frequently used. DB Rent increased the number of bikes by further 200 Bikes (ca. information technology).Contract no.000 375 400 1500 125 50 11 5 Number of users Number of bicycles Berlin Göteborg Ploiesti Number of cycling stations Berlin Göteborg Ploiesti 55 .421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.000 307 300 1650 123 100 10 In progress Expected final quantification 30 15 1 20. The number of hotels and companies was lower than expected. With all the SpiCycles actions more stakeholders could be involved and resulted in a new approach that will be started in 2009. They used the bikes for leisure. Nevertheless the requirements of customers are increasing due to new technical options and experiences from different schemes and other services (e.g. DB Rent could successfully address new target groups. 13 %) in 2008 and gained an increase of about 30 % in trips a. About 20. Furthermore DB Rent could partly use large events to raise the use of bike sharing.000 customers used “Call a Bike” in Berlin in 2008. commuting and sightseeing reasons. A first result of the analysis of customer acceptance is that there is still a great acceptance of the service. Customers highlight the service performance and appreciate the quality of bikes and reliability of service.4 In Berlin. It is known that users require an expansion of the scheme to other cities (part of co-modality). the bike sharing has been successfully integrated into a location based platform (LBS). The study of the profile of stolen bikes could be successfully used to decrease the number of stolen bikes. especially groups of tourists or guests appreciate such service. EIE/05/059/SI2.
4 Bike Sharing: Number of involved companies/organisations 50 40 30 20 10 0 Berlin Göteborg Ploiesti Final quantification Expected final quantification Figure 3-4 Bike Sharing: Number of involved companies/organisations Bike Sharing: Number of users 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Berlin Final quantification Göteborg Ploiesti Expected final quantification Figure 3-5 Bike Sharing: Number of users 56 .421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.Contract no. EIE/05/059/SI2.
and on-street interviews and questionnaires. As a consequence the activities to increase cyclists’ awareness among transport users are still in progress. printed 60. Finally. as well as information campaign. The city of Barcelona has targeted schools for this action.Contract no.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. Furthermore. newspapers. Göteborg has designed. It has also organised two national events for promoting cycling (Annual Bike weeks. workshops. It has also sent 4. EIE/05/059/SI2. 13 Internet information for cyclists.500 e-mails to cyclists. The city of Ploiesti has promoted cycling among citizens through distribution of informative materials. Bucharest has completed the bike use study and has implemented the communication and awareness raising campaign. it has set up the “cycling reference group”. which was launched on the 22nd of September 2007.000 bicycle route maps and 10. it has promoted bicycle as an alternative transport mode for commuter’s trips through the improvement of infrastructure facilities and the distribution of informative materials. radio and TV channels.000 bicycle fact brochures.4 Bike Sharing: Number of bicycles 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Berlin Final quantification Göteborg Ploiesti Expected final quantification Figure 3-6 Bike Sharing: Number of bicycles Communication and awareness For the communication and awareness action each city has chosen its own set of indicators. and visited 60 companies to provide bicycle information. 1st Catalan Cycling Congress) The design of the WP4 activities in the city of Berlin started in June 2008. 57 . which is more than the final target of 10. it has developed an online information system13. It has involved 12 schools. planners and other stakeholders has been provided by the Senate of Berlin and the Technical University of Berlin on specific websites. As previously reported. However. and it has developed an online information system. it could not involve any university (the original target was 1).
Contract no. The final local workshop on Planning for Cycling “Second level bicycle route network” and “Bicycle Parking” was held in April 2008. and location of major cyclist/pedestrian conflicts (City of Barcelona) Location of major cyclist/pedestrian conflicts Rbla Catalunya Most heavily used route sections Pg de St Joan Diagonal and C. train. Furthermore. The Cycling Office of Dip X has published and printed 20. An English summary of the guidelines was also produced in May 2008 and is available at www. and the location of major cyclist/pedestrian conflicts (Table 3-23). guidelines on “Second Bicycle Route Planning” and “Bicycle Parking” have been released and distributed in more than 250 copies in April 2008 (the guidelines can be downloaded at www. which was presented to the local level parliament (Bezirksverordnetenversammlung) in September 2007.de). The quantification of the number of cycling trips by district is still to be done.4 The city of Rome has created the Bike Sharing portal in combination with the start up of its testing phase and it is hosted on the “Bicincittà” website (http://www.spicycles. de Tarragona Rbla de Catalunya Pg Maritim & Parallel Berlin has elaborated a second level bicycle lane network for the Borough Pankow. EIE/05/059/SI2. ATAC has developed a specific advanced pilot tool (available on its home page).421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. 22 km of new routes. ATAC has published the “Rome Mobility services Charter 2008” which includes instructions for carrying bicycles on buses. The awareness campaign to inform citizenship on the new service.com). Moreover.de.roman-bike.000 copies of the new cycling map. planners and other stakeholders has been provided by the Senate of Berlin and the Technical University of Berlin on specific websites. The URL provides all available information on the service. Table 3-23 Planning for cycling process indicators: most heavily used route sections. 58 . in conjunction with Bicing public bike implementation. Internet information for cyclists. which makes it possible to calculate how to reach different areas of the city integrating cycle lanes with public transport using bike sharing. and the awareness campaign to inform citizenship on the integration of the cycling network into transport facilities have not been implemented yet. and the actual availability of bicycles in each parking area in real time. It has also identified the most heavily-used route sections. Planning for cycling Te city of Barcelona has planned. in which took part more than 50 participants from Senate and Borough administrations. An operating toll-free number has been activated to provide a help service to citizens. consultants and bicycle organisations.spicycles. and underground.
