INDUSTRIAL VOCATIONAL SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

(SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT OF THE COURSE OF B.TECH.) UNDERTAKEN AT:

N.T.P.C. BADARPUR, NEW DELHI.
Duration: 13th JUNE 2011 to 23rd JULY 2011

SUBMITTED TO: MRS. RACHNA SINGH

SUBMITTED BY: MAYANK KAMNANI N.T.P.C. Badarpur B.Tech 2nd Year Branch: Electrical and Electronics Engineering MAHARAJA AGRASEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

TABLE OF CONTENT
Certificate Acknowledgement Training at BTPS 1. Introduction ¨ NTPC ¨ Badarpur Thermal Power Station 2. Operation 3. Control & Instrumentation ¨ Manometry Lab ¨ Protection and interlock Lab ¨ Automation Lab ¨ Water Treatment Plant ¨ Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System ¨ Electronic Test Lab 4. Electrical Maintenance Division-I ¨ HT/LT Switch Gear ¨ HT/LT Motors, Turbine & Boilers Side ¨ CHP/NCHP 5. Electrical Maintenance Division-II - Generator - Transformer & Switchyard -Protection - Lighting

EP CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that------------------------- student of Batch Electrical & Electronics Branch IInd Year, Enrollment no.08814804909 of ‘MAHARAJA AGRASEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY’ affiliated to GGSIPU has successfully completed his industrial training at Badarpur Thermal power station New Delhi for six week during 13th June to 23rd July 2011. He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him. Training In charge BTPS/NTPC NEW DELHI

I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. . I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS/NTPC for their co-operation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me.Acknowledgement With profound respect and gratitude.

with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. It was really amazing to see the plant by your self and learn how electricity. Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and FIIs.904 MW through its 15 coal based (22.955 MW) and 4 Joint Venture Projects (1. At present. GAIL.Training at BTPS I was appointed to do six-week training at this esteemed organization from 13th June to 23rd July 2011. it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. As on date the installed capacity of NTPC is 27. which is one of our daily requirements of life. Electrical maintenance division I (EMD-I) 4. The specification & principles are at learned by me from the employee of each division of BTPS. POWER GENERATION IN INDIA NTPC’s core business is engineering. Indian Financial Institutions and Maharashtra SEB Co Ltd. is produced. NTPC acquired 50% equity of the SAIL Power Supply Corporation Ltd. A public sector company. ABOUT NTPC NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India.054 MW). This JV Company operates the captive power plants of Durgapur (120 MW). NTPC also has 28. Public and others hold the balance 10. construction and operation of power generating plants. and trainer manual provided by training department.33% stake in Ratnagiri Gas & Power Private Limited (RGPPL) a joint venture company between NTPC. In these six weeks I was assigned to visit various division of the plant which were: 1. It’s providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. Operation 2. This report has been made by self-experience at BTPS. Electrical maintenance division II (EMD-II) This six-week training was a very educational adventure for me. . Control and instrumentation (C&I) 3. (SPSCL).5%. The material in this report has been gathered from my textbooks. 7 gas based (3. With in a span of 31 years. Domestic Banks. NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad.895 MW). senior student report. Rourkela (120 MW) and Bhilai (74 MW).

Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land.a symbol of NTPC's concern towards environmental protection and continued commitment to sustainable power development in India.P. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace.375 Generation/employee MUs 4.847 26.D fan.350 Generation MUs 97. Coal is then transported to bowl mills by coal feeders where it is pulverized and ground in the powered form. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants. The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3°c. Due to heat density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. In 1991.NTPC is committed to the environment. Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to the bottom ring header.14 7. generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. it set up Ash Utilization Division A "Centre for Power Efficiency and Environment Protection (CENPEEP)" has been established in NTPC with the assistance of United States Agency for International Development. this coal is taken to the raw coal bunkers with the help of conveyor belts. of employees No.674 No. (USAID).95 I was assigned to do training in operation division from 13th June 2011 to 23rd July 2011 ELECTRICITY FROM COAL Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded with the help of wagon tipplers in the C.D fan in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Flue gases from the furnace are extracted from the induced draft fan.88.34 86. .A fan.29 3. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold mixture P.609 1.40 93. Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum. 23. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is sent to super heaters for super heating. which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F. Cenpeep is efficiency oriented. This fan takes atmospheric air.H. NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utilization. a part of which is sent to pre heaters while a part goes to the mill for temperature control. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is super heated (540 degree Celsius) and finally it goes to the turbine.585 24. Overall Power Generation Unit 1997-98 2006-07 Installed Capacity MW 16. eco-friendly and eco-nurturing initiative . Atmospheric air from F.74 % of increase 56. These fuel gases heat energy to the various super heaters and finally through air pre heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators.

