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Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with soft water). Hard water has high concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. Hard water is generally not harmful t o one's health but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is m onitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles w ater. In domestic settings, the hardness of water is often indicated by the non-formation of suds when soap is agitated in the water sample.The scum consists of insoluble salts of these metal s. Removal of these salts from the solution makes the water soft. Water that for ms an immediate lather with soap is called soft water. Such water does not have dissolved salts of calcium, magnesium and iron. 2)CAUSES OF HARD WATER: Hardness in water is defined as concentration of multivalent cations. Multivalen t cations are cations (metal ions) with a charge greater than 1+, mainly 2+. The se cations include Ca2+ and Mg2+. These ions enter a water supply by leaching fr om minerals within an aquifer. Common calcium-containing minerals are calcite an d gypsum. A common magnesium mineral is dolomite which also contains calcium. Ra inwater and distilled water are soft, because they contain few ions. The following equilibrium reaction describes the dissolving/formation of calcium carbonate scales: CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ? Ca2+ + 2HCO3The rain water dissolves sulphates, chlorides and carbonates of calcium and magn esium present in many rocks. These salts cause hardness of water. This water als o dissolves carbon di oxide from air which converts the carbonates of calcium an d magnesium into bicarbonates. These bicarbonates being soluble in water cause h ardness. 3)TYPES OF HARD WATER: The hardness of water is of two types : Temporary hardness and permanent hardnes s. Temporary hardness is due to the presence of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesi um in water. These salts are soluble in water and exist in the form of positive and negative ions. The name temporary is given to this type of hardness because these ions are removed merely by boiling. Temporary hardness is removed by boili ng water. Due to this calcium and magnesium bicarbonates are converted into inso luble carbonates witch are easily removed. For example:Mg(HCO3)2 è Mg+2 +2HCO3-1 Ca(HCO3)2 è Ca+2 + 2HCO3-1 Permanent hardness is due to the dissolved chlorides or sulphates of calcium an d magnesium. These salts can not be decomposed by boiling and hence the name per manent is given to this type of hardness. These salts are soluble in water and p roduce corresponding ions in solution. Both temporary and permanent hardness can also be removed by ion exchange method which involves the replacement of on ion by another. For example:CaCl2è Ca+2 + 2Cl-1 MgSO4 è Mg+2 + SO4-2 4)ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES: ADVANTAGES:
This layer of carbonate prevents the water in the pipe from coming into contact with the metal of the pipe and so prevents pipe corrosion and poisonous metal salts becoming dissolved in the water. water tastes "salty" even though there is no sodium present.Water So fteners not only work to remove excessive calcium and magnesium but also to remo ve iron.Scum may form in a reaction with soap. the sodium or potassium brine solution is rinsed throught the resin leaving the calcium/magnesium and other hard water minerals to be bumped off and discarded down the drain. and sediment. lead. Especially hard water contains magnesium sulphate can weaken the stomach permanently. CONVERSION TO SOFT WATER: Water Softeners work to convert hard water into soft w ater. 4. large amount of soap is consumed. 3) The formation of lime scale in pipes (see below) causes the inside of the pipe to be covered with insoluble carbonates. copper. Ca(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 è 2CaCO3 + 2H2O Mg(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 è CaCO3 + MgCO3 + 2H2O . The process continues until there are no more s ites for the exchange to take place and the resin is considered exhausted and mu st be "regenerated". 2) It provides useful calcium ions for the healthy growth of bones and teeth. * Domestic: Hard water affect cleaning ability of soap.Lime scale deposits can be removed using a weak acid. Theref ore if we use hard water in turbines and heat exchangers. 3. insoluble carbonates are obtained w hich are separated by filtration.Lime scale in pip es can be prevented using a water softener or a scale inhibitor.Lime scale in pipes can also be an advantage.1) It tastes better and is thought to reduce the number of heart illnesses.It is more difficult to form a lather with soap. wasting the soap. 4)Some brewers prefer using hard water for making beer. *Industrial: Hard water can cause "Scaling" inside the pipes that transport water . During this process. When hard water is used for washing. Water softeners all have a resin tank which contai ns the ion exchange brine tank and the control head which is the mechanism that determines when the regeneration process is to take place. their pipes will be corroded *Health: Hard water when used for drinking for long period can lead to stomach disorde rs.The deposits of lime scale can build up on the inside of the pipe restricting the flow of water or causing a blockage.Lime scale furring of kettles and pipes. DISADVANTAGES: 1.The main principal that softeners op erate on is the ion exchange.This can happen in industry where hot water is used or in domestic heating systems (like the hot water in yo ur house). Due to reaction. The presence of positive charged ions is what causes calcium and mag nesium to dissolve less easily in water.The fur is the insoluble carbonate for med during heating water with temporary hardness. As a result of the high concentration o f minerals. CLARK'S METHOD:In Clark s method a calculated amount of calcium hydroxide Ca (OH)2 is added to hard water. Hard water has minerals like calcium and magnesium which are positively ch arged ions.Limescale (a hard crust) forms inside kettles.In the resin tank are resin beads which contain sites that hold sodium or potassium ions. The positive ly charged hard water ions are attracted to the beads and exchange themselves wi th the sodium or potassium ions. radium. 2.