In Göteborg. 59 . public transport. Finally it submitted to the City Council the Action Plan. and Ploiesti did not report the total number. the Cycling Office of Dip X acquired all local cycling networks. Building local partnerships All cities. Göteborg. have organised so far periodical roundtables involving stakeholders (Table 3-24). a reduced fixed payment tariff. The systematic appraisal and elaboration of the cartography of the local cycle lanes network is still in progress because of changes in political administration. DB Rent and S-Bahn Berlin prepared a special price offer for subscribers of S-Bahn. so the concept was immediately obsolete. Generally. Göteborg.Contract no. The strike was then cancelled. the interest of PToperators has been increased permanently. However the concept was developed and promoted several times to PToperators. which planned to do it. EIE/05/059/SI2. Furthermore.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. the cycling network has been integrated in the urban development plan made by the common effort of Mobility Department and Rehabilitation and Investment for the Roads Department. bike sharing). Bucharest. Bucharest has completed the technical study for the development of cycling infrastructure.4 The process of integration of the bike sharing into Public transport has not completed yet. and the guide for improving cycling condition within the city. and the pre-study about additional station is ongoing. Moreover. Due to a threat of a strike in PT of Berlin. and finally led to a new approach for integration to be started in 2009. the inventory of air filling stations has been made. and the responsible decision makers informed about plans and costs. and has upgraded the cycling database and integration between the local paths with the main cycling lanes and the services for cycling (parking. Furthermore. although Bucharest. The cities that planned to take part to annual meetings to ensure cross-cities exchange of information (Table 3-25). and Rome did not report the total number. while the creation of the Cycle Centre has not been done yet. the map of the local cycling lanes network is updated annually. In Rome. have done it although Barcelona. The implementation of countermeasures for thieves is still ongoing (the Police has been involved in applying security measures). The definition of Local Cycling Network started at the end of 2006 and has been completed in February 2008. In Ploiesti. the pre-study for the creation of the Cycle Centre and the pre-study for the construction of 100 guarded cycle parking spaces have been completed. the study for adjusting the PT vehicles for bikes transport. DB Rent and a local PT operator prepared a small concept as a strike alternative including Vouchers for bike sharing.
The city of Bucharest managed to involve 14 local key actors (city’s representatives.67 2 Rome 2 2 Final quantification Expected final quantification Not specified Barcelona has involved in building local partnerships the three retail outlets it expected.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-24 Deliverable 7. It also organised specific roundtables and workshop with politicians to report on bike potential in Bucharest. All in all 11 out of 12 Boroughs attended at least one SpiCycles Berlin workshop. bicycles clubs. it was pointed out that there is still room for improvement: in particular the information flow to the building supervision departments and retail trade sector need to be improved. Nevertheless.Contract no. At the final planning workshop 75% of the Borough administrations were represented. EIE/05/059/SI2. In Rome. the high workshop attendance of experts from 60 . In Berlin. It was also emphasised that the workshops were valuable further training opportunities that contributed to ease the professional co-ordination of bicycle promotion activities. The municipality of Göteborg is also enhancing cooperation both internally (in the municipality) and with stakeholders to be able to create better conditions and status for cyclists. ATAC has prepared a program document on “building local partnerships” highlighting the main achievements during the past meetings and the future plans to be implemented with all the stakeholders. while the platform for discussion and actions will be created after the end of SpiCycles.4 Building Local Partnerships process indicators: number of periodical roundtables. the opportunity to participate in workshops offered by the SpiCycles Berlin project was very well accepted by the Boroughs. stakeholders. In conclusion. Transport Ministry. Barcelona Berlin 2 (total of 6) 2 2 Bucharest Not specified Not specified Göteborg Not specified 2 Ploiesti 1. Barcelona Berlin 3 Not specified Bucharest Not specified Not specified Göteborg Not specified About 4/year Ploiesti Not specified Not specified Not specified Rome 2 Final quantification Expected final quantification 3/year About 6/year Table 3-25 Building Local Partnerships process indicators: number of annual meetings. Public Transport Operators) for improving their mutual collaboration.
3. and a set of stickers of different types and functions (i. At the end of each sub-section a table shows the overall qualitative estimation of the impacts caused by the actions on the cities’ situation. Table 3-26 Legenda for the overall estimation of impacts for the evaluation subcategories Symbol Overall Estimation of impacts on the city’s situation The situation has improved The situation has not changed The situation has worsened The situation is currently unknown * 3. procedure on www.bcn.e. The system was implemented as a permanent. and an additional highly visible sticker to deter theft attempts). EIE/05/059/SI2. The excellent experience made with the thematic workshops should be used as one opportunity to continue the strengthening of institutional cooperation. 483 bicycles were registered during the initial pilot (the target was 100) and a waiting list was created containing 1.1 User acceptance The city of Ploiesti has carried out a survey to investigate citizens’ attitude towards cycling (about 220 respondents contributed to the survey).3. simplified. a “register identifier” clearly showing the register code of the bicycle in numeric and bar code format. which consists of a metallic “tag” fitted into the bicycle frame (which includes a register code engraved on a micromechanical element that marks the vehicle in a physical. permanent and readable way).4 all levels of administrations.2 – Final Evaluation Plan )). A first results was that 45% of the respondents travel using public transport and just 18% using bicycles. Table 3-26 illustrates the symbols used for indicating improvements. During the first half of 2006. or to express that the situation is currently unknown. no changes. the City’s Master Plan for Cycling was approved in Barcelona.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. in which partnerships were also seen as being important to realise the Cycle Registration Scheme for theft prevention.cat in collaboration with other departments. worsening.3 Impact assessment In the following sub-sections the impact assessment of the actions is presented according to each evaluation sub-categories (see D7.224 people interested in a future pilot trial. 61 . the improved communication and the capacity building aspect of the workshops contributed to improve institutional cooperation on all levels to some degree.Contract no. a “frame identifier” to assign a serial number to those bicycles that do not have it.