where it passes through the ring of blades fixed to the cylinder wall.7 . Rated pressure at exhaust of LP turbine in mm of Hg 19. for cooling water temperature (degree Celsius) 24. This ash is mixed with the water to from slurry is pumped to ash period.21. The steam from boiler is conveyed to turbine through the steam pipes and through stop valve and control valve that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on the disc secured in the turbine shaft.4.where the ash particles are extracted.49 Efficiency at MCR Condition 98. Reheated steam pressure at inlet of interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS 23.662 3.30. The stationary and moving blades together.99.652. The second ring turns the shaft as a result of force of steam. Steam from controlled valves enter high pressure cylinder of turbines. Steam flow required for 210 MW in ton/hour 68. 55.85 lag Excitation current at MCR Condition 2600 A Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition 310 V Rated Speed 3000 rpm Rated Frequency 50 Hz Short circuit ratio 0. MAIN GENERATOR Maximum continuous KVA rating 24700KVA Maximum continuous KW 210000KW Rated terminal voltage 15750V Rated Stator current 9050 A Rated Power Factor 0.49.645.24.24.82 2. Stop valves and controls valves are located in steam chest and governor driven from main turbine shaft operates the control valves the amount used. 65.27.5.24.9. 67.33 1.4% Direction of rotation viewed Anti Clockwise Phase Connection Double Star Number of terminals brought out 9(6 neutral and 3 phases) MAIN TURBINE Rated output of Turbine 210 MW Rated speed of turbine 3000 rpm Rated pressure of steam before emergency 130 kg/cm^2 Stop valve rated live steam temperature 535 degree Celsius Rated steam temperature after reheat at inlet to receptor valve 535 degree Celsius Steam flow at valve wide open condition 670 tons/hour Rated quantity of circulating water through condenser 27000 cm/hour 1.

or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities . Coal pulverizer 15. industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants. Induced draught (draft) fan 25. for example. Combustion air intake 21. Air preheater 23. Surface condenser 8. Super heater 18. The primary use of large. Deaerator Feed water heater 12. Bottom ash hoper 17. Low pressure steam 6. petrochemical and chemical plants. Cooling water pump 2. The tower vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter.The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of . Boiler feed water pump 7. Coal hopper 14. Precipitator 24.Components of a coal fired thermal power station 1. Forced draught (draft) fan 19. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. Steam control valve 10. Smaller towers are normally factory built. power plants and building cooling. while larger ones are constructed on site. petroleum refineries. Cooling towers Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent web-bulb air temperature. Reheater 20. Boiler steam drum 16. Coal conveyor 13. Step up transformer 4. Chemical plants. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 9. High pressure steam turbine 11. Fuel gas stack The description of some of the components written above is described as follows: 1. three-phase transmission line 3. Economizer 22. Electrical Generator 5.

208 V between the third phase ( known as a wild leg) and neutral and 240 V between any two phase) to be available from the same supply. the “household” voltage). Three phase transmission line Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. Electrical power station use large steam turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the world’s electricity. all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. The current are sinusoidal functions of time. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30.500. one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. Taking one conductor as the reference. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators. These centralized stations are of two types: . It is a type of polyphone system mainly used to power motors and many other devices. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in ‘Boilers’ or ‘steam generators’ as they are sometimes called. The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be three phase.Electrical generator An Electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy. generally using electromagnetic induction. At the power station. an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents. which produce electricity. water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. Where the step-down is 3 phase. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i. In a three phase system.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. At the power station. Another system commonly seen in North America is to have a delta connected secondary with a center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral.000.the cooling water in mechanical forced-draft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants. giving a phase separation of one-third one cycle. compressors and other shaft driven equipment . three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally. or direct current system at the same voltage. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. 3.000 volts. This delay between “phases” has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. the output of this transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being the phase-neutral voltage. . to 2.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity.000 hp(1. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase.e. This allows for 240 V three phase as well as three different single phase voltages( 120 V between two of the phases and neutral . two phase. transformers: step-up” this voltage to one more suitable for transmission. 2. the other two current are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of one cycle of the electrical current.

As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces.and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a “set point” to a . which produces the electrical energy. 5. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser. of course. 6. By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. 4. A means had to be provided. the pump was often powered using a small steam engine that ran using the steam produced by the boiler. Control valves Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator.fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. the primary purpose of surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine.the pump was often a positive displacement pump that had steam valves and cylinders at one end and feed water cylinders at the other end.Boiler feed water pump A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade.pressure.flow. which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. In this situation. and have a 4-pole generator rather than the more common 2-pole one. the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased. In thermal plants. the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their-generators . no crankshaft was required. Steam-powered pumps Steam locomotives and the steam engines used on ships and stationary applications such as power plants also required feed water pumps. Most large nuclear sets rotate at half those speeds. caused by pressure drop. to put the initial charge of water into the boiler(before steam power was available to operate the steam-powered feed water pump). though.

Under some conditions it may give to stress corrosion cracking. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. If operated properly. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal. A dearator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the deaeration boiler feed water tank.“process variable” whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. most dearator vendors will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0. Dearator A Dearator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases (an alternate would be the use of water treatment chemicals) from boiler feed water to make it noncorrosive. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical. In a steam power (usually modeled as a modified Ranking cycle).the level by regulating condensate flow and the pressure by regulating steam flow. and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility’s associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water). hydraulic or pneumatic systems 7. Dearator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves. coal. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the “hotter”water/and saturated –steam into steam drum. Feed water heater A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. 9. Boiler Steam Drum Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. condensate. A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys. feed water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating.This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduces back into the steam cycle. such as grain. 10. Made from high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390’C and pressure well above 350psi . Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversible involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. with a continuous loop of materialthe conveyor Belt – that rotates about them.005 cm3/L) 8. Pulverizer A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil fuel power plant. The pulleys are powered. particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler. moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. ores etc. A Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam.

11. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input . 13. Super Heater A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine. while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud-drum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve. Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam. Economizers Economizer. or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. In boilers. Boiler. economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids . Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boiler’s efficiency. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption. ventilating and air conditioning. The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. As a consequence.4MPa). The steam will re-enter the furnace in through a super heater. 12. and heating. combustion in a boiler).(2. Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century. are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Green’s original design. or in the UK economizer. usually water. non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam. Air Preheater Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example. up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. to most steam vehicles. power plant. in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output . the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified . such as those in cold fired power stations. The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. and so stationary steam engines including power stations. Modern day boilers. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. A steam drum is used in the company of a muddrum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. and were widely adopted. water level indicator and fuse plug. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it (the feed water).

