Tissue Culture Glossary

Abaxial - On the side that is away from the axis or central line, usually on the underside of the explant - See here. Abscisic Acid - ABA. A plant growth regulator involved in abscission, dormancy, stomatal opening/closure, and inhibition of seed germination. It also affects the regulation of somatic cell embryogenesis in some plant species. Activated Charcoal - Charcoal which has been treated to remove hydrocarbons and to increase its adsorptive properties/ Adaxial - On the side that is towards the axis or central line, usually on the upper side of the explant - See here. Adventitious Bud - Buds that develop in places other that at the end of a twig or in leaf axils. They appear when wounding stimulates their development. Agar - A polysaccharide solidifying agent used in nutrient media preparations and obtained from certain types of red algae (Rhodophyta). Both the type of agar and its concentration can affect the growth and appearance of cultured explants Antibiotic - Any chemical or biological agent that harms the growth of micro-organisms. Apomixis - Replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization. Thus "normal asexual reproduction" of plants, such as propagation from cuttings or leaves, has never been considered to be apomixis, but replacement of the seed by a plantlet, or replacement of the flower by bulbils are types of apomixis. Apomictically produced offspring are genetically identical to the parent plant. Aseptic - The state of being free of contaminating organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae and all micro-organisms except viruses). See Sterile. Autoclave - 1. An enclosed chamber in which substances are heated under pressure to sterilize utensils, liquids, glassware, etc., using steam.

Continuous loss of physiological and cytological characters of young cells. or longer to allow large volumes to reach the critical temperature. Callus . Auxin . root initiation. Differentiation results from the controlled activation and de-activation of genes. and is a common disinfectant used for cleaning working surfaces. apical dominance. A pressure cooker used to sterilize growth medium and instruments for tissue culture work. undifferentiated plant cells. developed as the result of culture on nutrient media. Axillary bud . below the level of a sub-species taxonomically. tools and plant materials in plant tissue culture and grafting.See Activated Charcoal Clone . Bud . Bleeding . Commercial bleach contains calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. enlargement.Used to describe the occasional purplish-black coloration of media due to phenolic products given off by (usually fresh) transfers. Charcoal . a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition. and. firstly. secondly.A mass of thin-walled.A group of plant growth regulators (natural or synthetic) which stimulate cell division. Cell Differentiation . resulting in getting the characters of adult cells. without the sexual process. 2.Group of plants genetically identical in which all are derived from one selected individual by vegetative or in-vitro propagation. and flowering. usually with free chlorine ions. powder or other whitening (bleaching) or cleaning agent.when located in the axil of a leaf (lateral is equivalent but some adventitious buds may be lateral too) Bleach .An undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of the stem. found only in cultivation.A category of plants that are.4×103 Pa at 121°C for 15 minutes.A fluid.The routine method uses steam pressure of 103. Once formed. or it may form a shoot immediately. Cultivar . It is an international term denoting certain cultivated plants that are . The unspecialized cells become modified and specialized for the performance of specific functions.

. Excision .C2H6O.A process in which unspecialized cells develop structures and functions characteristic of a particular type of cell.e.Cutting out and preparing a tissue. Culture Medium . etc. accompanied by a modification of the new cells for the performance of particular functions.clearly distinguishable from others by stated characteristics and that retain their distinguishing characters when reproduced under specific conditions.An aseptic viable explant. Distal . Differentiation . BAP.Process of sterilizing a liquid by passage through a filter with pores so small that they prevent the passage of micro- .Organisms removed from tissue culture and transplanted. graft or cutting used as a source of plant material for micro-propagation purposes. Filter Sterilization . Explant .. Commonly used to disinfest plant tissues. Ethanol . In tissue culture. kinetin. Cytokinin . organ.A detached plant part that under appropriate cultural conditions can regenerate the complete plant without a sexual process. In tissue culture. the term is used to describe the formation of different cell types. leaves.Full elimination of internal micro-organisms from a culture. Development from one cell to many cells.Tissue asceptically obtained and prepared from the donor plant for culture(flower stalk. these substances are associated with enhanced callus and shoot development. generally plants to soil or potting mixture.See Logarithmic phase Ex Vitro .An explant.The side of an explant furthest from the point of attachment (i. the tip of a leaf) Donor Plant .See Medium Cutting . glassware utensils and working surfaces in tissue culture manipulations.Plant growth regulators (hormones) characterized as substances that induce cell division and cell differentiation (e. for culture. and 2-iP).g. roots) Exponential phase . Disinfectation . Established Culture . The concentration used is 70% (v/v) for disinfecting and 95% (v/v) when flaming tools.

such as a chemical.A glutinous. Hormone . Formulation . HEPA Filter . organogenesis.A small piece of tissue cut from callus. free-living conditions.(high efficiency particulate air filter) A filter capable of screening out particles larger than 0.3 µm.Adapting plants to outdoor conditions by gradually withholding water.A technique for sterilizing instruments. embryogenesis) Inoculum . Occasionally used in place of agar in tissue culture. enhancement of flower.An agent. inhibits or quantitatively modifies a biological process. and for bleaching. Flaming . and transported to another part where.Early steps or stages of a tissue culture process (culture growth.See Medium Fungicide . lowering the temperature. which are oxidizing agents and used for disinfecting surfaces and surfacesterilizing tissues. or an explant from a tissue transferred into fresh medium for continued growth of the culture.g.organisms and microbial spores. thus heat-sterilizing the tool surface. germination.. gradual decrease in humidity. Initiation . Giberellins . Hardening off . it promotes. Hypochlorite . A water-soluble nutrient frequently referred to . e. The instrument is dipped in alcohol (usually 95% (v/v) ethanol) and then the alcohol on the instrument is ignited.Generic term for aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite. Gelatin . increasing light intensity.A specific organic product. produced in one part of a plant. or reducing the nutrient supply. at low concentrations.Plant growth regulators involved in elongation. The term is also used for gradual acclimatization to in vivo conditions of plants grown in vitro. vernalization and other processes.C6H6(OH)6. potassium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite. Inositol . HEPA filters are used in laminar air flow cabinets (hoods) for sterile transfer work. The hardening-off process conditions plants for survival when transplanted outdoors. cf acclimatization. proteinaceous gelling and solidifying agent. that kills fungi. fruit and leaf size.