13% suggested reducing traffic speed in cycling areas. 10% recommended to increase the number of dedicated areas only for cyclists and pedestrians.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. EIE/05/059/SI2. considerable. maximum) by more than 66% of the cycling associations interviewed. The Association assigned a medium degree of appreciation to the reliability and completeness of the data supplied by the prototype. It was instead considered as remarkable the possibility of the prototype to increase intermodality and to ensure a higher level of safety to cyclists. 62 . the ease of use referred to the easiness of use and comprehension of the system. and the long distance between home and their job/school. the respondents proposed building parkings for bicycles near schools/offices (38%). As to the prototype of the Journey Planner in the above-mentioned scale. Although only 15% recommended setting up a bike rental system to provide bikes for adults and children. Furthermore there are a number of difficulties that bikers must confront every day.Contract no. The feedback of the survey targeted at the group of city authorities and public transport operators was also extremely positive. insufficient marking signs (21%). insufficient bike lanes (20%). They answered as follows: 31% recommended increasing the length of lanes.4 although 67% of them own a bike. They laid particular stress on the fact that planning and building local partnerships are very useful for developing cycling in Bucharest. The respondents were asked to make suggestion for encouraging cycling. In Rome. The survey targeted at cyclist groups showed that in Bucharest communication and awareness raising activities can play an important role in attracting people to cycling. about 60% were interested to rent a bike. and unsafe crossings (13%). The main reasons for not choosing cycling as transport mode are the lack of parking facilities (22%). such as vehicles parked on bike lanes (17%). more than 66% of interviewees rated considerable the utility of the prototype for the increase of the utilization of bicycles as a form of transport. The same results were obtained for the indicator “success of advertising” regarding the information campaign on the diffusion of the new map and updating of the website. small. In fact. In fact they mostly use their bike for leisure and sport. near car parkings (15%) and near shopping centres (30%). Finally. these activities have been welcomed by a significant number of cyclists. 18% suggested creating parking places. medium. the ease of use referred to the easiness of both use and comprehension of the graphics of the new cycle map as well as the facility of consultation of the information on cycling included in ATAC website was assessed considerable in a scale ranging from “null” to “maximum” (null.
Some boroughs look for additional financial resources such as special grants and EFRE (Europäischen Fonds für regionale Entwicklung14) Regarding the implementation of bicycle measures a trend could be noticed. In 2008 all borough administrations answered to sustain the bicycle policy.3. Furthermore the heterogeneity of professions among the staff continues to exist.4 Overall estimation of impacts for “User Acceptance” Symbol * * * 3. The available local budget is still small although the amounts spent differ considerable from borough to borough and the overall situation changed positively. the boroughs still suffer from insufficient financial strength to implement the different bicycle measures. Staff in charge of bicycle planning activities is often in charge of multiple work areas. Regarding the future orientation of the bicycle policy a positive development could be noticed. This demand on manpower is still high and covers all areas of bicycle planning In conclusion. conceptual work and implementation of further bicycle promotion activities. 14 European Funds for Regional Development 63 . EIE/05/059/SI2.2 Operator Acceptance In Berlin. More and more measures are implemented combined with a shift from network to parking. The result is that the approaches for bicycle planning and implementation differ from borough to borough.Contract no. in order to keep the pace of changes to sustainable urban transportation systems and to reach the objective of being a bicycle friendly city the existing manpower situation needs to be improved to continue with the analysis. The number of measures implemented doubled from 2004 to 2007. In 2007 the majority of borough administrations replied to continue the bicycle policy on the same level. There is a shortage of manpower expressed in 2007 and 2008.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-27 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Deliverable 7.
and also reconsidered the position of cycling within the general strategy for transport in Bucharest. between different Borough administrations. Table 3-28 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Overall estimation of impacts for “Operator Acceptance” Symbol * * * 3. those who took part in the workshops declared that the SpiCycles project has improved communication and cooperation at all administration levels. In Rome. the planning capability was considered as fairly good. As to the integration of the bike sharing into the Berlin PT. In fact. although they are increasingly interested in offering their customers comfortable means of connection between bike sharing and PT. because some of them positively judged progresses. since the traditional PT itself needs to be subsidised. In spite of this. EIE/05/059/SI2.3. The actions developed under the Planning for Cycling and Building Local Partnerships packages enhanced the local conditions regarding cycling development.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. DB Rent managed to implement a reduced flat rate for PT customers in co-operation with S-Bahn Berlin. while others could not see any progress at all. although there are small differences in the assessment between Senate and Borough actors.Contract no.4 In Bucharest. 64 . In the opinion of Borough actors the SpiCycles project contributed to improve the communication between actors within the Borough administration. and between Borough and Senate administration. The Senate representatives were less unanimous in assessing communication improvements. the analysis of interviews with operators and decision makers led to conclude that: the prototype of the Journey Planner is useful for increasing the use of bicycle as a form of transport. it improved the ability of offices to cooperate with users. PT operators have not enough financial strength to offer adequate service for integrating bike sharing into PT. institutional cooperation is developing positively even though the lack of funding prevents widespread measures from implementation. it is a useful instrument for integrating cycling and other modes of transport.3 Political Acceptance In Berlin.