It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall. Flue gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing. up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more. natural gas. today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached . Precipitator An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Flue gas stack A Flue gas stack is a type of chimney. restaurants . Flue gases are produced when coal. ovens. ESP’s continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions. including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired). so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. avoiding damage to the components. oil. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices. salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills. hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys. Transformer –rectifier systems apply voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. 15.design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes. carbon mono oxide. channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. wood or any other large combustion device. and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coalfired boiler application. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack. maximizing corona production. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. a vertical pipe. When the flue gases exhausted from stoves. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESP’s to stay in operation for years at a time. 14. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed. and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. .

Some of the electrical quantities are voltage. CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. which trips the circuit. current. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. all fall under this.C&I (CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION) I was assigned to do training in control and instrumentation from 27th June 2011 to 23rd July 2011. When a fault occurs and any one of the tripping is satisfied a signal is sent to the relay. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time.1 INTERLOCKING It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 1. It has following labs: PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB AUTOMATION LAB WATER TREATEMENT LAB FURNACE SAFETY SUPERVISORY SYSTEM (FSSS) ELECTRONICS TEST LAB This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry. RELAY It is a protective device. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. 2. which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. 5.1. . FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit.1 PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB 5. phase angle and velocity. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small.

b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it.1.2 AUTOMATION LAB This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes. In consists of current carrying contacts. the old technology dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be known as primary systems. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors.e. But this lab universally applies the pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force.415 KV A. the relays are also provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping.SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP 5. 2. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault.THERMAL TRIP .1. 5.C supply.3 ROTECTION AND INTERLOCK SYSTEM 1.2 MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER They are used with combination of the control circuits to. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled with (MIS) Management Information System. pressure the control circuits can easily be designed with single chips having multiple applications. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat. the laws of electronic state that it can be any where between 12V and 35V in the plant. one movable and other fixed.C supply. Another point is the universality of the supply. There are three types of . Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails. 5. However. All the control instruments are excited by 24V supply (4-20mA) because voltage .MANUAL TRIP . Earlier. Once the measured is common i.

The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. (3) THERMOCOUPLES This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed.3 PYROMETER LAB (1) LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. cards auto analyzers etc. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills. 5.5 ELECTRONICS LAB This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. It is made up of mild steel. integrated circuits. to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace. 5. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m. The latest technology is the use of ‘ETHERNET’ for control signals. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. This is an important part in the plant. Transmitter converts mV to mA. Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation.3 FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. which threatens to blast it. It extracts the magnetic portion. 2. 5. (2) ULTRA VIOLET CENSOR This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. .can be mathematically handled with ease therefore all control systems use voltage system for computation.

This bulb plus the bore above the mercury. Mercury in Steel the range of liquid in glass thermometers although quite large. This Chapter Seeks to provide a basic understanding of the prevalent instruments used for measuring the above parameters. Level and Flow. Such a device is the thermostat used with water heaters The mercury will occupy a greater fraction of the volume of the container than it will at a low temperature. Pressure. The change may be observed with substance itself or in a subsidiary system in thermodynamic equilibrium. which changes with its energy content. thus eliminating backlash and lost motion? . Under normal atmospheric conditions mercury normally boils at a temperature of (347°C).Controlling device may be designed incorporating in its construction the principle that some metals expand more than others for the same temperature range.Control and Instrumentation Measuring Instrumentsments. does not lend itself to all industrial practices. Pointer may be mounted direct on end of helix Which rotates. Therefore there exists some property of the substance. This fact is obvious by the delicate nature of glass also the position of the measuring element is not always the best position to read the result. To extend the range of mercury in glass thermometer beyond this point the top end of a thermometer bore opens into a bulb which is many times larger in capacity than the bore. which increases the internal energy of the material. Temperature. Expansion Thermometer Solid Rod Thermometers a temperature sensing . In any process the philosophy of instrumentation should provide a comprehensive intelligence feed back on the important parameters viz. is then filled with nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas at a sufficiently high pressure to prevent boiling at the highest temperature to which the thermometer may be used. which is called testing body and the system itself is called the hot body. Types of Hg in Steel Thermometers are:  Bourdon Tube Most common and simplest type  Spiral type More sensitive and used where compactness is necessary  Helical Type Most sensitive and compact. Rise of temperature in a substance is due to the resultant increase in molecular activity of the substance on application of heat. Temperature Measurement The most important parameter in thermal power plant is temperature and its measurement plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant.

