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Operating Systems-1 1.Explain multi-programmed Batched Operating System.

Computer multiprogramming is the allocation of a computer system and its resources to more than one concurrent application, job or userIn multiprogramming, concurrent running (sharing of the processor) is achieved when the operating system identifies opportunities to interrupt the handling of one program between tasks (e.g., when it is waiting for input/output) and to transfer process control to another program (application, job or user). To a great extent, the ability of a system to share its resources equitablyor according to certain prioritiesis dependent upon the design of the programs being handled and how frequently they may be interrupted.The use of multiprogramming was enhanced by the arrival of virtual memory and virtual machine technology, which enabled individual programs to make use of memory and operating system resources as if other concurrently running programs were, for all practical purposes, non-existent and invisible to them.In this context, the root word "program" does not necessarily refer to a compiled application, rather, any set of commands submitted for execution by a user or operator. Such could include a script or job control stream and any included calls to macro-instructions, system utilities or application program modules. An entire, interactive, logged-in user session can be thought of as a "program" in this sense. 2.Discuss different types of schedulers. Operating systems may feature up to 3 distinct types of schedulers: a long-term scheduler (also known as an admission scheduler or high-level scheduler), a mid-term or medium-term scheduler and a short-term scheduler . The names suggest the relative frequency with which these functions are performed. the long-term, or admission, scheduler decides which jobs or processes are to be admitted to the ready queue; that is, when an attempt is made to execute a program, its admission to the set of currently executing processes is either authorized or delayed by the long-term scheduler. Thus, this scheduler dictates what processes

are to run on a system, and the degree of concurrency to be supported at any one time - ie: whether a high or low amount of processes are to be executed concurrently, and how the split between IO intensive and CPU intensive processes is to be handled The mid-term scheduler temporarily removes processes from main memory and places them on secondary memory (such as a disk drive) or vice versa. This is commonly referred to as "swapping out" or "swapping in" (also incorrectly as "paging out" or "paging in"). The mid-term scheduler may decide to swap out a process which has not been active for some time, or a process which has a low priority, or a process which is page faulting frequently, or a process which is taking up a large amount of memory in order to free up main memory for other processes, swapping the process back in later when more memory is available, or when the process has been unblocked and is no longer waiting for a resource. The short-term scheduler (also known as the CPU scheduler) decides which of the ready, in-memory processes are to be executed (allocated a CPU) next following a clock interrupt, an IO interrupt, an operating system call or another form of signal. Thus the short-term scheduler makes scheduling decisions much more frequently than the long-term or mid-term schedulers - a scheduling decision will at a minimum have to be made after every time slice, and these are very short. This scheduler can be preemptive, implying that it is capable of forcibly removing processes from a CPU when it decides to allocate that CPU to another process, or nonpreemptive (also known as "voluntary" or "co-operative"), in which case the scheduler is unable to "force" processes off the CPU 3.Discuss First Come First Served scheduling algorithm. //////////////////////////////////////////////////////// For full Version visit http://smudeassignments.blogspot.com/

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