Communication.Contract no. The Committee members underlined the role of the Steering Committee to strengthen communication between project actors (internal) and external actors and to play a steering role for the project. Cycling Association and Environment Association and consultancy firms participated and discussed actively the various workshop topics.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. the workshops attendance in Berlin was high (between 37 and 49 participants attended the four Planning for Cycling workshops). The willingness of the Committee members to discuss new ideas. Furthermore. This experience also contributed. housing companies. meetings and workshops that SpiCycles organised with local actors involved in cycling development didn’t provide the expected results. Some minor weak points were mentioned to be improved in order to play a stronger steering role. the establishment of a steering group is a helpful tool to strengthen coordination. A serious weak point was the poor accessibility of the building supervision departments. The commitment to participate in the meetings. implementation potential and problems resulted in that these aspects were considered and actions were taken. EIE/05/059/SI2. the active communication of project requests as well as the involvement of external actors need to be strengthened. Early information and involvement of Committee members established the basis for the application of the Second level bicycle route network planning guidelines and the bicycle parking guide. to improve remarkably the capacity of cooperation between Public Administration and final users. In fact. The experience has improved a lot the institutional co-operation and it has increased enough the technicians’ ability to plan actions for 65 . active communication of project requests and involvement of external actors. Bucharest found that the institutional cooperation improved to a limited degree. and the platform for cycling will be realised after the end of the project. Senate and borough administrations. the communication culture was very positively assessed especially the openly and target-oriented discussed topics as well as the common understanding of the project idea. Steering. Weak points. according to associations. In conclusion. In Rome. Representatives from different target groups such as Federal Transportation Ministry. Also the X Dept assessed as particularly positive the usefulness of the definition of the local networks. The project progress was sufficiently monitored and assessed. the analysis of the questionnaires filled in by associations show the positive assessment of the usefulness of the definition of the local networks (Municipal Cycling Action Plan) for the increase of the utilization of bicycles as a form of transport. As a consequence the steering committee decided to interview the building supervision departments additionally within the Borough survey (see below). transport research institutions. However special attention should be paid to the following three aspects: commitment to participate in the meetings. co-operation and process monitoring of funded projects with a variety of actors.4 Finally.
also the creation of the Intermodality Desk including all the institutional parties and cycling associations involved in public mobility and the development of urban cycling has been positively assessed. involving more actively in communication activities both groups. etc. More than 66% of the interviewed cycling associations rated as considerable or above the level of user acceptance (for the importance of the Desk for increasing the utilization of bicycles as a form of transport) and the user perception of its reliability. the success of advertising was rated as satisfactory by both groups. One finding of the survey carried out in Berlin is that citizens/investors cannot easily identify the professional staff in charge of bicycle planning activities in the borough administration. The cyclist group considered above average the quality of the information provided by the activities and campaigns the communication and awareness raising action.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. the cyclist group respondents rated low the availability of information. The operators and decision makers assessed positively the improvement in planning capability and institutional cooperation.3.4 sustainable mobility. 66 . but to improve the information flow between local actors. and the city authorities and PT operator group considered of good quality the studies and activities developed under the planning for cycling and building local partnerships actions. In Rome. Both groups rated the accessibility of information as satisfactory. inspections. This means that it is necessary not only to make available to citizens more information about cycling. Finally.4 Information/Level of Awareness In the city of Bucharest. Table 3-29 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Overall estimation of impacts for “Political Acceptance” Symbol * * * 3. while the city authorities and PT operator group rated this indicator as acceptable. As a consequence there is a need to make the responsibility for bicycle planning activities within the administration more transparent for citizens and business people in order to ease accessibility to expertise.Contract no. EIE/05/059/SI2.) between 36h and 72 h. The development of the activity has demanded an offices engagement (reunions.
they are not informed about existing professional guidelines (e. As a consequence.5 Change in mobility In Berlin. the associations assessed as positive (medium – remarkable) the reliability. Although the staff of the supervision departments is well informed about the legal situation. As a consequence.g. The 67 . current surveys show that the share of bicycle users increased by 18% between 2004 and 2006. both websites. the overall visibility of offers connecting bike sharing and PT has been improved by the SpiCycles project. news or general information. The offer was presented via newsletters. the building supervision department should be informed that an electronic version of the guidelines on bicycle parking is available. The impact of the SpiCycles workshops regarding the information quality was assessed as very positive. were evaluated as high.3.4 Since the special offer for PT customers was introduced. The mix and variety of presenters and topics was assessed as good. The participants gained helpful and new information for every day work life as well as helpful suggestions for implementation tasks. Furthermore several newspapers and online information platform referred to the over. In Rome. The current share varies in the twelve boroughs.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. the bicycle parking guide is largely unknown). Also the easiness of understanding of the graphics and of the friendliness of the information supplied. The knowledge of these guidelines might contribute to ensure that user-friendly and high standard parking solutions are applied. DB Rent’s as well as S-Bahn’s inform their customers regularly about the offer by different means. Table 3-30 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Overall estimation of impacts for “Information/Awareness Level” Symbol * * * 3. EIE/05/059/SI2. availability and quality of the information supplied both by the websites and the ATAC and Municipality offices. The inner city of Berlin is the area with the highest share of bicycle riders (up to 25%).Contract no.
and only a small part of them to the detriment of car trips. The raising demand for bicycles has created an optimistic scenario for cycling development in Bucharest. The survey also showed that in the last years the number of specialized bicycles shops has increased from 3 to 30. Furthermore.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.Halbjahresbericht 2008-1’ 68 . EIE/05/059/SI2. while the modal share of cycling increased from 10 % to 14 %. Table 3-31 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Overall estimation of impacts for “Change in Mobility” Symbol * * * * 15 According to the half-yearly bicycle report ‘Radpegel Berlin . Change in mobility in Berlin 150% 100% 50% 0% Increase in av erage bicycle Increase in the modal share of traffic cycling 2001 2008 Figure 3-7 Change in mobility in Berlin The communication and awareness raising action in Bucharest slightly affected the attitude towards using cycling for daily trips.Contract no.4 average bicycle traffic increased from 100% in 2001 to 129% in 200815. people who increased the number of their daily cycling trips to the detriment of their number of trips made using public transport or walking.