or volume. Sealed Capsule Type The application and principle is the same as for the diaphragm box. a capsule filled with an inert gas under a slight pressure is exposed to the pressure due to the head of liquid and is connected by a capillary to an indicator. and where the manometer is at a different level to the vessel. Valves are provided for isolation and blow down. The float arm is connected to a quadrant and pinion which rotates the pointer over a scale. Bourden Pressure Gauge a Bourdon pressure gauge calibrated in any fact head is often connected to a tank at or near the datum level. "Mercury Manometer" is used for remote indication of liquid level. In some cases the capsule is fitted external to the tank and is so arranged that it can be removed whilst the tank is still full. at a reasonable distance and above or below. "Float Operated Dial" is used for small tanks and congested areas.the liquid pressure on the diaphragm increases and the air inside is compressed. The working principle is the same as that of a manometer one limp of a U-tube is connected to the tank. The manometer liquid must not mix with the liquid in the vessel. which only allow the pointer to operate over a selected range of pressure to either side of the normal steam pressure. The pressure exerted inside an open ended tube below the surface of a liquid is proportional to the depth of the liquid . Dewrance Critical Pressure Gauge Measurement of Level Direct Methods 'Sight Glass' is used for local indication on closed or open vessels. This consists of a cylindrical box with a rubber or plastic diaphragm across its open end as the level increases . This pressure is transmitted via a capillary tube to an indicator or recorder incorporating a pressure Measuring element. The liquid level will be the same as that in the vessel. Air Purge System This system provides the simplest means of obtaining an indication of level. "Float with Gauge Post" is normally used to local indication on closed or open vessels. A sight glass is a tube of toughened glass connected at both ends through packed unions and vessel. 'Diaphragm Type' is used for remote level indication in open tanks or docks etc.Linkages. the static head must be allowed in the design of the manometer. the liquid being measured. In this type. A pressure change created by the movement of a diaphragm is proportional to a change in liquid level above the diaphragm. a spring loaded valve automatically shutting off the tapping point. the other being open to atmosphere.

This consists of a turbine or drum revolving in upright bearings. The helix chamber may be vertical or horizontal and is geared to a counter. This piston acts as a moving chamber and transfers a definite volume of fluid from the inlet to the outlet for each cycle. 'Quantity of flow' is the quantity of fluid passing a given point in a given time. petroleum and other commercial liquids.. which measure flow by transferring a measured quantity of fluid from the inlet to the outlet. i. or the bottom of the notch will be a measure of the rate of flow. The inferential type is the most widely used. quantity of flow and rate of flow. Measurement of Fluid Flow through Open Channels: The Weir If a fluid is allowed to flow over a square weir of notch.e. i. a fluid passing a given point at a given instant and is proportional to quantity passing at a given instant. The height of the liquid above the still of the weir.e.000 gallons per hour can be measured. e. This consists of a brass meter body into which is fitted a machined brass working chamber and cover. ‘Rate of flow' is the speed of. or volumetric. There are two groups of measuring devices: Positive. gallons or pounds. Usually of pipe sizes 3" to 10" Typical example is the Kent Torrent Meter. containing a piston made of ebonite.g. The cross sectional area of the meter throughout is equal to the area of the inlet and outlet pipes and is commonly used on direct supply water mains. Combination Meters this is used for widely fluctuating flows. . turbine or fan) in the main with a small rotary meter or suitable type in a bypass. Flow is directed into either the main or bypass according to the quantity of flow by an automatic valve. By this means flows of 45 to 40.e.The Measurement of Flow Two principle measurements are made by flow meters viz. which measures the velocity of the flow and the volume passed is inferred. a helical vane is mounted centrally in the body of the meter. Rotating Oscillating Piston Type This is also a positive type device and is used for measuring low and medium quantity flows. Turbine Type this like the helical Vane type is a inference type of device used for large flows with the minimum of pressure drop. Water enters the drum from the top and leaves tangentially casings to rotate at a speed dependent upon the quantity of water passed. it being equal to the velocity times the cross sectional area of the flow. gallons per minute or pounds per hour. retaining at the top by a collar. It consists of Two fluted rotors mounted in a liquid tight case fluid flow and transmitted to a counter. domestic water supplies. It consists of a larger meter (helical. Helical Vane Type For larger rates of flow. Inferential. Measurement of Fluid Flow through Pipes: "The Rotating Impeller Type" is a positive type device which is used for medium quantity flow measurement i.

In the metering of dirty fluids or fluids containing solids the hole is placed so that its lower edge coincides with the inside bottom of the pipe. Pressure Differential Flow meters Primary elements Bernoulli's theorem states that the quantity of fluid or gas flowing is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure. The principle is same as that of venture except that the rate of flow is proportional to the depth of the liquid in the upstream section. There are four principal types of primary elements (or restrictions) as enumerate below: Venturi. the smallest diameter of the tube formed by this length of parallel pipe is known as the throat section and the lower of the two pressures. (Refer Fig. They consists of a primary element inserted in the pipeline which generates a differential pressure.A formula relates the rate of flow to the height and is dependent upon the design of the Venturi Flumes The head loss caused by the weir flow meter is considerable and its construction is sometimes complicated. It consists of a local contraction in the cross section of flow through a channel in the shape of a venturi. This one week of training in this division were divided as follows. Orifice Plate This is the oldest and most common form of pressure differential device. EMD I Electrical Maintenance division I I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division I from 13th June 2011 to 20th June 2011. the smaller diameters of which are connected together by a short length of parallel pipe. (the throat. Pressure Difference Flow meters These are the most widely used type of flow meter since they are capable of measuring the flow of all industrial fluids passing through pipes. or downstream pressure) is measured here. ^he magnitude of which is proportional to the square of the rate of flow and a secondary element which measures this differential pressure and translates it into terms of flow. This may be done by pressure tapping at the datum point or by a float in an adjacent level chamber.80) It is essential that the leading edge of the hole is absolutely sharp rounding or burring would have a very marked effect on the flow. HT/LT switchgear · HT/LT Motors. Turbine &Boiler side . therefore the flume is sometimes used. It is only necessary to measure the depth of the upstream section which is a measure of the rate of flow. In its simplest form it consists of a thin metal plate with a central hold clamped between two pipe flanges. This is generally used for medium and high quantity fluid flow and it consists of two hollow truncated cones.

