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MORALES, Roselle A.

June 22 & 27 HF11

Factors on the Spanish Arrival in the Philippines a. 3Gs ( God, Gold and Glory) God- Almost all of the Philippine population was Roman Catholics in order to fulfill Isabel I death wish: to convert the Filipinos. Gold- There has been an intercultural exchange between the Filipinos and the Americans. Taxation was implemented. Agricultural and local industries were neglected. Philippines was included in the economic society of friends in the country. Transportation abroad became available and telephone system was implemented. Public lighting system was established in Manila. Adaption of Hispanic names, publication of books, houses made of stones, new foods, and mode of dressing, latin alphabet and literature was used. Glory- Centralized of form of Government which is divided into 2 units: Central government (highest position in the government), local government b. Intellectual Revolution The Philippines use some Spanish words as a mode of communication. Schools were established from the primary level to the tertiary level of education which focuses on Christian Doctrines. Also, there was a separate school for boys and girls. c. Industrial Revolution Modern methods of production, transportation and machinery were improved. Factories can produce goods more cheaply, and there has been migration of people from countryside to cities. d. Exploration Age New communication and trade routes were established. It brought new means of doing businesses and finding out natural resources in different parts of the world. Socio-cultural Aspect CHRISTIANITY: Spains Greatest Legacy. The Christianization (Roman Catholic) of the Filipinos was really the most outstanding achievement of the Spanish missionaries. And as a result of the missionaries apostolic labors, the Filipino people have become uniquely the only Christian nation in the entire Asian world. DIET & DRESS:The Spaniards introduced new food plants such as wheat, corn, potatoes, cacao, coffee, cabbages, papaya, chicos, and guavas. Other foods were beef, mutton, longaniza, jamon, and sardines. During the Spanish times, Filipinos learned to eat canned goods from Europe; have learned to use spoons, forks, drinking glasses, table knives, and napkins; and to drink foreign wine.Women adorned themselves with jewelry; wore slippers, shoes, stockings, hair combs, handkerchief, like the women of Spain. SPANISH SURNAMES FOR FILIPINOS: they adopted Spanish surnames. LATIN ALPHABET & SPANISH TONGUE , EDUCATION: The Spaniards introduced the European system of education in the Philippines. They established the first parochial schools, with Spanish missionaries as teachers. Filipino children were taught the Catholic doctrine, the three Rs (reading, riting, and rithmethic), music, and various arts and trades.Literature, music, architecture, painting, sculpture and the sciences were also enriched with European influences. GAMES, AMUSEMENTS & CELEBRATIONS:Fiestas, Church weddings, Birthday parties, Cockfighting, Horse Races, Lottery and other amusements were widely practiced during the Spanish period. These activities led to the emergence of a Filipino culture so enriched, but many Filipinos gradually and eventually forgot their traditions and cultural heritage from their forefathers, DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE, TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND PUBLIC UTILITIES:A. Ferrocaril de Manila: the only railway line in the archipelago, which was constructed using mainly Filipino labor. By 1892, five street car service lines connected the primate city with the suburbs with horse-drawn cars. B. Puente Colgante (Quezon bridge): the first suspension bridge in the Far East. C. Telephone began functioning since 1890, servicing initially 170 clients (Manila only) D. Public Lighting System: used with coconut oil as fuel (1814). By 1893, the walled city (Intramuros) and suburbs were already powered by electricity, with the founding of the La Electricista de Manila. POLITICAL ASPECT Royal audiencia- highest tribune Archbishop and clergy Residencia- trial of the outgoing governor-general Visitador- investigator coming from the King of Spain to check condition in the Philippines

Complaints from public officials and private individuals. From 1565 to 1821, Philippines is governed by the king of Spain thru viceroy of Mexico From 1821 onwards, the Spanish king directly ruled Philippines by appointing the governor general Council of the Indie- handled all matters pertaining to the colonies of the Spanish empire. This later became the Ministry of Colonies assisted by the Council of the Philippines Laws of the Indies: Recopilacion de Leyes de las Indias or popularly known as Laws for the Indies Governor-general -chief executive of the Philippines.Sometimes known as CaptainGeneral. Powers: Enforce royal decrees and laws, Appoint and remove colonial officials,s erve as chief justice of the Royal Audiencia, serve as the vice-royal patron, exercise all powers of the king of Spain, veto power known as cumplase. ECONOMIC ASPECTS

The Buwis (Tribute) may be paid in cash or in kind, partly or wholly, as palay or tobacco, chickens, textiles. In 1570, tribute was fixed at eight reales (one peso) or in kind (gold, blankets, cotton, rice) then it continued to increase until the end of the Spanish period. In 1884, the tribute was replaced by the cedula personal (equivalent to the residence tax) The Samboangan, a special tax of real or rice was collected to be used by soldiers in crushing the Moro raids.The Vinta and Falua (similar to the samboangan) were collected to shield coastal areas of Bulacan, Pampanga and the Bicol Region.The Bandala, an annual enforced sale or requisitioning of goods (particularly rice) was collected from farmers.The Cedula Personal or personal identity paper was required to be paid by everyone over eighteen years of age.The Tithes extracted by the Church were an additional burden to the taxes collected by the government.
B. POLO [FORCED LABOR]Filipinos or Chinese mestizos aged 16-60 were drafted and were obligated to give personal

service to community projects, like construction and repair of infrastructure, church construction, or cutting of logs, for forty days (until 1884, when it was reduced to 15 days). If one opted to be exempted from the polo, he had to pay the FALLA (half real per day). Although good in intention, the polo negatively affected agriculture because the working days coincided with the planting and harvesting seasons. It also contributed to deforestation and decimation of the male population (because many were compelled to work in the mountains, thus leaving their families behind). C. ENCOMIENDAS: ROYAL AND PRIVATE: Encomienda (from the word, encomendar, meaning, to entrust) was another revenue-getting measure of the colonial government. It was a grant from Spain to a meritorious Spaniard to exercise control over a specific place including its inhabitants.The Encomendero was duty-bound to defend his encomienda and its inhabitants, and to assist in the mission to Christianize its inhabitants. In return, he had the right to impose tribute in his jurisdiction. 2 TYPES OF ENCOMIENDA 1. Royal/Crown: lands reserved for the crown and included the principal towns and ports. 2. Private: granted to individuals who have rendered meritorious performance to the Spanish crown.