80% 0. whose objective was to increase the cycling modal share by 0.60% 0. the information campaign on the diffusion of the new map of cycle lanes and on the updating of ATAC website were considered good and made it possible to increase cycle shifts with a result judged as medium.421631 SPICYCLES 3.6 Modal Split Deliverable 7.20% 1 .80% 1 .00% Modal split 2005 2007 Figure 3-8 Change in modal split in Barcelona Bucharest reported that has almost reached the expected cycling modal share for the end of the project of 1%. private cars.3.76% in 2007 (starting from 0.00% 0. reaching a cycling mode share of 1. In Rome. EIE/05/059/SI2.40% 0. Göteborg reported that no change in modal split has happened until now.75% in 2005). 16 The source of these figures is the Basic Mobility Figures series published annually by Barcelona Municipality 69 .60% 1 . in particular. Change in modal split in Barcelona 1 . The increased cycle shifts replaced other forms of transportation and.01% has been measured16. an increase by 1.Contract no.5% in 2008.4 In Barcelona.20% 0.40% 1 .
DB Rent 70 .3.Contract no. Nonetheless.4 Overall estimation of impacts for “Modal Split” Symbol * * 3. future orientation. As to the implementation of offers. the operators’ opinion towards integration measures is developing positively through efforts within the SpiCycles project. In May 2008 an offer for PT users was planned and implemented. the interviews carried out show that local PT operators and bike sharing operators are aware that market potentials that result in the connection between PT and bike sharing are not utilized to the full extent. In conclusion. Planning capability was measured considering the following three aspects: • • • financial strength. the increase of space needs for bicycles at PT stations. DB Rent as a bike sharing operator dedicates an increasing but not quantifiable amount of budget to the development of integration concepts. EIE/05/059/SI2. PT operators are also aware that an increase of bike modal split can result in various special problems due to the space problems which bicycles cause in trains and buses. The results concerning these aspects are as follows. and increase of need for “seamless travel”.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-32 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Deliverable 7. PT operators see more and more integration concepts as part of a solution for their problems. measures implemented. Furthermore the awareness that jointly used information platforms can increase the impact of information is growing. DB Rent strives to implement integration concepts together with local operators.7 Integration In Berlin. As to the financial strength.
because it contains the position of racks and information about transport lines in which it is allowed to carry bicycle onboard Table 3-33 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Overall estimation of impacts for “Integration” Symbol * * * 3. small. although it was measured a decrease of 400 ton of CO2. there has been a reduction of emissions of CO2 (70 ton instead of the expected final quantification of 120 ton). PT users in Berlin receive a 50% discount on the yearly rate. Also the cycling map can contribute to this effect. Nevertheless. which can contribute to integrate the use of bicycle with other transport modalities.3.8 Emissions In Bucharest. As to the future orientation. the overall planning capability is increasing through the efforts within the SpiCycles project In Bucharest.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. further co-operations are planned. it is reasonable to expect that the reduction of emissions will be more significantly perceived as the campaigns for promoting bicycles will have attracted more people to cycling. and 560 kg of NOX (much more than the expected final quantification of respectively 31 and 210). In conclusion. the communication and awareness raising campaigns did not have any appreciable effect on improving the combined use of bicycle and public transport. In Ploiesti. EIE/05/059/SI2. since the flat-rate offer for PT users is a success for both. DB Rent and local PT operator.Contract no. maximum) the ease of interchange induced by the realization of the prototype of the Journey Planner. NOx (180 kg instead of the expected final 71 . medium. considerable. In Rome 100% of interviews rated considerable or above in a scale ranging from “null” to “maximum” (null.4 introduced a new tariff that allows the customer to use Callbikes for free for the first minutes of every ride in exchange for a yearly sum. the respondents perceived the reduction of polluting and noise emissions as insignificant.
5 ton/year. EIE/05/059/SI2.Contract no.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.4 quantification of 370 kg). Table 3-34 Indicator Annual reduction of energy consumption (ton/year) Reduction of HC (kg) Reduction of CO2 (ton) Reduction of NOX (kg) Bike-sharing process indicators: number of involved companies/organisations City Bucharest Ploiesti Bucharest Ploiesti Bucharest Ploiesti Bucharest Ploiesti Final quantification 20 230 400 70 560 180 Expected final quantification 37.5 540 31 120 210 370 R eduction of CO (ton) 2 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Bucharest Final quantification P loiesti E xpected final quantification Figure 3-9 Emissions: Reduction of CO2 72 . Finally it has also been a decrease in the annual energy consumption of 20 ton/year instead of the expected final quantification of 37. and HC (230 kg instead of the expected final quantification of 540 kg).
the number of accidents has undergone no appreciable variations from 1999 to 2006. in the same period (1999 – 2009). Furthermore. although the authorities committed themselves to reduce it by 25% by 2009. Since in 2006 the share was 44 % the increase of the share between 2006 and 2007 (5%) has been well above the average increase between 1999 and 2005 (about 3% per year).4 R eduction of N x (kg) O 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Bucharest Final quantification P loiesti E xpected final quantification Figure 3-10 Emissions: Reduction of NOX Table 3-35 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Overall estimation of impacts for “Emissions” Symbol * * * * 3. no appreciable effects on overall transport safety were observed as a consequence of SpiCycles actions.3.9 Overall transport safety In Bucharest. One of the objectives of the city of Göteborg concerning safety was to increase the use of bicycle helmets by 25% in the period 1999 – 2009.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. while in 2007 they were 49 %.Contract no. since in 1999 only 24 % of cyclists used helmet. In Göteborg. there has been a decrease by 44% in the number of killed and injured cyclists (in 73 . They have already attained this objective. EIE/05/059/SI2.