2. supplies coal to second and third stages in the . NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT (N. 5. 8.I. 3 1.F.F.Bowl Mills 6 in no.Furnikets 4 in no. 6.DM Make up Pump 2 in no.1D Fans 2 in no. 5. 2. 7. 1.O. COAL HANDLING PLANT (C. 9.Seal Air Fans 2 in no.R. 2/3 in no.P. 11. 3 1.H. 9.P) 2.Clinker Grinder 2 in no. 6.Electrical maintenance division 1 it is responsible for maintenance of: 1.A Fans 2 in no.D Fans 2 in no.A. Turbine side motors 3.Fans 2 in no.C Feeders 6 in no. 2. 7. Boiler side motors: For 1. For stage units 1.3.PC Feeders 4 in no.C.H.Scrapper 2 in no.4.Ball mill fans 3 in no. units 1.RC feeders 3 in no.D Fans 2 in no.Slag Crushers 5 in no. 3. 8.D Fans 2 in no.P. Outside motors 4. Switchgear 1. 4.Hydrazine and Phosphorous Dozing 2 in no.Worm Conveyor 1 in no.5 and 1 whereas the latter supplies coal to units 4 and V.C. 2. 10. Boiler side motors 2.Mill Fans 3 in no. 3.P.H. 4.P) The old coal handling plant caters to the need of units 2.

The crusher is of ring type and motor ratings are 400 HP. The process is performed by a slip –ring motor of rating: 55 KW. Rotatory Breaker: .Wagons from the coal yard come to the tippler and are emptied here. this is done for imp. Motors.As the belt takes coal to the crusher. Wagon Tippler: . When coal is dropped to the crusher hoots. practically considered as the optimum size of transfer via conveyor. The capacity of this device is around 50 kg. It has a magnet and a belt and the belt is moving. Crusher: .There are 14 conveyors in the plant. but practically only 300-400 tons coal is transfer 5.The CHP is supposed to transfer 600 tons of coal/hr. if belt is not moving and the motor is on the motor may burn.OCHP employs mesh type of filters and allows particles of 20mm size to go directly to RC bunker.Both the plants use TATA crushers powered by BHEL. NCHP uses a technique that crushes the larger of harder substance like metal impurities easing the load on the magnetic separators. Few conveyors are double belt. which in turn tilts the conveyor. Conveyors so that if a belt develops any problem the process is not stalled. Metal Separators: . 7. 2. Conveyors are made of rubber and more with a speed of 250-300m/min. 3 cm thick and made of chemically treated vulcanized rubber.It is of 3 types: . . The motor lowers the hanging balancing weights. Crusher is designed to crush the pieces to 20 mm size i. It is titled by weight balancing principle. 415V.e. we use metal separators. No metal pieces should go along with coal. Zero Speed Switch:-It is safety device for motors. 3. 6. the separator drops metal pieces ahead of coal. Mills Fans: . 606 KV. Estimate of the weight of the conveyor is made through hydraulic weighing machine. the pieces are thrown away.. from where it is send to furnace. 1480 RPM. To achieve this objective. i. larger particles are sent to crushes. 4. Conveyor: . The conveyors are 1m wide. The max angular elevation of conveyor is designed such as never to exceed half of the angle of response and comes out to be around 20 degrees. They are numbered so that their function can be easily demarcated. Conveyors have a capacity of carrying coal at the rate of 400 tons per hour. Tippler has raised lower system which enables is to switch off motor when required till is wagon back to its original position. Motors employed for conveyors has a capacity of 150 HP. So to protect this switch checks the speed of the belt and switches off the motor when speed is zero.advent coal to usable form to (crushed) form its raw form and send it to bunkers. This motor turns the wagon by 135 degrees and coal falls directly on the conveyor through vibrators. Major Components 1.e. This leads to frequent clogging. The conveyor belt has a switch after every 25-30 m on both sides so stop the belt in case of emergency.

18B to the rejection house . (a) ID Fans: . After being crushed. From TP7 coal is taken by conveyors 14A.12B which takes the coal to the breaker house . which renders the coal size to be 100mm sq. 17B also supplies coal from reclaim hopper.6 KV (c)Primary Air Fans: . Extra coal is to sent to the reclaim hopper via conveyor 16. Type-Double suction radial Rating-300 KW Voltage-6. From breaker house coal is taken to the TP7 via Conveyor 13A.6 KV Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous The coal arrives in wagons via railways and is tippled by the wagon tipplers into the hoppers. now the conveyor labors are present whose function is to recognize and remove any stones moving in the conveyors . SWITCH GEARIt makes or breaks an electrical circuit. 2 in number and provide ignition of coal.Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius. . If coal is oversized (>400 mm sq) then it is broken manually so that it passes the hopper mesh. 13B. 14B to crusher house whose function is to render the size of coal to 20mm sq. Type-axial Speed-990 rpm Rating-440 KW Voltage-6.6 KV Lubrication-by oil (b) FD Fans: . 2 in number And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing. From the hopper mesh it is taken to the transfer point TP6 by conveyor 12A .Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney. if any metal is still present it is taken care of by metal detectors employed in conveyor 10.Designed to handle secondary air for boiler.Six in all and are running condition all the time. In crusher before it enters the crusher. Conveyor 17A. the stones which are not able to pass through the 100mm sq of hammer are rejected via conveyors 18A. Type-radical Speed-1490 rpm Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.