a term for the liquid or solidified formulation upon which plant cells. Kinin . Refers to biological processes that take place within a living organism or cell under normal conditions. some vitamins (B vitamins.as a "vitamin" in plant tissue culture. Kinetin . The working area is kept sterile by a continuous. or whole plants may reside. Longitudinal edge . . In vivo . non-turbulent flow of sterilized air through a HEPA filter. during which cell number doubles every 20-30 minutes. See cytokinin.See Medium Medium . prior to rapid growth.The natural conditions in which organisms reside. inositol). during which cell number remains relatively constant.The initial growth phase after inoculation. See HEPA filter Log phase . Medium Formulation . the particular formula for the culture medium.has been added (cytokinin) to distinguish it from kinin in animal systems.Cabinet for inoculation of cultures.In plant tissue culture. such as amino acids or complex growth factors. In plant systems. the phase of vigorous growth. Lag phase .For growth media: an essential element normally required in concentrations >0. Laminar Flow Hood .The steepest slope of the growth curve. tissues. Macronutrient .Medium formulation In tissue culture. tissues or organs develop. outside the organism or in an artificial environment.See Logarithmic phase Logarithmic phase . plant growth regulators (auxin.A substance promoting cell division. a group of growth regulators that characteristically promote cell division in plants. Media . In vitro . a carbohydrate source (usually sucrose or glucose) and often other substances.Living in test tubes. following the greatest length of an area or object.5 millimole/l. It commonly contains macro-elements and micro-elements . cytokinin and sometimes gibberellin).The direction parallel to the ridge. the prefix cyto.One of the cytokinins. typically in glass vessels in which cultured cells.

e.Any structure capable of giving rise to a new plant by asexual or sexual reproduction. whereas below 7 is acid and above 7 is alkaline.See Medium Organized tissue .The side of an explant closest to the point of attachment (i.A measure of acidity and alkalinity. pH . 5-6) and the solution is sterilized (usually by filtration or autoclaving). Some formulations are very specific in the kind of explant or plant species that can be maintained.g. leaves. Equal to the log of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. in severe cases. the base of a leaf) Radicle .Murashige and Skoog media Nutrient medium . Phenolic Exudation . some are very general.See Donor plant Myo Inositol .a broad-spectrum biocide/fungicide for plant tissue culture. Proximal . Micronutrient .Plant Preservative Mixture .That portion of the plant embryo which develops into the primary or seed root. expressed in grams per litre.For growth media: An essential element normally required in concentrations < 0. etc. Antioxidants are incorporated into the sterilizing solution or isolation medium to prevent or reduce exudative browning (activated charcoal). to tissue necrosis and death.Parts per million.Media may be liquid or solidified with agar. Mother plant .Many plant species contain phenolic compounds that blacken through exudation.See Inositol MS . The process is initiated after plants are wounded.Undifferentiated tissue. Meristem . . Propagule . PPM . the pH is adjusted (ca. including seeds. ppm . Phenolic exudation may lead to growth inhibition or. buds. the cells of which are capable of active cell division and differentiation into specialized and permanent tissue such as shoots and roots.Composed of regularly differentiated cells.. A reading of 7 is neutral (e. pure water).5 millimole/litre.

Lacking the specialized or differential gene expression characteristic of specialized cells. Sterilize . such as a Petri dish. Undefined medium . Stationary phase . Spore . Terminal bud .A general term used to describe the culture of cells. fish emulsion or other complex compounds.The plateau of the growth curve after log growth. . Sterile . used for tissue culture. New cells are produced at the same rate as older cells die. heat.The process of elimination of micro-organisms.A small.Medium or object with no perceptible or viable microorganisms. Semi-solid . casein hydrolysate. called also semi-liquid. often synthesized when nutrient levels are low.Across the width of the explant. such as by chemicals.A medium or substance added to medium in which not all of the constituents or their concentrations are chemically defined.The chemical or physical treatment given to some seeds (where the seed coats are very hard or contain germination inhibitors) in order to break or weaken the seed coat sufficiently to permit germination. baby food jar or test tube. tissues or organs in a nutrient medium under sterile conditions Transverse . the perpendicular side of the longitudinal side. Undifferentiated .Gelled but not firmly so.Division and transfer of a portion or inoculum of a culture to fresh medium. such as media containing coconut milk.Scarification . Sub-culture . during which cell number remains constant. Vessel . Sometimes used to denote the adding of fresh liquid to a suspension culture.when located at the tip of a stem (apical is equivalent but rather reserved for the one at the top of the plant) Tissue culture . protected reproductive form of a micro-organism. irradiation or filtration. malt extract.A container. the direction perpendicular to the ridge. jar. small amounts of a gelling agent are used to obtain a semi-solid medium.

expressed as a percentage. w/v .The capability to live and develop normally. the weight of a constituent in 100 cm3 of solution.Capable of germinating. in which the cells are enlarging and elongating rapidly. Viable .Viability .Weight per volume.The section of the young root or shoot just behind the apical meristem. growing and developing. living. . Zone of elongation .

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