In the city of Ploiesti there has been a decrease by 15% in the number of accidents since the start of the project. a slight decrease of seriously injured people (3%). respectively. 2008 74 . especially the parents of the children. Furthermore. We simply ask them to identify the CIVITAS I High Level Objectives (HLO) addressed by the actions they implemented. 58% of the accidents are caused by cyclists. are concerned about safety of cycling in the city traffic. the survey carried out in the city of Ploiesti showed that citizens.7%). This exercise should give a contribution in putting the SpiCycles actions in the framework of CIVITAS I. EIE/05/059/SI2. From the CIVITAS I city reports fifteen HLOs have been derived from local cities 17 Compare Table 3-17 Bicycle Accidents in Berlin (Source: Superintendent Police Berlin.Contract no. The total number of accidents between 2005 and 2007 has slightly increased (by 3.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.3.4 1999 this number was 725 and in 2007 it was 408). Berlin quantified the variation in the number of fatal accidents and injured people.10 CIVITAS I High Level Objectives and impacts In this final paragraph on impact assessment we report the results of a brief survey carried out among the Local Evaluation Managers of the participating cities.7%). Table 3-36 City Barcelona Berlin Bucharest Göteborg Ploiesti Rome Overall estimation of impacts for “Overall Transport Safety” Symbol * * 3. It is necessary to improve road signs along bike lanes and the traffic rules. although the total number of accidents has not changed since 1999. although it was expected a decrease by 25%. According to the short time period of two years the information value on injuries is weak17. Berlin expects to reduce by 2010 the number of fatal accidents and the number of injured people in accidents. and there is a dramatic increase of fatal accidents (100%). and a significant decrease of slightly injured people (8. by 50% and 30%. and this is an appreciable achievement.
Cycling. Multimodal Interchange. which provided a feedback for Communication and Awareness Raising and Building Local Partnerships. TRENDSETTER. or conversely the adoption of specific measures (or cluster of measures) can cause expected impacts described by the HLOs. Parking Management. Mobility Management. which shows for each cluster of measures18 the expected impacts. and VIVALDI). Table 3-37 ID HLO1 HLO2 HLO3 HLO4 HLO5 HLO6 HLO7 HLO8 HLO9 HLO10 HLO11 HLO12 HLO13 HLO14 HLO15 High Level Objectives identified by METEOR Definition Improve the long-term planning process and information provision Reduce congestion Reduce traffic emissions and energy consumption Protect the city centre Increase the efficiency of the transport system Promote better integrated planning between transport and land use Increase the attractiveness of Public Transport. Clean Vehicles and Fuels.0 (August 2006) In addition. and by at least five out of the 18 METEOR grouped the 212 measure implemented by the four CIVITAS I projects (MIRACLES. induce modal shift and its share Increase clean vehicle market share in private and public fleets Establish business cases and accelerate the take-up of clean vehicles solutions Decrease parking pressure Increase competitiveness and reliability of local production of alternative fuels Foster competitive procurement of clean vehicles Reduce journey times Reduce local emission and improve quality of life in city centres Improve safety and security of Public Transport Source: METEOR: Deliverable D6 “CIVITAS 1 CROSS SITE EVALUATION” Rel. Zones with Controlled Access. TELLUS. which were identified by at least four out of the five participating cities.4 problems addressed by the implemented measures (Table 3-37). 4. EIE/05/059/SI2. so they all belong to the cluster of measures “Cycling” identified by METEOR. The clusters were: Transport Information and Management. Car Sharing and Car Pooling. Table 3-38 shows only the expected impacts for the cluster “Cycling”. METEOR  drew up a table.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. Table 3-39 shows for each action implemented the expected impacts. into 11 clusters to make it easier the cross site evaluation analysis. SpiCycles have implemented only measures to promote cycling.Contract no. Road Pricing. 75 . Public Transport. The Local Evaluation Managers were asked to indicate which HLOs the set of actions they implemented in SpiCycles contributed to. Goods Distribution and Logistics Services. they represents the objectives which drive the adoption of the CIVITAS measures.
EIE/05/059/SI2. Table 3-38 Key impacts of the cluster of measures “Cycling” in CIVITAS I The expected impacts are: HLO 3 Reduce traffic emissions and energy consumption HLO 5 Increase the efficiency of the transport system HLO 9 Establish business cases and accelerate the take-up of clean vehicles solutions HLO 10 Decrease parking pressure Source: METEOR: Deliverable D6 “CIVITAS 1 CROSS SITE EVALUATION” Rel. 76 .421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. which provided a feedback for Bike Sharing and Planning for Cycling19.0 (August 2006) If a city plans to adopt: Cycling Table 3-39 Key impacts for each action implemented in SpiCycles The expected impacts are: HLO 3 Reduce traffic emissions and energy consumption HLO 5 Increase the efficiency of the transport system HLO 1 Improve the long-term planning process and information provision HLO 4 Protect the city centre HLO 14 Reduce local emission and improve quality of life in city centres If a city plans to adopt: Bike Sharing Communication and Awareness Raising Planning for Cycling HLO 1 Improve the long-term planning process and information provision HLO 4 Protect the city centre HLO 6 Promote better integrated planning between transport and land use HLO 14 Reduce local emission and improve quality of life in city centres Building Local Partnerships HLO 1 Improve the long-term planning process and information provision HLO 4 Protect the city centre HLO 5 Increase the efficiency of the transport system 19 The city of Berlin provided a feedback only for Bike Sharing and Building Local Partnerships. 4.Contract no.4 six participating cities.