which are used in switchgear. quick break. Normally circuit breakers installed are accompanied by isolators 4.O. 63A. Circuit Breakers: . Earth Switches: . 300A at 500V grade. Overload Relay: . 2. Main Switch:. These equipments do not handle any appreciable current at all. Switching Isolation: . 2. This equipment is the most important and is heavy duty equipment mainly utilized for protection of various circuits and operations on load. They operate due to the action of heat generated by passage of current through relay element. switch fuses for 200A. to avoid any accident happening due to induction on account of live adjoining circuits.Main switch is control equipment which controls or disconnects the main supply. Load Break Switches: . LT Switchgear It is classified in following ways:1.L Starting of motors and protecting the connected motors. 600A.AC Contractors are 3 poles suitable for D. 3. quick make and double break switch fuses for 63A and 100A.Devices which are used normally to earth a particular system. These are normally on same circuit. 5. . 200Q. Apart from this equipment there are a number of relays etc. It is used for supplying power to auxiliaries with backup fuse protection. which are backed by circuit breakers. The main application of switching isolation is in connection with transformer feeders as unit makes it possible to switch out one transformer while other is still on load.These are those interrupting devices which can make or break circuits.A device which breaks an electrical circuit when circuit is switched on to no load. The main switch for 3 phase supply is available for the range 32A.For overload protection. thermal over relay are best suited for this purpose. Isolation is normally used in various ways for purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance. 4. 3. Rotary switch up to 25A. Isolation: . 800A and 1000A are used.With Avery high generating capacity of the modern power stations extremely heavy carnets would flow in the fault and the fuse clearing the fault would be required to withstand extremely heavy stress in process. Fuses: . interrupting line charging current and even perform load transfer switching. 400A. 100A.It is capable of doing things like interrupting transformer magnetized current. With fuses.One which can make or break the circuit on load and even on faults is referred to as circuit breakers. Contractors: .1.

SF6 Circuit Breaker: . Minimum oil Circuit Breaker: . the cold air rushes around the movable contacts and blown the arc. the performance of gas . The pressure may vary from 50-60 kg/cm^2 for high and medium capacity circuit breakers. The breaker is closed by applying pressure at lower opening and opened by applying pressure at upper opening.This type of circuit breaker is of construction to dead tank bulk oil to circuit breaker but the principle of current interruption is similar o that of air blast circuit breaker. It will quickly reconstitute itself . This reduces the possibility of sparking.In this the compressed air pressure around 15 kg per cm^2 is used for extinction of arc caused by flow of air around the moving circuit . There is less burning of contacts since the duration is short and consistent. Operation takes place quickly. Facility for frequent operation since the cooling medium is replaced constantly. HT SWITCH GEAR:1.5.These use oil as quenching medium.6 KV Current-630 A Auxiliary current-220 V/DC 3. Type-HKH 12/1000c · Rated Voltage-66 KV · Normal Current-1250A · Frequency-5Hz · Breaking Capacity-3. iv. iii. Fire hazard due to oil are eliminated. The moving contracts are carried on an iron arm lifted by a long insulating tension rod and are closed simultaneously pneumatic operating mechanism by means of tensions but throw off spring to be provided at mouth of the control the main current within the controlled device. Air Circuit Breakers: . Rated Voltage-6.It is seen that use of oil in circuit breaker may cause a fire.4+KA Symmetrical · 3. It simply employs the arc extinguishing medium namely SF6. air at high pressure is used which is maximum at the time of quick tripping of contacts. When contacts operate. ii. It comprises of simple dead tank row pursuing projection from it.4+KA Asymmetrical · 360 MVA Symmetrical · Operating Coils-CC 220 V/DC § FC 220V/DC · Motor Voltage-220 V/DC 2. Air Circuit Breaker: . When it is broken down under an electrical stress. So in all circuits breakers at large capacity. It has the following advantages over OCB:i.

It works on the principle that vacuum is used to save the purpose of insulation and it implies that pr.Transformer & switchyard . · Rated frequency-50 Hz · Rated making Current-10 Peak KA · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC · Rated Current-1250 A · Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC · Insulation Level-IMP 75 KVP · Rated Short Time Current-40 KA (3 SEC) · Weight of Breaker-8 KG EMD II Electrical Maintenance division II I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division II from 20th June 2011 to 27th June 2011.25 KG 4. Vacuum Circuit Breaker: .· Circuit Breakers-HPA · Standard-1 EC 56 · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Insulation Level-28/75 KV · Rated Frequency-50 Hz · Breaking Current-40 KA · Rated Current-1600 A · Making Capacity-110 KA · Rated Short Time Current 1/3s -40 A · Mass Approximation-185 KG · Auxiliary Voltage § Closing Coil-220 V/DC § Opening Coil-220 V/DC · Motor-220 V/DC · SF6 Pressure at 20 Degree Celsius-0.Lightning . Of gas at which breakdown voltage independent of pressure.protection . This one week of training in this division were divided as follows. It regards of insulation and strength.Generator .25 KG · SF6 Gas Per pole-0. . vacuum is superior dielectric medium and is better that all other medium except air sulphur which are generally used at high pressure.

Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. The stator housed the armature windings. it was not long before that the high-speed generators made its impact. Although slow speed AC generators have been built for some time. is given by the following expression. This induces an electromagnetic force (e. a large number of 30 MW and 60 MW at 3000 rpm units .. During the war. Parsons developed the first AC turbo-generator. When the rotor is rotated. because the cost advantage as well as easier construction. E = 4. the lines of magnetic flux (viz magnetic field) cut through the stator windings. N = Number of turns in a coil of stator winding F = Frequency = Pn/120 Where P = Number of poles n = revolutions per second of rotor. in 1939. Development The first A.C. Generator concept was enunciated by Michael Faraday in 1831. most large generator. Working Principle: The A. In 1889 Sir Charles A. This Chapter seeks to provide basic understanding about the working principles and development of Generator. number of poles increases with decrease in speed and vice versa.C. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings.) in the stator windings. low speed hydro turbine drives generators have 14 to 20 poles where as high speed steam turbine driven generators have generally 2 poles.44 /O FN volts 0 = Strength of magnetic field in Weber’s.m. in 1922. The rotor houses the field windings.C. Up to the out break of second world war. the development and installation of power plants was delayed and in order to catch up with the delay in plant installation. Pole rotors are used in low speed generators.were of the order of 30 to 50 MW at 3000 rpm. Development contained until. F = Frequency in cycles per second or Hertz. the increased use of solid forgings and improved techniques permitted an increase in generator rating to 20MW at 300rpm..f.m.EP Generator and Auxiliaries Generator and Auxiliaries Generator Fundamentals Fundamentals The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator. D. From the expression it is clear that for the same frequency. Therefore. The magnitude of this e.f.

Development of suitable insulating materials for large turbo-generators is one of the most important tasks and need continues watch as size and ratings of machines increase. Slots are then machined for windings and ventilation. Generator component This Chapter deals with the two main components of the Generator viz. . Coupled very closely with These considerations is the restriction is size and weight imposed by transport limitations. Rotor. Costs of material and labour involved in manufacturing and erection must be a basic consideration. The changes in design in this period were relatively small. its frame. An insulation to meet the stresses in generator slots must follow very closely the thermal expansion of the insulated conductor without cracking or any plastic deformation.000 revolutions per minute. its winding & balancing and stator. Rotor The electrical rotor is the most difficult part of the generator to design. the cross section of the conductor could not be increased but this would introduce another problems. With good design and great care in construction this can be achieved. and it is further forged and machined.were constructed during the years immediately following the war. The present trend is the use only class "B" and higher grade materials and extensive work has gone into compositions of mica. To keep the temperature down. The problem is really to get the maximum amount of copper into the windings without reducing the mechanical strength. glass and/or asbestos molded in resin and other synthetic resins are finding wide applications. body and this would cause mechanical weakness. core & windings. glass and asbestos with appropriate bonding material. In order to make room for the large conductors. It revolves in most modern generators at a speed of 3. Insulation for rotor is subjected to lower dielectric stress but must withstand high dynamic stresses and the newly developed epoxy resins. otherwise difficulties will be experienced with insulation. The rotor is a cast steel ingot. The problem of guaranteeing the dynamic strength and operating stability of such a rotor is complicated by the fact that a massive non-uniform shaft subjected to a multiplicity of differential stresses must operate in oil lubricated sleeve bearings supported by a structure mounted on foundations all of which possess complex dynamic be behavior peculiar to themselves. Very often a hole is bored through the centre of the rotor axially from one end of the other for inspection. The passage of the current through the windings generates heat but the temperature must not be allowed to become so high. It is also an electromagnet and to give it the necessary magnetic strength the windings must carry a fairly high current. In any development programme the.

The fabricated inner cage is inserted in the outer frame after the stator core has been constructed and the winding completed. To do this it would have to be uniform about its central axis and it is most unlikely that this will be so to the degree necessary for perfect balance. The two ends of windings are connected to slip rings. b) The advantage can be taken of the high magnetic permeance of grain-oriented steels of work the stator core at comparatively high magnetic saturation without fear or excessive iron loss of two heavy a demand for excitation ampere turns from the generator rotor. within this shell is a fixed cage of girder built circular and axial ribs. This comprises an inner frame and outer frame. usually made of forged steel. . Stator core: The stator core is built up from a large number of 'punching" or sections of thin steel plates. When rotating at high speed. and mounted on insulated sleeves. The inner cage is usually fixed in to the yoke by an arrangement of springs to dampen the double frequency vibrations inherent in 2 pole generators. A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots. Arrangements are therefore made in all designs to fix adjustable balance weights around the circumference at each end. Centrifugal force tries to lift the windings out of the slots and they are contained by wedges. The end shields of hydrogen cooled generators must be strong enough to carry shaft seals. In large generators the frame is constructed as two separate parts. by shrinking or screwing and supported at the other end by fittings carried by the rotor body. The end rings are secured to a turned recess in the rotor body. The major part of this load is the stator core. Rotor balancing When completed the rotor must be tested for mechanical balance. which means that a check is made to see if it will run up to normal speed without vibration. Stator Stator frame: The stator is the heaviest load to be transported. The ribs divide the yoke in the compartments through which hydrogen flows into radial ducts in the stator core and circulate through the gas coolers housed in the frame.Rotor winding Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as the insulation between conductors. The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plates. Later designs of windings for large rotor incorporate combination of hollow conductors with slots or holes arranged to provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors. The use of cold rolled grain-oriented steel can contribute to reduction in the weight of stator core for two main reasons: a) There is an increase in core stacking factor with improvement in lamination cold Rolling and in cold buildings techniques.

