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GERUND

Sujeto
 Running keeps me fit. Correr me mantiene en forma.  Swimming has always been my passion. Nadar siempre ha sido mi pasión.  Quarrelling will get us no where. El pelear no nos llevará a ninguna parte.

Complemento del verbo “to be”, y objeto a los verbos.
  The best way to see different cultures is travelling. La mejor forma de ver culturas distintas es viajar. I don´t like spending money on useless things. No me gusta gastar dinero en cosas inútiles.

Después de las preposiciones Siempre se usa un verbo en su forma de gerundio después de una preposición.  Mr. Johnson is thinking about selling the company. El señor Johnson está pensando en vender la empresa.  Closet he door after leaving. ¡Cierra la puerta al Salir!  We´re looking forward to meeting our new grandson. Estamos ansiosos por conocer a nuestro nuevo nieto.  I want to visit Uncle Frank before going back to Canada. Quiero visitar al tío Frank antes de volver a Canadá.  They won´t be able to enter without paying. No podrán entrar sin pagar.  Dave has been arrested for stealing a TV set. Han arrestado a Dave por robar un televisor. El gerundio puede tomar modificadores de verbos y sustantivos, tales como posesivos, adverbios y adjetivos.  Paul´s snoring never let Jane sleep. Los ronquidos de Paul nunca la dejaban dormir a Jane.  Peter had considered not going to the party. Peter había considerado no ir a la fiesta.  We were tired of his constant complaining. Estábamos cansados de sus quejas constantes.

Luis Jarquin Mba .  That sleeping bag won´t be enough.Los gerundios también pueden modificar a los sustantivos. Prof.  Have you seen grandpa´s walking stick? ¿Has visto el bastón del abuelo?  Sarah´s painting book had been a gift from Jill. Esa bolsa de dormir no será suficiente. En este caso el gerundio se refiere al propósito. Necesito un Nuevo par de zapatillas para correr. El libro para pintar de Sarah había sido un regalo de Jill.  I need a new pair of running shoes.

.CLAUSES We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. distinguish them as follows: If the relative pronoun is followed by the adverb. that are used for subject and object pronouns. in the second part replace it with the relative pronoun (for people. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he knows her. Subject Pronoun or Object Pronouns? Level: lower intermediate Level 2 Subject and object pronouns can not be distinguished by their forms – who. Do you know the girl? That sounds rather complicated. By combining sentences with a relative clause. Star with the most important thing – you want to know who the girls. the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. however. Use “the girl” only in the first part of the sentence. doesn´t it? It would be easier with a relative clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. you need to put in the additional information – the girl is talking to Tom. You can. especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference. So the final sentence is: Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom? Relative Pronouns Level: Lower intermediate level 2 Relative Pronouns example Who subject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door Which subject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? Which referring to a whole sentence He couldn´t read which surprised me. That subject or object pronoun for people. which. You could say: A girl is talking to Tom. animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don´t like the table that stands in the kitchen. use the relative pronoun “who”). Do you know the girl! As your friend can not know which girl you are talking about. Whose possession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse? Whom object pronoun for people. How to form Relative Clauses Level: lower intermediate Level 2 Imagine a girl is talking to Tom. Subject pronouns must always be used. your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.

Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean. (Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contac Clauses. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody he knows this girl. but do not define it. the relative pronouns is an object pronoun. Imagine. This often makes the sentence easier to understand. Jim. is very nice. which are then called Contac Clauses. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas. . Object pronouns in defining clauses can be dropped. This is the shop were I bought my bike. Imagine. who is talking to Tom? Note: In non-defining relative clauses. One girl is talking to Tom and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. who/which may not be replaced with that. Here the relative clause defines which of the five girls you mean. tom is a room with only one girl.) The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice. Tom is in a room with five girls. Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom? Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions. Do you know the girl. This is the shop in which I bought my bike. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas. Non-Defining Relative Clauses Level: upper intermediate Level 4 Non-defining relative clauses) give additional information on something. Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used. The Apple (which) George lay on the table Relative Adverbs Level: Intermediate Level 3 A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. who/whom we met yesterday. A se a man is someone who works on a ship.The Apple which is lying on the table If the relative pronoun is not followed by adverb (but by a noun or pronoun). Relative adverb meaning use example When in/on which refers to a time expression the day when we met him Where in/at which refers to a place the place where we met him Why for which refers to a reason the reason why we met him Defining Relative Clauses Level: Lower intermediate level 2 Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or expression.

Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?.. Luis Jarquin MBA .I told you about the woman living next door. which.Do you see the cat lying on the roof? Exercises on Relative Clauses Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs.  Exercise on Relative Pronouns Level: elementary Level 1  Subject Pronouns or Object Pronouns? Level: Intermediate Level 2  Relative Pronouns-Necessary or not? Level: lower intermediate Level 2  Relative Pronouns-Necessary or not? Level: upper intermediate Level 4  Relative Adverbs Level: Intermediate Level 3  Relative Pronouns in the Text ”Stonehenge” (who/which) Level: elementary Level 1  Relative Clauses and Contact Clauses  Relative Clauses-Formation Level: elementary Level 1  Contact Clauses Level: Lower intermediate Level 2  Definitions with Relative Clauses Level: intermediate Level 3  Relative Clauses – defining or non-defining? Level: upper intermediate Level 4  Non-Defining Relative Clauses Level: upper intermediate Level 4  Forming Relative Clauses – defining and non-defining level upper intermediate Level 4  Relative Clauses in the Text “San Francisco” level: elementary Prof. This makes the sentence shorter understand. I told you about the woman who lives next door. that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle.How to shorten Relative Clauses? Level: Intermediate Level 3 Relative clauses with who.