EIE/05/059/SI2. 77 . urban development patterns. this can be due to the fact that in CIVITAS these impacts were expected by the combination of two or more clusters of measures. so it is not surprising that the LEMs expected the first two impacts along with the third by implementing the SpiCycles actions. This can reasonably account for the additional expected impacts defined by HLO 1 and HLO 6. 3.). while in SpiCycles initiatives focussed on Communication and Awareness raising20 and building local partnerships have also been developed. while Stockholm introduced a web system for Bike and ride information. the city of Cork tried to raise awareness around European Car free Day. Cork and Graz created a cycle safety training program for primary school. which can be ascribed to city local characteristics and conditions (city size.421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-40 Deliverable 7. and the same factor can be a barrier or a driver in different specific conditions or circumstances. considering that the cluster of measure implemented in CIVITAS I were mainly focussed on providing better or safer cycling infrastructure or conditions. no more than three SpiCycles LEMs expected the impact defined by HLO 9 and no more than four that defined by HLO 10. tourist influx.Contract no. In general. These factors can act as barriers or drivers in implementing transport measures. As to HLO 14 and HLO 4 seems to be in relation to each other and to HL 3. Finally.4 Transferability analysis The aim of the transferability analysis is to evaluate the possibility to implement in other cities the SpiCycles actions on the basis of the experience and information gathered during the project in the participating cities.4 Key impacts of the set of actions implemented in SpiCycles as a whole The expected impacts are: HLO 1 Improve the long-term planning process and information provision HLO 3 Reduce traffic emissions and energy consumption HLO 4 Protect the city centre HLO 5 Increase the efficiency of the transport system HLO 6 Promote better integrated planning between transport and land use HLO 14 Reduce local emission and improve quality of life in city centres If a city plans to adopt: SpiCycles actions Comparing Table 3-38 with Table 3-40 the set of “cycling” actions implemented in SpiCycles has broadened the impacts. In METEOR  ten logical steps have been identified to successfully transfer 20 To be precise in CIVITAS. transport policies etc. which can be expected from this cluster. This can be explained. the possibility to transfer transport related measures from one city to another depends on a number of factors. and not only by “cycling” measures.
Table 3-18) and other local conditions (Table 3-41) identified by METEOR affected and can affect the implementation and transfer of the actions.Contract no. “National Regulation” and “Allocation of city tasks and contracts” are included in “Institutions – Legislation and Regulation”.Key Individuals”. In the case of SpiCycles actions. The LEMs were free to indicate any additional constraints they run into during the implementation of the action in their city2122. a number of transferability barriers were identified. and. The LEMs of each participating city were asked to provide their opinion about the most critical barriers and drivers for successfully transferring and implementing the SpiCycles actions. which affects the successful transfer of measures. “Administrative structure of cities” is included in “Institutions Administrative Structures and Practices”.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. and that different specific local conditions inevitably limit the validity of any analysis of transferability. Table 3-17.3 ). city context constraints influence the implementation and transfer of transport policy measures. the LEMs were asked to rate how the city context constraints (Table 3-14. In the final technical report of Bike Sharing action (D3. METEOR has also organised information produced by the CIVITAS I cities in order to support receptor cities in identifying suitable measures which can help to address their local problems.4 measures from one city (called originator city) to another (called receptor city). finally. which start from the analysis of the current situation and problems in the receptor city. the most important factor. in general. However. Since no other city indicated these barriers. it is possible to investigate how. 21 Ploiesti and Berlin added respectively “Local infrastructure” and “Integration of Bicycles into PT” to the “Other Local Conditions”. Table 3-16. “Different interests of operators” and “Different role of cycling and established cycling associations” are included both “Cooperation Partnership and Involvement” and “Cooperation . through the selection of those measures considered suitable for addressing the identified problems. to the implementation of the measures and steering of the results. is the possibility to replicate the physical. we did not include them in the list. 22 78 . cultural and institutional conditions of the originator city. which can be retraced to those identified in METEOR (Table 3-14). EIE/05/059/SI2. As already pointed out in METEOR. “Different goals of cities” is included in “Politics and Strategy”. Table 3-15.
Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Pos/Neg Planning for Cycling Negative Negative Negative Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Building Local Partnerships Positive Positive N. Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive City context constraint Bike Sharing City Size Urban Sprawl City Hilliness Public Support / Acceptability Previous Successful Experiences Public Transport Network Quality Public Transport Network Density Mobility Master Plan in Place Ability for effective enforcement Positive Negative Negative Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Figure 3-13 show the mapping transferability context for the SpiCycles actions. This diagram representation was defined by METEOR .421631 SPICYCLES Table 3-41 Deliverable 7. The notation uses red colour for the border of the rhombus for barriers and green colour for drivers (Figure 3-12). Furthermore at the end of the text inside the rhombus of each driver/barrier a letter (L/M/H) show the relevance associated to it. which should be considered when transferring these actions in other cities. Based on the information provided by the participating cities.A.4 SpiCycles Actions transferability sensitiveness to other local conditions Communication and Awareness Raising Positive Positive N. EIE/05/059/SI2.Contract no. highlighting the most important factors.A. which can act as barriers or drivers for the implementation of the actions. 79 . it summarises graphically the city context constraints.
421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. (Source: METEOR ) 80 .4 Figure 3-11 Principles for Mapping Transferability Contexts. EIE/05/059/SI2. (Source: METEOR ) Figure 3-12 Legenda for Mapping Transferability Contexts.Contract no.
EIE/05/059/SI2.Contract no.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.4 BD6 Planning – User assessment (M) BD10 Cooperation – Key individuals (M) BD5 Planning Policy conflict/ Synergy (M) BD7 Institutions – Administrative Structures and Practices (M)) BD8 Institutions – Legislation and Regulation (M) BD9 Cooperation – Partenrship and involvement (M) BD11 Citizens’ participation (M) BD4 Planning Economic (M/H) BD12 Information and Public relations (M) BD13 Technology (M) BD14 Public funds and subsidy (M) Urban sprawl Public support BD3 Planning Technical (M/H) City Hilliness City size BD15 Exchange and mutual learning (M) BD2 Politics and Strategy Conflict/ Coalition (M) Adoption of SpiCycles Action Bike Sharing Planning for Cycling BD16 Cultural and lifestyle (M) Communication and Awareness Raising Building Local Partnerships Previous successful experiences BD1 Politics and Strategy Opposition/ Commitment (M) Ability for effective enforcement Public transport network quality BD17 Problem pressure (M) Mobility Master Plan in place Public transport network density HLO1 Improve the long-term planning process and information provision HLO 3 Reduce traffic emissions and energy consumpion HLO 4 Protect the city centre HLO 5 Increase the efficiency of the transport system HLO 6 Promote better integrated planning between transport and land use HLO 14 Reduce local emission and improve quality of life in city centres Figure 3-13 Fundamental Mapping for the SpiCycles actions 81 .