The insulation must be sufficient to prevent leakage currents flowing between the phases to earth. Generator Cooling System The 200/210 MW Generator is provided with an efficient cooling system to avoid excessive heating and consequent wear and tear of its main components during operation. dried under vacuum and hot pressed to form a solid insulation bar. These bars are then place in the stator slots and held in with wedges to form the complete winding which is connected together at each end of the core forming the end turns. . to the bottom of the slot where it takes a turn and comes out on the similar canal milled on the other side of the rotor coil to the hot zone of the rotor. Windings for the stator are made up from copper strips wound with insulated tape which is impregnated with varnish. This method of cooling gives uniform distribution of temperature. Also. This Chapter deals with the rotor-hydrogen cooling system and stator water cooling system along with the shaft sealing and bearing cooling systems. Also. The generator terminals are usually arranged below the stator. this method has an inherent advantage of eliminating the deformation of copper due to varying temperatures. in order to prevent escape of hydrogen from the generator casing. wherein the hydrogen gas in the air gap is sucked through the scoops on the rotor wedges and is directed to flow along the ventilating canals milled on the sides of the rotor coil. a positive suction as well as discharge is created due to which a certain quantity of gas flows and cools the rotor. gas purity measuring and indicating instruments. hydrogen control panel. an liquid level indicator.Stator Windings Each stator conductor must be capable of carrying the rated current without overheating. Hydrogen Cooling System Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of its high heatcarrying capacity and low density. The system is capable of performing the following functions :  Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely without bringing in contact with air. The hydrogen cooling system mainly comprises of a gas control stand. Rotor Cooling System The rotor is cooled by means of gap pick-up cooling. But in view of its forming an explosive mixture with oxygen. On recent generators (210 MW) the windings are made up from copper tubes instead of strips through which water is circulated for cooling purposes. Due to the rotation of the rotor. shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing. These end turns are rigidly braced and packed with blocks of insulation material to withstand the heavy forces which might result from a short circuit or other fault conditions. The water is fed to the windings through plastic tubes. proper arrangement for filling. purging and maintaining its purity inside the generator have to be made. a drier.

3 phase Rating of 210 MW Generator Capacity .3.B .0.85 (lagging) Stator current .9050 A Voltage (rotor) . The stator winding is cooled in this system by circulating demineralised water (DM water) through hollow conductors.2.C. For this purpose DM water of proper specific resistance is selected.247000 KVA Voltage (stator) .3000 rpm Power factor .310 V Current (rotor) .3000 rpm Hydrogen . The cooling water used for cooling stator winding calls for the use of very high quality of cooling water.117500 KVA Voltage . Maintaining the gas pressure inside the machine at the desired value at all the times.85 Frequency .5 Kg/cm2 Power factor . Stator Cooling System The stator winding is cooled by distillate.50 Hz Stator wdg connection .5 Kg/cm2 Stator wdg connection .2600 V Speed . Rating of 95 MW Generator Manufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL) Capacity .6475 A Frequency .50 Hz Hydrogen . Generator is to be loaded within a very short period if the specific resistance of the cooling DM water goes beyond certain preset values. Thesystem is designed to maintain a constant rate of cooling water flow to the stator winding at a nominal inlet water temperature of 40 deg.15750 V Current (stator) .3 phase star connection Insulation class . Which is fed from one end of the machine by Teflon tube and flows through the upper bar and returns back through the lower bar of another slot? Turbo generators require water cooling arrangement over and above the usual hydrogen cooling arrangement.0.10500V Speed .

acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. The current required to create the MMF is termed the magnetizing current. A small transformer such as plug-in “power brick” used for low-power consumer electronics may be less than 85% efficient. some times termed copper loss. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage.low-current form and back again. An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. A voltage applied to the primary winding causes a current. is sometimes termed the back EMF”. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 95%. although its presence still required to drive flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. an effect known as Mutual inductance. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance Current flowing trough the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. core. which develops a magneto motive force (MMF) in the core. the EMFs are proportional to the rate of change of flux. Basic principle :The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero resistance around a core of negligible reluctance. It usually comprises two or more coupled windings. a core to concentrate magnetic flux. Despite the transformer being amongst the most efficient of electrical machines with ex the most efficient of electrical machines with experimental models using superconductingwindings achieving efficiency of 99. All but a fraction of the world’s electrical power has passed trough a series of transformer by the time it reaches the consumer. In accordance with faraday’s law of induction. and surrounding structures. Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses and would have no energy losses. The losses vary with load current. Transformer losses are attributable to several causes and may be differentiated between those originated in the windings. The primary EMF.TRANFORMER A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling with out requiring relative motion between its parts. thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits. and may furthermore be expressed as “no load” or “full load” loss. sometimes termed iron loss. Winding resistance dominates load losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss can be significant. . Varying the relative number of turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages. in the ideal transformer it is considered to be negligible. It has thus shape the electricity supply industry. meaning that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on an electrical supply. or at an intermediate loading. and in most cases. and lending impetus to development of low-loss transformers. which includes a voltage in the other windings. and those arising from the magnetic circuit. energy is dissipated in the windings. An electromotive force (MMF) is induced across each winding. and would therefore be 100% efficient. permitting generation to be located remotely from point of demand.85%. the transformer greatly reduces energy losses and so enables the economic transmission of power over long distances.

5 KV Line current (hv) .147725 Kg Core & winding .45 Celsius Oil quantity -40180 lit Weight of oil -34985 Kg Total weight . Rating of transformer: Manufactured by Bharat heavy electrical limited No load voltage (hv) .2 A Temp rise . skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses.84325 Kg Phase .873.50 Hz .At higher frequencies.229 KV No load Voltage (lv) -10.2 A Line current (lv) .3 Frequency .315.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful