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Winter 2011

W O R K F L O W O F M AT E R I A L / J O R D A N I A N C O M P A N I E S / S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y R E P O R T S A N D CASE STUDIES

Jordanian Industry Industrial establishments that produced chemicals, petrochemicals, fertilizers, and mineral products. These manufacturing entities included the "big ve" companies that constituted the pillars of the industrial base: the Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, the Jordan Fertilizer Industries Company, the Arab Potash Company, Intermediate Petrochemical Industries, the Jordan Cement Factories Company, and also a recently enlarged oil renery Petroleum rening contributed 39 percent to gross output manufacturing; fertilizers, potash, and other nonmetallic minerals, 13 percent; industrial chemicals, about 8 percent; and iron, steel, and fabricated metal products, about 10 percent. Thus, about 70 percent of total manufacturing output was closely linked to the mining and extractive sector. The most important, in order of contribution to gross output value, were food processing, tobacco and cigarettes, paper and packaging, beverages, furniture, textiles, and plastics. These companies and other smaller industries such as publishing, glass and rubber products, electrical equipment, and machinery--each of which contributed less than 1 percent of total manufacturing output value--together contributed about 30 percent of gross manufacturing output.
Feras Maher Shadid | 20100012 Dr. Nisreen Al-Hamoud RSS-Al Hassan city Princess Sumaya University for Technology Environmental Science Jordanian Aircraft Maintenance company ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE Over the coming two years, JorAMCo intends to, extensively, catalogue operation impact on the environment, establish baseline performance data, identify the most significant opportunities and demonstrate tangible performance improvements within that time frame. These efforts would, also meet with the aviation industry efforts to reduce contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions (and thus global warming). While JorAMCo is not, presently, involved in aircraft engines maintenance, the source of emission in Aircraft, as an aircraft MRO service provider we are committed to work with clients and help incorporate emissions saving strategies in all aspects of aircraft maintenance, repair, and overhaul, working with the most up-to-date materials, technologies, and aircraft modication solutions. JorAMCo has received letters from governmental authorities to address some minor issues related to health, safety and the environment, which we have undertaken or continue to undertake as requested. Electricity and fuel consumption JorAMCos energy requirements include; energy used for testing of aircraft, lighting and HVAC of the facilities. The significant growth of the business since 2005 has led to increased electricity and fuel consumption in 2006 and 2007.

Introduction to Conversational French - Syllabus Summer 2009

Winter 2011

Waste Management

(JorAMCo is powered from the national grid and onsite generators. Most of the electricity is consumed on the Ground Support Equipments (GSE)s including electrically fed Ground Power Units (GPU)s. Other types of mobile GPUs run on diesel). The amount of Electricity consumed from the national grid is measured and billed to JorAMCo regularly. In 2008, JorAMCo has committed to two notable projects for reducing energy consumption. The first, few Hangar managers were put to the task of identifying and implementing energysaving techniques in some of their operations. Having achieved significant success, all managers across Hangar operations were asked to follow a similar energy efficiency exercise. Actions taken have ranged from reducing energy demand when facilities are not in use, to cleaning of all lights in the hangars in order to increase brightness and reduce overall consumption. Fuel consumption has notably decreased by 10% for diesel powered and 45% for unleaded fuel powered vehicles in 2008. This reduction was achieved through application of a list of stringent control procedures over all transportation activities and through carrying out repair and maintenance of vehicles for better efficiency, fuel economy and low emission of harmful gases. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions and Air Pollutants - At JorAMCo, GHG emissions were measured by estimating the direct and indirect electricity and energy consumption needed to run the operation. These include fuel used in vehicles and other operations requiring fuel which was significantly reduced due to the success achieved in applying energy efficiency techniques in our older hangars, and our inherently less thirsty and more energy efficient new hangar that was constructed with modern technologies. Another emissions-saving activity practiced is transportation of Employees by the use of mass transportation vehicles and encouraging the rest of the employees to car pool while commuting to work.

Environmental Science - Report - Manufacturing Process and waste management .

Winter 2011

Waste Management

Apple inc. ... An International Approach


LCA Life Cycle Assessment LCA is a process of evaluating the effects that a product has on the environment throughout its life cycle. The objective of completing a full life cycle analysis is to improve resource efficiency while reducing the environmental impact of all activities required to manufacture, distribute, use, and dispose of a product. Cradle-to-grave life cycle assessments. Apple uses five steps when conducting a product LCA: 1. Data collection starts with measuring the power consumed by a product while it is running under a simulated use scenario. Different scenarios are used for different product lines. For example, we assume a four-year average use period for Mac computers. To be conservative, we also assume an office scenario use pattern for every computer shipped and apply that use pattern to 365 days of use per year. For handheld products, such as iPod and iPhone, we assume a three-year use period. For these products, charging patterns are defined according to a power user, which we define as intense daily use over the three-year period. 2. The second step is a part-by-part measurement of the entire product. This helps accurately measure the size and weight of the components and materials in the product. Since a single product can contain several hundred parts, this step is supported by double-checking individual part details with the products bill of materials. The included material and component yield loss during production as part of this process. And is also accounted for the transportation of materials between manufacturing sites. Production emissions for external accessories, such as keyboards and mice, and packaging are also included in this step. 3. The third step assesses emissions from transportation of finished products to sales regions. Data is collected on single units and multipack units of product shipments as they are transported over land, by sea, and by air. The majority of the product transportation emissions are associated with getting the products from Asia to sales distribution hubs in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. The final leg of transport between regional hubs and individual customers is accounted for using an overall adjustment factor. 4. The last step of the product life cycle measurement is the collection and recycling of the product when it reaches the end of its useful life. Transportation between customers and recycling plants along with the treatment steps carried out by the recycler to obtain metal, plastic, and glass material streams are all accounted for in this calculation. Subsequent processing and smelting steps are not included as these are considered stages of production and not end-of-life processing. MacBook Pro ... ...Manufacturing -The process starts with raw aluminum, selected for its favorable strength to weight ratio and the flexibility it offers in processing and finishing.

-Extruded aluminum sheets are cut into blocks that undergo 13 separate milling operations.

-Apple uses CNC to precision cut keyboard holes from the face of the slab , mill out the "thumbscoop" that provides enough of a recession to open the display lid comfortably without putting too much pressure on the lid, machine out complex patterns from the inside and perforate the speaker grill holes using lasers . A portion of the front edge is milled thin enough that a laser can be used to micro-perforate the metal to allow light from the sleep indicator LED to pass through the metal. When the sleep indicator is off, the metal appears to be solid.

Environmental Science - Report - Manufacturing Process and waste management .

Winter 2011

Waste Management

A sample from a Jordanian - Branched Nuqul group , direct FINE authorized manufacturer and reseller from their 2009 Sustainability Report - Environmental Connection Section - Production Overflow

Environmental Science - Report - Manufacturing Process and waste management .