The implementation process was influenced by a reduced number of institutional barriers (administrative structures and practices and legislation and regulation) and barriers relating to the cultural context.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7. Göteborg was the only one to report that no change has been measured in modal split so far (it expected a +1% by 2008 at the end of SpiCycles). The level of acceptance of the measures is high. the Local Evaluation Manager (LEM) of the city of Bucharest reported that the expected cycling modal share for the end of the project of 1% has almost been reached.Contract no. although it is not possible to ascribe them only to the SpiCycles actions. there are a number of drivers. and. except for economics. it is reasonable to think that synergies deriving from the implementation of actions like Communication and Awareness Raising. therefore. safety. in the city of Barcelona an increase in modal share by 135% has been measured (achieving a cycling mode share of 1. and also the perception of impacts on reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts is positive. starting from 0. In fact current attitude towards cycling in urban mobility and transport planning seems to prevent from using bicycles. for which no data and information was collected by the participating cities. surveys show that the number of bicycle users increased by 20% between 2005 and 2008. The above reported results seem to reward this choice. Another problem experienced is the difficulty in finding funding for the implementation of the actions. and economics areas. environment. However. in Rome and Ploiesti. All participating cities have generally succeeded in completing the activities planned for each action at the beginning of the project. was the low level of awareness of the measures.4 4 Conclusions The SpiCycles set of actions implemented by the six participating cities were all focussed on cycling with a view to increasing its modal share. However. in Berlin. 82 . although no quantitative measurements are available. and policy synergies. which already has a reasonably high cycling modal share (9%). transport system/behaviour. The actions were expected to produce impacts in the social. it was found that the actions produced positive impacts in the abovementioned areas. who performed the local evaluation activities. the LEMs have the feeling that the SpiCycles actions made it possible to increase cycling modal share. as already pointed out in METEOR . Building Local Partnerships. which can facilitate the implementation process.75% in 2005). On the basis of the information and data collected by the LEMs. despite the light character of them. problem pressure (growing demand for sustainable transport systems). such as citizen’s participation and favourable attitude. After the implementation of the actions. EIE/05/059/SI2. but SpiCycles has got round it by implementing a specific action focused on information and awareness raising. and Planning for Cycling contributed to boost the implementation of measures outside SpiCycles project. partnership and involvement. One drawback pointed out by METEOR with regard to the cluster of measures “Cycling” implemented in CIVITAS I.76% in 2007. Therefore. except for Göteborg. no conclusions could be drawn. the final results attained show that the actions were successful.
According to the approach of METEOR almost all barriers and drivers have a moderate influence in the implementation process and transferability of the SpiCycles actions. EIE/05/059/SI2. creation of parking spaces for bicycles or racks. the SpiCycles actions did not involve the adoption of technology.4 Contrary to what happened in CIVITAS I. which is the more-technology intensive measure for promoting cycling (anti-theft systems. such as organising information and awareness campaigns. Except for bike sharing. and mainly consisted of a number of light measures.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.Contract no. 83 . As a consequence no high risk for the implementation of the same actions in other cities were identified. However some local conditions like urban sprawl and city hilliness can negatively affect the implementation of measures promoting the use of cycling. creating platforms for involving stakeholders. counting systems of journey planners can also involve technology). etc. information and awareness campaigns seem to have increase cycling demand.
4 5 References and bibliography  Project SpiCycles (2007). European Community Sixth Framework Programme .  Project SpiCycles (2008). Annex I – Description of the Action. Deliverable 4. European Community Sixth Framework Programme Intelligent Energy Europe Initiative (IEE).Intelligent Energy Europe Initiative (IEE).2: Final Evaluation Plan. Deliverable 5.3 – Planning for Cycling.3 – Communication and Awareness raising -Key findings and recommendations.Intelligent Energy Europe Initiative (IEE). European Community Fifth Framework Programme – Growth: KA 2 "Sustainable Mobility and Intermodality". European Community Sixth Framework Programme .  Project METEOR (2006) Deliverable 6: CIVITAS 1 Cross Site Evaluation.  Project SpiCycles (2008). Transport Directorate DG VII (1999). 84 .  Project SpiCycles (2008). The MAESTRO Guidelines.3 – Bike sharing – Key findings and recommendations.3 – Building Local Partnerships – Key findings and recommendations. EIE/05/059/SI2.  European Commission. Deliverable 7.Intelligent Energy Europe Initiative (IEE).2162.Intelligent Energy Europe Initiative (IEE).  Project METEOR (2003) Deliverable 2: Assessment Framework and Evaluation Guidelines for Data Collection. European Community Fifth Framework Programme – Growth: KA 2 "Sustainable Mobility and Intermodality". Deliverable 3.  Project SpiCycles (2005).Intelligent Energy Europe Initiative (IEE). European Community Sixth Framework Programme . European Community Sixth Framework Programme . Deliverable 6.421631 SPICYCLES Deliverable 7.Contract no. European Community Sixth Framework Programme . Deliverable 6.  Project SpiCycles (2008). MAESTRO project ST-97-RS.Key findings and recommendations.
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